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1

Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations. PMID:24062552

Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Gryzi?ska, Magdalena; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

2013-09-24

2

Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa\\u000a of the pike (Esox lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut\\u000a microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities\\u000a as well as by high persistence accounted for by

G. I. Izvekova; N. V. Nemtseva; A. O. Plotnikov

2008-01-01

3

The growth of pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1798) in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the pike (Esox lucius L.) population of Lake Trasimeno was studied. A total of 166 specimens was captured in two monthly sampling series, from May 1993 to 1994 and from February to April 1998. There were 45 females and 79 males; nine age classes were present. Regression analysis between total length (TL) and weight (W) was W=0.0001×TL3.0366;

Massimo Lorenzoni; Massimiliano Corboli; A. J Martin Dörr; Mario Mearelli; Giancarlo Giovinazzo

2002-01-01

4

Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius ) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with\\u000a organochlorine pesticide (total p,p’-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic,\\u000a cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite

J. E. Hinck; V. S. Blazer; N. D. Denslow; M. S. Myers; T. S. Gross; D. E. Tillitt

2007-01-01

5

Age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In 1993, pike, ages 1 to 3, ranged in length from 331 to 810 mm and in 1995 , pike, ages 2 to 10, ranged in length from 365 to 1,111 mm but only three percent were age 7 or older. Most growth in length occurred during the first two years of life. The length-weight relation for pike from Chivyrkui Bay was similar to that of pike from the St. Lawrence River. Calculated total length of pike from Lake Baikal equalled or exceeded the lengths of pike from lakes Erie or Ontario. Good agreement was found between ages from cleithra and from scales. Lengths at age in June 1995 (N=108) varied widely among pike. Females were generally larger than males at a given age among fish age-3 and older. When compared with the circumpolar growth standard, based on the von Bertalanffy growth curve, growth of Lake Baikal pike exceeded all other Asian populations, and equalled or exceeded many other northern hemisphere populations.

Owens, Randall W.; Pronin, Nikolai M.

2000-01-01

6

Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

2010-01-01

7

Mercury Elimination Rates for Adult Northern Pike Esox lucius: Evidence for a Sex Effect.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day(-1), respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates. PMID:24667854

Madenjian, Charles P; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Van Walleghem, Jillian L A

2014-08-01

8

Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike ( Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake

Jocelyn M. Kelly; David M. Janz

2009-01-01

9

Assessment of natal origin of pike ( Esox lucius ) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors\\u000a that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish\\u000a seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp),

Olof Engstedt; Patrik Stenroth; Per Larsson; Lars Ljunggren; Mikael Elfman

2010-01-01

10

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (<0.0005 to 0.097 mg/mL) pike were not correlated with any contaminant, but vitellogenin concentrations >0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm(2)), size (812 to 1481 microm(2)), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (< or =63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. PMID:17396212

Hinck, J E; Blazer, V S; Denslow, N D; Myers, M S; Gross, T S; Tillitt, D E

2007-05-01

11

Mercury toxicity in livers of northern pike (Esox lucius) from Isle Royale, USA.  

PubMed

Many laboratory studies have documented that mercury can be toxic to fish, but it is largely unknown if mercury is toxic to fish in their natural environments. The objective of our study was to investigate the toxic effects of mercury on northern pike (Esox lucius) at Isle Royale, Michigan. In 124 northern pike from eight inland lakes, concentrations of total mercury in skin-on fillets ranged from 0.069 to 0.622 microg/g wet mass (wet wt). Concentrations of total mercury in livers increased exponentially compared with concentrations in fillets, to a maximum of 3.1 microg/g wet wt. Methylmercury constituted a majority of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations <0.5 microg/g wet wt, but declined to 28-51% of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g wet wt. Liver color (absorbance at 400 nm) varied among northern pike and was positively related to liver total mercury concentration. The pigment causing variation in liver color was identified as lipofuscin, which results from lipid peroxidation of membranous organelles. An analysis of covariance revealed lipofuscin accumulation was primarily associated with mercury exposure, and this association obscured any normal accumulation from aging. We also documented decreased lipid reserves in livers and poor condition factors of northern pike with high liver total mercury concentrations. Our results suggest (i) northern pike at Isle Royale are experiencing toxicity at concentrations of total mercury common for northern pike and other piscivorous fish elsewhere in North America and (ii) liver color may be useful for indicating mercury exposure and effects in northern pike at Isle Royale and possibly other aquatic ecosystems and other fish species. PMID:18262851

Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P; Otter, Ryan R; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Klaper, Rebecca; Oris, James T

2008-04-01

12

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P 0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hinck, J. E.; Blazer, V. S.; Denslow, N. D.; Myers, M. S.; Gross, T. S.; Tillitt, D. E.

2007-01-01

13

Helminth position within the intestine of naturally infected pike (Esox lucius) relative to host stomach contents.  

PubMed

The positions of 3 cestode species, Triaenophorus crassus Forel, Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas), and Proteocephalus pinguis LaRue, and a nematode, Raphidascaris acus (Bloch), within the intestine of naturally infected pike (Esox lucius L.) were evaluated with respect to the presence or absence and state of digestion of host stomach contents. The positions of scolices and strobilae of the cestodes did not vary with respect to host stomach contents. By contrast, R. acus was anterior (near the stomach) when the stomach contained partially digested items, posterior when the stomach was empty, and in an intermediate position when the stomach contained only intact items. These results are interpreted as migration of R. acus, but not T. crassus, T. nodulosus, or P. pinguis, in response to feeding activity of the host. Adult and larval R. acus migrated, but the extent of migration was reduced in hosts harboring T. crassus, more so for larval than adult R. acus. PMID:2614600

Shostak, A W; Dick, T A

1989-12-01

14

'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

Herke, S. W.; Moring, J. R.

1999-01-01

15

Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.  

PubMed

In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation. PMID:19402450

Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

2009-02-25

16

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

2008-01-01

17

[Seasonal distributions and effects of parasites in pike (esox lucius l., 1758) inhabiting the i?ikli dam lake (Denizli).].  

PubMed

The aim of this study carried out from December 2000-November 2001 was to determine the endoparasites of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) inhabiting the I?ikli Dam Lake. A total of 160 samples were caught and investigated parasitologically. Bathybothrium rectangulum (Cestoda), Raphidascaris acus, Camallanus truncatus (Nematoda) and Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Acanthocephala) were detected as a result of this study. R. acus was the most prevalent species. The highest seasonal infection in the pike samples was determined to be 84.2% in the spring. The rates of infection are 40.4% in male pikes and 65.1% in females. According to age groups, the highest infection ratio has been determined to be 85.7% in pikes that were one year old. Investigations on samples caught during the same month and of the same age and gender showed that infected pikes were 2.5% shorter and 7.6% lighter than non-infected pikes. Among the parasites determined in this study, Bathybothrium rectangulum was detected for the first time in Turkish pike. PMID:17124691

Kir, Ismail; Ozan, Selda Tek?n

2005-01-01

18

Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.  

PubMed

Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction. PMID:23292487

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

2013-04-01

19

Food of Young Pike, Esox Lucius L., and Associated Fishes in Peterson's Ditches, Houghton Lake, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach contents of 551 young pike (11–152 millimeters in length), 345 small yellow perch, and 431 other fish representing 18 species were examined. All specimens were collected from an area widely used by spawning pike from Houghton Lake, Michigan. Organisms utilized for food by young pike included Entomostraca, insects (chiefly Chironomidae), tadpoles, minnows, darters, and other pike. As pike increased

Burton P. Hunt; William F. Carbine

1951-01-01

20

Seasonal dynamics of fatty acid composition in female northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids were measured in the ovary, liver, white muscle, and adipopancreatic tissue of northern pike. The role of environmental and physiological factors underlying these changes was evaluated. From late summer (August–September) to winter (January–March), the weight percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially 22:6n3) declined significantly in the neutral

K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay; M. T. Clandinin

1993-01-01

21

Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

Brown, Edward H. Jr.; Clark, Clarence F.

1965-01-01

22

Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

Meldrum, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halden, N.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1997-12-31

23

Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.  

PubMed

Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years. PMID:20735553

Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

2009-07-01

24

Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool 2. Effects on lower trophic levels in Lake Lyng, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study how pike stocking affects trophic structurepikefingerlings (0–3600 ha-1) were stocked during six yearsineutrophic Lake Lyng (lake area 10 ha), Denmark. Subsequently,marked changes were recorded in the abundance ofzooplanktivorousfish, catch per unit effort of roach, which was the dominantfishspecies, thus varied from 17 to 272. Simultaneously, markedchangeswere recorded in the abundance and relative composition ofzooplankton. Daphnia abundance

Martin Søndergaard; Erik Jeppesen; Søren Berg

1997-01-01

25

DNA adduct formation and persistence in liver and extrahepatic tissues of northern pike (Esox lucius) following oral exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole.  

PubMed

The formation and persistence of DNA adducts in liver, intestinal mucosa, gills and brain of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) following oral exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazol (DBC) were analysed by 32P-postlabelling. The dosage was 25 micromol/kg body weight of each substance, administered on 5 occasions with an interval of 12-14 days. Sampling was carried out 9 days after the second treatment, and 9, 16, 33 and 78 days after the fifth treatment. Pikes were also fed with the substances singly for comparison of adduct patterns. A complex pattern of adducts was detected in all examined tissues from fish treated with the mixture. Total adduct levels were highest in intestine (347+/-17.4 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides, mean+/-SE), followed by liver (110+/-9.3), gills (69+/-6) and brain (14+/-4.2). In pike treated with BaP alone, one major adduct was detected in all examined tissues. This BaP-adduct made up approximately 50% of the total amount of adducts in the brain. Corresponding values in liver, intestine and gills were 23, 31 and 34%, respectively. One relatively weak BkF-adduct and at least 10 different DBC-adducts were detected in all analysed tissues. Total adduct level in the intestine declined to 29.4% of the maximum value 78 days after the last exposure, while there was no significant decline in adduct levels in liver, gills or brain. The results suggest that intestine is more susceptible to adduct formation than liver after oral exposure, and that adduct levels in the intestine represent ongoing or relatively recent exposure. DNA adducts in the other investigated tissues were much more persistent and may therefore accumulate during long-term exposure. PMID:10393267

Ericson, G; Noaksson, E; Balk, L

1999-06-30

26

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci

P F Larsen; M M Hansen; E E Nielsen; L F Jensen; V Loeschcke

2005-01-01

27

DIETS OF MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES LAC. AND ESOX LUCIUS L. IN LAKE TRASIMENO (UMBRIA, ITALY) AND THEIR DIET OVERLAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gather information about the feeding habits of Micropterus salmoides Lac., an exotic species recently introduced into Lake Trasimeno and Esox lucius L., in order to determine the degree of overlap between the two diets. The stomachs of 179 largemouth basses and 125 pikes were examined. The index of diet overlap (?) was determined

M. LORENZONI; M. CORBOLI; A. J. M. DÖRR; G. GIOVINAZZO; S. SELVI; M. MEARELLI

2002-01-01

28

DNA adduct formation in northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to a mixture of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and 7H-dibenzo[c, g]carbazole: time-course and dose-response studies.  

PubMed

The time-course and dose dependent formation of DNA adducts in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) following a single exposure to a mixture of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) were investigated by use of the (32)P-postlabelling assay. A complex adduct pattern was detected in liver and intestine of exposed fish. For the time-course studies fish were exposed either by oral administration or by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Following a single i.p. injection of the mixture (40micromole/kg body weight of each substance) significantly elevated DNA adduct levels were detected in the liver after 1 day. Adduct levels were higher in liver than in intestine, in which significant elevation were detected from day 3 to 12. Following exposure via food (80micromole/kg body weight of each substance), adduct levels were detected in both liver and intestine 1 day after exposure, and continued to increase until day 3 in liver and day 6 in intestine. Calculation of a binding index, which compensates for differences in dosage, resulted in much higher adduct formation (five times in liver and 22 times in intestine) following oral exposure. Pikes receiving single oral doses of 12.5, 50, 100 or 200micromole/kg body weight of each substance exhibited significantly higher adduct levels in both liver and intestine compared to controls. Hepatic adduct levels were also higher in fish given 100 and 200micromole/kg compared to 12.5micromole/kg. Results from this study show that DNA adducts are rapidly formed in juvenile northern pike following both i.p. injection and feeding of a mixture of BaP, BkF and DBC. A maximum level was reached within a few days, which then persisted at approximately the same level for at least 9-12 days. The results also shows that higher levels of adducts were obtained following oral administration compared to i.p. injection, particularly in the intestine. PMID:11035155

Ericson, G; Balk, L

2000-11-01

29

Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.  

PubMed

Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries. PMID:23566175

Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

2013-05-01

30

Early Life History of the Northern Pike, Esox lucius L., with Special Reference to the Factors Influencing the Numerical Strength of Year Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early life history of northern pike was studied to determine the relationship of adult pike abundance to the strength of resulting year classes and the existence and chronology of critical survival periods, along with the nature and origin of the mortality mechanisms involved. Adult abundance and the strength of the resulting year classes were not directly related. Two critical

Donald R. Franklin; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1963-01-01

31

Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions. PMID:24933165

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

2014-07-15

32

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike ( Esox lucius), perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on ?15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2004-01-01

33

Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )  

SciTech Connect

Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. (Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

34

The effect of egg size and nutrient content on larval performance: implications to protracted spawning in northern pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in developmental rate from fertilization to swim-up, and body size at swim-up, may affect the growth and survival\\u000a of young-of-the-year fish. Fish egg size (diameter) is often positively correlated to adult female size, but whether increased\\u000a egg size equates to higher egg nutrient content and subsequently improved embryo\\/larval performance, remains unclear. Artificially\\u000a fertilized northern pike eggs from individual females

Brent A. Murry; John M. Farrell; Kimberly L. Schulz; Mark A. Teece

2008-01-01

35

Accumulation of some heavy metals in Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) and its host (Esox lucius L., 1758).  

PubMed

Concentrations of some heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cr) in liver of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) and its endoparasite [Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779)] inhabiting I?ikli Lake (Turkey) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Only Fe and Zn were detected in R. acus and liver of fish, while levels of Cu, Mn and Cr were below detection limit (<0.028). The Fe and Zn level in R. acus were 68.4 and 86.9 times higher than in the liver. Nematodes could provide reliable information about the heavy metal pollution of the lakes. PMID:18224628

Tekin-Ozan, Selda; Kir, Ismail

2007-01-01

36

Northern Pike Year-Class Strength and Spring Water Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between spring water levels and strength of year classes of northern pike (Esox lucius) produced in Ball Club Lake of north-central Minnesota are considered for the 7 years between 1945 and 1952. The years are ranked according to water conditions, including height during spawning and fluctuation during egg incubation, and according to the strength of year classes produced as

Fritz H. Johnson

1957-01-01

37

Genetic Divergence among Northern Pike from Spawning Locations in the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ecological consequences associated with the degradation of riparian wetlands that historically provided spawning and rearing habitat for northern pike Esox lucius, annual spawning migrations and genetic structure were used to examine this species' dependence on four specific spawning areas in the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River. Tagging and recapture over three consecutive spawning seasons

Aaron Bosworth; John M. Farrell

2006-01-01

38

Oviduct Insertion of Radio Transmitters as a Means of Locating Northern Pike Spawning Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

I inserted radio transmitters into the oviducts of northern pike Esox lucius in an attempt to find their spawning grounds. Oviduct insertion of miniature radio transmitters was quick and easy. I hoped that transmitters would be expelled with the eggs to aid in identifying critical habitat used for egg deposition. Ten transmitters were implanted in the egg masses of female

Rodney B. Pierce

2004-01-01

39

Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

1996-01-01

40

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

41

Relationship between Mercury Concentration and Growth Rates for Walleyes, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from Quebec Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish muscle and fish growth rates was assessed for 54 walleye Sander vitreus, 52 northern pike Esox lucius, and 35 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush populations throughout the Province of Quebec, Canada. We used the von Bertalanffy growth model to estimate the ages of fish specimens for a given length, and Hg concentrations in

Mélyssa Lavigne; Marc Lucotte; Serge Paquet

2010-01-01

42

Effects of Clam Shrimp on Production of Walleye and Northern Pike, and a Review of Clam Shrimp Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of clam shrimp, Caenestheriella belfragei, populations in fish culture ponds were studied to evaluate their effect on yield of fingerling northern pike, Esox lucius, or walleye, Stizostedion vitreum. The studies were carried out on twenty-three 0.64-ha ponds during the culture season for northern pike and on 19 of the same ponds during the season for walleye. Ponds were

James M. Luzier; Robert C. Summerfelt

1996-01-01

43

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sloss, B. L.; Franckowiak, R. P.; Murphy, E. L.

2008-01-01

44

Year-Class Formation of Upper St. Lawrence River Northern Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974–1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and

Brian M. Smith; John M. Farrell; H. Brian Underwood; Stephen J. Smith

2007-01-01

45

Behavior and Passage Performance of Northern Pike, Walleyes, and White Suckers in an Experimental Raceway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The willingness and ability of wild adult northern pike Esox lucius, walleyes Sander vitreus, and white suckers Catostomus commersonii to ascend a 25- or 50-m experimental raceway against various water velocities (35–120 cm\\/s at 8 cm from the bottom) was measured. The probability that a fish of any given species would enter the raceway from its holding tank was significantly

Stephan J. Peake

2008-01-01

46

Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

2013-01-01

47

Partial characterization of serotonin N - acetyltransferases from northern pike ( Esox lucius , L. pineal organ and retina: effects of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertebrates, the nocturnal rise in pineal organ and retinal melatonin synthesis results from the increase in the activity\\u000a of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a cAMP-dependent enzyme. In the fish pineal organ in culture, light and temperature act in a similar\\u000a manner on cAMP content and NAT activity. It is not known whether the effects of temperature are mediated through

Jack Falcón; Valérie Bolliet; Jean Pierre Collin

1996-01-01

48

Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

Schroeder, Susan A,; Fulton, David C.

2013-01-01

49

The ideal free pike: 50 years of fitness-maximizing dispersal in Windermere  

PubMed Central

The ideal free distribution (IFD) theory is one of the most influential theories in evolutionary ecology. It predicts how animals ought to distribute themselves within a heterogeneous habitat in order to maximize lifetime fitness. We test the population level consequence of the IFD theory using 40-year worth data on pike (Esox lucius) living in a natural lake divided into two basins. We do so by employing empirically derived density-dependent survival, dispersal and fecundity functions in the estimation of basin-specific density-dependent fitness surfaces. The intersection of the fitness surfaces for the two basins is used for deriving expected spatial distributions of pike. Comparing the derived expected spatial distributions with 50 years data of the actual spatial distribution demonstrated that pike is ideal free distributed within the lake. In general, there was a net migration from the less productive north basin to the more productive south basin. However, a pike density-manipulation experiment imposing shifting pike density gradients between the two basins managed to switch the net migration direction and hence clearly demonstrated that the Windermere pike choose their habitat in an ideal free manner. Demonstration of ideal free habitat selection on an operational field scale like this has never been undertaken before.

Haugen, Thrond O; Winfield, Ian J; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J. Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2006-01-01

50

Age, growth, and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) from eastern Lake Ontario were sampled with gill nets and trap nets in 1972-1973. Fish of age-groups IV, V, and VI were predominant in the catch. Although males were slightly longer after the 1st yr of life, females gained a 25-mm advantage in the 2nd yr and a 30-mm advantage in the 3rd yr. In later years, the increments of growth of males and females were similar. All males were mature after 2 yr and females after 3 yr. The stomachs of northern pike contained only fish; the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) was the principal forage species consumed. Electivity indexes for alewives, white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), the three most common species in the diet, indicated a positive selection for alewives that increased from June to October during a period when the relative abundance of alewives steadily decreased.

Wolfert, David R.; Miller, Terence J.

1978-01-01

51

Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

Flinders, J. M.; Bonar, S. A.

2008-01-01

52

Relationship of young-of-the-year northern pike to aquatic vegetation types in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The association of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) with different aquatic plant types (e.g., submerged, emergent, floating) was studied to evaluate the impacts of a potential loss of backwaters on available fish nursery habitats in the upper Mississippi River. Eight biweekly collections were made at each of six representative lentic habitats in Navigation Pool 7. In the spring, average catches of northern pike from areas with submerged vegetation were nearly three times greater than from areas with emergent vegetation, and more than 10 times greater than from an area with no vegetation. This pattern was consistent until late summer, when the young became more common in the more highly oxygenated, less heavily vegetated waters. Food and growth were examined as possible indicators for the selection of areas with submerged vegetation over other habitats. Food varied among fish in the different vegetation types; however, no significant patterns of improved growth or condition were apparent. Young northern pike apparently were successful, opportunistic feeders. Although preference for habitats with submerged vegetation was seemingly not related to food, the overall production of young was clearly best in these habitats.

Holland, L. E.; Huston, M. L.

1984-01-01

53

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

54

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01

55

Learned Recognition of Predation Risk by Enallagma Damselfly Larvae (Odonata, Zygoptera) on the Basis of Chemical Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied two populations of damselfly larvae (Enallagma boreale): one population cooccurred with a predatory fish (northern pike, Esox lucius); the other did not. Damselflies that cooccurred with pike adopted antipredator behavior (reduced activity) in response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics, and to chemical stimuli from pike, relative to a distilled water control. Damselflies from an area where pike

Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan. F. Smith

1997-01-01

56

Pikes Peak, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

Compiled by Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

2006-01-01

57

DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

58

Pike Place Market Centennial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pike Place Market has been an integral part of Seattle's landscape since 1907 with its amazing mix of vendors and merchants, tourists, locals, and the generally curious. This remarkable exhibit brings together items from the Seattle Municipal Archives, such as photographs, handbills, documents, and other items from the past century. Visitors can learn about its founding and development through thirteen different areas, including Early Expansion, Privatization, Citizen Protests, and Plans for Change. There are even radio clips from politicians and residents talking about the market, including the mayor of Seattle. Urban historians and planners will find this site particularly noteworthy as it presents an amazing case study of preservation amidst a dense urban environment.

59

Lymphosarcoma in Hatchery-Reared Yearling Tiger Muskellunge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yearling tiger muskellunge (northern pike Esox lucius × muskellunge E. masquinongy) being cultured within the Colorado Division of Wildlife's fish hatchery system were found to have external lesions that were grossly and microscopically consistent with descriptions of esocid lymphosarcoma. This neoplasia has been described as a tumor of adult northern pike and muskellunge; a retroviral etiology has been proposed for

Paul R. Bowser; James W. Casey; Gregory A. Wooster; Rodman G. Getchell; Chun-Yao Chen; Linda Chittum

2002-01-01

60

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPERATURE SELECTION OF FISH NEAR THE THERMAL OUTFALL OF A POWER PLANT DURING FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

The movement patterns of 4 fish species: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were monitored by radio telemetry near the thermal discharge of a power plant (delta T 15C nominal). F...

