Sample records for pike esox lucius

  1. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

  2. Prey capture of pike Esox lucius larvae in turbid water.

    PubMed

    Salonen, M; Engström-Ost, J

    2010-06-01

    Pike Esox lucius larvae captured fewer calanoid and cyclopoid copepods in turbid than in clear water, whereas no differences were detected in feeding rates on Daphnia longispina. Decreased capture of copepods may lead to lower growth and survival of E. lucius larvae in turbid areas, in particular, if cladocerans are scarce. PMID:20557612

  3. Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada. In

    E-print Network

    6 Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada Regulations in North America Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a popular sport fish in the United States, Madison, WI 53707-7921. Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a popular sport fish in the United States

  4. MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Á Northern pike

  5. Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw R . A R L I N G The behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius L., released with a retained lure in the mouth was studied-and-release, fish welfare, lure, recreational fishing. Introduction Esocids such as muskellunge, Esox masquinongy

  6. Spatial behaviour of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded

    E-print Network

    Cucherousset, Julien

    Spatial behaviour of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded nursery area Introduction Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) is a species particularly adapted to shallow of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded nursery area. Ecology

  7. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2014-09-10

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  8. Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

    1993-01-01

    In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

  9. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    -Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1S 4X4, Canada Keywords Conservation, environmental variation, Esox lucius, habitat. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysisLandscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox

  10. Individual specialization and trophic adaptability of northern pike (Esox lucius): an isotope and dietary analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine P. Beaudoin; William M. Tonn; Ellie E. Prepas; Leonard I. Wassenaar

    1999-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are often considered to be specialist piscivores, but under some circumstances will continue to eat invertebrates as adults. To examine effects of fish assemblage composition on the trophic ecology of pike, we combined stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon and nitrogen and stomach content analysis (SCA) on pike from five lakes in northern Alberta, three of

  11. An experimental breakage of Reissner's fibre in the central canal of the pike ( Esox lucius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Olsson

    1957-01-01

    Summary  The spinal cords of newly hatched pike (Esox lucius) fry were divided into two pieces by transverse cuts. After periods of different lengths, the appearances of the brokenReissner's fibres were investigated anatomically. The fibre normally terminates in the caudal end as a secretory accumulation, a caudal mass. After the operation this mass gradually disappears, apparently through the spinal cord wall

  12. Analysis of sibling cannibalism among pike, Esox lucius , juveniles reared under semi-natural conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Bry; Edgar Basset; Xavier Rognon; François Bonamy

    1992-01-01

    Synopsis Sibling cannibalism in pike, Esox lucius, larvae and juveniles living in outdoor rearing ponds was studied using stomach contents analysis. For the two initial densities tested (6 and 18 larvae m?2, equivalent to 12 and 36 larvae m?3), cannibalism was non-existent during the larval period (13 to 35 mm total length) and was observed only during the juvenile stages.

  13. New series of fatty acids in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Glass; Thomas P. Krick; Allen E. Eckhardt

    1974-01-01

    The presence in Northern Pike (Esox locius) liver and testes lipids of a group of eight homologous fatty acids of as yet unknown structure is reported. They occur esterified\\u000a to cholesterol and to glycerol as triglycerides but are absent from the phospholipids. They contain three oxygens and are\\u000a characterized further by being more resistant to hydrogenation than normal unsaturated fatty

  14. Mercury concentrations in northern pike, Esox lucius L., in small lakes of Evo area, southern Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rask; T.-R. Metsälä

    1991-01-01

    We measured Hg concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius) from 17 small lakes in Evo forest area, Lammi, southern Finland. The mean Hg concentration in muscle tissue of a 1 kg pike\\u000a ranged from 0.15 to 1.36 ?g g?1 (ww) in the lakes. There was a trend towards higher concentrations in acidic and humic lakes than in circumneutral and clear-water

  15. General morphology and axonal ultrastructure of the olfactory nerve of the pike, Esox lucius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg W. Kreutzberg; Guenter W. Gross

    1977-01-01

    The olfactory nerve of the European pike (Esox lucius) contains 5.1 × 106 axons with an average diameter of 0.20 ± 0,04 µm and a length of 5.5 cm in 1 meter long pike. Each axon contains an average of 4 microtubules as well as neurofilaments, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and about 500 mitochondria per centimeter. The number of neurofilaments ranges

  16. Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, M; Hylander, S; Ranåker, L; Nilsson, P A; Brönmark, C

    2011-07-01

    Young-of-the-year pike Esox lucius foraging on copepods experienced different foraging success depending on prey pigmentation in water visually degraded by brown colouration or algae. Both attack rate and prey consumption rate were higher for E. lucius foraging on transparent prey in brown water, whereas the opposite was true in algal turbid water. Pigments in copepod prey may have a cryptic function in brown water instead of a photo-protective function even if prey-size selectivity was stronger than selection based on pigmentation in juvenile E. lucius. PMID:21722125

  17. The inf luence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of pike Esox lucius L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KREUTZENBERGER; F. L EPRIEUR; S. BROSSE

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of the pike Esox lucius was investigated using an additive experimental design. Pike predatory success on 0þ years roach Rutilus rutilus was significantly reduced in the presence of black bullhead. Among the different hypotheses that may explain such a pattern, the hypothesis of direct competition between pike

  18. A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty acid composition in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Schwalmel

    1992-01-01

    The fatty acid compositions of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty acids during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty acids (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty

  19. Altered energetics and parasitism in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting metal-mining contaminated lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors that could be contributing to altered bioenergetics of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) living in lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Although glycogen and triglycerides stores in liver and muscle were significantly greater in pike from exposure lakes compared to the reference, triglycerides stores of aquatic insects and spottail shiners that are prey items of juvenile pike showed no overall differences among lakes. Measures of parasitism, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with pike bioenergetics thereby reflecting a possible energetic cost of parasitism on reference lake fishes. The degree of infection, as measured by the abundance and biomass of intestinal parasites and the abundance of monogeneans on pike gills, was greatest in reference fishes and intermediate in low-exposure pike, whereas high-exposure fishes harbored no parasites. PMID:18329711

  20. THE MECHANICAL POWER OUTPUT AND HYDROMECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF NORTHERN PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS) FAST-STARTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. RUSS FRITH; ROBERT W. BLAKE

    The mechanical power output and hydrodynamic efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, during acceleration from rest (fast-start) are calculated from hydrodynamic theory for two kinematic patterns, C-starts (used in escape) and S-starts (used in prey capture). The Weihs model is employed and modified to calculate the mechanical power produced by a fish during a fast-start. A term is included for

  1. Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Burreau; Johan Axelman; Dag Broman; Eva Jakobsson

    1997-01-01

    The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E)

  2. Age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; Pronin, Nikolai M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In 1993, pike, ages 1 to 3, ranged in length from 331 to 810 mm and in 1995 , pike, ages 2 to 10, ranged in length from 365 to 1,111 mm but only three percent were age 7 or older. Most growth in length occurred during the first two years of life. The length-weight relation for pike from Chivyrkui Bay was similar to that of pike from the St. Lawrence River. Calculated total length of pike from Lake Baikal equalled or exceeded the lengths of pike from lakes Erie or Ontario. Good agreement was found between ages from cleithra and from scales. Lengths at age in June 1995 (N=108) varied widely among pike. Females were generally larger than males at a given age among fish age-3 and older. When compared with the circumpolar growth standard, based on the von Bertalanffy growth curve, growth of Lake Baikal pike exceeded all other Asian populations, and equalled or exceeded many other northern hemisphere populations.

  3. Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

  4. Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Chenghui; Qian, Long; Ma, Yuqing; Yang, Xinxin; Jeney, Zsigmond; Li, Sifa

    2011-01-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability. PMID:21637562

  5. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Van Walleghem, Jillian L A

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day(-1), respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates. PMID:24667854

  6. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day?1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  7. The population dynamics of pike, Esox lucius , and perch, Perca fluviatilis , in a simple predator-prey system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Treasurer; Roger Owen; Eric Bowers

    1992-01-01

    The population dynamics and predator-prey relationship of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, were examined in simple fish communities in two adjacent shallow lakes, Lochs Kinord and Davan, Deeside, Scotland. Few perch survive to age 3 but Z is low for fish > 3 years and perch live up to 17 years. Population fecundity remained relatively high and constant

  8. Adrenergic neurons in the spinal cord of the pike ( Esox lucius ) and their relation to the caudal neurosecretory system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Baumgarten; B. Falck; H. Wartenberg

    1970-01-01

    The lower spinal cord including the caudal neurosecretory system of the pike (Esox lucius) was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy and also with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck and Hillarp for the visualization of monoamines. A system of perikarya displaying a specific green fluorescence of remarkably high intensity is disclosed in the basal part of the

  9. The photosensory function of the pineal organ of the pike ( Esox lucius L.) Correlation between structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky Falcón; Hilmar Meissl

    1981-01-01

    Electrical recordings from the exposed pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius L.) were performed in order to localize the photoreceptive structures. Extracellular recordings showed a maintained activity of nerve fibers from the pineal tract and of single neurons from the distal region of the pineal organ. At increasing levels of steady exposure to white light, the impulse frequency decreased.

  10. Behavioral variation in pelvic phenotypes of brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans , in response to predation by northern pike, Esox lucius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Reist

    1983-01-01

    Populations ofCulaea inconstans, from Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada exhibit phenotypic variation in expression of the pelvic skeleton and associated spines, from complete presence (with) through intermediate forms to complete absence (without). Such variation influences predation byEsox lucius which prefer the least spiny prey. Behavioral differences were investigated before and during pike predation. These differences may be associated either with the

  11. The conservation and fishery benefits of protecting large pike (Esox lucius L.) by harvest regulations in recreational fishing

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    The conservation and fishery benefits of protecting large pike (Esox lucius L.) by harvest regulations in recreational fishing Robert Arlinghaus a,b,*, Shuichi Matsumura a,c,1 , Ulf Dieckmann c a Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries

  12. ENDOCRINE (SEXUAL) DISRUPTION IS NOT A PROMINENT FEATURE IN THE PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS), A TOP PREDATOR, LIVING IN ENGLISH WATERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Vine; Jan Shears; Ronny van Aerle; Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

    2005-01-01

    The high incidence of intersex roach ( Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius)

  13. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P 0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.

    PubMed

    K?ížek, Martin; Mat?jková, Kate?ina; Vácha, František; Dadáková, Eva

    2014-05-15

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500 MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12 °C for up to 70 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12 °C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5 °C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality. PMID:24423558

  15. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  16. Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

    2012-02-01

    Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.7±6.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish. PMID:22014468

  17. Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

    2009-02-25

    In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation. PMID:19402450

  18. The desaturation and elongation of 14 C-labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids by pike ( Esox lucius L.) in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. James Henderson; Moira T. Park; John R. Sargent

    1995-01-01

    To examine the ability of pike (Esox lucius L.) to modify exogenous PUFA by desaturation and elongation, 14C-labelled 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) were injected intraperitoneally and the distribution of radioactivity in tissue lipid classes and liver PUFA measured. In all tissues examined, radioactivity from all 14C-PUFA was recovered in many classes of acyl lipids and the level of recovery

  19. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies for this species. PMID:25435649

  20. Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, H; Boel, M; Meier, K; Jacobsen, L; Rokkjaer, E M; Clausen, T; Skov, C

    2012-05-01

    Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio-temporal distributions should be directly affected and thereby more easily assessed and avoided by prey, with potential consequences for encounter rates. PMID:22551189

  1. Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., with special regard to 5-hydroxytryptamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Owman; Claes Rüdeberg

    1970-01-01

    The pineal organ of adult pikes, Esox lucius L., maintained under normal diurnal conditions, was studied with a combination of light microscopy, fluorescence histochemistry of certain arylethylamines, and electron microscopy.1.The pineal parenchyma consists of sensory cells, supporting cells, and a third cell type which may be identical with previously described ganglion cells. The nerve fibres constituting the pineal tract were

  2. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  3. Rhipidocotyle fennica (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from Anodonta anatina and pike Esox lucius in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Stunž?nas, Virmantas; Petkevi?i?t?, Romualda; Stanevi?i?t?, Gražina; Binkien?, Rasa

    2014-10-01

    Ribosomal DNA sequences of Rhipidocotyle sp. adults from Esox lucius were shown to be identical to sequences of larval Rhipidocotyle fennica, occurring in Anodonta anatina in Lake Vilkokšnis, Lithuania. Morphological features and host specificity of this adult worm correspond with that, determinate in the first description of R. fennica in Finland. These data give the first evidence that a viable population of R. fennica exists in east central Europe. Bucephalus polymorphus which was reported in unionids in all previous publications is probably R. fennica. PMID:25190013

  4. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most notably arsenic and selenium, were bioaccumulating in tissue. PMID:19304330

  5. Side-aspect target strength of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ), and pike ( Esox lucius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juha Lilja; Timo J Marjomäki; Raimo Riikonen; Juha Jurvelius

    2000-01-01

    The side-aspect acoustic target strengths (TS) of 19 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar), 16 brown trouts (Salmo trutta), 10 whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and 9 pikes (Esox lucius) were measured using a 200 kHz split-beam echosounder, in order to study the relationship between TS and fish size indices (length, weight and side area). The effect of side aspect angle on TS was also

  6. The mast cell nature of granule cells in the digestive tract of the pike, Esox lucius : similarity to mammalian mucosal mast cells and globule leucocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLA B. REITE

    1996-01-01

    Observations were made on sections of intestinal tissue from the pike,Esox lucius, fixed in a solution containing 4% formaldehyde and 5% acetic acid in methanol. Four staining procedures, using May-Grünwald Giemsa combi-nation dye, hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and alcian blue in sequence with safranin, were applied. Numerous granule cells were found in the area of stratum compactum and in

  7. Changes in mercury levels in lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) in the LG2 reservoir since flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Morrison; N. Thérien

    1995-01-01

    After flooding of the LG-2 reservoir in 1978–1979, it was noticed that Hg levels in fish rose dramatically. In this study the Hg data have been examined on the basis of fish age for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius), representing two different trophic levels. Data were fit to Von Bertalanffy functions using non-linear regression analyses. Reductions

  8. Use of Carbopol resin for carp pituitary administration improves the fertilization percentage of northern pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus) eggs in commercial hatcheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamás Szabó

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus) fry production via hormonal treatment of wintered broodstock is, in general, relatively low due to low egg fertilization\\u000a percentage. It has been experimentally demonstrated that administration of acetone-dried carp pituitary extract in a slow-release\\u000a vehicle of aqueous dispersion of Carbopol 971 P resin (CP) resulted in a higher mean fertilization percentage, possibly

  9. Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

    2013-04-01

    Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction. PMID:23292487

  10. Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet

    SciTech Connect

    Burreau, S.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Jakobsson, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E) were in the range 35 to 90% and differ in some respect from earlier studies. The E-values for those substances with effective cross sections (ECS) >9.5 {angstrom} were considerably higher than expected if the membrane permeation at dietary uptake was restricted as proposed previously in the literature. There was no hydrophobicity dependency of the total dietary uptake efficiency as suggested by an earlier proposed empirical model. The difference between the results presented here and earlier studies is likely to depend on cotransport with lipids and/or proteins through a mediated, possibly active uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in the gastrointestinal tract enabled by the actual exposure method. For the proposed mediated/active uptake of HOCs, the uptake efficiency varied with molecular weight and was greatest for a molecular weight of approximately 450.

  11. Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2009-06-01

    The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities. PMID:18925789

  12. Induction of gene responses in St. Lawrence River northern pike (Esox lucius) environmentally exposed to perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Despatie, Simon-Pierre; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Municipal waste water effluents (MWWEs) are important sources of chemical contamination for aquatic environments. This study investigated the presence and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmentally exposed northern pike (Esox lucius) collected upstream and downstream a major municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Twelve PFCs, including the newly detected perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), were quantified in fish muscle, liver, and plasma. Additionally, the expression of eight genes and the activity of three biomarkers were analyzed in fish tissues at both sites. Mean ?PFC concentration in fish plasma collected upstream the WWTP was 185ng/g w.w. compared to 545ng/g w.w. downstream the point of release. PFECHS was quantified for the first time in St. Lawrence River fish (mean plasma concentration in MWWE fish: 5.07±4.72ng/g w.w.). Results of transcriptomic responses were tissue-specific and indicated significant up-regulation for metallothionein (MT) in blood and MT, glutathion-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in gill tissue of fish collected in the MWWE suggesting greater stress responses for organisms at this location. Significant relationships were found between vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in liver, Vtg activity in plasma and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA), and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) plasma concentrations. The possible endocrine effects of these PFCs should be further investigated. PMID:23453599

  13. Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting. PMID:25567885

  14. Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius)

    PubMed Central

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting. PMID:25567885

  15. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L. [Stockholm Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  16. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  17. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system.