61

Ranking Predatory Threats by Nonnative Fishes in the Yampa River, Colorado, via Bioenergetics Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its relatively natural hydrograph, the Yampa River, Colorado, is considered the crown jewel of native fish habitat in the upper basin of the Colorado River and has supported a relatively intact native fish assemblage. Nonnative fishes are thought to pose the greatest threat to native fishes in this system. Removal programs for nonnative northern pike Esox lucius and

Brett M. Johnson; Patrick J. Martinez; John A. Hawkins; Kevin R. Bestgen

2008-01-01

62

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two Northwestern Quebec lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined.

M. R. Speyer

1980-01-01

63

Evaluation of Nonlethal Methods for the Analysis of Mercury in Fish Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of fish are sacrificed each year to determine potential human exposure to mercury (Hg) from fish consumption. In this paper, we use lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and northern pike Esox lucius to demonstrate that accurate and reliable measures of fish muscle Hg concentrations can be determined from small samples (<100 mg) harvested with biopsy tools. Reliability of results primarily

R. F. Baker; P. J. Blanchfield; M. J. Paterson; R. J. Flett; L. Wesson

2004-01-01

64

Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

2010-01-01

65

WINTER MOVEMENTS OF FOUR FISH SPECIES NEAR A THERMAL PLUME IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a po...

66

The roles of PIKE in tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Tumorigenesis is the process by which normal cells evolve the capacity to evade and overcome the constraints usually placed upon their growth and survival. To ensure the integrity of organs and tissues, the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is tightly maintained. The proteins controlling this balance are either considered oncogenes, which promote tumorigenesis, or tumor suppressors, which prevent tumorigenesis. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is a family of GTP-binding proteins that possess anti-apoptotic functions and play an important role in the central nervous system. Notably, accumulating evidence suggests that PIKE is a proto-oncogene involved in tumor progression. The PIKE gene (CENTG1) is amplified in a variety of human cancers, leading to the resistance against apoptosis and the enhancement of invasion. In this review, we will summarize the functions of PIKE proteins in tumorigenesis and discuss their potential implications in cancer therapy.

Qi, Qi; Ye, Keqiang

2013-01-01

67

Pilot Evaluation of Enhanced E-SOx Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses pilot-plant tests with a 28 cu m/min (1000 cfm) electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to evaluate techniques that have a potential for enhancing the SO2 removal of the E-SOx process for retrofit application. The techniques investigated incl...

J. C. S. Chang L. S. Hovis

1990-01-01

68

OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

69

PILOT EVALUATION OF ENHANCED E-SOX PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses pilot-plant tests with a 28 cu m/min (1000 cfm)electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to evaluate techniques that havea potential for enhancing the S02 removal of the E-SOx process forretrofit application. he techniques investigated includedmass-transfer additives, ...

70

[The forms of the population variability of the chitinoid formations in Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea: Tetraonchidae)].  

PubMed

Population variability of the adhesive apparatus and copulatory organ of Tetraonchus momenteron from young and adult pikes (Esox lucius) from Rybinsk reservoir (Volga river system) and adult pikes from lake Baikal has been studied. Comparison analysis of seven plastic and one meristic characters allowed to discover differences between the groups of monogeneans from young and adult pikes from "rybinsk" population by frequently of the variations of number of the tight coils of copulatory organ support bar. Differences between "rybinsk" and "baikal" populations of T. monenteron were found. The "baikal" monogeneans differ from the "rybinsk" ones by frequently of the copulatory organ phenes and also more large sizes of the chitinoid formations. PMID:8177612

Malashenko, A A

1994-01-01

71

Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

Sprigg, R. K.

1991-01-01

72

The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition.

Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

2014-01-01

73

Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m?2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows,\\u000a whereas

Jacqueline F. Savino; Roy A. Stein

1989-01-01

74

Environmental Contaminants in Fish and Their Associated Risk to Piscivorous Wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data\\u000a and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted\\u000a to screen

Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kathy R. Echols; Tom W. May; Carl E. Orazio; Donald E. Tillitt

2006-01-01

75

Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such as the loss of lake-marginal wetlands (nutrient filters, habitat for pike, Esox lucius) and chemical pollution toxic

H. Hosper

1997-01-01

76

Evaluation of Sex Reversal Treatment and Improvement of Gynogenetic Technique in Muskellunge (ESOX MASQUINONGY).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sport fishery for muskellunge Esox masquinongy relies on annual artificial propagation and stocking of fingerlings because of failure of natural reproduction in reservoirs. Muskellunge exhibits dimorphic growth, such that females grow much faster than...

K. Dabrowski F. Lin M. A. Garcia-Abiado J. Rinchard

2001-01-01

77

Reproduction and Early Life History of the Redfin Pickerel, (Esox americanus americanus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reproductive strategy of the redf in pickerel (Esox americanus americanus) in a blackwater system in Sumter County, South Carolina was studied using daily aging techniques derived from otolith analysis. The presence of biannual spawning, a significant...

M. S. Ballek

1994-01-01

78

Comprehensive Plan, Pike County, Elkhorn City, Pikeville, Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pike County, Elkhorn City and Pikeville Population and Economic Analysis are essential elements in the preparation of the Comprehensive Plan as stated in the K.R.S. Chapter 100. It includes population characteristics and growth trends as well as econo...

J. Kowalski

1972-01-01

79

Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation. PMID:24716409

Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

2014-03-01

80

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

81

Selenium Concentrations in the Colorado Pikeminnow ( Ptychocheilus lucius ): Relationship with Flows in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western\\u000a Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado\\u000a River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus).

B. C. Osmundson; T. W. May; D. B. Osmundson

2000-01-01

82

PIKE-mediated PI3-kinase activity is required for AMPA receptor surface expression  

PubMed Central

AMPAR (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor) is an ion channel involved in the formation of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanism that couples plasticity stimuli to the trafficking of postsynaptic AMPAR remains poorly understood. Here, we show that PIKE (phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer) GTPases regulate neuronal AMPAR activity by promoting GluA2/GRIP1 association. PIKE-L directly interacts with both GluA2 and GRIP1 and forms a tertiary complex upon glycine-induced NMDA receptor activation. PIKE-L is also essential for glycine-induced GluA2-associated PI3K activation. Genetic ablation of PIKE (PIKE?/?) in neurons suppresses GluA2-associated PI3K activation, therefore inhibiting the subsequent surface expression of GluA2 and the formation of long-term potentiation. Our findings suggest that PIKE-L is a critical factor in controlling synaptic AMPAR insertion.

Chan, Chi Bun; Chen, Yongjun; Liu, Xia; Tang, Xiaoling; Lee, Chi Wai; Mei, Lin; Ye, Keqiang

2011-01-01

83

Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 ?g/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 ?g/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 ?g/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 ?g/g) than those of pike (˜30 ?g/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

2014-01-01

84

Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems n-2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

1989-01-01

85

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

The results of mercury and selenium analyses conducted on northern pike (Esox lucius) muscle tissue indicate distinct and significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels of fish from two lakes in Quebec. While fish samples from Lake Dufault had very low mercury concentrations, they appeared to have elevated amounts of selenium. Conversely, fish samples originating from Lake Duparquet had elevated mercury concentrations and low selenium levels. In both cases a comparison of means by the Student t test indicated significant (P < 0.01) differences between the mercury and selenium concentrations of fish samples from the two lakes.

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

86

Social Services Integration in Missouri. Volume I: Evaluation of Pike County Integrated Services Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This first volume of a two - volume report on the Pike County Integrated Services (PCIS) program in Missouri presents findings and implications from an evaluation of the program conducted between February 1978 and June 1978. PCIS was initiated in January ...

B. B. Morgan R. L. McKim L. W. Thornton P. E. Erickson M. Cross

1978-01-01

87

Fisheries Investigation in the 1837 Ceded Territory: Estimates of Population Size and Exploitation of Northern Pike and Walleye in Knife, Platte, and Sullivan Lakes. Completion Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Walleye and northern pike population size and angler exploitation were estimated for three central Minnesota lakes. Knife Lake northern pike population structure was dominated by low densities of fish over 17 inches. Platte and Sullivan Lakes had higher d...

H. VanOffelen

1998-01-01

88

Regulation of Melatonin Secretion in a Photoreceptive Pineal Organ: An in V&O Study in the Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal organ (or pineal) of a teleost fish, the pike, con- tains typical (cone-like) and modified photoreceptor cells. Both are involved in indole metabolism, including melatonin production. How photoperiod controls melatonin biosyn- thesis in organs containing mainly photoreceptor cells, re- mains unclarified. To tackle this question we have used cul- tured pike pineal organs to investigate the variations in

Jacky Falc; Jocelyne Brun Marmillon; Bruno Claustrat; Jean-Pierre CoIlin

89

Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground- and surface-water hydrology in the vicinity of Dead Pike Lake and Powell Marsh, Vilas County, Wisconsin. The model was used to simulate the effect of removing Powell Marsh control structures (ditches and Vista Pond) on the hydrology of Dead Pike Lake. Measurements and model simulation results show that ground water in the vicinity of Powell Marsh moves to the northwest and west. If Powell Marsh structures are removed from the simulation, it does not affect the general direction of ground-water flow nor the total flow to Dead Pike Lake. Without the simulated structures, slightly more ground-water flow enters Dead Pike Lake and slightly less surface-water flows at the Dead Pike Lake inlet than with the simulated structures. Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

2002-01-01

90

Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

1989-01-01

91

Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator. (USGS)

Taylor, W. W.; LaBaugh, J. W.; Freeberg, M. H.; Dowling, D. C.

1985-01-01

92

Evidence to Support the Pike's Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program  

PubMed Central

The University of Alabama’s Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike’s Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike’s Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs.

Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R.; Allen, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

93

Selenium concentrations in the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): relationship with flows in the upper Colorado River.  

PubMed

A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Because of the endangered status of these fish, sacrificing individuals for tissue residue analysis has been avoided; consequently, little information existed regarding selenium tissue residues. In 1994, muscle plugs were collected from a total of 39 Colorado pikeminnow captured at various Colorado River sites in the Grand Valley for selenium residue analysis. The muscle plugs collected from 16 Colorado pikeminnow captured at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) contained a mean selenium concentration of 17 microg/g dry weight, which was over twice the recommended toxic threshold guideline concentration of 8 microg/g dry weight in muscle tissue for freshwater fish. Because of elevated selenium concentrations in muscle plugs in 1994, a total of 52 muscle plugs were taken during 1995 from Colorado pikeminnow staging at WWSWA. Eleven of these plugs were from fish previously sampled in 1994. Selenium concentrations in 9 of the 11 recaptured fish were significantly lower in 1995 than in 1994. Reduced selenium in fish may in part be attributed to higher instream flows in 1995 and lower water selenium concentrations in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. In 1996, muscle plugs were taken from 35 Colorado squawfish captured at WWSWA, and no difference in mean selenium concentrations were detected from those sampled in 1995. Colorado River flows during 1996 were intermediate to those measured in 1994 and 1995. PMID:10787099

Osmundson, B C; May, T W; Osmundson, D B

2000-05-01

94

Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?  

PubMed Central

We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

2014-01-01

95

Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?  

PubMed

We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

2014-01-01

96

Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

2014-01-01

97

Determination of the quality parameters of pike perch Sander lucioperca caught by gillnet, longline and harpoon in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the different catching methods (gillnet, longline, harpoon) on sensory, chemical (pH, total volatile base nitrogen,\\u000a K-value) and microbiological (total viable count [TVC]) changes in pike perch Sander lucioperca stored in ice were investigated. The same soaking time was used for both gillnet and longline fishing. The catching method\\u000a had considerable influence on the freshness quality of pike

Gülsün Özyurt; Yesim Özogul; Caner Enver Özyurt; Abdurrahman Polat; Fatih Özogul; Cengiz Gökbulut; Beyza Ersoy; Esmeray Küley

2007-01-01

98

Life History of the Colorado Squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado Chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, 1964–1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the ecology and life history of the Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado-Utah, were conducted from May 1964, to October 1966. A total of 1,469 squawfish and 2,393 chubs was collected with gill nets, seines, fry gear, and an electric shocker. The operation of Flaming

C. David Vanicek; Robert H. Kramer

1969-01-01

99

[The internal cavities of pike alpha-parvalbumin probably contain water].  

PubMed

The kinetics of hydrogen exchange of pike a-parvalbumin was investigated using the method of infrared spectroscopy (sensitive to the amide hydrogen atoms in the peptide) and radioisotope method (sensitive to all labile hydrogen atoms). Ultraslow exchangeable hydrogen atoms were found to be substantially less in the first case than in the second one. Taking into account that the internal cavities in the parvalbumin are formed by hydrophobic amino acid residues, devoid of labile hydrogen atoms, it is possible to make the most appropriate assumption, namely, these cavities contain water molecules, hydrogen atoms of which are ultraslow exchangeable. PMID:22873060

Tishchenko, V M

2012-01-01

100

Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

Kile, D. E.

2005-01-01

101

Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.  

PubMed

The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4?h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

2014-06-01

102

Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

Holland, L. E.

1987-01-01

103

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels in fish from the two lakes were reported. Fish samples from Lake Dufault had low mercury concentrations but elevated levels of selenium. Fish samples from Lake Duparquet, however, had elevated mercury levels and low selenium levels. Elevated mercury levels were present in sediment samples from both lakes. Mercury and selenium levels in water samples from both lakes were at or below analytical detection limits. (15 references, 3 tables)

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

104

Catabolism of fish furan fatty acids to urofuran acids in the rat.  

PubMed

A mixture of long-chain furan fatty acids was prepared as methyl esters from testes lipids of Northern pike (Esox lucius). Upon feeding these esters to rats, dicarboxylic acids, which still contained the furan structure, were found in the urine. The first phase of a rapid but incomplete catabolism is beta-oxidation of the proximal chain of the furan fatty acids. It proceeds to a distance of three carbon atoms from the ring. omega-Oxidation of the terminal alkyl chain, followed by alpha-oxidation gives rise to a second alkylcarboxyl chain with five carbon atoms or less. The ring methyl substituents of the precursor acids seem to be more resistant to oxidation than the alkyl substituent with three or five carbon atoms. The urinary catabolites from furan fatty acids in the rat are similar to furan acids found in human urine, but only one of the structures occurs in both sources. PMID:6849955

Sand, D M; Schlenk, H; Thoma, H; Spiteller, G

1983-05-16

105

Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

Holland, L. E.; Huston, M. L.

1985-01-01

106

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

107

76 FR 71125 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 1076X] Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment...Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) has filed...line statute at 49 U.S.C. 10907. See Caddo Antoine & Little Mo....

2011-11-16

108

Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb antibodies in sera of muskellunge Esox masquinongy using competitive ELISA.  

PubMed

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) in fish sera. Assay conditions were standardized using known negative and positive muskellunge Esox masquinongy. A positive-negative threshold of 14.6% inhibition was established based on analysis of sera of 60 muskellunge with no previous exposure to VHSV-IVb. The cELISA was then used to investigate immune responses of wild muskellunge sampled from 5 water bodies in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, between 2005 and 2012. Antibodies were detected in fish from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, and Lower Fox River/Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both water systems were considered enzootic for VHSV-IVb. Additionally, antibodies were detected in muskellunge from Thornapple Lake, a Michigan inland lake previously considered negative for VHSV-IVb based on virus isolation methods. Muskellunge populations from Lake Hudson, Michigan, and Butternut Lake, Wisconsin, lacked evidence of an immune response to VHSV-IVb. When results of the cELISA were compared to the 50% plaque neutralization test for several groups of fish, there was 78.4% agreement between the tests for antibody presence. The cELISA is a rapid and efficient test for the detection of binding antibodies to VHSV-IVb and will be a useful non-lethal tool for monitoring the spread of this serious pathogen. PMID:24695232

Millard, Elena V; Brenden, Travis O; Lapatra, Scott E; Marcquenski, Susan; Faisal, Mohamed

2014-04-01

109

Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

Zou, Ying

110

Analyzing the fast-start performance of northern pike using a mechanical fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern pike is able to achieve an instantaneous acceleration of 245 m/s^2 through a two-stage motion. In the first stage the fish curls its body into either a C-shaped or an S-shaped curve (preparatory stage), and in the second stage uncurls it very quickly (propulsive stage) generating high accelerations due to the vortices shed from its tail. We have built a mechanical fish, based on the body profile of a pike, which is capable of performing this two-stage fast-start motion. Movement is governed by servo motors, which pull on cables attached to certain ribs, bending the fish into a C- or an S-shape. The degree of bending and timing of strokes can be controlled, and the fish can perform either a propulsive stroke only or a full stroke consisting of both the preparatory stage and the propulsive stage. The mechanical fish is capable of achieving peak accelerations of around 4 m/s^2. We use this fish in order to study the influence of various variables on the observed acceleration. Although the maximum accelerations observed in our mechanical fish are smaller than those of a live fish, the form of the measured acceleration signal as function of time is quite similar to that of a live fish. The hydrodynamic efficiencies are observed to be around 12%, and it is shown that the majority of the thrust is produced at the rear part of the mechanical fish -- similarly to the live fish.

Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Feng, Chengcheng; Bonafilia, Brian; Costain, Andrew

2011-11-01

111

Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.  

PubMed

During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike. PMID:17151956

van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

2007-05-01

112

Hip extension during the come-out of multiple forward and inward pike somersaulting dives is controlled by eccentric contraction of the hip flexors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modelling approach was used in the present study to investigate the role of the hip muscles during the come-out of forward and inward multiple somersaulting dives in a pike position. A planar two-segment model was used to simulate the somersault and come-out of three commonly performed dives from a 3-m springboard: forward two-and-one-half somersault pike dive (105B), forward three-and-one-half

Pui W. Kong

2010-01-01

113

Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

Nelson, William R.

1974-01-01

114

Harvest-induced disruptive selection increases variance in fitness-related traits  

PubMed Central

The form of Darwinian selection has important ecological and management implications. Negative effects of harvesting are often ascribed to size truncation (i.e. strictly directional selection against large individuals) and resultant decrease in trait variability, which depresses capacity to buffer environmental change, hinders evolutionary rebound and ultimately impairs population recovery. However, the exact form of harvest-induced selection is generally unknown and the effects of harvest on trait variability remain unexplored. Here we use unique data from the Windermere (UK) long-term ecological experiment to show in a top predator (pike, Esox lucius) that the fishery does not induce size truncation but disruptive (diversifying) selection, and does not decrease but rather increases variability in pike somatic growth rate and size at age. This result is supported by complementary modelling approaches removing the effects of catch selectivity, selection prior to the catch and environmental variation. Therefore, fishing most likely increased genetic variability for somatic growth in pike and presumably favoured an observed rapid evolutionary rebound after fishery relaxation. Inference about the mechanisms through which harvesting negatively affects population numbers and recovery should systematically be based on a measure of the exact form of selection. From a management perspective, disruptive harvesting necessitates combining a preservation of large individuals with moderate exploitation rates, and thus provides a comprehensive tool for sustainable exploitation of natural resources.

Edeline, Eric; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Winfield, Ian J.; Fletcher, Janice M.; James, J. Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn

2009-01-01

115

Philometroides africanus sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new tissue parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Pisces) in Botswana.  

PubMed

A new species of philometrid nematode, Philometroides africanus sp. n., is described from female specimens found encapsulated in gill arches and inner surface of gill covers of the African pike, Hepsetus odoe (Bloch), an endemic freshwater fish in Africa, from the Okavango River and Delta in Botswana. This new nematode is characterised mainly by a markedly small and plump body of gravid females (body length 6-9 mm), a separate anterior oesophageal bulb, a conspicuously small oesophageal gland, presence of four pairs of very small submedian cephalic papillae, and absence of any caudal processes. The prevalence of P. africanus in African pike of the Okavango Delta was 29%, with the intensity 1-8 (mean 3) encapsulated nematodes per fish. The genus Margolisianum Blaylock et Overstreet, 1999 is considered a junior synonym of Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 and, consequently, its type species is transferred to the latter as Philometroides bulbosus (Blaylock et Overstreet, 1999) comb. n. PMID:11437126

Moravec, F; Van As, J G

2001-01-01

116

Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting

James C. Hower; Leslie F. Ruppert; Cortland F. Eble; W. Lee Clark

2005-01-01

117

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

2009-01-01

118

The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization.

Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

1975-01-01

119

Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not correlate with color zoning, whereas Zn variations (up to 1.1 wt. %) are entirely independent. The dark color zones probably reflect Fe-Ti charge transfer. The mica composition sequence described here is typical of the extreme fractionation observed in pegmatites of the NYF family, associated with anorogenec granites. Elevated Fe, Zn, and enhanced Sc contents are characteristic of this family. Strong enrichment in Li, Rb, and F is present, particularly in the micas of the miarolitic cavities. Sharp color zonation and compositional variation in cavity-grown zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite crystals suggest rapid changes in the intensive parameters, particularly the f(O2), of the parent fluid during the final stages of pegmatite consolidation ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

Foord, E. E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L. L.; Sherman, D. M.; Eby, R. K.

1995-01-01

120

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species.  

PubMed

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. PMID:16018498

Popper, Arthur N; Smith, Michael E; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; MacGillivray, Alexander O; Austin, Melanie E; Mann, David A

2005-06-01

121

Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

2011-01-01

122

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

123

Accumulative heavy metal patterns in the sediment and biotic compartments of the Tisza watershed.  

PubMed

The paper presents data on toxic heavy metals in sediments measured after two large chemical spills on the Tisza watershed area. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that significant volume, high concentration heavy metals reached the Upper Tisza and Szamos River sections. Based on the longitudinal distribution of the heavy metals in sediments, the primary sedimentation zones and concentration increase compared with reference site was determined. Results verified arrival of fresh spills of mining origin and superimposed pollution. Regarding to chronic ecotoxicological effects, degradation and bioaccumulation rates of heavy metals priority problems are associated with arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium in the sediments of the Tisza and Szamos Rivers after the spills of Romanian origin in 2000. Results indicate that the biological availability of the various heavy metals significantly differ along the river, particularly upstream and downstream of the Tisza Lake. The recent investigation did not identify one single sample in which muscular metal concentration of pike (Esox lucius L.) exceeded the present Hungarian consumer guidelines. The investigated pike population on the Tisza River could be divided into characteristic subgroups based on muscular tissue metal concentrations (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and As), depending on the bioavailability of the metalloids at the different river sections. On the basis of the data evaluation, it is concluded that the present state of pollution on Tisza River indicates the potential for deterioration and need for further biomonitoring. PMID:12676481

Fleit, Ernö; Lakatos, Gyula

2003-04-11

124

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

2005-06-01

125

Cooperation under predation risk: experiments on costs and benefits  

PubMed Central

Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the predator is approached and the potential benefits of cooperation was carried out strictly experimentally. We made either singletons or pairs of dead sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, approach hungry pike, Esox lucius, by remote control according to an algorithm that mimicked natural inspection. The predation risk of both single inspectors and parallel inspecting pairs increased with closer inspection distances. A member of an inspecting pair had only about half the risk of that of a single inspector. In pairs, a companion diluted the lead fish's risk of being caught, depending on its distance behind the leader. The absolute risk difference between leader and follower was greatest for close inspection distances and decreased further away from the predator. The leader's relative risk increased with its distance ahead of the laggard. However, for a given distance between leader and laggard, the relative risks of the two fish remained similar with distance from the predator. The cost side of the inequalities that define a 'Prisoner's Dilemma' has thus been measured for this system. In a second experiment the 'attack deterrence hypothesis' of predator inspection (i.e. inspection decreases attack probability) was tested. The pike was offered a choice between two sticklebacks, one of which had carried out a predator inspection visit. There was no indication of attack deterrence through predator inspection.