    PubMed

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (F ST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (F ST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (F ST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R (2)  = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  18. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    PubMed

    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (P<0.05). In general, the greatest percentage of motile spermatozoa and highest spermatozoa velocity were observed between 125 and 235 mOsmol kg(-1). Osmolality above 375 mOsmol kg(-1) inhibited the motility of spermatozoa. After triggering of sperm motility in activation media, beating waves propagated along the full length of flagella, while waves appeared dampened during later periods in the motility phase, and were absent at the end of the motility phase. By increasing osmolality, the velocity of spermatozoa reached the highest value while wave length, amplitude, number of waves and curvatures also were at their highest values. This study showed that sperm morphology can be used for fish classification. Sperm morphology, in particular, the flagellar part showed several changes during activation in distilled water. Sperm motility of pike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters. PMID:19269024

  19. Precocious induction of maturation and ovulation in northern pike (Esox lucius)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PPSG/kg gave satisfactory ovulation (89 p. 100) and fertilization (83 p. 100) rates ; a minimum dose or no ovulation. In all the above cases using the combined treatment or 17a-20p P alone, fertilization rates were and ovulation in pike. Since another salmon gonadotropic preparation (SG-G100) was found active on in vitro

  20. Seasonal dynamics of fatty acid composition in female northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay; M. T. Clandinin

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids were measured in the ovary, liver, white muscle, and adipopancreatic tissue of northern pike. The role of environmental and physiological factors underlying these changes was evaluated. From late summer (August–September) to winter (January–March), the weight percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially 22:6n3) declined significantly in the neutral

  1. Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Clark, Clarence F.

    1965-01-01

    The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

  2. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halden, N.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  3. Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.

    PubMed

    Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

    2009-07-01

    Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years. PMID:20735553

  4. Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

    1984-07-01

    The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

  5. 2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS) POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONS TO

    E-print Network

    Knowledge of the population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius), an important recreational and top t t t The northern pike (Esox lucius) is an important recreational fish in North America, including the Nebraska2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS

  6. Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.

    PubMed

    Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

    2010-04-01

    In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors. PMID:20537014

  7. Assessment of larval deformities and selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2009-03-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) release effluents with elevated levels of certain trace metals and metalloids, including selenium. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the presence of selenium-induced deformities in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae originating from adults collected downstream of a uranium mine. Eggs were fertilized in the field and incubated in the laboratory following a two-way (crossover) analysis-of-variance experimental design to discriminate effects from maternal transfer versus those from exposure to site water in the developing embryos. Selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker eggs (8.02 and 4.89 microg/g dry wt, respectively; mean +/- standard error throughout) from the exposure site were approximately two- to threefold higher than reference (2.35 +/- 0.20 and 1.94 +/- 0.25 microg/g dry wt, respectively). Among all evaluated deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, fin deformities, and edema), only edema in white sucker fry from the exposure site was slightly elevated ( approximately 3%) compared to reference. The occurrence of edema, however, can be associated with factors other than selenium (e.g., other metals and organic compounds). Both fish species displayed strong linear relationships between the selenium concentrations in eggs and other tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and bone), suggesting that selenium concentrations in eggs could be predicted from selenium concentrations in adult tissues. The lack of a clear, toxic response in the present study is in agreement with selenium thresholds for early life-stage deformities reported in other studies, with egg selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker collected at the exposure site being less than the 10 microg/g (dry wt) threshold associated with the presence of deformities. PMID:18939891

  8. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution. PMID:24865502

  9. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). IV. Srotonine endogne et activit monoamine oxydasique ;

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius L and pharmacological study The pineal organ of the pike was studied in natural conditions in autumn and winter (short fluorophores varied quantitatively, depending on the pineal region and the light-dark cycle. The distal part

  10. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytologique

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., I. A light and electron microscopic study. This report presents a study of the pineal organ of pike using light and electron micros- copy. Light microscopy showed a clear regional differentiation. The pineal end

  11. The influence of angling-induced exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Capture by angling was used to induce burst exercise in northern pike. By 3 h after exercise blood lactate had risen to levels\\u000a of 15.2 mmol l?1 (Fig. 2), which greatly exceeded the maximum post-exercise levels (4.0 mmol l?1) previously reported for muskellunge, a close relative of pike. White muscle lactate level was high, 41.8 mmol kg?1, immediately after capture

  12. Four decades of opposing natural and human-induced artificial selection acting on Windermere pike (Esox lucius)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Carlson; Eric Edeline; L. Asbjørn Vøllestad; Thrond. O. Haugen; Ian J. Winfield; Janice M. Fletcher; J. Ben James; Nils Chr. Stenseth

    2007-01-01

    The ability of natural selection to drive local adaptation has been appreciated ever since Darwin. Whether human impacts can impede the adaptive process has received less attention. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying natural selection and harvest selection acting on a freshwater fish (pike) over four decades. Across the time series, directional natural selection tended to favour large individuals whereas

  13. Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Midttun

    1980-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

  14. Northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Grimm

    1989-01-01

    Species and size composition of fish communities in shallow stagnant waters appear to be associated with the type, abundance and pattern of the vegetation. Man-induced impacts as eutrophication, and suppression of vegetation for reasons of water quantity management or angling pleasure may induce irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Water quality management should aim at restoring former pike habitat. Submerged

  15. Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool 2. Effects on lower trophic levels in Lake Lyng, Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Søndergaard; Erik Jeppesen; Søren Berg

    1997-01-01

    In order to study how pike stocking affects trophic structurepikefingerlings (0–3600 ha-1) were stocked during six yearsineutrophic Lake Lyng (lake area 10 ha), Denmark. Subsequently,marked changes were recorded in the abundance ofzooplanktivorousfish, catch per unit effort of roach, which was the dominantfishspecies, thus varied from 17 to 272. Simultaneously, markedchangeswere recorded in the abundance and relative composition ofzooplankton. Daphnia abundance

  16. Pineal-retinal relationships: rhythmic biosynthesis and immunocytochemical localization of melatonin in the retina of the pike ( Esox lucius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky Falcón; Jean-Pierre Collin

    1991-01-01

    The levels of melatonin and the activities of two enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were measured throughout the light-dark cycle in the retina of a teleost fish, the pike. HIOMT activity did not display significant variations, whereas NAT activity and melatonin content showed a daily rhythm, high levels occurring during the night. The

  17. UV-B exposure causes DNA damage and changes in protein expression in northern pike (Esox lucius) posthatched embryos.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing anthropogenically caused ozone depletion and climate change has increased the amount of biologically harmful UV-B radiation, which is detrimental to fish in embryonal stages. The effects of UV-B radiation on the levels and locations of DNA damage manifested as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and p53 protein in newly hatched embryos of pike were examined. Pike larvae were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of CPDs in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. Also at a fluence rate occurring in nature, the DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences. PMID:22145705

  18. A toxicological examination of whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to uranium mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Waite, D T; Joshi, S R; Sommerstad, H; Wobeser, G; Gajadhar, A A

    1990-01-01

    Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in nothern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor (K) of the Langley Bay whitefish and northern pike populations with these factors measured for control populations from Lake Athabasca. No significant differences could be found, in any of the physiological parameters measured, between the contaminated and control populations. PMID:2386411

  19. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    associée au CNRS n! 230 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cédex, France. Summary. The pineal. In order to elucidate the sensory function of the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reaction of Karnovsky and Roots (1964) was used to demonstrate the pineal neurons. Thirty

  20. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) V. Etude radioautographique de l'incorporation in vivo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). V. Radioautographic study investigation is to characterize the sites of indole meta- bolism in the pike pineal organ using, the pineal organs were incubated for 10 to 20 min in four dif- ferent physiological media containing 3H-5-HTP

  1. Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries. PMID:23566175

  2. Early Life History of the Northern Pike, Esox lucius L., with Special Reference to the Factors Influencing the Numerical Strength of Year Classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Franklin; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

    1963-01-01

    The early life history of northern pike was studied to determine the relationship of adult pike abundance to the strength of resulting year classes and the existence and chronology of critical survival periods, along with the nature and origin of the mortality mechanisms involved. Adult abundance and the strength of the resulting year classes were not directly related. Two critical

  3. Cytological identification of cell types in the testis of Esox lucius and E. niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Grier; R. Hurk; R. Billard

    1989-01-01

    Testes of Esox lucius and Esox niger were investigated histologically, cytochemically, and ultrastructurally in reproductive fish. Intralobular Sertoli cells possessed numerous lipid droplets in Esox lucius, but not in Esox niger. In both species, interlobular cell types included myoid cells and lipid-negative Leydig cells within the extravascular space. Evidence is presented for a contractile network of myoid cells within the

  4. Standard Weight Equation for Tiger Muskellunge (Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin B. Rogers; Keith D. Koupal

    1997-01-01

    Weight and length data for tiger muskellunge Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy were solicited from biologists across the continent to develop a 75th-percentile standard weight (Ws) equation for the hybrid. Only 27 populations (N = 1,124 fish) from 9 states yielded adequate data sets for this process. We used a bootstrap technique to demonstrate that the limited number of populations

  5. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions. PMID:24933165

  6. Diet and Growth of Northern Pike in the Absence of Prey Fishes: Initial Consequences for Persisting in Disturbance-Prone Lakes

    E-print Network

    Venturelli, Paul

    of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada Abstract.--The northern pike Esox lucius is a renowned to stunting. The northern pike Esox lucius is considered to be piscivorous throughout most of its circumpolar

  7. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

  8. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50?=?16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50?=?700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N?=?50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

  9. Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. (Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden))

    1993-05-01

    Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

  10. Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Larsson; Lennart Okla; Lars Collvin

    1993-01-01

    Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to

  11. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike ( Esox lucius), perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

    2004-01-01

    Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on ?15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs

  12. A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

    1995-01-01

    The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

  13. Walleye and Northern Pike: Boost or Bane to Northwest Fisheries?

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    (Esox lucius) have created popular recreational fisheries in many Northwestern waters. Rising demand popularity of nonnative walleye (Stizostedion vit- reum) and northern pike (Esox lucius) as sport fishes has

  14. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ?3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ?6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ?3/?6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  15. Production, consumption and prey availability of northern pike ( Esox lucius ), pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca ) and European catfish ( Silurus glanis ): a bioenergetics approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander J. P. Raat

    1990-01-01

    Bioenergetics models were applied for the assessment of food consumption of northern pike, pikeperch and European catfish\\u000a in drainable ponds of 0.4 ha. The ponds were stocked with known numbers of the 0+ predators. The prey fish consisted of naturally recruited 0+ cyprinids (rudd, roach and bream). The study shows that the impact of the three 0+ piscivores on the

  16. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on early life stages of the pike (Esox lucius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Helder

    1980-01-01

    Freshly fertilized pike eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ppt (ng\\/liter) for 96 hours. At all concentrations examined egg development was retarded by 23%, and the growth of fry was also significantly retarded for a long period after exposure. A dose-related mortality was observed. Highest mortality rates occurred during resorption of the yolk

  17. The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

    2011-05-01

    The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, P<0.024) corresponds to the gradient in repolarization times. No significant transmural difference in repolarization duration is observed in pike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopike and frogs. PMID:21281734

  18. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Burreau, Sven; Zebühr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Ishaq, Rasha

    2004-05-01

    Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on delta15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs and PBDEs. All investigated PCBs (tri- to deca-CBs) biomagnify and the biomagnification potential is positively correlated with hydrophobicity up to log Kow 8.18. Tri- to hepta-BDEs also biomagnify but showed a maximum biomagnification for the penta-BDEs (log Kow 6.46-6.97). The biomagnification of hexa- to hepta-PBDEs was negatively correlated with degree of bromination, likely due to large molecular size or high molecular weight (644-959 Da). Octa-, nona- and deca-BDEs did not biomagnify but were found in two (octa-BDE) and three (nona- and deca-BDEs) of the species, respectively. Increased size of pike is correlated with increased lipid weight based PCB and PBDE concentrations in males but not in females and mean PCB and PBDE concentrations in males are generally higher than in females. For the least hydrophobic PCBs, no sex difference is observed, probably as a consequence of faster clearance of these substances over the gills, making the spawning clearance of PCBs and PBDEs of lesser relative importance. PMID:15051373

  19. Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.

    PubMed

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  20. Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae

    PubMed Central

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  1. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p?pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens. PMID:21713472

  2. Physiological ecology of larval muskellunge and norlunge: temperature tolerance and growth rates under hatchery conditions. [Esox masquinongy, E. lucius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonin

    1976-01-01

    Critical Thermal Maxima (CTM) and growth rates of larval muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and norlunge (E. masquinongy female x E. lucius male) were determined under hatchery conditions. Two groups of fish were maintained at ambient water temperatures with natural photoperiod. Weekly water samples were collected to monitor the troughs. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia which were within normal

  3. Using Bioenergetics Modeling to Estimate Consumption of Native Juvenile Salmonids by Nonnative Northern Pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clint C. Muhlfeld; David H. Bennett; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Brian Marotz; Matthew Boyer

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002–2003) and applied food habits data (1999–2003) to estimate their annual consumption

  4. Factors Affecting Growth of Northern Pike in Small Northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry L. Margenau; Paul W. Rasmussen; Jeffrey M. Kampa

    1998-01-01

    Fish assemblages that include northern pike Esox lucius as a dominant predator were sampled in 19 small (<120 ha) northern Wisconsin lakes. The purpose of this sampling was to describe northern pike population characteristics and identify factors affecting growth rates. Fish assemblages in these lakes were dominated by centrarchids, primarily bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and small fusiform species such as yellow

  5. Population Characteristics and Ecological Role of Northern Pike in Shallow Natural Lakes in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig P. Paukert; David W. Willis

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike Esox lucius were sampled in Nebraska's Sandhill lakes during 1998 and 1999 to determine population characteristics and their influence on the fish community in these shallow, warm lakes at the southwestern edge of this species' natural range. Density-de- pendent growth, size structure, and condition were not evident in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass

  6. Gill Reaction to Pollutants from the Tamiš River in Three Freshwater Fish Species, Esox lucius L. 1758, Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and Silurus glanis L. 1758: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Luji?, J; Matavulj, M; Poleksi?, V; Raškovi?, B; Marinovi?, Z; Kosti?, D; Miljanovi?, B

    2015-04-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waterborne pollutants from the Tamiš River on gill histology and possible differences in gill reaction patterns between three freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius L. 1758, pike-perch Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and wels catfish Silurus glanis L. 1758 from the Tamiš River. Gills from analysed fish species showed moderate to intense histopathological alterations. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium, whereas the most frequent regressive alteration was epithelial lifting. Circulatory disturbances were most often manifested in the form of hyperaemia. During comparative analysis, differences in gill indices, reaction and alteration indices, as well as in gill and filament prevalence between analysed species, were observed. Although all analysed fish species did show both progressive and regressive alterations, there was a significant difference in the level of expression of these reaction patterns. Gill index obtained for pike clearly stands out as the lowest. Wels catfish showed the highest progressive reaction index, significantly higher in comparison with the other two species (P < 0.05), while pike-perch showed the highest regressive reaction index, also significantly higher in comparison with the other species (P < 0.001). These results may implicate species-specific gill reactions and thus present a useful tool for better understanding toxic mechanisms of various pollutants. PMID:24809962

  7. A short review of pike ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Craig

    2008-01-01

    A brief review is provided in some advances in understanding the ecology of pike Esox\\u000a lucius Linnaeus over the last 10 years. Based on long-term studies and manipulative, often short-term experiments (laboratory, field\\u000a and mesocosms) several established theories have been supported, as well as new concepts developed. Despite their wide distribution\\u000a pike show low levels of polymorphism and divergence indicative