Milinski, M.; Luthi, J. H.; Eggler, R.; Parker, G. A.

1997-01-01

126

A field methodology to study effects of UV radiation on fish larvae.  

PubMed

There is a considerable lack of in situ specific information about the effects of UV-B radiation on limnic animals studied in the field. We exposed larval pike (Esox lucius L.) in two types of cuvettes (glass and quartz) placed at different depths (5 or 15 cm) to natural solar UV or to artificially enhanced UV-B (lamps on 3 h per day), simulating the scenarios for coming decades. Dose realism and comparability with earlier laboratory experiments was the main purpose, and therefore UV-B irradiances to the surface as well as underwater irradiances were directly measured. Result showed that UV-B dose rates in natural waters are low even though DOC concentration was low (4.8 mg/l) in our study lake. A slight increase in ambient UV-B dose rates was enough to cause neurobehavioral symptoms in pike larvae. However, the dose rates applied were inadequate to affect superoxide dismutase (SOD) or HSP70. While assessing the suggested risks due to increased UV, conclusions emphasize the importance of conducting field UV studies as supplements to laboratory experiments. We also recommend direct measurements of UV-radiation at sites where the target organisms are actually exposed. PMID:15223283

Häkkinen, Jani; Oikari, Aimo

2004-07-01

127

Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.  

PubMed

Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

2013-11-19

128

Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting the detrital influences at the time of deposition of a low-vitrinite durain; a high CaO zone with elevated B/Be, both suggesting marine influence, in a lithotype in the middle of the coal bed; and the postdepositional emplacement of pyrite in the uppermost lithotype. Individual lithotypes, each representing distinct depositional environments, all complicated to some degree by diagentic overprints, comprise the complex history of the coal bed. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J. C.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Clark, W. L.

2005-01-01

129

Summary of Fluial Sediment Collected at Selected Sites on the Gunnison River in Colorado and the Green and Duchesne Rivers in Utah, Water Years 2005-2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including four endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 Colorado pike-minnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail (Gila el...

C. A. William J. G. Elliott S. J. Gerner

2008-01-01

130

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

Pryor, P.

1985-08-01

131

[Indigenous microflora associated with the tegument of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda) and the intestine of its pike host].  

PubMed

Investigations of the indigenous microflora associated with the mucous intestines of fish and its cestode parasites have been for the first time carried out using the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. New data on the bacterial biodiversity in the cestode and its fish host are obtained. Nanobacteria and spirochaetes are for the first time revealed in a fish host together with the previously known bacteria forming the intestinal microflora of fish. Spirochaetes were shown to be associated with the intestines of a pike host only, while nanobacteria cover abundantly the surface of the apical parts of the intestinal microvilli and the apical parts of the microtriches in the cestode tegument. The similarity of the bacterial floras associated with the apical surface of the parasite tegument and the intestine of the host should be noted. At the same time, deeper bacterial communities represented by obligate symbionts are specific. Thus, there is a normal indigenous microflora in cestodes, associated with the tegumental surface. This symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features and provides the balance of relations in the parasite-host system. PMID:17285757

Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

2006-01-01

132

Mesophilic aeromonads in wild and aquacultured freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Numbers and species of motile Aeromonas were determined in freshly caught freshwater fish, in the surrounding environment, and also during iced chilled storage of fish specimens. Although no significant differences were observed in water samples, initial levels for skin, gill, and intestines were significantly lower in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) than in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). During storage of wild specimens, naturally occurring aeromonads grew fairly well on the surfaces of skin and body cavity. Of 171 strains assigned to the genus Aeromonas, 88% were identified to phenospecies and putative genospecies level by using comprehensive biochemical schemes. The isolates were allocated to putative hybridization groups (HGs) 1 and 3 Aeromonas hydrophila (29%); putative HG 8 Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (19%); putative HG 2 Aeromonas bestiarum (18%); putative HG 9 Aeromonas jandaei (16%); putative HGs 4 and 5a Aeromonas caviae (2%); putative HG 12 Aeromonas schubertii (2%); and putative HG 11 (unnamed, 0.6%). The remaining 20 isolates (12%) resembled A. schubertii but could not be allocated to currently recognized phenospecies or to putative HGs. Although cultured rainbow trout yielded strains of putative HGs 1, 4, and 8, which appear to be of major clinical importance, most isolates assigned to putative HGs 1 and 8 were recovered from pike. Differences among HGs found in wild animals could be related to their origin (unpolluted rivers for brown trout and urban rivers for pike). The recovery of these aeromonads species was not related to sampling site. The initial levels of motile aeromonads, their behavior during storage, and the strong potential spoilage activity of most isolates confirm that these bacteria can contribute to deterioration of iced wild freshwater fish. Although adequate cooking would inactivate motile aeromonads, the high incidence of isolates belonging to gastroenteritis-associated HGs should be regarded as a potential health concern, particularly for susceptible populations when there is a possibility of cross-contamination. PMID:11348001

González, C J; Santos, J A; García-López, M L; González, N; Otero, A

2001-05-01

133

Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.  

PubMed

Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ? Northern Pike Esox lucius × ? Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

2013-12-01

134

Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting  

PubMed Central

Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance.

Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

2008-01-01

135

Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

2011-02-15

136

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment  

SciTech Connect

Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1998-01-01

137

Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.  

SciTech Connect

Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

P.R. Fresquez

2004-10-15

138

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status.  

PubMed

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

139

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

140

A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

1998-01-01

141

System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

Chilton, E. W., II

1991-01-01

142

Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

Ahas, Rein

143

Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

1996-01-01

144

The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.  

PubMed

Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

Linløkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

2011-08-01

145

Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

1987-01-01

146

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

147

Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Adamovský, Ond?ej; Ziková, Andrea; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Ji?í; Mareš, Jan; Bláha, Lud?k

2013-12-01

148

mGluR5 stimulating Homer-PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer-PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. PMID:23524143

Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying; Zhao, Qingwei; Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia; Zhu, Danyan

2013-06-10

149

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

SciTech Connect

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01

150

Evaluation of Muskellunge and Tiger Muskellunge Stocking Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the project, five jobs related to muskellunge and tiger muskellunge stocking evaluations were conducted over a seven year period. Those jobs were: (1) size specific survival of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and tiger muskellunge (E.m. x E. lucius); (2...

D. H. Wahl L. M. Einfalt T. A. Szendrey D. F. Clapp

1997-01-01

151

Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): Implications for petrogenetic models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ~1.08 Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite ?? amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado): (1) a sodic series (SiO2= ~44-78 wt%; K/Na=0.32-1.36) composed of gabbro, diabase, syenite/quartz syenite and fayalite and sodic amphibole granite; and (2) a potassic series (SiO2= ~ 70-77 wt%; K/Na=0.95-2.05), composed of biotite granite and minor quartz monzonite. Differences in major and trace element and Nd isotopic characteristics for the two series indicate different petrogenetic histories. Potassic granites of the late-stage intrusions appear to represent crustal anatectic melts derived from tonalite sources, based on comparison of their major element compositions with experimental melt products. In addition, Nd isotopic characteristics of the potassic granites [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -0.2 to -2.7] overlap with those for tonalites/granodiorites [ca 1.7 Ga Boulder Creek intrusions; ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -2.4 to -3.6] exposed in the region. Some of the partial melts evolved by fractionation dominated by feldspar. The late-stage potassic granites share geochemical characteristics with most of the PPG, which is also interpreted to have an anatectic origin involving tonalitic crust. The origin of monzogranites associated with the PPG remains unclear, but mixing between granitic and mafic or intermediate magmas is a possibility. Syenites and granites of the sodic series cannot be explained as crustal melts, but are interpreted as fractionation products of mantle-derived mafic magmas with minor crustal input. High temperature and low oxygen fugacity estimates (e.g. Frost et al., 1988. American Mineralogist 73, 727-740) support a basalt fractionation origin, as do ??(Nd) values for sodic granitoids [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = +2.2 to -0.7], which are higher than ??(Nd) values for Colorado crust at 1.08 Ga (ca -1.0 to -4.0). Enrichments in incompatible elements (e.g. rare earth elements, Rb, Y) and depletions in compatible elements (e.g. Cr, Sr, Ba) in the sodic granitoids compared to coeval mafic rocks are also consistent with fractionation. Accessory mineral fractionation, release of fluorine-rich volatiles and/or removal of pegmatitic fluids could have modified abundances of Ce, Nb, Zr and Y in some sodic granitoid magmas. Gabbros and mafic dikes associated with the sodic granitoids have ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) of -3.0 to +3.5, which are lower than depleted mantle at 1.08 Ga, and their trace element characteristics suggest derivation from mantle sources that were previously affected by subduction-related processes. However, it is difficult to characterize the mantle component in these magmas, because assimilation of crust during magma ascent could also result in their observed geochemical features. The Pikes Peak batholith is composed of at least two petrogenetically different granite types, both of which exhibit geochemical characteristics typical of A-type granites. Models proposed for the petrogenesis of the granitoids imply the existence of mafic rocks at depth and addition of juvenile material to the crust in central Colorado at ~ 1.1 Ga.

Smith, D. R.; Noblett, J.; Wobus, R. A.; Unruh, D.; Douglass, J.; Beane, R.; Davis, C.; Goldman, S.; Kay, G.; Gustavson, B.; Saltoun, B.; Stewart, J.

1999-01-01

152

Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

2012-01-01

153

Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, June-November 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River, collected during the summer and fall of 1992, from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam). The data were collected to assess the effects of hydropower development on water quality. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water quality were measured at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and specific conductance were measured at each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at three depths (about 3.3 feet below the surface of the water, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three or four detailed vertical pro- files of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phyto- plankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated seven times between June 25 and November 6, 1992.

Miller, Kimberly F.; Faulkenburg, C. W.; Chambers, D. B.; Waldron, M. C.

1995-01-01

154

Predation on ruffe by native fishes of the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, an exotic Eurasian percid, recently became established in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, after accidental introduction. Management action (catch regulations and stocking) were enacted in 1989 to increase the density of top-level predators in the estuary, and thus to increase predation on ruffe. We conducted a field and laboratory study to determine if, and to what extent, native piscivores consume ruffe. Stomachs of 3,669 predators were examined in 1989-1991. Ruffe occurred in 6.7% of burbot Lota lota, 5.8% of bullheads Ictalurus spp., 4.7% of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, 2.6% of northern pike Esox lucius, 2.6% of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and 1.3% of yellow perch Perca flavescens (4.5% after 1989) captured during the 3-year study. No ruffe were found in 967 stomachs of walleyes Stizostedion vitreum examined. Ruffe were 22.7% of the diet (by weight) of bullheads (during the only year bullheads were captured) and 0.1-17.9% of the diet of northern pike. Ruffe were 0.9-24.5% of the diet of smallmouth bass that contained fish, 1.5-6.9% of yellow perch that contained fish, and 0.0-10.9% of black crappies that contained fish. Most ruffe eaten were age-0 or small age-1 fish. In the laboratory, walleyes that were first fed soft-rayed prey or that were also offered soft-rayed prey consumed very few ruffe, whereas walleyes that were first fed spiny-rayed yellow perch or were also offered yellow perch consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch. Northern pike and burbot consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch in the laboratory. It is unlikely that predation will effectively control the initial expansion of ruffe in other areas of the Great Lakes because native predators initially consume few ruffe, especially if more preferred soft-rayed prey are available.

Ogle, Derek H.; Selgeby, James H.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Newman, Raymond M.; Henry, Mary G.

1996-01-01

155

Physical structure of the excitable membrane of unmyelinated axons: X-ray scattering study and electrophysiological properties of pike olfactory nerve.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to elicit correlations between physical structure and physiological functions in excitable membranes. Freshly dissected pike olfactory nerves were studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments and their physiological properties were tested by electrophysiological techniques. The scattering spectra contained a sharply oriented equatorial component (i.e. normal to the nerve axis), and an isotropic background. After background subtraction, the equatorial component displayed a weak and fairly sharp spectrum of oriented microtubules, and a strong and diffuse band of almost the same shape and position as the band computed for an isolated myelin membrane. We ascribed this spectrum to the axonal membranes. Under the action of temperature and of two local anesthetics, the spectrum underwent a contraction (or expansion) in the s-direction, equivalent to the structure undergoing an expansion (or contraction) in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. The main observations were: (i) with increasing temperature, membrane thickness decreased with a thermal expansion coefficient equal to -0.97(+/-0.19) 10(-3) degrees C(-1). The polarity and amplitude of this coefficient are typical of lipid-containing systems with the hydrocarbon chains in a disordered conformation. The amplitude and propagation velocity of the compound action potentials were drastically and reversibly reduced by lowering the temperature from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C. (ii) Exposing the nerve to two local anesthetics (tetracaine and dibucaine) had the effect of decreasing membrane thickness. Action potentials were fully inhibited by these anesthetics. (iii) Upon depolarization, induced by replacing NaCl with KCl in the outer medium, approximately 25 % of the membranes were found to associate by apposing their outer faces. Electrophysiological activity was reversibly impaired by the KCl treatment. (iv) No detectable structural effect was observed upon exposing the nerves to tetrodotoxin or veratridine. Electrophysiological activity was fully impaired by tetrodotoxin and partially impaired by veratridine. The main conclusions of this work are that axonal membranes yield highly informative X-ray scattering spectra, and that these spectra are sensitive to the functional state of the nerve. These results pave the way to further studies of more direct physiological significance. PMID:11071811

Luzzati, V; Mateu, L; Vachette, P; Benoit, E; Charpentier, G; Kado, R

2000-11-17

156

Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration, made at a depth of 6.6 feet upstream and downstream of New Cumberland Dam. Continuous monitors were operated from May through October 1993.

Miller, K. F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M. C.; Faulkenburg, C. W.

1996-01-01

157

Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.  

PubMed

A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature. PMID:19185121

Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

2009-02-23

158

Estimating naphthenic acids concentrations in laboratory-exposed fish and in fish from the wild.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the most water-soluble organic components found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, and these acids are released into aqueous tailing waters as a result of bitumen extraction. Although the toxicity of NAs to fish is well known, there has been no method available to estimate NAs concentrations in fish. This paper describes a newly developed analytical method using single ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure NAs in fish, down to concentrations of approximately 0.1mgkg(-1) of fish flesh. This method was used to measure the uptake and depuration of commercial NAs in laboratory experiments. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 3mg NAsl(-1) for 9d gave a bioconcentration factor of approximately 2 at pH 8.2. Within 1d after the fish were transferred to NAs-free water, about 95% of the NAs were depurated. In addition, the analytical method was used to determine if NAs were present in four species of wild fish - northern pike (Esox lucius), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), walleye (Sander vitreus) - collected from near the oil sands. Flesh samples from 23 wild fish were analyzed, and 18 of these had no detectable NAs. Four fish (one of each species) contained NAs at concentrations from 0.2 to 2.8mgkg(-1). The GC-MS results from one wild fish presented a unique problem. However, with additional work it was concluded that the NAs concentration in this fish was <0.1mgkg(-1). PMID:18667226

Young, Rozlyn F; Wismer, Wendy V; Fedorak, Phillip M

2008-09-01

159

Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

160

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

161

Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

Gaikowski, M. P.; Larson, W. J.; Gingerich, W. H.

2008-01-01

162

Clear as mud: a meta-analysis on the effects of sedimentation on freshwater fish and the effectiveness of sediment-control measures.  

PubMed

Increase in fine sediments in freshwater resulting from anthropogenic development is a potential stressor for fish and thus may cause population declines. Though a large body of literature exists on the topic, there have been few attempts to synthesize this information in a quantitative manner. Through meta-analysis we investigated the effects of sediment in lotic environments on resident ichthyofauna using ecologically-relevant endpoints for tolerant (e.g., northern pike Esox lucius) and intolerant (e.g., brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis) species. Further, the efficiency of sediment-control devices was explored to inform mitigation measures. An increase in suspended and deposited sediments was demonstrated to have a negative effect on all parameters and tolerances tested (feeding behavior [feeding rate, reaction distance to food item]; spawning success [survival of fry to eyed stage, fry emergence]; species richness; P < 0.001) except fish abundance (P = 0.058). Heterogeneity between studies was a factor in all analyses. Although there were insufficient studies to conduct meta-analysis on sediment-control devices, weighted percent efficiency estimates revealed that properly installed sediment-control fences tended to have a higher percent efficiency (73-80%) than sediment traps and basins (40-52%). These results highlight the negative impact that increases in suspended and deposited sediments can have on resident fishes from the individual to the population, and the need for more transparent and thorough statistical reporting. The analysis also identifies a clear need for rigorous experimental studies contrasting different sediment-control devices and strategies given that little such work has been published. That alone is remarkable given that sediment-control devices are often a requirement of regulators for riparian development activities, yet the evidence to support the effectiveness of the primary mitigative strategies is weak. PMID:24681235

Chapman, Jacqueline M; Proulx, Catherine L; Veilleux, Maxime A N; Levert, Caroline; Bliss, Shireen; André, Marie-Ève; Lapointe, Nicolas W R; Cooke, Steven J

2014-06-01

163

Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Fairchild, J. F.; Allert, A. L.; Sappington, L. C.; Waddell, B.

2005-01-01

164

Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20 degrees C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. PMID:16132417

Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Sappington, L C; Waddell, B

2005-10-01

165

Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91?±?7?mm total length, L(T), mean?±?s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84?±?8?mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85?±?5?mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2?weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4?weeks. PMID:24689672

Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

2014-04-01

166

Various aspects of piscine toxicology.  

PubMed

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

2010-09-01

167

Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.  

PubMed

There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-? estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity. Male and female white sucker showed greatest sensitivity to forskolin, while male and female walleye showed greatest sensitivity to prochloraz. Also, gonad explants from these species were found to have greater sensitivity than responses previously reported for in vitro explants of other fish species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and stable cell lines currently used as screening applications to detect chemicals that might disrupt the endocrine system. Therefore, current approaches that use stable cell lines or tissue explants from standardized small bodied laboratory species might not be protective of some wild fish species. Future research is required that investigates whether this in vitro gonadal explant assay is predictive of in vivo effects in wild species of fishes. PMID:24800870

Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

2014-07-01

168

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

169

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p???-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (???1.7 pg/g), arsenic (0.03-1.95 ??g/g), cadmium (<0.02-0.12 ??g/g), copper (0.41-1.49 ??g/g), and lead (<0.21-0.27 ??g/g) did not exceed toxicity thresholds for growth and reproduction in YRB fish. Concentrations of mercury (0.08-0.65 ??g/g), selenium (0.23-0.85 ??g/g), and zinc (11-56 ??g/g) exceeded toxicity thresholds in one or more samples and were included in the risk analysis for piscivorous wildlife. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHCs) and low effect hazard concentrations (LEHCs), derived from literature-based toxicity reference values and avian and mammalian life history parameters, were calculated for mercury, selenium, and zinc. Mercury concentrations in YRB fish exceeded the NEHCs for all bird and small mammal models, which indicated that mercury concentrations in fish may represent a risk to piscivorous wildlife throughout the YRB. Low risk to piscivorous wildlife was associated with selenium and zinc concentrations in YRB fish. Selenium and zinc concentrations exceeded the NEHCs and LEHCs for only the small bird model. These results indicate that mercury should continue to be monitored and assessed in Alaskan fish and wildlife. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Echols, K. R.; May, T. W.; Orazio, C. E.; Tillitt, D. E.

2006-01-01

170

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Echols, Kathy R; May, Tom W; Orazio, Carl E; Tillitt, Donald E

2006-11-01

171

Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or decreasing-head conditions resulted in dye being trapped in hydraulically dead zones in water- depleted fractures. Residual dye was remobilized from storage and transported (over periods ranging from several months to about 2 years) by increased recharge to the hydrologic system. Subsequent fluctuations in hydraulic gradients, resulting from increases or decreases in recharge to the hydrologic system, acted to speed or slow the transport of dye along the fracture-controlled flow paths. The dye-tracer tests also demonstrated that mining-related disturbances significantly altered the natural fracture-controlled flow paths of the hydrologic system over time. An abandoned underground mine and subsidence-related surface cracks extend to within 250 ft of the principal dye- injection core hole. Results from two of the dye-tracer tests at the site indicate that the annular seal in the core hole was breached by subsurface propagation of the mining-induced fractures. This propagation of fractures resulted in hydraulic short-circuiting between the dye-injection zone in the core hole and two lower piezometer zones, and a partial disruption of the hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and downgradient piezometers on the ridge crest and valley wall. In addition, injected dye was detected in piezometers monitoring a flooded part of the abandoned underground mine. Dye was apparently transported into the mine through a hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and subsidence-related fractures.

Taylor, C. J.

1994-01-01

172

Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest disturbance, especially the historic forest fire pattern (Woodruff and Cannon, 2002). Forest fire has an essential role in the forest ecosystems of VNP (Heinselman, 1996). Because resource and land managers need to integrate both natural wildfire and prescribed fire in management plans, the potential influence of fire on an element as sensitive to the environment as mercury becomes a critical part of their decisionmaking. A number of recent studies have shown that while fire does have a significant impact on mercury at the landscape level, the observed effects of fire on aquatic environments are highly variable and unpredictable (Caldwell and others, 2000; Garcia and Carrigan, 2000; Kelly and others, 2006; Nelson and others, 2007). Caldwell and others (2000) described an increase in methylmercury in reservoir sediments resulting from mobilization and transport of charred vegetative matter following a fire in New Mexico. Krabbenhoft and Fink (2000) attributed increases in total mercury concentrations in young-of-the-year fish in the Florida Everglades to release of mercury resulting from peat oxidation following fires. A fivefold increase in whole-body mercury accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a fire in Alberta, Canada, apparently resulted from increased nutrient concentrations that enhanced productivity and restructured the food web of a lake within the fire's burn footprint (Kelly and others, 2006). For this study, we determined the short-term effects of forest fire on mercury concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments in VNP by comparing and contrasting mercury concentrations in forest soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch for a burned watershed and an adjacent lake, with similar samples from watersheds and lakes with no fire activity (control watersheds and lakes). The concentration of total mercury in whole, 1-year-old yellow perch serves as a good biological indicator for monitoring trends in methylmercury conce

Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

2009-01-01

173

Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.  

PubMed

Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength ??=?254?nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation. PMID:24985207

Sionkowska, Alina; Koz?owska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

2014-06-01

174

Fishes and habitat characteristics of the Keya Paha River, South Dakota-Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fishes were collected in four mainstem reaches and eight tributary reaches in the Keya Paha River basin during May and June 2002. Most reaches were characteristically run habitats with sand substrates and riparian pastures. Data were combined with historical records to construct a basin-wide ichthyofaunal list which comprised 38 species from seven families. Dominant species were sand shiners (Notropis ludibundus; 47%), red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis; 37%), and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni; 8%). Dominant game species were bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We found one species previously listed as rare in South Dakota - plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus), and four species not previously found in the Keya Paha River - silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), northern pike (Esox Indus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

Harland, B.; Berry, Jr. , C. R.