  8. Oviduct Insertion of Radio Transmitters as a Means of Locating Northern Pike Spawning Habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce

    2004-01-01

    I inserted radio transmitters into the oviducts of northern pike Esox lucius in an attempt to find their spawning grounds. Oviduct insertion of miniature radio transmitters was quick and easy. I hoped that transmitters would be expelled with the eggs to aid in identifying critical habitat used for egg deposition. Ten transmitters were implanted in the egg masses of female

  9. Electrofishing Catchability of Walleyes, Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Northern Pike, and Muskellunge in Wisconsin Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casey W. Schoenebeck; Michael J. Hansen

    2005-01-01

    We sought to determine whether electrofishing catchability was density dependent and varied with physical and biological factors for walleyes Sander vitreus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, smallmouth bass M. dolomieu, northern pike Esox lucius, and muskellunge E. masquinongy in Wisconsin lakes. Electrofishing catch rate (number of fish caught per shoreline mile) was linearly related to population density (number of fish per

  10. Genetic Divergence among Northern Pike from Spawning Locations in the Upper St. Lawrence River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bosworth; John M. Farrell

    2006-01-01

    To assess the ecological consequences associated with the degradation of riparian wetlands that historically provided spawning and rearing habitat for northern pike Esox lucius, annual spawning migrations and genetic structure were used to examine this species' dependence on four specific spawning areas in the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River. Tagging and recapture over three consecutive spawning seasons

  11. Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

    1996-03-01

    Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

  12. Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

    1996-01-01

    Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

  13. Application of Liquid Oxytetracycline in Formulated Feeds to Mark and Treat Tiger Muskellunge (Northern Pike X Muskellunge)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Wahl; Roy A. Stein

    1987-01-01

    When added to pelleted diets, liquid oxytetracycline (500 mg\\/kg of fish per day) was effective in marking (after 12 d) and disease treatment (after 3 d) of tiger muskellunge (the hybrid of northern pike, Esox lucius, and muskellunge, E. masquinongy). Liquid oxytetracycline is more easily applied and costs less than traditional methods for these purposes.

  14. Retention of Floy FD-94 Anchor Tags and Effect on Growth and Condition of Northern Pike and Largemouth Bass

    E-print Network

    and Largemouth Bass Scott D. Gurtina· Michael L. Brown, and Charles G. Scalet Department of Wildlife and October 1995.315 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and 170 northern pike (Esox lucius) were captured bass at large from 355 to 395 days. Tag retention was 88% for largemouth bass tagged and recaptured

  15. Size Selectivity, Injury, Handling Time, and Determinants of Initial Hooking Mortality in Recreational Angling for Northern Pike: The Influence of Type and Size of Bait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Arlinghaus; Thomas Klefoth; Alexander Kobler; Steven J. Cooke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between bait and lure size and type and body size, injury, and handling time for northern pike Esox lucius, an important recreational fisheries resource in much of North America and Europe. Bait type and size were significantly related to the size of fish captured and hooking location. Hooking in critical locations (i.e., gills, gullet) was more

  16. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST. PMID:25702413

  17. Density and Biomass of Native Northern Pike Populations in Relation to Basin-Scale Characteristics of North-Central Minnesota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce; Cynthia M. Tomcko

    2005-01-01

    Habitat and ecological constraints that influence populations of northern pike Esox lucius at the scale of the lake basin were determined for 16 north-central Minnesota lakes that varied in size, depth, and chemical productivity. The density and biomass of northern pike greater than 350 mm total length were highly variable among lakes (3.2–59.0 fish\\/ha, 3.6–33.6 kg\\/ha). Densities of large northern

  18. Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures. PMID:25242691

  19. Hormonally Induced Ovulation of Northern Pike via Sustained-Release Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamás Szabó

    2001-01-01

    Although ovulation in northern pike Esox lucius can be induced by injections of dried fish pituitary-in-saline solutions, incomplete ovulation and low fertilization rates limit large-scale production of fry. The pituitary treatment was modified by using sustained-release vehicles, a hydrophilic biodegradable matrix of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) and a Carbopol resin. Administration of carp pituitary in an 8.0% solution of CMC-Na or

  20. Year-Class Formation of Upper St. Lawrence River Northern Pike

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Smith; John M. Farrell; H. Brian Underwood; Stephen J. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974–1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and

  1. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) II. Etude en microscopie lectronique de la diffrenciation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    associé au CNRS n° 290, 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal differentiation and regression and variations of the photoreceptive potential in different pineal regions. Photoreceptor cells (P) of the pike pineal organ were examined by electron microscopy. They showed the usual

  2. A toxicological examination of whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) exposed to uranium mine tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Waite; S. R. Joshi; H. Sommerstad; G. Wobeser; A. A. Gajadhart

    1990-01-01

    Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor

  3. Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

  4. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  5. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

  6. Age, growth, and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Miller, Terence J.

    1978-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) from eastern Lake Ontario were sampled with gill nets and trap nets in 1972-1973. Fish of age-groups IV, V, and VI were predominant in the catch. Although males were slightly longer after the 1st yr of life, females gained a 25-mm advantage in the 2nd yr and a 30-mm advantage in the 3rd yr. In later years, the increments of growth of males and females were similar. All males were mature after 2 yr and females after 3 yr. The stomachs of northern pike contained only fish; the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) was the principal forage species consumed. Electivity indexes for alewives, white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), the three most common species in the diet, indicated a positive selection for alewives that increased from June to October during a period when the relative abundance of alewives steadily decreased.

  7. Trait changes in a harvested population are driven by a dynamic tug-of-war between

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Stephanie

    -based data on Windermere pike (Esox lucius), we show that trait changes tracked the adaptive peak, which populations. We performed this task in pike (Esox lucius) from Windermere, U.K. This system is particu- larly

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Assessing evolutionary consequences of size-selective

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    on multiple life-history traits, with an application to northern pike (Esox lucius) Shuichi Matsumura · Robert- selective exploitation of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) with recreational-fishing gear. An age

  9. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15 :838-844, 1995 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1995

    E-print Network

    pike Esox lucius in 416 gill-net sets on 17 monthly oc- casions from July 1991 to June 1993 to examine of northern pike Esox lucius (Fisheries Techniques Standardization Committee 1992) . Seasonal variations

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius) Robert Arlinghaus,1-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find

  11. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  12. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:186193, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000

    E-print Network

    fit between predicted and observed food consumption for northern pike Esox lucius. Similarly, poor, 1999 kellunge Esox masquinongy and tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy E. lucius (Wahl and Stein 1991

  13. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

  14. Nearshore fish assemblages associated with introduced predatory fishes in lakes

    E-print Network

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    Micropterus salmoides, pike Esox lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and walleye Sander vitreus

  15. United States Department of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary

    E-print Network

    ) . In North America the~e are five specie s: Esox masquinongy (muskellunge) , Esox lucius (northern #12;pike confused as pike and pickerel. The true pikes a ll belong to one fam- ily (Esocidae) and to one genus (Esox, pike, pickerel, jack), Esox niger (chain or eastern picker el) ) Esox vermiculatus (grass, mud

  16. United States Department of the Interior, Douglas McKay, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director

    E-print Network

    ). In North America there are five species: Esox masquinongy (muskellunge), Esox lucius (north- ern pike, pike confused as pike and pickerel. The true pikes all belong to one family (Esocidae) and to one genus (Esox, pickerel, jack), Esox nig)r (chain-or-eastern pickerel), Esox vermiculatus (mUd or little pickerel

  17. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    (APHIS, 2006). Species affected by the APHIS rule included muskellunge, northern pike, Esox lucius isolated from 25 fish species (for example, muskellunge, Esox masuqinongy, and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus

  18. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  19. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the

    E-print Network

    Cucherousset, Julien

    -tagged hatchery-reared young-of-the-year northern pike Esox lucius (mean fork length FL 51.0 mm ± 5.3 S: Passive integrated transponder; Portable detector; Esox lucius; Survival; Stocking program 1. Introduction Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a predatory keystone species that tolerates a broad range of environmental

  1. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (?XP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ?XP-HT for multiple isotopes (?13C, ?15N, ?34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ?XP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ?XP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ?XP-HT was more positive for ?13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the ?15N and ?34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ?XP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed. PMID:24451479