2004-01-01

175

Interstate use of water - Sporhase v. El Paso, Pike and Vermejo  

SciTech Connect

A review of court rulings over water allocation examines the tests of a valid or permissible state restriction on interstate commerce. The cases differ in that the Sporhase Court ruled that water could move across the state line in a regulated market transaction, while the El Paso Court regulates state officials in the performance of resource allocation in the public domain. The author reviews the implications of these and other decisions which address the protection of local citizens and property holders by requiring exporters to replace the resource either capitalization or some other contribution of equal value.

Trelease, F.J.

1987-01-01

176

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J. C.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.

2007-01-01

177

What would a socially just education system look like?: saving the minnows from the pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental neoliberal sense but in terms of more

Diane Reay

2012-01-01

178

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvanian\\/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (>2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast–northwest transect within a single

James C. Hower; Leslie F. Ruppert; Cortland F. Eble

2007-01-01

179

78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grasslands, Colorado and Kansas, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY...effects of updating the potential oil and gas areas available and unavailable for lease...stipulations, and post-lease oil and gas [[Page 29319

2013-05-20

180

76 FR 71124 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pike and Clark Counties, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. AB 1076 (Sub-No. 1X)] Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment...Clark Counties, AR On October 27, 2011, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) filed...line statute at 49 U.S.C. 10907. See Caddo Antoine & Little Mo....

2011-11-16

181

Psychrobacters and related bacteria in freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Three phenotypic identification systems were employed to identify 106 strains of gram-negative, nonmotile, aerobic bacteria obtained during iced storage of wild (Salmo trutta and Esox lucius) and farmed (Oncorhynchus mykiss) freshwater fish. Using diagnostic tables and computer-assisted identification, the isolates were Psychrobacter (64 strains), Acinetobacter (24 strains), Moraxella (6 strains), Chryseobacterium (5 strains), Myroides odoratus (2 strains), Flavobacterium (1 strain), Empedobacter (1 strain), and unidentified (3 strains). Overall similarities of all strains were determined for 108 characters by numerical analysis (simple matching coefficient of similarity [S] and clustering by unweighted pair group average linkage [UPGMA]). At the 77% similarity level, 92 strains formed nine major clusters (3 or more strains) and four small clusters (2 strains). Cluster 1 (25 isolates divided into two main subclusters) could be assigned to Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, clusters 2 and 3 (26 isolates) were designated as Psychrobacter immobilis, and clusters 4 (3 isolates) and 7 (4 isolates) were identified as Psychrobacter urativorans and Psychrobacter spp., respectively. Clusters 5 (five isolates), 6 (three isolates), and 9 (five isolates) were labeled as Acinetobacter spp., Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Acinetobacter lwoffii, respectively. Cluster 8 (12 isolates), with a high resemblance to Thornley's phenon 4 (a heterogeneous group of bacteria isolated from poultry and related to Acinetobacter), remained unnamed. The restriction pattern was identical for strains grouped into clusters 2 and 3 (P. immobilis) but was different for the remaining Psychrobacter isolates. A large proportion of isolates belonging to the family Moraxellaceae were closely related. Psychrobacters and A. johnsonii were present in freshly caught fish and river water. In the latter stages of storage, P. phenylpyruvicus and acinetobacters tended to decrease, whereas P. immobilis increased. PMID:10716558

González, C J; Santos, J A; García-López, M L; Otero, A

2000-03-01

182

76 FR 21693 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cape Lateral, Pike River, Root River, Sorenson Creek, Union Grove Industrial Tributary...Cape Lateral, Pike River, Root River, Sorenson Creek, Union Grove Industrial Tributary...Lamparek Creek, Nelson Creek, Pike River, Sorenson Creek, Unnamed Tributary No. 18...

2011-04-18

183

Study of Hydrocarbon Production from the Devonian Shale in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, Eastern Kentucky Annual Technical Report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kentucky is conducting a 2-year research project funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to study hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky. Objectives are to develop an...

W. T. Frankie

1985-01-01

184

Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

Not Available

1983-03-01

185

Arnold Gesell and the Maturation Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology

Thomas C. Dalton

2005-01-01

186

Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

187

Coal Mine Safety and Health Report of Investigation: Surface Coal Mine. Fatal Machinery Accident, July 20, 2006, CAM Mining LLC, Slate Branch, Freeburn, Pike County, Kentucky, ID No. 15-18915.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At approximately 7:30 p.m. on July 20, 2006, a 39-year old grader operator/utility man with 20 years mining experience, five years as a grader operator and 12 weeks at this mine, received fatal injuries when the Caterpillar 16H road grader ran away down t...

2006-01-01

188

National Dam Inspection Program. Pike Township Municipal Authority Dam (NDS-ID-PA-00916, PennDER ID-17-111), Susquehanna River Basin, Bear Run, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bear Run Dam is an earth embankment approximately 42 feet high and 415 feet long (including spillway). The dam is provided with an unlined trapezoidal channel spillway cut into the left abutment. The spillway contains a short concrete control slab adjacen...

B. M. Mihalcin

1979-01-01

189

Coal Mine Safety and Health Report of Investigation: Underground Coal Mine Fatal Fall of Rib Accident, June 25, 2012, McCoy Elkhorn Coal Corp., Mine No. 23, Pike County, Pikesville, KY. ID No. 15-18721.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At approximately 11:30 A.M. on Monday, June 25, 2012, a fatal accident occurred at the McCoy Elkhorn Coal Corporation, Mine no. 23. Farley Sargent, a 33-year-old outby foreman for McCoy Elkhorn Coal Company received fatal, crushing injuries when a section...

2012-01-01

190

Pike, Steven D. (2007) Repertory Grid Analysis in group settings to elicit salient destination image attributes. Current Issues in Tourism 10(4):pp. 378-392. Copyright 2007 Multilingual Matters & Channel View Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Repertory Grid Analysis (RGA) was originally developed in clinical psychology, the technique has been adapted for use in a diverse range of fields. However, the technique is rarely addressed in marketing research texts and has not been fully utilised in the tourism literature. Also, RGA applications have predominantly been reported in the form of personal interviews. The article reports

Steven Pike

191

Coal Mine Safety and Health Report of Investigation: Underground Coal Mine Fatal Powered Haulage Accident, March 29, 2005, Mine No. 1, Rockhouse Energy Mining Company, Sidney, Pike County, Kentucky, ID No. 15-17651.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 29, 2005, Christopher McGuire, a 21-year old utility man/scoop operator, was fatally injured in an underground powered haulage accident on the 005-0 MMU Longwall Section. The accident occurred as McGuire was backing a Model 636 Long-Airdox batter...

R. J. Newberry, A. A. Webb

2005-01-01

192

Evaluation of a Resistance Board Weir in the White Salmon River For Capture of Lower Columbia River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for Transport during the Year of Conduit Dam Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program) coordinates recovery activities for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), humpback chub (Gila cypha), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gil...

J. Skalicky R. O. Engle W. R. Brignon

2010-01-01

193

Determination of Selenium in Fish from Designated Critical Habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March Through October 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results for the summer 2012 sampling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat i...

M. J. Walther T. W. May

2013-01-01

194

Research Framework for the Upper Colorado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (Recovery Program) coordinates recovery activities for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), humpback chub (Gila cypha), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gil...

A. M. Widmer K. R. Bestgen R. A. Valdez

2011-01-01

195

Studies of Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River. Report A. Growth and Survival of Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River, Report B. Non-Spawning Movements of Subadult and Adult Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River. Report C. Status and Trends of the Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume binds together three separate reports on life history and population studies of the Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the upper Colorado River. Principal topics covered are, (1) growth and adult survival rates, (2) dispersal pattern...

D. B. Osmundson R. J. Ryel T. E. Mourning M. E. Tucker B. D. Burdick W. R. Elmblad T. E. Chart K. P. Burnham

1997-01-01

196

Arnold gesell and the maturation controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research\\u000a in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists\\u000a and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental\\u000a psychology

Thomas C. Dalton

2005-01-01

197

Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services U.S.National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ... Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services U.S.National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

198

49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...thence south along the western boundary of the State of Indiana to the north line of Gibson County; thence easterly and northerly along the north line of Gibson County to the west line of Pike County; thence south along the west line of Pike...

2013-10-01

199

FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

200

Parasites and Fish Health in a Desert Stream, and Management Implications for Two Endangered Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reintroductions of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus and Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius into the Verde River, Arizona, have failed to establish self-sustaining populations. The failure of these reintroductions is often attributed to predation and competition by nonnative fishes and habitat loss, but parasite infestations (particularly a copepod, Lernaea cyprinacea) also have been implicated. We assessed the relationships among fish

Anthony T. Robinson; Philip P. Hines; Jeff A. Sorensen; Scott D. Bryan

1998-01-01

201

Movements of Adult Colorado Squawfish during the Spawning Season in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius spawned in widely separated areas throughout the 350-km section of the upper Colorado River upstream from Lake Powell, Utah, as evidenced by the movement of radio-tagged adults during the spawning season and the later capture of larvae. With one exception, tagged fish remained separated from each other during the spawning season. Distances moved by tagged fish

Charles W. McAda; Lynn R. Kaeding

1991-01-01

202

Movements of Adult Colorado Squawfish during the Spawning Season in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius spawned in widely separated areas through- out the 350-km section of the upper Colorado River upstream from Lake Powell, Utah, as evi- denced by the movement of radio-tagged adults during the spawning season and the later capture of larvae. With one exception, tagged fish remained separated from each other during the spawning season. Distances moved by

CHARLES W. MCADA; LYNN R. KAEDING

1991-01-01

203

Status and Trends of the Endangered Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status of the Colorado River population of the endangered Colorado squawfishPtych- ocheilus lucius (recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) was investigated by (1) estimating adult numbers, (2) evaluating frequency of reproduction and recruitment, (3) identifying trends via changes in size structure over time, and (4) examining historical accounts for clues to former abundance. Adults and subadults were systematically captured from 278

D. B. Osmundson; K. P. Burnham

1998-01-01

204

Status and Trends of the Endangered Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status of the Colorado River population of the endangered Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius (recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) was investigated by (1) estimating adult numbers, (2) evaluating frequency of reproduction and recruitment, (3) identifying trends via changes in size structure over time, and (4) examining historical accounts for clues to former abundance. Adults and subadults were systematically captured from 278

D. B. Osmundson; K. P. Burnham

1998-01-01

205

Walleye Population Restoration Efforts in the Lower Milwaukee River and Harbor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to improve the nearshore fisheries in the Lower Milwaukee River and Harbor, fry and fingerling walleye, northern pike and smallmouth bass were stocked by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) since 1986. WDNR conducts annual survey...

P. Hirethota

2001-01-01

206

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco Bradley & Rulofson, Lithographers c. 1853 ARRIVAL OF THE MAIL - Second Post Office, Historic View, Clay & Pike Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

207

19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SECOND FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

208

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'FIRST FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

209

23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. SHEET OF SECTIONS AND ROOM ELEVATIONS - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

210

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SOUTH WEST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

211

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

212

2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE (EAST ELEVATION) BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN USED AS BLOCK HOUSE - Thomas Cooch House, 961 Old Baltimore Pike, Newark, New Castle County, DE

213

24 CFR 200.926b - Model codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...set forth below. (1) CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code...Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.) (2) Electrical Code for One and Two Family Dwellings, ...requirements. (1) When a one or two family dwelling is...

2013-04-01

214

78 FR 70064 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the...days for public comment. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

2013-11-22

215

78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

2013-05-23

216

Area Restaurants  

Cancer.gov

Area Restaurants Restaurants within Walking Distance $-Inexpensive $$-Moderate $$$-Mid-Expensive $$$$-Expensive American Meritage $$ Hotel Lobby Casual, Breakfast, Dinner Daily, Lunch Mon-Fri Ext. 6240 Addies $$ 11120 Rockville Pike Casual,

217

Microsoft Word - Agenda 09 24 2003 DCLG Meeting - Final2.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 24th Meeting DIRECTOR’S CONSUMER LIAISON GROUP (DCLG) Wednesday, September 24, 2003 Doubletree Hotel 1750 Rockville Pike Rockville, Maryland 20852

218

75 FR 26258 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). These radioligands can be used in clinical research, diagnostics...and investigations with imaging techniques (e.g., PET or SPECT). Inventors: Victor W. Pike (NIMH), Sean R....

2010-05-11

219

American Society of Human Genetics  

MedlinePLUS

... About Genetics April 18, 2014 American and European Human Genetics Societies Announce Formal Partnership April 16, 2014 ... Directors April 7, 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, Maryland 20814 ...

220

75 FR 34462 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Rita Anand, PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2010-06-17

221

75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: The Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Rita Anand, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

2010-08-13

222

75 FR 5603 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Rita Anand, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Division Of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

2010-02-03

223

75 FR 31799 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Rita Anand, PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of...

2010-06-04

224

78 FR 64518 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Zhuqing Li, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program...7616, Bethesda, MD 20892-7616, 301-402-9523, zhuqing.li@nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2013-10-29

225

40 CFR 81.191 - Appalachian Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County, Floyd County, Harlan County, Jackson County, Johnson County, Knott County, Knox County, Laurel County, Lee County, Leslie County, Letcher County, Magoffin County, Martin County, Owsley County, Perry County, Pike County, Rockcastle County,...

2010-07-01

226

40 CFR 81.191 - Appalachian Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County, Floyd County, Harlan County, Jackson County, Johnson County, Knott County, Knox County, Laurel County, Lee County, Leslie County, Letcher County, Magoffin County, Martin County, Owsley County, Perry County, Pike County, Rockcastle County,...

2009-07-01

227

75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 9000 Rockville Pike, Room 2A48, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Constantine A. Stratakis, MD, Acting Scientific Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2010-11-23

228

76 FR 63932 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 9000 Rockville Pike, Room 2A48, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Constantine A. Stratakis, MD, D(med)Sci, Scientific Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...

2011-10-14

229

76 FR 20694 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 2A46, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Constantine A. Stratakis, MD, Acting Scientific Director, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

2011-04-13

230

40 CFR 81.61 - Evansville (Indiana)-Owensboro-Henderson (Kentucky) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Henderson County, McLean County, Ohio County, Union County, Webster County. In the State of Indiana: Dubois County, Gibson County, Perry County, Pike County, Posey County, Spencer County, Vanderburgh County, Warrick...

2013-07-01

231

75 FR 80062 - National Center for Research Resources; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Center for Research Resources, Office of Review,...

2010-12-21

232

76 FR 27337 - National Center for Research Resources; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Center for Research Resources, Office of Review,...

2011-05-11

233

About Maggie's Place.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

Emmens, Carol E.

1982-01-01

234

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

235

76 FR 5596 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Brian E. Wojcik, PhD, Senior Review Administrator, Institute Review Office, Office of the Director, National Cancer Institute, 6116...

2011-02-01

236

75 FR 32487 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Brian E. Wojcik, PhD, Senior Review Administrator, Institute Review Office, Office of the Director, National Cancer Institute, 6116...

2010-06-08

237

76 FR 62082 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Conference Room 10, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Brian E. Wojcik, PhD., Senior Review Administrator, Institute Review Office, Office of the Director, National Cancer Institute,...

2011-10-06

238

25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during...

2011-04-01

239

75 FR 55365 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Joint Subcommittee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Subcommittee The ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulics Phenomena; Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); and Materials, Metallurgy, and Reactor Fuels will hold a joint meeting on October 4, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

2010-09-10

240

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda March 2009.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised February 27, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 42nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 2-3, 2009 Monday, 2 March 2009

241

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and records of other Army intelligence matters to the Commander, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, ATTN: IAMG-CIC-FOI/PO, 4552 Pike Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-5995. (k) Inspector General records. Send...

2009-07-01

242

TOXMAP  

MedlinePLUS

... on a map to explore on-site toxic chemical releases and hazardous waste sites from the EPA's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and the ... US National Library of Medicine® , 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, ...

243

Detail of wall in highlift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of wall in high-lift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" cladding and glazed brick. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

244

North Elevation: LowLift Pumping Station (East) 2008; West Elevation and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North Elevation: Low-Lift Pumping Station (East) 2008; West Elevation and Floor Plan: Outbuilding - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

245

View of the main stairway in the highlift pumping station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main stairway in the high-lift pumping station, looking from the second floor landing to the ground floor. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

246

Interior of dam, showing one of the ten bays, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of dam, showing one of the ten bays, looking west through arched openings along the center of the dam. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

247

View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south side of low-lift pumping station. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

248

Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

249

Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

250

Microsoft Word - M&E_Archive_2002_SEPT5-6_Speakers.doc  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Genomics and Proteomics in Cancer Prevention Conference Speakers List Confirmed Speakers as of July 9, 2002 Richard G. Allison, Ph.D. Executive Officer American Society for Nutritional Sciences 9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20814 Phone:

251

76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Suite 100, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325. Dated: November 1, 2011. Bob Kirby, Superintendent, Gettysburg NMP/Eisenhower NHS. [FR Doc. 2011-29205 Filed 11-10-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2011-11-14

252

75 FR 52944 - Sunshine Act Notices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of Minutes. Draft Advisory Opinion 2010-14: Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee by its counsel, Marc E. Elias, Esq., and Jonathan S. Berkon, Esq., of Perkins Coie, LLP. Draft Advisory Opinion 2010-15: Pike for Congress...

2010-08-30

253

76 FR 73618 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Pike Counties, Pennsylvania; and Sussex, Passaic, and Bergen Counties, New Jersey...existing meter station and construction of a new meter station in Bergen County, New Jersey; Installation of associated...

2011-11-29

254

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda - 3-4 March 2008 _2_.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised February 29, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 39th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 3-4, 2008 Monday, 3 March 2008

255

revised February 25, 2003  

Cancer.gov

revised February 25, 2003 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 23rd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, 3 March 2003 -

256

Microsoft Word - BSA Tentative Agenda - 15-16 Nov 2007.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised November 9, 2007 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 38th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 15-16, 2007 Thursday, 15 November 2007

257

revised October 19, 2009  

Cancer.gov

revised October 30, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 44th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 2-3, 2009 Monday, 2 November 2009 –

258

Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda Final June 2004.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 23, 2004 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 27th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 24 - 25, 2004 Thursday, 24 June 2004 – 8:30

259

Microsoft Word - Tentative Joint BSA-BSC Mtg Agenda March 20061.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised March 7, 2006 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 10th Joint Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS (BSA) AND BOARDS OF SCIENTIFIC COUNSELORS (BSCS) Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda,

260

Microsoft Word - BSA Final Agenda Nov. 2004.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised November 4, 2004 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 29th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 8-9, 2004 Monday,

261

revised November 11, 2003  

Cancer.gov

revised November 11, 2003 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 25th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 13-14, 2003 Thursday, 13 November

262

Microsoft Word - Tentative Joint Agen 2004.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised 10 March 2004 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 9th Joint Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS (BSA) and BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC COUNSELORS (BSC) Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda,

263

Untitled  

Cancer.gov

revised June 14, 2011 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE Agenda 49th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 20, 2011 Monday, 20

264

revised October 31, 2008  

Cancer.gov

revised October 31, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 41st Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 6-7, 2008 Thursday, 6 November

265

77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-16

266

77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-09-28

267

77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-10-18

268

77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-29

269

78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-10-30

270

78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-21

271

77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-01

272

78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

2013-05-10

273

77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-12-17

274

77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-29

275

78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-19

276

77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-11-15

277

77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-15

278

Health Effects of Marijuana Use: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Health Effects of Marijuana Use HealthDay June 5, 2014 ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

279

Curriculum Revision for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates an integrated approach in the formulation of speech communication curriculum. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual dues. (JW)

Applbaum, Ronald L.; Koehler, Jerry W.

1975-01-01

280

A Rating of Doctoral Programs in Speech Communication, 1976  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a survey evaluation of speech communication doctoral programs existing in 1976. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

Edwards, Renee; Barker, Larry

1977-01-01

281

Graduate Programs in Speech Communication: A Position Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a position paper concerning the major focus of graduate programs in speech communication. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

Goldberg, Alvin A.

1977-01-01

282

Institutional Self-Study and the Department Chair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the criteria and assumptions useful to department chairpeople planning for the future of academic departments. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

Arnold, William E.

1977-01-01

283

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised – November 11, 2002 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE TENTATIVE AGENDA 22nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 14-15, 2002 Thursday,

284

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, September ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, September 12, 1940 EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW FROM ACROSS THE PIKE. - General Anthony Wayne Inn, 625 Montgomery Avenue, Narberth, Montgomery County, PA

285

7 CFR 1033.2 - Mideast marketing area.  

...Jay, Jefferson, Jennings, Johnson, Kosciusko, Lagrange, Lake, La Porte, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Miami...Magoffin, Martin, Mason, Pendleton, Pike, and Robertson. Michigan Counties All counties except Delta, Dickinson,...

2014-01-01

286

Liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 2.0 times more gas than nitrogen gas treated wells and produce 21.9 MMcf additional gas per well. After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 4.4 times more gas than nitrogen foam treated wells and produce 33.1 MMcf additional gas per well. For the Pike County, Kentucky, study area, payout times for the incremental cost of stimulation is estimated conservatively at less than 9 months. Both groups of wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area show consistent relative Production improvements compared to the overall study area results.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1995-06-01

287

Underage Binge Drinkers Grab the Hard Stuff, Survey Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... David Jernigan, director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

288

FDA Approves New Type 2 Diabetes Drug  

MedlinePLUS

... Byetta (exenatide) and Bydureon (exenatide extended release). "Post-marketing clinical trials are planned to examine cardiovascular effects, ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

289

Insulin Use, Out-of-Pocket Costs Way Up for Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this transition may have been driven by marketing, not informed patient preferences." Out-of-pocket expenditures ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

290

76 FR 42718 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Washington/DC Rockville, Hotel and Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20582. Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room...

2011-07-19

291

15. Photocopy from Futhey and Cope's History of Chester County, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy from Futhey and Cope's History of Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1881, facing page 27 VIEW OF FARM - Joseph Jackson House, Old Baltimore Pike (London Grove Township), West Grove, Chester County, PA

292

77 FR 54582 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Eileen W Bradley, DSC, Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room...

2012-09-05

293

40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Carroll County, Cleburne County, Franklin County, Fulton County, Izard County, Johnson County, Logan County, Madison County, Marion County, Montgomery County, Newton County, Pike County, Polk County, Scott County, Searcy County, Stone County, Van...

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 81.58 - Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Montgomery County, Pike County, Russell County. In the State of Georgia: Chattahoochee County, Dooly County, Harris County, Marion County, Muscogee County, Quitman County, Schley County, Stewart County, Sumter County, Talbot County, Taylor County,...

2013-07-01

295

TV and Adult Health: MedlinePlus Health News Video  

MedlinePLUS

... hand corner of the player. TV and Adult Health HealthDay June 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Exercise ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

296

77 FR 26547 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approximately 4.2 million Acres of Roadless Areas, Arapaho and Roosevelt; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison; Manti-La Sal (portion in Colorado); Pike and San Isabel; Rio Grande; Routt; San Juan; and White River National Forests, CO,...