  2. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  4. Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

  5. Utilization of natural and artificial habitats by YOY pike in a biomanipulated lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Skov; Søren Berg

    1999-01-01

    Biomanipulation by stocking with YOY pike Esox luciushas been shown to be a useful tool in the restoration of shallow hypertrophic lakes. The success of such stocking depends partly on the standing stock of the YOY pike in the first 2–3 months following stocking, this in turn depending on habitat type and abundance in the lake. The present study evaluated

  6. Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

  7. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  8. This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6158

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.). The two methods vegetation. It is likely microhabitat; scuba diving; lake; Rutilus rutilus; Perca fluviatilis; Esox

  9. C. R. Biologies 332 (2009) 741746 Ecology / cologie

    E-print Network

    Cucherousset, Julien

    ± SE = 4.2 ± 0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP = 3.7 ± 0 brochet (Esox lucius, TP = 3,7 ± 0,1) ou le silure (Silurus glanis, TP = 3,8 ± 0,1). La plupart des études

  10. This article was downloaded by: [University of Wisconsin -Madison] On: 28 May 2013, At: 05:28

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin. Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, black bass (i.e., Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and Largemouth Bass M. salmoides), Northern Pike E. lucius, Walleye Sander vitreus, and panfish were released

  11. Selective Predation by Three Esocids: The Role of Prey Behavior and Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID H. WAHL; ROY A. STEIN

    1988-01-01

    We documented differential vulnerability of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to predation by muskel- lunge Esox masquinongy. northern pike E. lucius. and tiger muskellunge £\\

  12. COOK, A. F., N. E. STACEY, AND R. E. PETER. 1980. Periovulatory changes in serum cortisol levels in

    E-print Network

    in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen. Compo Endocri- no\\. 40:507-510. HIROSE, K. 1976. Endocrine control pike(Esox lucius), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:974-988. KAYA, C. M

  13. DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

  14. Effects of exposure to predatory cues on territorial behaviour of male fathead minnows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary M. Jones; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to determine if male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, altered their territorial behaviour associated with reproduction in response to combinations of visual and chemical cues from northern pike, Esox lucius. We introduced the following stimuli to a territorial male: a brick (control), fathead minnow alarm pheromone, a pike fed brook stickleback, Culea inconstans, or a pike

  15. Esox lucius k = (y2 -y1) / (x2 -x1)

    E-print Network

    "SLU develops the understanding and sustainable use and management of biological natural resources of Forest Sciences The Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences The Faculty of Veterinary, Sweden's capital city, and took over the training of veterinary students from Skara. The institute

  16. Cultural transmission of predator recognition in fishes: intraspecific and interspecific learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA MATHIS; DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; R. JAN F. SMITH

    1996-01-01

    Individuals that live in groups may have the opportunity to learn to recognize unfamiliar predators by observing the fright responses of experienced individuals in the group. In intraspecific trials, naive fathead minnows,Pimephales promelas, gave fright responses to chemical stimuli from predatory northern pike,Esox lucius, when paired with pike-experienced conspecifics but not when paired with pike-naive conspecifics. These pike-conditioned minnows retained

  17. Northern Pike Fertilization Using Extenders

    E-print Network

    Northern Pike Fertilization Using Extenders BY : STEVE MERSON WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL PRODUCTION EGGS ON THE 2 PIKE SPAWNING DATES IN 2006 COMPARE FERTILIZATION BETWEEN COMMERCIAL PRODUCT DILUEUR DISINFECTED WITH IODINE #12;2006 Results DAY 1 EGGS HAD A 523 % BETTER EYE-UP DAY 2 EGGS HAD A 239 % BETTER

  18. Damselfly larvae learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the predator's diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; BRIAN D. WISENDEN; R. JAN F. SMITH

    1996-01-01

    Chemosensory recognition of predators by naive prey may be facilitated if the predator's diet chemically ‘labels’ the predator. In a laboratory experiment, behaviour patterns were quantified in individual damselfly larvae,Enallagmaspp., that had never been exposed to pike,Esox lucius, before and after exposing the damselflies to one of three chemical stimuli: water from a tank that held pike fed a diet

  19. Nutritional Requirements and Feeding of Selected Coolwater Fishes: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. George Ketola

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of published and unpublished studies on nutritional requirements, diets, and feeding of selected coolwater species of fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), European perch (P. fluviatilis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), northern pike (Esox lucius), muskellunge (E. masquinongy), and the northern pike x muskellunge hybrid. The published information on nutritional requirements was meager, including only

  20. The role of olfaction in chemosensory-based predator recognition in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

    1993-01-01

    Solitary fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were rendered anosmic and exposed to chemical stimuli from a predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) to determine the role of olfaction in the minnow's ability to recognize predators on the basis of chemical stimuli. Anosmic fish did not respond to the pike stimuli with a typical fright reaction, while control fish, with intact olfactory receptors,

  1. Biological Survey of the Pikes Peak Area

    E-print Network

    NETWORK AND BIODIVERSITY ...................................................... 4 WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL....................................................................................... 16 Pikes Peak Potential Conservation Area (Outstanding Biodiversity Significance

  2. High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

  3. Response of the residential piscivorous fish community to introduction of a new predator type in a mesotrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Schulze; Ulrich Baade; Hendrik Dörner; Reiner Eckmann; Susanne S. Haertel-Borer; Franz Hölker; Thomas Mehner

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of introduced predators on prey populations in aquatic ecosystems have been studied frequently, less is known about the interactions between predators. We performed a whole-lake experiment by stocking a non-native top predator (pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)) to two residential piscivores (Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)). By analyzing spatial distribution, diet composition, growth, and consump-

  4. Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

  5. Ranking Predatory Threats by Nonnative Fishes in the Yampa River, Colorado, via Bioenergetics Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Johnson; Patrick J. Martinez; John A. Hawkins; Kevin R. Bestgen

    2008-01-01

    Because of its relatively natural hydrograph, the Yampa River, Colorado, is considered the crown jewel of native fish habitat in the upper basin of the Colorado River and has supported a relatively intact native fish assemblage. Nonnative fishes are thought to pose the greatest threat to native fishes in this system. Removal programs for nonnative northern pike Esox lucius and

  6. Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

    2010-01-01

    The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

  7. Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

    1981-01-01

    Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

  8. Largemouth Bass Predation on Stocked Tiger Muskellunge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline; Robert S. Hayward

    1981-01-01

    To better understand why stocked esocids survive poorly, we estimated mortality rates of tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrid of female muskellunge Esox masquinongy x male northern pike E. lucius) that were placed into two Ohio reservoirs (mean fish total lengths, 171 and 179 mm; 62 fish per hectare). Because pond experiments showed that hybrids stocked at night experienced mortality rates as

  9. Growth of Tiger Muskellunge Fed Different Amounts of Protein at Three Water Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Lemm; Donald V. Rottiers

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates of tiger muskellunge (muskellunge Esox masquinongy ? x northern pike E. lucius ?) fed diets containing 35, 45, or 55% crude protein for 5 weeks at 17, 20, or 23°C were compared. Fish fed diets containing 45 or 55% protein grew faster at all temperatures than those fed 35% protein. Growth of tiger muskellunge fed a diet containing

  10. WINTER MOVEMENTS OF FOUR FISH SPECIES NEAR A THERMAL PLUME IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a po...

  11. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPERATURE SELECTION OF FISH NEAR THE THERMAL OUTFALL OF A POWER PLANT DURING FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The movement patterns of 4 fish species: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were monitored by radio telemetry near the thermal discharge of a power plant (delta T 15C nominal). F...

  12. Trends in Abundance and Mean Size of Fish Captured in Gill Nets from Minnesota Lakes, 1983–1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerold C. Grant; Yaniv Schwartz; Sanford Weisberg; Dennis H. Schupp

    2004-01-01

    We investigated seasonal and 15-year trends in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and mean weight of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, ciscoes Coregonus artedi, northern pike Esox lucius, walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), white suckers Catostomus commersoni, and yellow perch Perca flavescens captured in gill nets from 433 Minnesota lakes between 1983 and 1997. Seasonal trends were modeled using least-squares

  13. Biological Methylation of Mercury in Aquatic Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jensen; A. JERNELÖV

    1969-01-01

    FRESHWATER fish, especially pike (Esox lucius), from Sweden sometimes contain abnormally large amounts of mercury1. It was initially concluded to be either inorganic mercury or phenyl mercury, which are known to be released as industrial wastes, but later it was shown that the mercury was present almost entirely as methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)2. A possible explanation is that living organisms have

  14. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur N. Popper; Michael E. Smith; Peter A. Cott; Bruce W. Hanna; Alexander O. MacGillivray; Melanie E. Austin; David A. Mann

    2005-01-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in

  15. Reactions of Gammarus lacustris to Chemical Stimuli from Natural Predators and Injured Conspecifics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Wudkevich; Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

    1997-01-01

    We exposed the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris, to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Exposure to all three stimuli caused G. lacustris to reduce significantly its level of activity relative to activity recorded in response to a distilled water control. The similarity

  16. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1997 LEARNED RECOGNITION OF PREDATION RISK BY

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    minnows (Pimephales promelas). The response to injured fathead minnows was not a general response). European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and brook stick- leback promelas, northern pike, Esox lucius. *To whom correspondence should be addressed at Center for Ecology

  17. A BroadScale Approach to Management of Ontario's Recreational Fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel P. Lester; Terry R. Marshall; Kim Armstrong; Warren I. Dunlop; Bev Ritchie

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable exploitation of Ontario's aquatic resources calls for a new management approach. This vast resource includes more than 250,000 lakes and offers angling opportunities for many popular species (e.g., walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout S. fontinalis, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and muskellunge E. masquinongy). In

  18. Interactions between Walleyes and Four Fish Species with Implications for Walleye Stocking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Fayram; Michael J. Hansen; Timothy J. Ehlinger

    2005-01-01

    We used a number of different data sets and four criteria to evaluate evidence of competition and predation between walleye Sander vitreus and northern pike Esox lucius, muskellunge E. masquinongy, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass M. salmoides in northern Wisconsin lakes. The four criteria were as follows: (1) indices of population abundance were inversely related, (2) two species

  19. Mercury evolution (1978–1988) in fishes of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, Quebec, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Verdon; D. Brouard; C. Demers; R. Lalumiere; M. Laperle; R. Schetagne

    1991-01-01

    From 1978 to 1988, the evolution of the Hg content of fish has been monitored in the areas affected by the La Grande hydroelectric\\u000a complex. Four fish species were considered: two non piscivorous, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and two piscivorous, northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). The evolution of Hg concentrations in time

  20. The relationship between piscivory and growth of white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) and yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) in headwater lakes of the Canadian Shield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Bertolo; Pierre Magnan

    2005-01-01

    We used data from a survey of 36 headwater lakes of the Canadian Shield to investigate the relationship between piscivory and growth, abundance, and longevity of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). The occurrence of northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) explained variations in the abundance of both white sucker and yellow perch, suggesting strong

  1. Prey capture in the chain pickerel, Esox niger: correlations between feeding and locomotor behavior

    E-print Network

    Lauder, George V.

    Prey capture in the chain pickerel, Esox niger: correlations between feeding and locomotor behavior in the chain pickerel, Esox niger: correlations between feeding and locomotor behavior. Can. J. Zool. 59: 1072-1078. The predatory behavior of the chain pickerel Esox niger was studiedby high-speed cinematography to correlate

  2. OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

  3. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

  4. [The forms of the population variability of the chitinoid formations in Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea: Tetraonchidae)].

    PubMed

    Malashenko, A A

    1994-01-01

    Population variability of the adhesive apparatus and copulatory organ of Tetraonchus momenteron from young and adult pikes (Esox lucius) from Rybinsk reservoir (Volga river system) and adult pikes from lake Baikal has been studied. Comparison analysis of seven plastic and one meristic characters allowed to discover differences between the groups of monogeneans from young and adult pikes from "rybinsk" population by frequently of the variations of number of the tight coils of copulatory organ support bar. Differences between "rybinsk" and "baikal" populations of T. monenteron were found. The "baikal" monogeneans differ from the "rybinsk" ones by frequently of the copulatory organ phenes and also more large sizes of the chitinoid formations. PMID:8177612

  5. Evidence to Support the Pike’s Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R.; Allen, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Alabama’s Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike’s Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike’s Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs. PMID:24883167

  6. Experimental Intensive Culture of Tiger Muskellunge in a Water Reuse System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Pecor

    1979-01-01

    Tiger muskellunge (female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, x male northern pike, E. lucius) 14.5 cm long were reared for 45 days in a three-pass (pass I, II, and III) water reuse system. Cumulative growth rates for the fish were 0.143 cm\\/day in the first use of the water (pass I), 0.125 in the second use (pass II), and 0.108 in the

  7. Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hosper

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such as the loss of lake-marginal wetlands (nutrient filters, habitat for pike, Esox lucius) and chemical pollution toxic

  8. Variability and loading of mercury in a small Prairie River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wm. D. Gummer

    1980-01-01

    Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug\\/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug\\/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye

  9. Selenite toxicity and mercury-selenium interactions in Juvenile Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Klaverkamp; D. A. Hodgins; A. Lutz

    1983-01-01

    Acute lethal toxicities of selenium and the effects of selenium on mercury accumulation were determined in freshwater fish species. Selenite concentrations required to produce 50% mortality were approximately 11 mg Se\\/L in northern pike (Esox lucius), 29 mg Se\\/L in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and 5 mg Se\\/L in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) after 75, 96, and 240 hr of

  10. Diplostomatid Eye Flukes in Young-of-the-Year and Forage Fishes in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Marcogliese; Sacha Compagna

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen species of young-of-the year and forage fishes (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, northern pike Esox lucius, common carp Cyprinus carpio, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides, rosyface shiner Notropis rubellus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, silver redhorse Moxostoma anisurum, brown bullhead Ameirurus nebulosus, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, rock bass Ambloplitis rupestris, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis

  11. Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone de Rosemond; Qianli Xie; Karsten Liber

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic\\u000a acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different\\u000a fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great

  12. Environmental Contaminants in Fish and Their Associated Risk to Piscivorous Wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kathy R. Echols; Tom W. May; Carl E. Orazio; Donald E. Tillitt

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data\\u000a and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted\\u000a to screen

  13. The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. PMID:24845618

  14. EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

  15. Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan NVIDIA/Activision Jason Tranchida Bungie Hao Chen Bungie Ladislav Kavan University of Pennsylvania Figure 1: Ambient Obscurance (left) and a final as the character moves thanks to our new dynamic Ambient Obscurance model. c Bungie Abstract Ambient Occlusion

  16. Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Food Science Nutrition Students should see their college advisement center for help or informationNutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair S-221 ESC, (801) 422-3912 College Some degree programs in the Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science carry special

  17. Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland Rail Trail (milepost 115), C&O Canal, and Potomac River, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  18. S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

  19. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems n-2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  20. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 ?g/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 ?g/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 ?g/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 ?g/g) than those of pike (˜30 ?g/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  1. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  2. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Four fish species were studied during the winter of 1975 to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. Seventeen yellow perch (Perca flavescens), six northern pike (Esox lucius), three walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and two largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters. The spatial distributions differed among species. Only the largemouth bass confined their movements to heated water areas. The yellow perch, which was of particular interest, do not seem to be attracted to warm winter waters, and thus locate themselves in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay and fail to reproduce. This finding is contrary to those of previous studies.

  3. Variability and loading of Mercury in a small prairie river. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Gummer, W.D.

    1980-10-01

    Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and other game fish in the Fishing Lakes of the Qu'Appelle River Basin contain mercury in excess of the Canadian guideline of 0.5 mg/kg.

  4. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, M.R.

    1980-03-01

    The results of mercury and selenium analyses conducted on northern pike (Esox lucius) muscle tissue indicate distinct and significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels of fish from two lakes in Quebec. While fish samples from Lake Dufault had very low mercury concentrations, they appeared to have elevated amounts of selenium. Conversely, fish samples originating from Lake Duparquet had elevated mercury concentrations and low selenium levels. In both cases a comparison of means by the Student t test indicated significant (P < 0.01) differences between the mercury and selenium concentrations of fish samples from the two lakes.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of pike perch (Sander canadensis).