2012-05-04

297

77 FR 51103 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...202-493-3470, Turner- Fairbank Highway Research Center, Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management, Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101....

2012-08-23

298

77 FR 70528 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...202-493-3470, Turner- Fairbank Highway Research Center, Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management, Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101....

2012-11-26

299

76 FR 21385 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Rajiv Kumar, PhD, Chief, MOSS IRG, Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Room...

2011-04-15

300

Determining effective subject-specific strength levels for forward dives using computer simulations of recorded performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used optimisation procedures in conjunction with an 8-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the takeoff phase in springboard diving to determine appropriate subject-specific strength parameters for use in the simulation of forward dives. Kinematic data were obtained using high-speed video recordings of performances of a forward dive pike (101B) and a forward 212 somersault pike dive (105B) by

Mark A. King; Pui W. Kong; Maurice R. Yeadon

2009-01-01

301

Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Mercury in Two Warmwater Fish Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in two Connecticut lakes for six fish species representing a range of trophic levels—largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), chain pickerel (Esox niger), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury concentrations in all fishes increased with length and age. Slopes of log10 mercury concentration-age regressions, which

Robert M. Neumann; Scott M. Ward

1999-01-01

302

Evaluation of temperature-selection differences among juvenile muskellunge originating from different latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differences among muskellunge Esox masquinongy populations are related to residence in major river drainages, suggesting the existence of divergent stocks. By use of radio-telemetry\\u000a we compared different seasonal and diel temperature selection in a southern Illinois reservoir for three geographically and\\u000a genetically distinct stocks of age-2 muskellunge from throughout the latitudinal range of the species. Muskellunge from the\\u000a Upper

Curtis P. Wagner; David H. Wahl

303

Evaluation of temperature-selection differences among juvenile muskellunge originating from different latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differences among muskellunge Esox masquinongy populations are related to residence in major river drainages, suggesting the existence of divergent stocks. By use of radio-telemetry\\u000a we compared different seasonal and diel temperature selection in a southern Illinois reservoir for three geographically and\\u000a genetically distinct stocks of age-2 muskellunge from throughout the latitudinal range of the species. Muskellunge from the\\u000a Upper

Curtis P. Wagner; David H. Wahl

2007-01-01

304

Prospective identification, isolation, and profiling of a telomerase expressing subpopulation of human neural stem cells, using sox2 enhancer-directed FACS  

PubMed Central

Sox2 is expressed by neural stem and progenitor cells, and a sox2 enhancer identifies these cells in the forebrains of both fetal and adult transgenic mouse reporters. We found that an adenovirus encoding EGFP placed under the regulatory control of a 0.4 kb sox2 core enhancer selectively identified multipotential and self-renewing neural progenitor cells in dissociates of human fetal forebrain. Upon EGFP-based fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the E/sox2:EGFP+ isolates were propagable for up to a year in vitro, and remained multilineage competent throughout. E/sox2:EGFP+ cells expressed more telomerase enzymatic activity than matched sox2-depleted populations, and maintained their telomeric lengths with successive passage. Gene expression analysis of E/sox2:EGFP-sorted neural progenitor cells, normalized to the unsorted forebrain dissociates from which they derived, revealed marked over-expression of genes within the notch and wnt pathways, and identified multiple elements of each pathway that appear selective to human neural progenitors. Sox2 enhancer-based FACS thus permits the prospective identification and direct isolation of a telomerase-active population of neural stem cells from the human fetal forebrain, and the elucidation of both the transcriptome and dominant signaling pathways of these critically important cells.

Wang, Su; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Lu, Gang; Roy, Neeta S.; Zielke, Alex; Auvergne, Romane; Stanwood, Nancy; Geschwind, Daniel; Coppola, Giovanni; Nicolis, Silvia; Sim, Fraser J.; Goldman, Steven A.

2011-01-01

305

Concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids Preferred or Avoided by Endangered Colorado River Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles (age 0–1) of three endangered Colorado River fishes were subjected to a gradient of total dissolved solids (TDS) to determine the concentrations that they preferred or avoided. Preferred and avoided TDS concentrations, respectively, for juveniles of each species were: Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius, 560–1,150 mg\\/liter and greater than 4,400 mg\\/liter; humpback chub Gila cypha, 1,000–2,500 mg\\/liter and greater than

R. Pimentel; R. V. Bulkley

1983-01-01

306

Environmental Factors Affect Daily Increment Deposition and Otolith Growth in Young Colorado Squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otolith microstructure of endangered Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius was investigated to determine patterns of otolith growth and to validate daily deposition of increments. Sagittae and lapilli formed prior to hatching. After fish hatched, otolith increments were deposited daily whether larvae were reared at a constant 22°C temperature or subjected to fluctuating temperatures (±2.5°\\/d) centered at 18, 22, or 26°C. Otolith

Kevin R. Bestgen; Jay M. Bundy

1998-01-01

307

Dispersal Patterns of Subadult and Adult Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated distribution and dispersal patterns of subadult and adult Colorado squawfishPtychocheilus lucius(recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) throughout their range in the upper Colorado River. Annual, river-wide, capture-recapture data were used to document movements during a 5-year period (1991-1995). Average total length of Colorado squawfish progressively increased upstream: juveniles and subadults occurred almost exclusively in the low- ermost 105 km

D. B. Osmundson; R. J. Ryel; M. E. Tucker; B. D. Burdick; W. R. Elmblad; T. E. Chart

1998-01-01

308

Growth and Survival of Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and adult survival rates were estimated for the endangered Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius inhabiting the upper Colorado River by using data from fish captured during 1990–1995. Mean annual growth rates of fish aged 3–6 years ranged from 32.2 (age 6) to 82.0 (age 3) mm\\/year. Growth rates for older fish were highest for fish 400–449 mm total length, TL,

D. B. Osmundson; R. J. Ryel; T. E. Mourning

1997-01-01

309

Dispersal Patterns of Subadult and Adult Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated distribution and dispersal patterns of subadult and adult Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius (recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) throughout their range in the upper Colorado River. Annual, river-wide, capture–recapture data were used to document movements during a 5-year period (1991–1995). Average total length of Colorado squawfish progressively increased upstream: juveniles and subadults occurred almost exclusively in the lowermost 105

D. B. Osmundson; R. J. Ryel; M. E. Tucker; B. D. Burdick; W. R. Elmblad; T. E. Chart

1998-01-01

310

Seneca's contribution to astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper is shown the work of Lucius Anaeus Seneca "Natural Questiones", Book 7th relating to comets from 1st to 14th as well as 24th chapter. Although Seneca was not an astronomer he reached some very interesting conclusions. Besides that he introduces us in his work to the knowledge which had been gained before him as well as to the then obtained fallacies.

Pljaki?, Branislava

2002-04-01

311

Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor: Discovering biological information from proteomics data.  

PubMed

One of the main goals in proteomics is to solve biological and molecular questions regarding a set of identified proteins. In order to achieve this goal, one has to extract and collect the existing biological data from public repositories for every protein and afterward, analyze and organize the collected data. Due to the complexity of this task and the huge amount of data available, it is not possible to gather this information by hand, making it necessary to find automatic methods of data collection. Within a proteomic context, we have developed Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor (PIKE) which solves this problem by automatically accessing several public information systems and databases across the Internet. PIKE bioinformatics tool starts with a set of identified proteins, listed as the most common protein databases accession codes, and retrieves all relevant and updated information from the most relevant databases. Once the search is complete, PIKE summarizes the information for every single protein using several file formats that share and exchange the information with other software tools. It is our opinion that PIKE represents a great step forward for information procurement and drastically reduces manual database validation for large proteomic studies. It is available at http://proteo.cnb.csic.es/pike. PMID:20707001

Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Paradela, Alberto; Macht, Marcus; Thiele, Herbert; Corthals, Garry; Albar, Juan Pablo

2010-09-01

312

21. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH-WEST ELEVATION' AND 'SOUTH-EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

313

AGENDA  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute 6th Meeting of the CLINICAL TRIALS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, December 8, 2008 - OPEN 8:00 a.m. – 8:10 a.m. I. Call to Order

314

77 FR 4837 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rockville, Maryland 8:30 a.m.-8:35 a.m.: Opening Remarks by the ACRS...regarding the conduct of the meeting. 8:35 a.m.-12 p.m.: Status Update...Pike, Rockville, MD 8:30 a.m.-8:35 a.m.: Opening Remarks by the...

2012-01-31

315

78 FR 65009 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 8:30 a.m.-8:35 a.m.: Opening Remarks by the ACRS Chairman (Open...make opening remarks regarding the conduct of the meeting. 8:35 a.m.-10:30 a.m.: Safety Evaluation...

2013-10-30

316

76 FR 30404 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rockville, Maryland 8:30 a.m.-8:35 a.m.: Opening Remarks by the ACRS...regarding the conduct of the meeting. 8:35 a.m.-10:30 a.m.: Draft Regulatory...Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 8 a.m.-8:35 a.m.: Opening Remarks by the...

2011-05-25

317

77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mile downstream of I- 75. Hall Branch (backwater effects From...available for inspection at City Hall, 100 Court Street, Georgetown...available for inspection at City Hall, 605 Pike Street, Sadieville...12-7-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2012-12-10

318

Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair controlled by his brain waves. He can only communicate through a light integrated into his wheelchair to signal the answers "yes" or "no". Commodore Mendez, the commander of Starbase 11, describes the condition of Captain Pike as follows: "He is totally unable to move, Jim. His wheelchair is constructed to respond to his brain waves. He can turn it, move it forwards, backwards slightly. Through a flashing light he can say 'yes' or 'no'. But that's it, Jim. That is as much as the poor ever can do. His mind is as active as yours and mine, but it's trapped in a useless vegetating body. He's kept alive mechanically. A battery driven heart. …"

Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan; Pfurtscheller, Gert

319

Competency-Based Geropsychology Training in Doctoral Internships and Postdoctoral Fellowships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for geropsychology training in doctoral internships and postdoctoral fellowships have slowly grown over the years. There will be a need for more geropsychology training programs as the U.S. population ages concurrent with increased demand for mental health services from older adults. This article provides recommendations for competency-based geropsychology training that derive from the Pikes Peak Model for Training in

Gregory A. Hinrichsen; Antonette M. Zeiss; Michele J. Karel; Victor A. Molinari

2010-01-01

320

Measures of Native and Non-Native Rhythm in a Quantity Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional phonetic classification of language rhythm as stress-timed or syllable-timed is attributed to Pike. Recently, two different proposals have been offered for describing the rhythmic structure of languages from acoustic-phonetic measurements. Ramus has suggested a metric based on the proportion of vocalic intervals and the variability…

Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace; Bond, Dzintra

2005-01-01

321

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Willie Davis Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: daviswi@mail.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

322

Meeting the Learning Needs of Students: A Rural High-Need School District's Systemic Leadership Development Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Principals Excellence Program (PEP), a cohort-based professional development project for administrator-certified practitioners, is one of 24 projects across the United States supported by federal funds from the No Child Left Behind legislation. The three-year program is conducted through a partnership between Pike County School District, a…

Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Maynard, Brenda

2005-01-01

323

Untitled  

Cancer.gov

Appendix Table 2. Counties within State Economic Areas (SEAs) by State (continued) County SEA County name County SEA County name County SEA County name code1 code2 code1 code2 code1 code2 Arkansas continued 05109 023 Pike 05111 026 Poinsett 05113 023 Polk 05115 021 Pope 05117 026 Prairie 05119 019 Pulaski 05121 022 Randolph 05123 027 St.

324

Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

1997-01-01

325

Eating Disorders in Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

326

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Hye-Jung Chung Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: hjchung@box-h.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

327

Learning about Life and Death Issues: Even Young Children Can Understand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher of an inclusive K-3 class in Pike County, Kentucky, chose coal as a topic because it had meaning to her students and they could use the community as a learning laboratory. Although a democratic classroom fostered student ownership of the material, older and younger students had different motivational requirements. (TD)

Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

2000-01-01

328

Results of small-scale passive system trials to treat acid mine drainage, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful passive treatment of acid mine drainage can be improved through the use of small-scale pilot treatment systems to confirm appropriate system selection. Small-scale reducing and alkalinity producing systems were tested at two acid mine drainage sites in the West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand: the Sullivan Mine and the Pike River Adit. A laboratory trial consisting of a

D Trumm; M Watts

2010-01-01

329

Microsoft Word - 4 Feb 08 CTAC Agenda-AM_012508.doc  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute 4th Meeting of the CLINICAL TRIALS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, February 4, 2008 – 8:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. – Open to the Public 8:00

330

77 FR 6568 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Scoping Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...4321-4347, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is issuing this notice to advise the public...Protection, Office of Research Facilities, NIH, B13/2S11, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda...480-8056; or email nihnepa@mail.nih.gov. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2012-02-08

331

Seamless Education Through Distance Learning: State Policy Initiatives for Community College K-12 Partnerships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief description of successful distance-learning partnerships between rural K-12 schools and community colleges in Connecticut, Texas, New Mexico, and New York. Offers an in-depth analysis of how Pikes Peak Community College (PPCC) has extended education to rural communities. Reviews issues in technology, life-long learning,…

Spears, Suzanna; Tatroe, Randy L.

1997-01-01

332

77 FR 73059 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reliability & PRA Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability & PRA will hold a meeting on January 16, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public attendance. The agenda for the...

2012-12-07

333

Videotape Recording of Narcotic Addicts in Group Therapy: The Analysis of Communicational and Interactive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to the study of drug sub-culture groups and a model for predictive research in the identification and isolation of heroin addicts are developed in this thesis. The basic methodologies employed are the linguistic methods of Kenneth Pike and Claude Levi-Strauss for use in the analysis of social phenomena. Communicative mechanisms by…

Soloway, Irv

334

75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...m. to 3:30 p.m. Location: The meeting will be held in the Washington Theater at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register...

2010-06-09

335

Compliance plan for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). The facility is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio, on a 16.2-km(sup 2) (6.3-mile(...

M. E. Kirker T. W. Olin

1992-01-01

336

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THREE ENDEMIC FISHES IN SHOALS OF THE UPPER FLINT RIVER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many shoal habitats in the Piedmont of Georgia have been destroyed by reservoir construction, and the remaining are still threatened. To understand relations between aquatic biota and habitat conditions in shoals, we estimated fish densities in shoals differing in physical characteristics (e.g. size and bed material) throughout a 50 km reach of the upper Flint River (Meriwether, Pike, Upson, and

Paula A. Marcinek; Mary C. Freeman; Byron J. Freeman

337

FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 fro...

338

76 FR 30837 - Suspension of Community Eligibility  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...June 2, 2011, Susp. Colona, City of, Henry 170749 July 7, 1976...June 2, 2011, Susp. Geneseo, City of, Henry 170284 March 31...Reg; June 2, 2011, Susp. Hull, Village of, Pike 170553 April...June 2, 2011, Susp. Kewanee, City of, Henry 170286 April 3,...

2011-05-27

339

Notes on Linguistics, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the four issues of this quarterly linguistics and language research serial issued during 1992. Typical significant articles include: "The Indispensable Tape Recorder" (Geoffrey Hunt); "Analysis of Tone Systems" (Eunice V. Pike); "Sentence Repetition Testing for Studies of Community Bilingualism: An Introduction" (Carla F.…

Notes on Linguistics, 1992

1992-01-01

340

The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

2006-09-01

341

Microsoft Word - 25 June 08 Agenda-061908.doc  

Cancer.gov

***June 19, 2008 National Cancer Institute 5th Meeting of the CLINICAL TRIALS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Wednesday, June 25, 2008 - OPEN 8:00 a.m. – 8:15 a.m.

342

Heavy metal contamination in freshwater fish from the border region between Norway and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni and Zn in muscle, liver and gills were studied in whitefish, perch, pike, brown trout, burbot and vendace from three lake localities in a watercourse in the border region between Norway and Russia, in the vicinity of mining activity and several metallurgic smelters. The contents of Cd and Ni in fish tissue

Per-Arne Amundsen; Frode J. Staldvik; Anatolij A. Lukin; Nikolai A. Kashulin; Olga A. Popova; Yuri S. Reshetnikov

1997-01-01

343

Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

344

East elevation of lowlift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

East elevation of low-lift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary sedimentation basin is in foreground. High-lift pumping station is in background. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

345

Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

346

Outbuilding at end of lowlift pumping station parking lot. Note ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Outbuilding at end of low-lift pumping station parking lot. Note the concrete wall and light standard base, which are remnants of the former preliminary sedimentation basin. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

347

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda 23-24 June 2008 Meeting.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 20, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 40th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 23-24, 2008 Monday, 23 June 2008 - 8:00

348

R:\\Internet\\Advisory\\bsa\\bsa1105\\Tent-BSA-Agenda-14Nov2005.wpd  

Cancer.gov

revised November 8, 2005 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 32nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, 14 November 2005 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment - Open

349

C:\\Documents and Settings\\seachj\\Local Settings\\Temporary Internet Files\\OLK1\\BSA Final Agenda - June 2003.wpd  

Cancer.gov

revised June 25, 2003 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 24th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 26-27, 2003 Thursday, 26 June 2003 - 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.

350

revised June 16, 2009  

Cancer.gov

revised June 17, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 43rd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 22, 2009 Monday, 22 June 2009 - 8:00 a.m. to

351

February 22, 2007  

Cancer.gov

revised February 27, 2007 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 36th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, 5 March 2007 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment

352

Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda 8 March 2010 F _3_.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised March 5, 2010 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE Agenda 45th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 8, 2010 Monday, 8 March 2010 - 8:00 a.m. to 5:00

353

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda June 2006.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 26, 2006 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 34th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Thursday, 29 June 2006 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment -

354

Microsoft Word - June 2002 Tentative BSA Agenda.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 17, 2002 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE TENTATIVE AGENDA 21st Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 24-25, 2002 Monday, 24 June - 8:30 a.m.

355

KILLARNEY LAKE, COEUR D'ALENE RIVER SYSTEM IDAHO - PILOT SAMPLING FOR HEAVY METALS IN FISH FLESH, 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

This study sampled largemouth bass, northern pike, black crappie, brown bullhead, and yellow perch from Killarney Lake, a lateral lake on the Coeur dAlene River in northern Idaho (17010301, 17010303) and analyzed edible flesh for concentrations of zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, co...

356

Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

Franklyn, Virginia

2013-01-01

357

Intelligent electrode design for long-term ECG monitoring at home: Prototype design using FPAA and FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal medical device supporting continuous biosignals monitoring is presented. The novelty of this paper is to provide an intelligent electrode suitable for long-term ECG monitoring. The proposed intelligent electrode is composed of an ASIC chip and a micro pikes array established on a gauze plaster substrate. By comparing the signal quality, the patients comfort and convenience, the proposed intelligent

Geng Yang; Jian Chen; Hannu Tenhunen; Li-Rong Zheng

2009-01-01

358

METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

359

Results of the outdoor radiological survey at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Piketon, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. As shown in Fig. 1, the plant is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio. PORTS began in 1952 a...

L. M. Rodriguez L. M. Floyd R. F. Carrier

1992-01-01

360

Results of the outdoor radiological survey at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Piketon, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. As shown in Fig. 1, the plant is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio. PORTS began in 1952 as part of the Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC) proposed expansion of the gaseous diffusion program in order

L. M. Rodriguez; L. M. Floyd; R. F. Carrier

1992-01-01

361

Results of the outdoor radiological survey at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Piketon, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. As shown in Fig. 1, the plant is located in sparsely populated, rural Pike County, Ohio. PORTS began in 1952 as part of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) proposed expansion of the gaseous diffusion program in order

L. M. Rodriguez; L. M. Floyd; R. F. Carrier

1992-01-01

362

Development of the fish stock and its manageability in the deep, stratifying Wupper Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's fish fauna of Wupper Reservoir is the result of natural development in combination with management. Manageability of the fish stock, a prerequisite for continuing biomanipulation, was limited. Despite protection and stocking, the abundance of the stocked predatory fishes (pike, pikeperch) did never exceed 10% of the total fish biomass since filling in 1988. Contrary to predictions, the “juvenile” cyclical

Wilfried Scharf

2008-01-01

363

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Fedor Kouzine Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: kouzinef@mail.nih.gov Education MD/PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

364

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Zhiyong Mi Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: mizh@mail.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other Special

365

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Rini Elisha Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: elishaz@mail.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

366

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Demetrios Braddock Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other Special Scientific

367

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Daniel Libutti Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: dlibutti@box-d.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

368

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Suzanne Sanford Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: youremail.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other Special Scientific

369

A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated…

Jacobs, Peter J.

370

Younger Children's Changing Self-Concepts: Boys and Girls from Preschool through Second Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author investigated age- and gender-related changes in self-evaluative judgments of 87 children followed from preschool through 2nd grade. Focusing on cognitive, physical, and peer competence assessed by the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA; S. Harter & R. Pike, 1984), the author tested PSPCSA subscale…

Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

2006-01-01

371

NCI : Gene Regulation Section : Laboratory of Pathology : Division of Clinical Sciences  

Cancer.gov

Larry Benjamin Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute Building 10, Room 2N105 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20892 Phone: 301-496-2176 | Fax: 301-401-0043 Email: benjamil@mail.nih.gov Education PhD Undergraduate Honors and Other

372

Radon hazards associated with outcrops of Ohio Shale in Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor (basement) radon concentrations and the uranium, organic carbon, and radon contents of samples from the underlying Ohio Shale (Upper Devonian) were investigated in six approximately 100 square kilometer areas of Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie-Huron, Franklin, Pike, and Logan counties. The thickness and lithology of the sediment overburden above the Ohio Shale in these areas also was investigated.

James A. Harrell; Michael E. Belsito; Ashok Kumar

1991-01-01

373

Teacher Practices in a High Performing, Appalachian Rural High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory case study was to identify, investigate, and describe factors that contributed to the academic success of Phelps High School, a rural, isolated, Appalachian high school in Pike County Kentucky. The academic index of the school in 2000 was 48% and in a six year period the academic index of the school improved to 94%.…

Estep, Steven A.

2009-01-01

374

Intelligent Language Comprehension System for Automatic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 911 attacking, London and India explosion, South Asia tsunami, Pakistan earthquake and North Korea missile launching incidences all brought terrible disaster or big threat. It is quite important for government agencies to acquire significant information and have good preparation before the disaster occurs. However, there are huge pike of information. How to extract and display the significant information in

Chang-Lung Tsai; Thomas Chiang Chuang

2006-01-01

375

Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) as a Fish Toxicant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juglone, a biologically active chemical occurring in various parts of walnut trees, was tested for its toxicity to fish. The 96-hour LC50 values obtained from static bioassays at 12 C range from 27 to 88 parts per billion for rainbow trout, northern pike, goldfish, carp, white suckers, black bullheads, channel catfish, green sunfish and bluegills. The toxicity of juglone to

Leif L. Marking

1970-01-01

376

Diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the backward two and one half somersault dive in a tuck position (205C) performed by females (n = 22) and the backward two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (205B) performed by males (n = 27) and by females (n = 6) to determine changes required by females to

Ross Sanders; Barry Gibson

2003-01-01

377

EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS ON SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH. (TOXICITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM AND LEAD TO EGGS AND FRY OF SEVEN FISH SPECIES.)  

EPA Science Inventory

Embryo and larvae of rainbow trout, lake trout, channel catfish, bluegill, white sucker, northern pike, and walleye were exposed for 60 days after hatch to lead and chromium in soft water. Brook trout, channel catfish, and walleyes were also exposed for 60 days after hatch to cop...

378

Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.  

PubMed

This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time. PMID:17549936

Dalton, Thomas C

2005-01-01

379

Identity: a complex structure for researching students' academic behavior in science and mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an analysis of how the authors conceptualize the problem of scientific career choices, the theoretical framework through which they study the problem, and the methodology they use to collect and analyze data. In addition, we examine the perspective they provide in light of new developments in the field of students' attitudes towards science and mathematics. More precisely, we draw attention to and explicate the authors' use of identity from the perspective of emerging theories that explore the relationships between the learner and culture in the context of science and mathematics.

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

2011-06-01

380

Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

2013-01-01

381

2012 Existing Landscape Plan Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2012 Existing Landscape Plan - Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

382

Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7mg\\/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these

Cecilia Johnsson; Gerd Sallsten; Andrejs Schutz; Anna Sjors; Lars Barregarda

383

Boreal freshwater fish diet modifies the plasma lipids and prostanoids and membrane fatty acids in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fish diet on 43 healthy male students was studied. They ate a fish-containing meal for 15 weeks on an average\\u000a of 3.7 times per week. Twenty-one of them voluntarily restricted their lipid intake while the rest ate normally. Controls\\u000a continued their usual eating habits (19 students). The meals consisted of Finnish freshwater fish (87%) (vendace, pike, perch

J. J. Ågren; O. Hänninen; M. Laitinen; K. Seppänen; I. Bernhardt; L. Fogelholm; J. Herranen; I. Penttila

1988-01-01

384

Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (principal investigators); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

1973-01-01

385

Volcanoes on the inner planets - Some preliminary comparisons of gross topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper extends previous numerical work on analogs of planetary landform (Pike, 1974, 1978) by concentrating on volcanic edifices rather than impact craters. Two kinds of extraterrestrial volcanic constructs - domes on the lunar maria and calderas on Mars - are compared with terrestrial volcanoes. According to available data, neither type of landform unequivocally resembles a specific class of terrestrial volcano. The quantitative models of volcanoes presented necessarily are statistical because the shapes of volcanic landforms vary over a wide range of values.

Pike, R. J.

1978-01-01

386

Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, May and June 1993, and change in water level 1983-93, in the carbonate rocks of East Whiteland and Charlestown townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A map showing ground-water levels in the carbonate rocks of northern Chester County, Pa., was constructed on the basis of water levels in 51 wells measured in May and June 1993. The area studied underlies parts of East Whiteland and Charlestown Townships. Water-level altitudes range from about 413 feet above sea level on Phoenixville Pike to 130 feet above sea level along Route 29.

McManus, B. C.; Sloto, R. A.

1994-01-01

387

A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss

D. E. Lancaster; F. K. Guldry; R. L. Graham; J. B. Curtis; J. S. Shaw

1989-01-01

388

Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students’ lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that\\u000a students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science\\u000a education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to\\u000a their lives or

Lynda L. Jenkins

2011-01-01

389

Antiviral T cell responses  

PubMed Central

Around 700 BCE, a new military formation called the phalanx was established in ancient Greece: a tight column of heavy infantry carrying long spears, or pikes, used in a single prong of attack. Later, in the battle of Marathon described by Herodotus, the Greeks learned the advantages of multipronged attacks, a strategy still used in modern warfare. Is the immune system similar in its approach to combating pathogens or tumors?

Posnett, David N.; Engelhorn, Manuel E.; Houghton, Alan N.

2005-01-01

390

Antiviral T cell responses: phalanx or multipronged attack?  

PubMed

Around 700 BCE, a new military formation called the phalanx was established in ancient Greece: a tight column of heavy infantry carrying long spears, or pikes, used in a single prong of attack. Later, in the battle of Marathon described by Herodotus, the Greeks learned the advantages of multipronged attacks, a strategy still used in modern warfare. Is the immune system similar in its approach to combatting pathogens or tumors? PMID:15967819

Posnett, David N; Engelhorn, Manuel E; Houghton, Alan N

2005-06-20

391

Whole-body and multi-joint kinematic control strategy variability during backward rotating dismounts from beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop insight into the whole-body and multi-joint kinematic control strategy variability associated with the execution of fundamental backward rotating dismounts from beam. Two-dimensional joint centre coordinate data were obtained for ten backward piked and backward tucked somersault dismount skills performed by four female gymnasts (N = 80 trials). Gymnast-specific and group variability in whole-body and

Marianne J. R. Gittoes; Gareth Irwin; David R. Mullineaux; David G. Kerwin

2011-01-01

392

2006 Fact Book  

Cancer.gov

The information set forth in this publication is compiled and amended annually by the financial management staff of the National Cancer Institute and is intended primarily for use by members of the Institute, principal advisory groups to the Institute and others involved in the administration and management of the National Cancer Program. Questions regarding any of the information contained herein may be directed to the Financial Management Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892.

393

1999 Fact Book  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute The information set forth in this publication is compiled and amended annually by the financial management staff of the National Cancer Institute and is intended primarily for use by members of the Institute, principal advisory groups to the Institute and others involved in the administration and management of the National Cancer Program. Questions regarding any of the information contained herein may be directed to the Financial Management Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892.

394

Glaciation and deglaciation of the SW Lake District, England: implications of cosmogenic 36Cl exposure dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure dating using cosmogenic 36Cl demonstrates that the summit plateau of Scafell Pike (978m) in the SW Lake District escaped erosion by glacier ice during the last glacial maximum (LGM; c. 26–21kyr) and probably throughout the Devensian Glacial Stage (MIS 5d-2). Exposure ages obtained for ice-moulded bedrock on an adjacent col at 750–765m confirm over-riding and erosion of bedrock by

Colin K. Ballantyne; John O. Stone; L. Keith Fifield

2009-01-01

395

Models of prey capture in larval fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food uptake of larval carp and pike is described from high speed movies with synchronous lateral and ventral views.During prey intake by larval fishes the velocities of the created suction flow are high relative to their own size: 0.3 m\\/s for carp larvae of 6 mm.Starting from the first feeding carp larvae have morphological adaptations to suction feeding: the

M. R. Drost

1986-01-01

396

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1999–2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 ?g\\/g, the

Marlene S. Evans; Derek Muir; W. Lyle Lockhart; Gary Stern; M. Ryan; Pat Roach

2005-01-01

397

Emic Perspectives on Risk in African Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines issues related to risk and culture, with particular emphasis on how risk impinges on children growing up in Africa. The article treats risk as an emic (cultural-insider and culture-specific) rather than an etic (science-driven and generalizable) concept (Pike, 1957). It argues that emic considerations are essential to the selection and measurement of variables that should be classified

Christine Liddell

2002-01-01

398

Partitioning: splitting fact from fiction.  

PubMed

Many larger hospitals are sprawling complexes with endless corridors and rooms of varying purpose. While cleanliness and infection control are, understandably, leading considerations in any hospital building, fire safety also plays a crucial role. Here Brian Pike MBE, technical consultant at partitioning system designer and manufacturer, Komfort Workspace, looks at how current fire guidelines impact on the use of partitioning systems in hospital premises. PMID:22690516

Pike, Brian

2012-05-01

399

2005 Fact Book  

Cancer.gov

The information set forth in this publication is compiled and amended annually by the financial management staff of the National Cancer Institute and is intended primarily for use by members of the Institute, principal advisory groups to the Institute and others involved in the administration and management of the National Cancer Program. Questions regarding any of the information contained herein may be directed to the Financial Management Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892.

400

Spring migration of some anadromous freshwater fish species in the northern Bothnian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative estimations of spring migrating fish have been made in the mouth part of the small coastal river Ängerån which flows into the northern Bothnian Sea (63°35?N, 19°50?E). In 1981 nearly 3 000 fish were counted ascending to the spawning grounds in the lower reaches of the Ängerån. These species, such as pike, perch, roach and ide, adapted to the

K. Miiller; E. Berg

1982-01-01

401

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low permeability reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are: to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-damaging liquid, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in creating sand-propped hydraulic fractures in ``tight`` gas bearing formations within the Appalachian Basin; and to compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). The preliminary results are encouraging, and although only a few months of production is available, the rate of gas production from the CO{sub 2} treated candidate wells is greater than that from the control wells. The CO{sub 2}/sand fracs appear to be 56 percent better than the nitrogen fracs in Pike County. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/sand fracs are 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the Pike County study area. It should be recognized that these results are from a very limited data set and overall conclusions may change as more control wells are added to the analysis. From a stimulation process achievement viewpoint, the maximum amount of sand pumped is 46,000 pounds at an average concentration of 3.1 pound per gallon. It should be pointed out that additional foam and nitrogen stimulations have recently been performed by the operator in the Pike County area, and subsequent discussions in the future will include additional control wells to the baseline data sets.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1993-12-31

402

Digenea in notothenioid fish in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica).  

PubMed

Fish of five species of Notothenioidei (104 specimens), Cottoperca trigloides, Patagonotothen brevicauda, P. longipes, P. tessellata and Champsocephalus esox, caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica) were infected with Digenea of nine species (1130 specimens). Faunistic data on the occurrence of all nine parasites are provided. The most abundant digenean species was Macvicaria magellanica found in the intestine of three host species of the genus Patagonotothen. The second most abundant digenean species was Elytrophalloides oatesi found in the stomach of four host species, with exception of P. brevicauda. Three digenean species: Stenakron kerguelense, Whitegonimus ozoufae and Genolinea bowersi, were more abundant in fish caught at the harbor of Ushuaia (depth 7-9 m), remaining six species: M. magellanica, Neolepidapedoides subantarcticus, Postmonorchis variabilis, Derogenes varicus, E. oatesi and Lecithaster macrocotyle, in the eastern mouth of the Beagle Channel (depth 30 m). PMID:24570049

Je?ewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzis?aw

2014-03-01

403

Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 ?g/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 ?g/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 ?g/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude. PMID:24678891

Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

2014-05-20

404

Global Trends and Factors Associated with the Illegal Killing of Elephants: A Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of Carcass Encounter Data  

PubMed Central

Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10th Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002–2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

Burn, Robert W.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Blanc, Julian

2011-01-01

405

Determination of base-flow characteristics at selected streamflow-gaging stations on the Mad River, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the results of a study to estimate characteristics of base flow and sustained ground-water discharge at five streamflow-gaging stations on the Mad River in Ohio. The five streamflow-gaging stations are located at Zanesfield, near Urbana, at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City), near Springfield, and near Dayton. The median of the annual-mean base flows, determined by means of hydrograph separation, ranged from 0.64 (ft3/s)/mi2 (cubic feet per second per square mile) at Zanesfield to 0.74 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike. The median percentage of annual total streamflow attributed to base flow ranged from 61.8 percent at Zanesfield to 76.1 percent near Urbana. Estimates of an upper limit (or threshold) at which base flows can be considered to be composed predominately of sustained ground-water discharge were made by constructing and analyzing base- flow-duration curves. The sustained ground-water discharges (base flows less than or equal to the estimated sustained ground-water-discharge thresholds) are assumed to originate from ground-water- flow systems that are minimally affected by seasonal climatic changes. The median sustained ground- water discharge ranged from 0.11 (ft3/s)/mi2 at Zanesfield to 0.26 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City) and near Springfield. The median sustained ground-water discharge, expressed as a percentage of the median annual-mean base flow, ranged from 17.2 percent at Zanesfield to 38.6 percent near Springfield.

Koltun, G. F.

1995-01-01

406

The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

Bell, Trudy E.

407

Safe and Secure Partitioning with Pikeos: Towards Integrated Modular Avionics in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents our approach to logical partitioning of spacecraft onboard software. We present PikeOS, a separation micro-kernel which applies the state-of-the- art techniques and widely recognised standards such as ARINC 653 and MILS in order to guarantee safety and security properties of partitions executing software with different criticality and confidentiality. We provide an overview of our approach, also used in the Securely Partitioning Spacecraft Computing Resources project, an ESA TRP contract, which shifts spacecraft onboard software development towards the Integrated Modular Avionics concept with relevance for dual-use military and civil missions.

Almeida, J.; Prochazka, M.

2009-05-01

408

The Identification and Separation of Aeromonas liquefaciens from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Related Organisms Occurring in Diseased Fish  

PubMed Central

Taxonomy of the motile species of the genus Aeromonas is briefly discussed. It is suggested that Aeromonas organisms, isolated from outbreaks of red mouth of trout, red sore of pike, infectious abdominal dropsy and hemorrhagic septicemia of warm water fish, and which show acid and gas in glucose broth, production of 2,3-butanediol hydrogen sulfide from motility sulfide medium, presence of cytochrome oxidase, and hydrolysis of starch, be designated as Aeromonas liquefaciens. These tests also serve to differentiate A. liquefaciens from fish-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens and from enteric bacteria.

Bullock, Graham L.

1961-01-01

409

A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the data collected on the well, to present the data analyses, and to demonstrate how the various analyses are being integrated to form a better overall understanding of Devonian shale gas reservoirs.

Lancaster, D.E.; Guldry, F.K.; Graham, R.L.; Curtis, J.B.; Shaw, J.S.

1989-05-01

410

Media Training  

SciTech Connect

With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

None

2009-12-11

411

Media Training  

ScienceCinema

With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

412

Multi-Scale Particle Size Distributions of Mars, Moon and Itokawa based on a time-maturation dependent fragmentation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of a soil evolution framework and multiscale modelling of the surface of Mars, Moon and Itokawa thus providing an atlas of extra-terrestrial Particle Size Distributions (PSD). These PSDs are profoundly based on a tailoring method which interconnects several datasets from different sites captured by the various missions. The final integrated product is then fully justified through a soil evolution analysis model mathematically constructed via fundamental physical principles (Charalambous, 2013). The construction of the PSD takes into account the macroscale fresh primary impacts and their products, the mesoscale distributions obtained by the in-situ data of surface missions (Golombek et al., 1997, 2012) and finally the microscopic scale distributions provided by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander (Pike, 2011). The distribution naturally extends at the magnitudinal scales at which current data does not exist due to the lack of scientific instruments capturing the populations at these data absent scales. The extension is based on the model distribution (Charalambous, 2013) which takes as parameters known values of material specific probabilities of fragmentation and grinding limits. Additionally, the establishment of a closed-form statistical distribution provides a quantitative description of the soil's structure. Consequently, reverse engineering of the model distribution allows the synthesis of soil that faithfully represents the particle population at the studied sites (Charalambous, 2011). Such representation essentially delivers a virtual soil environment to work with for numerous applications. A specific application demonstrated here will be the information that can directly be extracted for the successful drilling probability as a function of distance in an effort to aid the HP3 instrument of the 2016 Insight Mission to Mars. Pike, W. T., et al. "Quantification of the dry history of the Martian soil inferred from in situ microscopy." Geophysical Research Letters 38.24 (2011). C. A. Charalambous and W. T. Pike (2013). 'Evolution of Particle Size Distributions in Fragmentation Over Time' Abstract Submitted to the AGU 46th Fall Meeting. Charalambous, C., Pike, W. T., Goetz, W., Hecht, M. H., & Staufer, U. (2011, December). 'A Digital Martian Soil based on In-Situ Data.' In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1669). Golombek, M., & Rapp, D. (1997). 'Size-frequency distributions of rocks on Mars and Earth analog sites: Implications for future landed missions.' Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(E2), 4117-4129. Golombek, M., Huertas, A., Kipp, D., & Calef, F. (2012). 'Detection and characterization of rocks and rock size-frequency distributions at the final four Mars Science Laboratory landing sites.' Mars, 7, 1-22.

Charalambous, C. A.; Pike, W. T.

2013-12-01

413

Preliminary results of sequential extraction experiments for selenium on mine waste and stream sediments from Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the preliminary results of sequential partial dissolutions used to characterize the geochemical distribution of selenium in stream sediments, mine wastes, and flotation-mill tailings. In general, extraction schemes are designed to extract metals associated with operationally defined solid phases. Total Se concentrations and the mineralogy of the samples are also presented. Samples were obtained from the Elizabeth, Ely, and Pike Hill mines in Vermont, the Callahan mine in Maine, and the Martha mine in New Zealand. These data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion. Further analysis of the data will be presented elsewhere.

Piatak, N. M.; Seal, R. R., II; Sanzolone, R. F.; Lamothe, P. J.; Brown, Z. A.

2006-01-01

414

Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.  

PubMed

The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed. PMID:23719670

Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C

2013-11-01

415

Media Training  

ScienceCinema

With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

None

2011-10-06

416

The in vitro metabolism of Eulan WA New by liver homogenates from freshwater fish.  

PubMed

The rate of formation of pentachloro-2-aminodiphenylether (5-PAD) from pentachloro-2-(chloromethylsulphonamido) diphenylether (6-PCSD) by goldfish liver homogenates was studied in a variety of buffers. The highest rate was observed when the homogenate was prepared and assayed in phosphate buffer containing dithiothreitol. The 5-PAD forming activity of liver homogenate preparations from a variety of freshwater fish (goldfish, carp, pike, rainbow trout, perch and eel) showed contrasting species differences. These results could be correlated with information available on the toxicity of the mothproofing agent Eulan WA New (which contains PCSDs) to these fish. PMID:2873942

Machon, A; North, M J; Price, N C; Wells, D E

1986-01-01

417

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

418

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

419

Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains. PMID:8272836

Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

1993-11-01

420

Noninvasive optical evaluation of low frequency oscillations in prefrontal cortex hemodynamics during verbal working memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low frequency oscillation (LFO) around 0.1 Hz has been observed recently in cerebral hemodynamic signals during rest/sleep, enhanced breathing, and head- up-tilting, showing that cerebral autoregulation can be accessed by LFOs. However, many brain function researches require direct measurement of LFOs during specified brain function activities. This pilot study explored using near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging (NIRS) to noninvasively and simultaneously detect LFOs of prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[deoxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb]) during N-back visual verbal working memory task. The LFOs were extracted from the measured variables using power spectral analysis. We found the brain activation sites struck clear LFOs while other sites did not. The LFO of ?[deoxy-Hb] acted as a negative pike and ranged in (0.05, 0.1) Hz, while LFOs of ?[oxy-Hb] and ?[tot-Hb] acted as a positive pike and ranged in (0.1, 0.15) Hz. The amplitude difference and frequency lag between ?[deoxy-Hb] and ?[oxy-Hb]/ ?[tot-Hb] produced a more focused and sensitive activation map compare to hemodynamic amplitude-quantified activation maps. This study observed LFOs in brain activities and showed strong potential of LFOs in accessing brain functions.

Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Li, Kai; Sun, Yunlong

2014-03-01

421

Analysis of production response to CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing: A case study  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, Petroleum Consulting Services, Universal Well Services, and Canadian Fracmaster have recently performed eight CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations on four Devonian Shale gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. Four two-stage CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were executed with two operators in the Pike and Martin County, Kentucky area. All stimulations involved 120 tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and up to 47,500 pounds of sand. In addition, there are eleven existing control wells stimulated with four two-stage foam fracs and seven two-stage nitrogen fracs. Production results from these fifteen wells are compared. After nine months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky study area are nearly twice as productive as nitrogen gas fraced wells and nearly five times better than the foam fraced wells in the study group. The per well incremental gas production after nine months ranged from 13.5-22.2 MMcf per well for nitrogen gas and foam fraced wells, respectively. Discussion of the CO{sub 2}/sand treatment parameters, job execution, and a representative pressure/injection response are discussed in detail. As the operators begin to utilize the CO{sub 2}/sand frac process on more wells, the new stimulation process will become commercially available on a routine basis.

Yost, A.B. II; Mazza, R.L.; Remington, R.E. II

1995-04-01

422

Familial IgA nephropathy in southeastern Kentucky  

PubMed Central

Background Two decades ago, pedigrees of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) from Pike County, KY, USA, provided evidence for a role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Subsequently additional pedigrees were described for several communities from northern Italy. Recently, we found another cluster of patients in the Clay County, KY area, about 100 miles southwest of Pike County. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate and expand the pedigrees of patients with IgAN from Clay County, KY to provide additional insight into the mechanisms of inheritance of IgAN and assess the possible influence of a founder effect on the prevalence of IgAN in the region. Method Since 1980, most patients with IgAN and their relatives in eastern KY have provided personal genealogic data. These data were used to construct pedigrees that included the patients born in Clay County. Nine of 11 patients with IgAN born in Clay County, KY, USA were members of 1 or more of 5 pedigrees, each with 3 – 11 patients with IgAN. Conclusion Our findings suggest the possibility of a low-penetrance ancestral mutation in the IgAN kindreds from Clay County.

Lavigne, K.A.; Woodford, S.Y.; Barker, C.V.; Julian, B.A.; Novak, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Gharavi, A.G.; Wyatt, R.J.

2014-01-01

423

Seattle Municipal Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The staff of the Seattle Municipal Archives have created a Web site that facilitates the work of amateur and professional historians (along with satisfying the curiosity of the general public) seeking to utilize their archival holdings. A quick reference area allows visitors to obtain information about historical election results and some basic facts about Seattle, as well as read their in-house newsletter, which documents their ongoing archival projects. Additionally, an online exhibit section offers perspectives on subjects such as Seattle's City Halls and Pike Place Market's Corner Market Building. The centerpiece of this site is the online photograph collection, which contains over 40,000 images of Seattle from the last century. The photograph archive is searchable by time-period, neighborhood district (a neighborhood map is also provided), and user-identified search terms. Finally, the site also includes a variety of research guides, including a guide to the archives held by the City of Seattle and the Pike Place Market Records.

2001-01-01

424

A Fast-Starting Robotic Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a simple mechanical system to emulate the fast-start performance of fish. The system consisted of a thin metal beam covered by a urethane rubber fish body. The body form of the mechanical fish in this work was modeled from a pike species, which is the most successfully studied fast-start specialist species. The mechanical fish was held in curvature and hung in water by two restraining lines, which were simultaneously released by pneumatic cutting mechanisms. The potential energy in the beam was transferred into the fluid, thereby accelerating the fish, similar to a pike. We measured the resulting velocity and acceleration, as well as the efficiency of propulsion for the mechanical fish model and also ran a series of flow visualization tests to observe the resulting flow pattern. We also studied the influence of stiffness and geometry of the tail on the efficiency of propulsion and flow pattern. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the fish, calculated by the transfer of energy, was around 10%. Flow visualization of the mechanical fast-start wake was also analyzed, showing that the acceleration is associated with the fast movement of an intense vortex in a near-lateral direction.

Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Watts, Matthew; Conte, Joe; Hover, Franz; Triantafyllou, Michael

2009-11-01

425

Effects of exploitation, environmental changes, and new species on the fish habitats and resources of Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No other lake as large as Lake Erie (surface area, 25,690 km2) has been subjected to such extensive changes in the drainage basin, the lake environment, and the fish populations over the last 150 years. Deforestation and prairie burning led to erosion of the watershed and siltation of valuable spawning grounds. Marsh spawning areas were drained. Lake-to-river spawning migrations of sturgeon, walleye, and other fishes were blocked by mill dams. Accelerated cultural nutrient loading increased total dissolved solids by nearly 50% (1920-70). Phosphate loading reached 469 metric tons per year by the 1950's and continued to increase. The biomass of phytoplankton increased 20-fold between 1919 and 1963. Oxygen demand for decomposition of these algae so degraded oxygen regimes in the western and central basins by the 1950's that the once abundant mayfly nymphs were destroyed and the central basin hypolimnion became anoxic. The sequence of disappearance or severe depletion of fish species was as follows: lake trout, sturgeon, lake herring, lake whitefish, sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Yellow perch are now declining. All resources were intensively exploited at one time or another. Lake trout suffered only this stress, but changes in the watershed significantly stressed sturgeon and lake whitefish. Degradation of the lake spawning grounds, benthos, and oxygen regimes culminated in severe stress by the 1950's on the remnants of the lake herring and lake whitefish, and on the sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Additional mortality may have been imposed on walleye and blue pike fry by predacious smelt that successfully colonized Lake Erie after first appearing in 1932. The cultural stresses, in the probable order of greatest to least net effects on the fish community of Lake Erie, appear to have been: (1) an intense, opportunistic, ineffectively controlled commercial fishery; (2) changes in the watershed, such as erosion and siltation of stream beds and inshore lake areas, and construction of dams in tributaries; (3) nutrient loading, destruction of biota, and reduction of dissolved oxygen; and (4) the competitive and predatory activities of invading species.

Hartman, Wilbur L.

1973-01-01

426

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids.

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

427

Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Cities of Oakland and Piedmont Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 4 Seismic Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer III The relative hazard for each of several landslide scenarios is presented as a geospatial database. This publication includes ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute, http://www.esri.com) version 8.1.2 grids and associated tables and four text files of FGDC-compliant metadata for each grid.

Edited by Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

2008-01-01

428

Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program [Implementaci??n de pr??cticas gen??ticas de conservaci??n dentro de un programa de crianza y propagaci??n del lucio rayado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

Jennings, M. J.; Sloss, B. L.; Hatzenbeler, G. R.; Kampa, J. M.; Simonson, T. D.; Avelallemant, S. P.; Lindenberger, G. A.; Underwood, B. D.

2010-01-01

429

Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells  

SciTech Connect

Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qiuping [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wei, Yuanyan, E-mail: yywei@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jiang, Jianhai, E-mail: jianhaijiang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2010-07-09

430

Population biology and host-parasite relationships of Triganodistomum attenuatum (Trematoda: Lissorchiidae) infecting the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni (Lacépède).  

PubMed

Triganodistomum attenuatum demonstrated similar seasonal infection patterns in white suckers, Catostomus commersoni, from the Bellamy and Oyster rivers, New Hampshire. Mean intensity was highest in spring 1975 and 1976. Nongravid and gravid worms were common in the spring, and in the spring and summer, respectively. Most individuals of T. attenuatum parasitized the posterior portion of the sucker's intestine. No definite changes in prevalence and mean intensity were evident at either river as fish size increased. Male and female suckers had similar prevalences and mean intensities of infections. Although a significantly larger number of suckers from the Oyster River was infected than from the Bellamy River, the mean intensities were similar. Triganodistomum attenuatum was found to be host specific to the white sucker. Other fish species examined for the presence of T. attenuatum were as follow: creek chubsucker (Erimyzon oblongus), fallfish (Semotilus corporalis), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), bridle shiner (Notropis bifrenatus), common shiner (N. cornutus), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), redfin pickerel (Esox americanus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and swamp darter (Etheostoma fusiforme). The state of New Hampshire is a new locality record for T. attenuatum. PMID:7391871

Muzzall, P M

1980-04-01

431

Development and evaluation of a new in vivo solid-phase microextraction sampler.  

PubMed

The use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) as a nonlethal technique for in vivo sampling of pharmaceutical residue in fish tissue has been documented in the literature. However, there is need to improve its simplicity and robustness for wider applications in the laboratory and field. The objective of this research is to develop and improve the SPME device for sampling of pharmaceuticals in fish tissue. The practical application of the new device was demonstrated in the field where some wild fish (Esox masquinongy) were caught in the river and sampled by the device. The samples were analyzed using LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS). The new in vivo SPME device with a PDMS extraction phase (sorbent) was demonstrated to a robust tool by both experts and nonexpert of the method and it is simpler than the traditional device. The detection limit of the method in gel and fish tissue was 0.01-0.26 ng/g. The interday reproducibility in gel and fish homogenized fish tissue was 8-16% RSD. This study demonstrates that the new device will provide a platform or opportunity for rapid sampling of carbamazepine, diazepam, and nordiazepam in fish muscle with acceptable precision. PMID:23255404

Togunde, Oluranti P; Lord, Heather; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Pawliszyn, Janusz

2013-01-01

432

An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.  

PubMed

Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. PMID:23773258

Barbero, Sergio

2014-06-01

433

Effect of suspended sediment on vulnerability of young razorback suckers to predation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The decline of native fishes in North America is principally a result of altered habitats, and the impact of mainstream dams has accounted for many of the habitat changes. Diminished turbidity, and introduced nonnative predators were investigated as possible reasons for the decline of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River. In laboratory tests, young razorback suckers selected clear water over two water samples with higher concentrations of suspended sediment. In clear water, however, young razorback suckers were extremely susceptible to predation; native Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius consumed 90% of test razorback suckers, and nonnative green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus consumed 99.6%. As turbidity increased, razorback sucker predator avoidance improved and differences in predator success disappeared. Winter-spring spawning by razorback suckers in Lake Mohave, along with the extreme susceptibility of larvae to predation in clear water, may account for total recruitment failure in that lake. However, in upper basin rivers, suspended sediments remain high enough to limit predation by fishes tested, suggesting that other impacts, including contaminants and lack of floodplain habitat, may be thwarting recruitment in those rivers.

Johnson, J. E.; Hines, R. T.

1999-01-01

434

Summary of Fluvial Sediment Collected at Selected Sites on the Gunnison River in Colorado and the Green and Duchesne Rivers in Utah, Water Years 2005-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including four endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 - Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail (Gila elegans), and humpback chub (Gila cypha). These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of nonnative fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species. Knowledge of sediment dynamics in river reaches important to specifc life-stages of the endangered fishes is critical to understanding the effects of flow regimes on endangered fish habitats. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office, implemented daily sediment sampling at three locations in critical habitat reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This report presents a summary of data collected at these sites, including water and suspended-sediment discharge, streambed compositions, and channel and flood-plain topography. The locations are at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations 09152500, Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado; 09261000, Green River near Jensen, Utah; and 09302000, Duchesne River near Randlett, Utah.

Williams, Cory A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Elliott, John G.

2009-01-01

435

The Comet of Bethlehem and its year of appearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Colin J. Humphreys the Star of Bethlehem was a comet which was visible in 5 BC. Numerous facts suggests that observations by Chinese astronomers at that time cannot be classified as a supernova or a conjunction of stars or as another object different from a comet. In order to erase further doubts it could be valuable to pinpoint the possible year of arrival by other sources if available. The testimonials in the early letters of Saint Paul contain such evidence and can be linked to historical reliable facts. Seven letters were written between 50 and 61 AC. Especially important is the encounter of Saint Paul with Proconsul Lucius Junius Gallio, brother of Seneca and Consul together with Claudius Caesar in 51 AC. The appearance of Saint Paul before the Bema of Gallio in 52 AC at the agora of Corinthia is a fixing point from which on a backword calculation establishes the year 30 AC as the year of crucification. After this it is furthermore possible to use biblical and historical evidence for calculating the year 5 BC as the year of Christ's birth and the visit of the Magi. Other suggestions referring to astronomical phenomena later than 4 BC can be excluded as well as constellations of stars etc.\\ during the year 6 BC or earlier. On the ground of a firm establishment of spring 5 BC as time of appearance of the Comet other research -- e. g. the influence of star constellations before or astronomical observations at that time -- might be stimulated.

Schuermeyer, Manfred

436

Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.  

PubMed

Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053

West, John B

2014-07-15

437

Geohydrology and susceptibility of major aquifers to surface contamination in Alabama, area 9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report delineates and describes the geohydrology and susceptibility of the major aquifers to contamination in Area 9 - Barbour, Bullock, Macon, Pike, and Russell Counties. The major aquifers in the study area are the Tuscaloosa, Eutaw, and Providence-Ripley aquifers of Cretaceous age; and the Nanafalia-Clayton aquifer of Tertiary age. The five counties constitute the primary recharge area for the aquifers which are the source of public supplies in the study area. The total withdrawals of groundwater for all uses in 1986 were estimated to be about 14 million gallons per day. Areas of water level declines in the Tuscaloosa aquifer have developed near Eufaula and Union Springs. Water levels in the Eutaw aquifer have declined at Union Springs. All recharge areas for the major aquifers are susceptible to contamination from the surface. Shallow wells in the outcrop area are most susceptible. (USGS)

Kidd, R. E.

1987-01-01

438

Does acid rain increase human exposure to mercury? A review and analysis of recent literature  

SciTech Connect

The literature suggests that acid deposition may lead to increased mercury (Hg) contamination of fish. Employing published empirical relationships, the authors have estimated the change in associated Hg contamination with an increase in sulfate deposition from 0.25 to 1.25 g sulfur/m{sup 2}/year. In seepage lakes, one can predict that Hg in walleye from these lakes, and subsequent human exposure due to consumption of these fish, would be elevated at the higher rate of sulfate deposition. However, for drainage lakes, increasing acidic deposition was predicted to reduce Hg accumulation in lake trout and northern pike. Subsequent human exposure to Hg due to consumption of these species from drainage lakes was therefore also predicted to be lower at the higher rate of acidic deposition. They concluded that the hypothesis that acidic deposition increases mercury (Hg) contamination in fish, and thereby mercury exposure in humans via fish consumption, is only true for acidic deposition onto seepage lakes.

Richardson, G.M. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology]|[Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Health Directorate; Egyed, M. [Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Health Directorate; Currie, D.J. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1995-05-01

439

Tritium planigraphy: From the accessible surface to the spatial structure of a protein  

PubMed Central

The method of tritium planigraphy, which provides comprehensive information on the accessible surface of macromolecules, allows an attempt at reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the experimental data on residue accessibility for labeling. The semiempirical algorithm proposed for globular proteins involves (i) predicting theoretically the secondary structure elements (SSEs), (ii) experimentally determining the residue-accessibility profile by bombarding the whole protein with a beam of hot tritium atoms, (iii) generating the residue-accessibility profiles for isolated SSEs by computer simulation, (iv) locating the contacts between SSEs by collating the experimental and simulated accessibility profiles, and (v) assembling the SSEs into a compact model via these contact regions in accordance with certain rules. For sperm whale myoglobin, carp and pike parvalbumins, the ? cro repressor, and hen egg lysozyme, this algorithm yields the most realistic models when SSEs are assembled sequentially from the amino to the carboxyl end of the protein chain.

Bogacheva, Elena N.; Gol'danskii, Vitalii I.; Shishkov, Alexander V.; Galkin, Alexander V.; Baratova, Ludmila A.

1998-01-01

440

Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

Holland, T. W.; Manning, C. A.; Stafford, K. L.

1993-01-01

441

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

NONE

1996-10-01

442

[Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].  

PubMed

The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance. PMID:21842729

Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

2011-01-01

443

Open Media Training Session  

SciTech Connect

Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

None

2010-01-19

444

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K. F.

1982-08-01

445

Port and harbor patrol car loaded Xenon search light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The container ship yard is brighten by the lighting, but after Sunset of the sea side is dark during a crescent. On the sea side lighting, we propose to use to patrol car loaded Xenon search light. Generally, the Pacific Ocean of a surface of the sea swimming fishes such as Samma (Mackerel pike) likes strong visible light as a Xenon search light beam. In the feeling of the human eyes and brains with a strong visible light beam such as Xenon search light, the reaction is divided two kind of types, to avoid reaction's humans have a feeling that bad conscience, and no reaction's humans tend to have a feeling of good mind. For the black painted unmanned objects of visible watching is needed as possible as strong visible light beam of the Xenon search light. The optical system of the Xenon search light consists of a Xenon lamp, a parabolic mirror and the filters.

Amoh, Hiroshi; Takenami, Takashi

2005-05-01

446

[The role of alpha-amylase of symbiotic microflora in digestion by lower cestodes and their fish hosts].  

PubMed

The symbiotic microflora associated with the digestive-transport surfaces of the pike intestine and the parasitic cestodes Triaenophorus nodulosus proved capable of the initial stages of carbohydrate hydrolysis mediated by alpha-amylase. The products of hydrolysis by alpha-amylase can be used by both the host and the parasite, which decreases energy expenditures of the macroorganisms. The levels of the bacterial alpha-amylase activity are comparable to those of the analogous enzyme absorbed on the mucosa of the intestine and on the cestode tegument, which indicates a considerable contribution of enzymes of the symbiotic microflora to digestion by the host and the parasite. Apparently, this contribution depends on the fish diet. PMID:16004283

Izvekova, G I; Komova, A V

2005-01-01

447

Transfer of 137Cs into fish in small forest lakes.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs into fish in seepage and drainage lakes from 1988 to 1992 was analysed using linear regression. Empirical results for (137)Cs in lake water and fish were used to calculate concentration factors (CFs). In the drainage lakes the CF decreased during the study period by 9% per year whereas in the seepage lakes the CF increased significantly by 4.3% per year. The transfer of (137)Cs into pike was significantly (1.6 times) higher than that into perch. The CF increased on average by 3.4% for each 1-cm increase in the median size of perch. The relationship between the water chemistry and the CF differed between clear-water seepage and brown-water drainage lakes. PMID:20444530

Saxén, Ritva; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Rask, Martti; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Rand, Heidi

2010-08-01

448

Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1977-May 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Engineering design and development concentrated on five aspects during the past year: (1) development of high power output transmitters for monitoring animals from greater distances; (2) improvement and updating of a sonic transmitting and receiving system for monitoring fish and marine mammals; (3) design and testing of corrosive links which permit a transmitter to release from an animal at a specified time; (4) development of high frequency transmitters; and (5) development and testing of time delay transmitters. Field efforts resulted in further information on activity patterns and movements of sea otters in California and Alaska and of walleye pike in experimental channels. Three manuscripts and two theses presented as part of this report describe these aspects in detail.

Tester, J R; Siniff, D B

1980-06-01

449

Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example).

Elfman, M.; Limburg, K. E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

1999-04-01

450

Open Media Training Session  

ScienceCinema

Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

None

2011-10-06

451

[Sanitary and microbiological evaluation of the hydrosystem in the Volga river estuary upon anthropogenic pollution].  

PubMed

The paper gives many years' data on the size of the opportunistic and sanitary-significant microflora of pike perches (Stizostedion) and water in the producer's food fish areas of the Volga river estuary, as well as the results of ecological and microbiological studies of the water from the above areas, which include the determination of the total amount of the bacterial plankton on membrane filters, the number of heterotrophic bacteria, which has provided an assessment of the habitat quality of hydrocoles in accordance with the complex ecological classification of the quality of the land's surface water. The paper analyzes the seasonal abundance and spatial distribution of the most common opportunistic microorganisms, as well as the markers of their pathogenicity. PMID:19358349

Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

2009-01-01

452

Water resources in the vicinity of municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range, northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Additional supplies of water are available near the municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range. Both ground water and surface water offer good potential supplies. For the ground-water supplies, the most productive aquifers are the Biwabik Iron Formation and the stratified glacial drift. Surface-water supplies are variable. Streams in the western part of the report area are too small to yield supplies of importance, but lakes are a good potential supply. Eveleth and Gilbert are the only towns presently utilizing this source. In the eastern part of the area of this report, the Pike and Embarrass Rivers offer good potential supplies. Flow records from two gaging stations are presented as are data from many wells and test holes. Surface water generally has a high concentration of iron and is colored. Most ground water has a high concentration of iron and manganese and is hard. Analyses of water from many sources are presented.

Cotter, R. D.; Young, H. L.; Petri, L. R.; Prior, C. H.

1965-01-01

453

Warmwater fish in small standing waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter describes standardized sampling techniques for routine monitoring and population assessment of warmwater sport and prey fishes in small standing water bodies. Although water temperature regulates growth, survival, and reproduction of fishes, there are no specific criteria that define a warmwater fish community. Dodds (2002) noted that warmwater fish communities tend to be dominated by sunfishes, temperate basses, and catfishes. Perches and pikes are common to coolwater fish communities, and trouts and salmons are characteristic of coldwater fish communities. For this chapter, we focus on species that prefer water temperatures greater than 15°C. Coolwater fishes that are important in small natural lakes or impoundments and not incorporated in other chapters are also included

Pope, K. L.; Neumann, R. M.; Bryan, S. D.

2009-01-01

454

Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and sedimentation. Among the consequences of the present operational regime are constant, rapid changes in river discharge during spawning and Incubation seasons of trout species present in the lower river. Hamilton and Buell (1976) reported that similar fluctuation might exceed tolerance limits of adults and inhibit spawning behavior, dewater redds, strand fry, and displace juveniles to habitats less suitable for survival. Similar problems are felt to exist on the lower river. Constant fluctuations over backwater vegetation have been linked to major problems in successful northern pike spawning and recruitment by preventing access to spawning sites, and dewatering eggs and attached fry. Phase I of the South Bay investigation was completed this year resulting in a detailed study program for the next three years. Dominant habitat types were mapped, and physical habitat and biological monitoring methods were evaluated and selected. Permanent habitat transects, water quality stations, fish sampling, gillnetting, seining, and trapping sites were established.

Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

1984-12-01

455

Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.

1967-01-01

456

PRODUCTION VERIFICATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the demonstration of 14 stages (in 10 wells) of a unique liquid-free stimulation process which employs carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the working fluid in ten Candidate Wells. Three were situated in Perry County and seven in Pike County of eastern kentucky's Big Sandy gas field. These activities included four individual efforts which have previously been described in detail in four submitted Final Reports, and are herein summarized. These ten Candidate wells produce from the Devonian Shale which is well known to be damaged by liquid based stimulation processes. They were treated with a total of fourteen stages; four as a single stage, and the others in two stages per well all containing approximately 120 tons of CO{sub 2} per stage. These liquid free stimulations also contained proppant quantities on the order of 45,000 lbs per stage. The results show in the three Perry Co Candidate wells that the stimulations were not as effective as the best conventional technology, and resulted in a stimulation cost for produced gas of $0.69 per Mcf vs $0.43 for N{sub 2} gas stimulations. The results in the Pike County Candidates, where the shale section is thicker--1,025 vs. 350 feet, indicated a superior response from the wells stimulated with the CO{sub 2}/sand process. A five year production benefit of 67.7 MMcf per stage, or 135.4 MMcf per well over that from the closest competing technology which results in a 3.41 benefit ratio and a stimulation cost for produced gas of $0.47 per Mcf vs $1.14 for N{sub 2} gas.

Raymond L. Mazza

2003-09-30

457

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shale  

SciTech Connect

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area. In addition, production is also 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the same area. These results are encouraging enough to formally combine existing pumping equipment, a closed system blender, and liquid carbon dioxide supplies to develop a new fracturing service in the eastern US A total of 22 additional jobs are planned in the eastern US in low permeability gas formations over the next year.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-11-01

458

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales  

SciTech Connect

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-12-31

459

Mercury and selenium in fish from the Savannah river: species, trophic level, and locational differences.  

PubMed

Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: upstream, along, and downstream the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear material production facility. We test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue as a function of species, trophic level, and location along the river. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury levels, with bowfin (Amia calva) having the highest levels, followed by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pickerel (Esox niger). Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) had the lowest levels of mercury. As expected, these differences generally reflected trophic levels. There were few significant locational differences in mercury levels, and existing differences were not great, presumably reflecting local movements of fish between the sites examined. Selenium and mercury concentrations were positively correlated only for bass, perch (Perca flavescens), and red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Mercury levels were positively correlated with body mass of the fish for all species except American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus). The mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue from the Savannah River are similar to or lower than those reported in many other studies, and in most cases pose little risk to the fish themselves or to other aquatic consumers, although levels in bowfin and bass are sufficiently high to pose a potential threat to high-level consumers. PMID:11683594

Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Boring, C S; Stephens, W L; Snodgrass, J; Gochfeld, M

2001-10-01

460

Multimodal sensory integration in the strike-feeding behaviour of predatory fishes.  

PubMed Central

The search for useful model systems for the study of sensory processing in vertebrate nervous systems has resulted in many neuroethological studies investigating the roles played by a single sensory modality in a given behaviour. However, behaviours relying solely upon information from one sensory modality are relatively rare. Animals behaving in a complex, three-dimensional environment receive a large amount of information from external and internal receptor arrays. Clearly, the integration of sensory afference arising from different modalities into a coherent 'gestalt' of the world is essential to the behaviours of most animals. In the last several years our laboratory team has examined the roles played by the visual and lateral line sensory systems in organizing the feeding behaviour of two species of predatory teleost fishes, the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and the muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. The free-field feeding behaviours of these fishes were studied quantitatively in intact animals and compared to animals in which the lateral line and visual systems had been selectively suppressed. All groups of animals continued to feed successfully, but significant differences were observed between each experimental group, providing strong clues as to the relative role played by each sensory system in the organization of the behaviour. Furthermore, significant differences exist between the two species. The differences in behaviour resulting when an animal is deprived of a given sensory modality reflect the nature of central integrative sensory processes, and these behavioural studies provide a foundation for further neuroanatomical and physiological studies of sensory integration in the vertebrate central nervous system.

New, J G; Kang, P Y

2000-01-01

461

Simulated effects of recruitment variability, exploitation, and reduced habitat area on the muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetically unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabiting Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, is potentially at risk for loss of genetic variability and long-term viability. Shoepack Lake has been subject to dramatic surface area changes from the construction of an outlet dam by beavers Castor canadensis and its subsequent failure. We simulated the long-term dynamics of this population in response to recruitment variation, increased exploitation, and reduced habitat area. We then estimated the effective population size of the simulated population and evaluated potential threats to long-term viability, based on which we recommend management actions to help preserve the long-term viability of the population. Simulations based on the population size and habitat area at the beginning of a companion study resulted in an effective population size that was generally above the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability, except when fishing mortality was increased. Simulations based on the reduced habitat area after the beaver dam failure and our assumption of a proportional reduction in population size resulted in an effective population size that was generally below the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability. Our results identified two potential threats to the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population, reduction in habitat area and exploitation. Increased exploitation can be prevented through traditional fishery management approaches such as the adoption of no-kill, barbless hook, and limited entry regulations. Maintenance of the greatest possible habitat area and prevention of future habitat area reductions will require maintenance of the outlet dam built by beavers. Our study should enhance the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population and illustrates a useful approach for other unique populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Frohnauer, N. K.; Pierce, C. L.; Kallemeyn, L. W.

2007-01-01

462

Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabits Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Little is known about its status, dynamics, and angler exploitation, and there is concern for the long-term viability of this population. We used intensive sampling and mark-recapture methods to quantify abundance, survival, growth, condition, age at maturity and fecundity and angler surveys to quantify angler pressure, catch rates, and exploitation. During our study, heavy rain washed out a dam constructed by beavers Castor canadensis which regulates the water level at the lake outlet, resulting in a nearly 50% reduction in surface area. We estimated a population size of 1,120 adult fish at the beginning of the study. No immediate reduction in population size was detected in response to the loss of lake area, although there was a gradual, but significant, decline in population size over the 2-year study. Adults grew less than 50 mm per year, and relative weight (W r) averaged roughly 80. Anglers were successful in catching, on average, two fish during a full day of angling, but harvest was negligible. Shoepack Lake muskellunge exhibit much slower growth rates and lower condition, but much higher densities and angler catch per unit effort (CPUE), than other muskellunge populations. The unique nature, limited distribution, and location of this population in a national park require special consideration for management. The results of this study provide the basis for assessing the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population through simulations of long-term population dynamics and genetically effective population size. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Frohnauer, N. K.; Pierce, C. L.; Kallemeyn, L. W.

2007-01-01

463

Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus by Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction from Two Fish Species at Two Sites in Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 2005 during a mortality event in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Subsequent analysis of archived samples determined that the first known isolation of VHSV in the Laurentian Great Lakes was from a muskellunge Esox masquinongy collected in Lake St. Clair in 2003. By the end of 2008, mortality events and viral isolations had occurred in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes except Lake Superior. In 2009, a focused disease surveillance program was designed to determine whether VHSV was also present in Lake Superior. In this survey, 874 fish from 7 sites along the U.S. shoreline of Lake Superior were collected during June 2009. Collections were focused on nearshore species known to be susceptible to VHSV. All fish were dissected individually by using aseptic techniques and were tested for the presence of VHSV genetic material by use of a quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene. Seventeen fish from two host species at two different sites tested positive at low levels for VHSV. All attempts to isolate virus in cell culture were unsuccessful. However, the presence of viral RNA was confirmed independently in five fish by using a nested PCR that targeted the glycoprotein (G) gene. Partial G gene sequences obtained from three fish were identical to the corresponding sequence from the original 2003 VHSV isolate (MI03) from muskellunge. These detections represent the earliest evidence for the presence of VHSV in Lake Superior and illustrate the utility of the highly sensitive qRT-PCR assay for disease surveillance in aquatic animals.

Cornwell, Emily R.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Batts, William N.; Casey, Rufina N.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Bowser, Paul R.; Bain, Mark B.; Casey, James W.

2011-01-01

464

Cryopreservation of Sperm from the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed methods for the cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius. Sperm were collected from a captive broodstock population of Colorado pikeminnow reared and maintained at the Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects on sperm motility of 24-h storage in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS); (2) characterize sperm motility and duration; (3) examine the relationship between sperm motility and osmotic pressure; (4) examine the effect of four cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], dimethyl acetamide [DMA], glycerol, and methanol [MeOH] at two concentrations [5% and 10%]) on postthaw motility; and (5) compare the effect of two cooling rates (40??C/ min and 4??C/min) on postthaw motility. The sperm samples diluted with HBSS retained higher motility (mean ??SD, 77 ?? 22%; n = 9) than did undiluted samples (12 ?? 30%; n = 9) after 24 h of storage. When exposed to HBSS at 274 mosmols/kg or more, few sperm became motile (???1%). Exposure to HBSS at 265 mosmols/kg elicited threshold activation (defined as 10% motility), and maximum motility (>95%) was observed at 93 mosmols/ kg. The maximum motility of sperm was observed within 10 s after activation with deionized water, and sperm remained motile for 57 s. The sperm that were cooled at a rate of 40??C/min and cryopreserved with 5% MeOH retained higher postthaw motility (56 ?? 13%) than did sperm cryopreserved with DMSO, DMA, or glycerol (at 5% and 10%). When the sperm samples were cooled at a rate of 4??C/min, sperm cryopreserved with MeOH (5% or 10%) or DMSO (5% or 10%) retained the highest postthaw motilities (???14%). The use of cryopreserved sperm can assist hatchery managers in the production of fish, provide for the long-term conservation of genetic resources, and assist in the recovery of endangered species such as the Colorado pikeminnow.

Tiersch, T. R.; Figiel, Jr. , C. R.; Wayman, W. R.; Williamson, J. H.; Gorman, O. T.; Carmichael, G. J.

2004-01-01

465

A bibliography of terrain modeling (geomorphometry), the quantitative representation of topography: supplement 4.0  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrain modeling, the practice of ground-surface quantification, is an amalgam of Earth science, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The discipline is known variously as geomorphometry (or simply morphometry), terrain analysis, and quantitative geomorphology. It continues to grow through myriad applications to hydrology, geohazards mapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration, and other fields. Dating nominally to the co-founders of academic geography, Alexander von Humboldt (1808, 1817) and Carl Ritter (1826, 1828), the field was revolutionized late in the 20th Century by the computer manipulation of spatial arrays of terrain heights, or digital elevation models (DEMs), which can quantify and portray ground-surface form over large areas (Maune, 2001). Morphometric procedures are implemented routinely by commercial geographic information systems (GIS) as well as specialized software (Harvey and Eash, 1996; Köthe and others, 1996; ESRI, 1997; Drzewiecki et al., 1999; Dikau and Saurer, 1999; Djokic and Maidment, 2000; Wilson and Gallant, 2000; Breuer, 2001; Guth, 2001; Eastman, 2002). The new Earth Surface edition of the Journal of Geophysical Research, specializing in surficial processes, is the latest of many publication venues for terrain modeling. This is the fourth update of a bibliography and introduction to terrain modeling (Pike, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999) designed to collect the diverse, scattered literature on surface measurement as a resource for the research community. The use of DEMs in science and technology continues to accelerate and diversify (Pike, 2000a). New work appears so frequently that a sampling must suffice to represent the vast literature. This report adds 1636 entries to the 4374 in the four earlier publications1. Forty-eight additional entries correct dead Internet links and other errors found in the prior listings. Chronicling the history of terrain modeling, many entries in this report predate the 1999 supplement. Coverage is representative from about 1800 through early–mid 2002. Papers increasingly are published exclusively or in duplicate on the Internet's World Wide Web; the dates given here for Web addresses (URLs) that lack a print publication indicate a Web site's last update or my last access of it. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically and thus is not readily summarized. This introduction cites about 500 entries, a third of them grouped under 24 morphometric topics, as a guide to the listing's contents. Continuing the practice of previous bibliographies in the series to provide more information on a few applications (see summary of past topics in Pike, 2000a), this report elaborates further on topographic data, putative new parameters, tectonic geomorphology/neo-orometry, biogeography, ice-cap morphometry, results from the Mars Global DEM, landslide-hazard mapping, terrain modeling as physics, Hack's law, and broad-scale computer visualization. The literature of some of these subjects is large, and none of the summaries is intended to more than introduce the topic and comment on some of the current contributions of terrain modeling. Closing the essay is a discussion of pre-1900 papers that trace the evolution of ridge-line and watercourse quantification by descriptive geometry, as well as comments on some new books and an on-line bulletin board.

Pike, Richard J.

2002-01-01

466

Elevated mercury concentrations in fish in lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin: the role of physical, chemical, and biological factors.  

PubMed

During the mid-1990s and through the early 2000s, researchers determined that elevated mercury concentrations were a common occurrence in predatory fish in many lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB), located in northern Canada. Here we present the results of studies investigating factors contributing to higher mercury concentrations in fish in many of these lakes. Twenty-two percent of lake trout, 33% of northern pike, and 50% of walleye populations had mean mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g, the guideline for the commercial sale of fish. Higher mercury concentrations were strongly associated with the relatively old age of MRB predatory fish; mean age ranged from 7.6 to 24.9 years for the three species. In contrast, none of the lake trout sampled in eight lakes further south in northern Saskatchewan and Alberta had mean mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g; fish also were younger (mean age 6 years for the 8 lakes). Mercury concentrations in MRB fish generally increased with fish length, age, and trophic feeding although the nature of these relationships varied with the lake. Mean length was a good predictor of mean mercury concentrations in walleye populations across the study lakes but not for whitefish, lake trout, and pike; age was a good predictor for lake trout and walleye. Mercury concentrations in water and invertebrates were similar to those observed in more southerly regions where fish do not have elevated mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations tended to be higher in fish in smaller vs. larger lakes and as a probable consequence of higher summer epilimnion temperatures, which favour a higher net methylation rate, and higher mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in water which enter these lakes from the watershed. Increasing fishing pressures on MRB lakes may be a means of reducing mean fish age, improving growth rates, and decreasing mercury body burdens. Increased global warming may result in higher mercury concentrations in fish through increased water temperatures, a longer ice free season, and increased release of stored mercury from the watershed into these lakes. PMID:16183101

Evans, M S; Lockhart, W L; Doetzel, L; Low, G; Muir, D; Kidd, K; Stephens, G; Delaronde, J

2005-12-01

467

Cooperation under predation risk: a data-based ESS analysis  

PubMed Central

Two fish that jointly approach a predator in order to inspect it share the deadly risk of capture depending on the distance between them. Models are developed that seek ESS inspection distances of both single prey and pairs, based on experimental data of the risk that prey (sticklebacks) incur when they approach a predator (pike) to varying distances. Our analysis suggests that an optimal inspection distance can exist for a single fish, and for two equal fish behaving entirely cooperatively so as to maximize the fitness of the pair. Two equal fish inspecting cooperatively should inspect at an equal distance from the predator. The optimal distance is much closer to the predator for cooperative pairs than for single inspectors. However, optimal inspection for two equal fish behaving cooperatively operates across a rather narrow band of conditions relating to the benefits of cooperation. Evolutionarily stable inspection can also exist for two equal fish behaving non-cooperatively such that each acts to make a best reply (in terms of its personal fitness) to its opponent's strategy. Non-cooperative pairs should also inspect at equal distance from the pike. Unlike the 'single fish' and 'cooperative' optima, which are unique inspection distances, there exists a range of ESS inspection distances. If either fish chooses to move to any point in this zone, the best reply of its opponent is to match it (move exactly alongside). Unilateral forward movement in the 'match zone' may not be possible without some cooperation, but if the pair can 'agree' to move forward synchronously, maintaining equal distance, inspection will occur at the nearest point in this zone to the predator. This 'near threshold' is an ESS and is closer to the predator than the single fish optimum: pairs behaving almost selfishly can thus attain greater benefits from inspection by the protection gained from Hamilton's dilution effect. That pairs should inspect more closely than single fish conforms with empirical findings. Phenotypic asymmetries in costs and benefits between the fish are not yet included in the model.

Parker, G. A.; Milinski, M.

1997-01-01

468

Fingerprinting Magnetic Nanostructures by First Order Reversal Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistic systems of magnetic nanostructures inevitably have inhomogeneities, which are manifested in distributions of magnetic properties, mixed magnetic phases, different magnetization reversal mechanisms, etc. The first order reversal curve (FORC) method [1-3] is ideally suited for ``fingerprinting'' such systems, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we present recent FORC studies on a few technologically important systems. In arrays of Fe nanodots [4], as the dot size decreases from 67 to 52nm, we have observed a vortex state to single-domain transition. Despite subtle changes in the major hysteresis loops, striking differences are seen in the FORC diagrams. The FORC method also gives quantitative measures of the magnetic phase fractions and vortex nucleation and annihilation fields. Furthermore, with decreasing temperature, it is more difficult to nucleate vortices within the dots and the single domain phase fraction increases. In exchange spring magnets [3], we have investigated the reversibility of the soft and hard layers and the interlayer exchange coupling. In FeNi/polycrystalline-FePt films, the FeNi and FePt layers reverse in a continuous process via a vertical spiral. In Fe/epitaxial-SmCo films, the reversal proceeds by a reversible rotation of the Fe soft layer, followed by an irreversible switching of the SmCo hard layer. As the SmCo partially demagnetizes, the Fe layer still remains reversible, as revealed by second order reversal curves (SORC). The exchange coupling between the two layers can be extracted as a function of the SmCo demagnetization state. These results demonstrate that FORC is a powerful method for magnetization reversal studies, due to its capability of capturing magnetic inhomogeneities, sensitivity to irreversible switching, and the quantitative phase information it can extract. Work done in collaboration with J. E. Davies, R. K. Dumas, J. Olamit, C. P. Li, I. V. Roshchin, I. K. Schuller, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, J. S. Jiang, S. D. Bader, J. Wu, C. Leighton, H. G. Katzgraber, C. R. Pike, R. T. Scalettar, G. T. Zimanyi, and K. L. Verosub. [1] C. R. Pike, et al, JAP 85, 6660 (1999). [2] H. G. Katzgraber, et al. PRL 89, 257202 (2002). [3] J. E. Davies, et al, PRB 70, 224434 (2004); APL 86, 262503 (2005); PRB 72, 134419 (2005). [4] K. Liu, et al., APL. 81, 4434 (2002).

Liu, Kai

2007-03-01

469

Lake Erie: Effects of exploitation, environmental changes and new species on the fishery resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In no other lake as large as Lake Erie (surface area, 25,690 km2) have such extensive changes taken place in the drainage basin, the lake environment, and the fish populations over the last 100 years. Deforestation and prairie burning led to erosion and siltation of valuable spawning grounds. Marsh spawning areas were drained. Lake-to-river spawning migrations were blocked by mill dams. Accelerated cultural nutrient loading increased total dissolved solids by nearly 50% (1920-70). Average summer water temperatures increased 1.1 C. Phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance increased severalfold. Severe oxygen depletion developed in the bottom waters of all three basins of the lake. Lake sturgeon were fished out as nuisance fish in the late 1800s. The commercial fisheries for lake trout, lake whitefish, and lake herring collapsed by 1940 and those for blue pike and walleye by 1960. Yellow perch production became unstable in the 1960s. The effects of exploitation, environmental changes, and new species on these fish populations are discussed.

Hartman, Wilbur L.

1972-01-01

470

Modeling Inter-annual Variability of Seasonal Evaporation and Storage Change Based on the Extended Budyko Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term climate is the first order control on mean annual water balance, and vegetation and the interactions between climate seasonality and soil water storage change have also been found to play important roles. The purpose of this paper is to extend the Budyko hypothesis to the seasonal scale and to develop a model for inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation and storage change. A seasonal aridity index is defined as the ratio of potential evaporation to effective precipitation, where effective precipitation is the difference between rainfall and storage change. Correspondingly, evaporation ratio is defined as the ratio of evaporation to effective precipitation. A modified Turc-Pike equation with a horizontal shift is proposed to model inter-annual variability of seasonal evaporation ratio as a function of seasonal aridity index, which includes rainfall seasonality and soil water change. The performance of the seasonal water balance model is evaluated for 277 watersheds in the United States. 99% of wet seasons and 90% of dry seasons have Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients larger than 0.5. The developed seasonal model can be applied for constructing long-term evaporation and storage change data when rainfall, potential evaporation, and runoff observations are available. On the other hand, vegetation affects seasonal water balance by controlling both evaporation and soil moisture dynamics. The correlation between NDVI and evaporation is strong particularly in wet seasons. However, the correlation between NDVI and the seasonal model parameters is only strong in dry seasons.

Chen, X.; Alimohammadi, N.; Wang, D.

2013-12-01

471

The inner ears of Northern Canadian freshwater fishes following exposure to seismic air gun sounds.  

PubMed

An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). "Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958-3971]. The sound pressure levels to which the fishes were exposed were a mean received level of 205-209 dB re 1 microPa (peak) per shot and an approximate received mean SEL of 176-180 dB re 1 microPa(2) s per shot. In this report, the same animals were examined to determine whether there were effects on the sensory cells of the inner ear as a result of the seismic exposure. No damage was found to the ears of the fishes exposed to seismic sounds despite the fact that two of the species, adult northern pike and lake chub, had shown a temporary threshold shift in hearing studies. PMID:18681621

Song, Jiakun; Mann, David A; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; Popper, Arthur N

2008-08-01

472

Kinematic landing strategy transference in backward rotating gymnastic dismounts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop insight into the transference of kinematic landing strategies between back- ward rotating dismount skills. Female gymnasts performed backward rotating pike (N = 4 x 10 trials) and tuck dismounts skills (N = 4 x 10 trials) from the beam apparatus. Whole and lower body joint kinematic measures were quantified for the impact phase using an automatic motion analysis system (CODAMotion, Charnwood Dynamics Ltd.). Phase duration, whole body orientation and the mass center maximum z-displacement were similar (P < .01) between skills for individual gymnasts and the group. While skill differences in the hip joint motion profiles were notably larger (group root mean squared difference [RMSD]: 30.9%) than the ankle (group RMSD: 13.6%) and knee (group RMSD: 15.4%) joints, individual gymnast adjustments were made to the discrete joint kinematic measures. The use of a stable whole body orientation may provide important indicators of effective strategy transference between fundamental dismount skills. Further consideration of the joint strategy adjustments made according to the gymnast's performance level may, however, be warranted. PMID:22813694

Gittoes, Marianne J R; Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

2013-06-01

473

Evaluation and comparison of the species-specificity of 3 antiparvalbumin IgG antibodies.  

PubMed

Parvalbumin is a pan-allergen in fish and frogs that triggers IgE-mediated reactions in fish-allergic individuals. Previous studies demonstrated that antibodies raised against fish and frog parvalbumins displayed varying specificity for different fish species, and thus, the applicability of these antibodies for potential use in immunoassays to detect fish residues were limited. We aimed to determine the specificity of 3 IgG antibodies for various fish species. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgG-immunoblotting were used to compare the reactivity of the polyclonal anticod parvalbumin antibody and the commercially available, monoclonal antifrog and monoclonal anticarp parvalbumin antibodies against raw muscle extracts of 29 fish species. All antibodies demonstrated varying specificities for different fish species. Of the 3 antibodies, the polyclonal anticod parvalbumin antibody is the most suitable for the detection of fish parvalbumins as it showed reactivity to the widest range of species, including herring, pilchard, carp, pike, cod, pollock, haddock, cusk, hake, bluegill, tilapia, bass, grouper, trout, catfish, and perch, although detection was still limited for several key fish species. PMID:21999209

Lee, Poi-Wah; Nordlee, Julie A; Koppelman, Stef J; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

2011-12-14

474

An Exploratory Study of Diabetes in a First Nation Community with Respect to Serum Concentrations of p,p’-DDE and PCBs and Fish Consumption  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between self-reported diabetes, fish consumption and serum levels of organochlorines in a First Nation community. One quarter of the 101 participants reported diabetes. Serum PCBs, but not p,p’-DDE, were positively correlated to consumption frequency of total fish, walleye and pike, but not trout. Reported diabetes was positively associated to p,p’-DDE and some PCB congeners. Odds Ratios (OR) for reported diabetes for those in the upper 75th percentile for serum p,p’-DDE compared to the others were 3.5 (95% CI 1–13.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.4–27.3) (weight wet and lipid-standardized values, respectively) and for total sum of PCBs: 4.91 (95% CI 1.4–19.0) and 5.51 (95% CI 1.3–24.1). For participants who were in the upper 50th percentile for trout and white fish intake, reported diabetes was respectively 6 and 4 times lower compared to the others. These findings support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to elevated p,p’-DDE and PCBs is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Consumption of trout and white fish may be beneficial to reduce risk.

Philibert, Aline; Schwartz, Harold; Mergler, Donna

2009-01-01

475

Field operations for cooperative treatment tests. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, March 1987-December 1990  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Gas System Service Corporation is working under contract to the Gas Research Institute to coordinate field activities associated with comprehensive research of selected Devonian shale gas wells in the Appalachian basin. The primary objectives of the research are to: (1) improve stimulation practices; (2) identify prospective completion intervals; and (3) better define production mechanisms in the Devonian shale. Field activities designed to accomplish these objectives include: supervision of drilling activities; performance of cased-hole and open-hole stress tests; mud logging; onsite geochemistry; retrieval of whole, oriented core; retrieval of sidewall cores; analysis of cores; collection and analysis of complete suites of open-hole dry and open-hole fluid filled logs; pre-stimulation well testing; breakdown treatments with nitrogen; nitrogen stimulation; proppant laden foam treatment; and post-stimulation well testing. The research is being conducted by a team of GRI-contracted petroleum engineers, logging specialists, geologists, etc. with Columbia's role being that of field coordinator. Five comprehensive study wells were drilled and studied in detail and several other wells studied in less detail. These wells are located in Martin and Breathitt and Pike counties, Kentucky, and Calhoun, Logan, Jackson and Wyoming counties, West Virginia.

Wallace, J.L.

1990-12-01

476

Field operations for cooperative treatment tests. Volume 1. Text. Final report, March 1987-December 1990  

SciTech Connect

Columbia Gas System Service Corporation is working under contract to the Gas Research Institute to coordinate field activities associated with comprehensive research of selected Devonian shale gas wells in the Appalachian basin. The primary objectives of the research are to: (1) improve stimulation practices; (2) identify prospective completion intervals; and (3) better define production mechanisms in the Devonian shale. Field activities designed to accomplish these objectives include: supervision of drilling activities; performance of cased-hole and open-hole stress tests; mud logging; onsite geochemistry; retrieval of whole, oriented core; retrieval of sidewall cores; analysis of cores; collection and analysis of complete suites of open-hole dry and open-hole fluid filled logs; pre-stimulation well testing; breakdown treatments with nitrogen; nitrogen stimulation; proppant laden foam treatment; and post-stimulation well testing. The research is being conducted by a team of GRI-contracted petroleum engineers, logging specialists, geologists, etc. with Columbia's role being that of field coordinator. Five comprehensive study wells were drilled and studied in detail and several other wells studied in less detail. These wells are located in Martin and Breathitt and Pike counties, Kentucky, and Calhoun, Logan, Jackson and Wyoming counties, West Virginia.

Wallace, J.L.

1990-12-01

477

Structure and shale gas production patterns from eastern Kentucky field  

SciTech Connect

Computer-derived subsurface structure, isopach, and gas-flow maps, based on 4000 drillers logs, have been generated for eastern Kentucky under a project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute. Structure maps show low-relief flextures related to basement structure. Some structures have been mapped at the surface, others have not. Highest final open-flow (fof) of shale gas from wells in Martin County follow a structural low between (basement) anticlines. From there, elevated gas flows (fof) extend westward along the Warfield monocline to Floyd County where the high flow (fof) trend extends southward along the Floyd County channel. In Knott County, the number of wells with high gas flow (fof) decreases abruptly. The center of highest gas flow (fof) in Floyd County spreads eastward to Pike County, forming a triangular shaped area of high production (fof). The center of highest gas flow (fof) is in an area where possible (basement) structure t