    PubMed

    Cao, Ding-Chen; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Guo, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Wei; Xue, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Pike perch (Sander canadensis) is a member of the largest order of Osteichthyes, Perciformes, and is an important ecological and economic freshwater species, which distributes in Ili River and Ergis River of Xinjiang Province, China. In this study, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of pike perch, and analyzed the similarity with its related species. The mitochondrial genome of S. canadensis is 16,542?bp in length with 55.05% AT content, contained 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal genes and an 892?bp non-coding region. In control region, 6 CSBs (CSB-1, CSB-2, CSB-3, CSB-D, CSB-E and CSB-F), one potential TAS and one poly-T region were identified. Comparing all protein-coding genes and whole genome sequence with 4 species of Perciformes (three species of Percidae, Perca flavescens. Percina macrolepida. Etheostoma radiosum and one outgroup Oreochromis sp. red tilapia), ND3 gene has the highest mutation rate, and S. canadensis has higher similarity with Perca flavescens than others. The mitochondrial genomic sequence will help us to study the conservation genetic and evolution of Percidae. PMID:23815329

  6. Emulating the fast-start swimming performance of the Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) using a mechanical fish design

    E-print Network

    Watts, Matthew Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Mean maximum start-up accelerations and velocities achieved by the fast-start specialist, northern pike, are reported at 120 ms-2 and 4 ms-1, respectively (Harper and Blake, 1990). In this thesis, a simple mechanical system ...

  7. Communiqu de presse 10 septembre 2014 Un brochet en France peut en cacher deux autres

    E-print Network

    Esox lucius est un poisson emblématique en France, où il fait l'objet d'un fort intérêt pour la pêche qu'il n'existait qu'une seule espèce de brochet (Esox lucius) en Europe. Or en 2011, une nouvelle aquitanicus (a), et le brochet commun Esox lucius (b). 1 Onema : Office national de l'eau et des milieux

  8. From Uplift to Glaciation: The Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Sarah, a 17 year old student from Colorado, takes a look at the geological past of Pikes Peak and its region. Her essay has a field-journal focus and covers how geologists divide Earth's history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic)and the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras.

  9. Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor merlin inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase through binding to PIKE-L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Rong; Xiaoling Tang; David H. Gutmann; Keqiang Ye

    2004-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a tumor suppressor, although the molecular mechanism accounting for this effect remains unknown. Here, we show that merlin exerts its activity by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), through binding to PIKE-L. Wild-type merlin, but not patient-derived mutant (L64P), binds PIKE-L and inhibits PI3-kinase activity. This suppression of PI3-kinase activity results from merlin disrupting the binding of PIKE-L

  10. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2010-03-22

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (lambda) by 37-56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of lambda to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics. PMID:19923130

  11. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. The mean home range sizes, in hectares, were northern pike 19.0; yellow perch 13.4; largemouth bass 3.7; walleye 2.2. Northern pike and yellow perch had mean home range sizes larger than the discharge area. Mean water depths at fish locations were as follows: largemouth bass 0.8 m; northern pike 1.2 m; yellow perch 1.6 m; walleye 3.5 m. Largemouth bass preferred the warmest locations near the discharge point. Yellow perch were most often located in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay while walleyes were most often located in the deeper center area. Northern pike moved over the entire discharge area. All species except largemouth bass moved freely between discharge-affected and unaltered waters. The average numbers of movements per individual per week between heated and unheated areas were the following: northern pike 0.8; yellow perch 1.2; walleye 1.1; largemouth bass, 0.

  12. [Effect of temperature on proteinase activities of enteral microbiota and intestinal mucosa of fish of different ecological group].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Shalygin, M V; Skvortsova, E G

    2012-01-01

    Effect of temperature on proteinases activities of enteral microbiota and of intestinal mucosa was studied in five fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common perch Perca fluviatilis, pike-perch Zander lucioperca, and pike Esox lucius) belonging by the nutrition type to different ecological groups. Essential differences of temperature characteristics of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and of enteral microbiota are revealed in fish belonging by the nutrition type to different ecologic groups. The character of the t0-function of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and enteral microbiota by casein and hemoglobin as a rule is different. The highest values of relative proteinases activities for casein in the zone of low temperatures (38 and 45.3 % of the maximal activity) are found at study of proteinases of enteral microbiota in common perch and crucian carp. The latter indicates a significant adaptability of the enteral microbiota proteinases of common perch and crucial carp to functioning at low temperatures. PMID:22645973

  13. Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish. PMID:22864703

  14. Uptake of pentachlorophenol in fish of acidified and nonacidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Bremle, G.; Okla, L. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the uptake of pentachlopophenol (PCP) in fish (northern pike, Esox lucius L.) in one acidified and two non-acidified lakes. The lakes are situated in southern Sweden within 30 km of each other and are only exposed to persistent pollutants from the atmosphere. Because the lakes are of similar size and depth and situated in the same fall-out area, atmospheric input of PCP should be similar. Concentrations of PCP were significantly higher in pike from the acidified lake than from the non-acidified lakes. The results suggest that fish in acidified lakes are subjected to higher PCP exposure and uptake than fish from non-acidified lakes. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, W.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Freeberg, M.H.; Dowling, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator. (USGS)

  16. Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

  17. Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

  18. Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-2012.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Elisabeth; Danielsson, Sara; Eriksson, Ulla; Faxneld, Suzanne; Miller, Aroha; Bignert, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been monitored in perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in reference lakes since the late 1960s. Temporal trends and spatial patterns are currently monitored in nine and 32 lakes, respectively. Overall, PCB concentrations are decreasing. However, this is not consistent for all congeners across all lakes and species. Perch has comparatively low PCB concentrations relative to suggested target levels, but individual congener concentrations in some lakes are concerningly high. No temporal trend is seen for CB-118 and CB-153 in perch, but significant decreasing trends exist for Arctic char and pike, for which monitoring started earlier than for perch. The lower/higher chlorinated congener ratio decreased over time in most lakes, indicating fewer new emissions. CB-118 and CB-153 concentrations in perch show spatial gradients across Sweden, with higher concentrations found near urban/industrial areas. PMID:25403969

  19. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  20. From Uplift to Glaciation: Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 'Young Naturalist' award-winning essay reviews the geologic history of Pikes Peak and the southern Rocky Mountains, from Precambrian foundation to roughly contoured summits. The essay, in the form of a field journal, focuses on how geologists divide Earth's 4.6-billion-year history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic). It also discusses the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras, and the inevitable geologic changes the future will bring. References are included.

  1. INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS 20152016 STUDY AT SLU

    E-print Network

    is at your fingertips. Lisa Sennerby-Forsse Vice-Chancellor, SLU #12;3 Esox lucius (x - x1)² + (y - yEsox lucius (x - x1)² + (y - y CONTENT 2 WELCOME TO SLU AND SWEDEN! 4 SLU in brief 6 Why study in Sweden? 8

  2. HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. ATTACHED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT OF VIEW IS ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Titanium: A HighPerformance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Alex

    Titanium: A High­Performance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike National Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high­performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing

  4. Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Alex

    Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

  5. Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

  6. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in

    E-print Network

    1759 Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes Craig A. Soupir, Michael L. Brown, and Larry W. Kallemeyn Abstract: Largemouth bass reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric

  7. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Catherine L.; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km2), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9–1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091–2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike–brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  8. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-22

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  9. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  10. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  11. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  12. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM-based criteria are commonly lower values than the hardness-based criteria and thus suggest a greater degree or magnitude of impairment at the sampling locations. The riffle-habitat benthic invertebrate richness and abundance data correlate strongly with the extent of impact based on water quality for both brooks. Similarly, the fish community assessments document degraded conditions throughout most of Pike Hill Brook, whereas the data for the tributary to Cookville Brook suggest less degradation to this brook. The sediment environment shows similar extents of impairment to the surface-water environment, with most sampling locations in Pike Hill Brook, including the wetland areas, and the tributary to Cookville Brook affected. Sediment impairment is caused by elevated copper concentrations, although localized degradation due to elevated cadmium and zinc concentrations was documented on the basis of exceedances of probable effects concentrations (PECs). In contrast to impairment determined by exceedances of PECs, equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmarks (based on simultaneously extracted metals, acid volatile sulfides, and total organic carbon) predict no toxic effects in sediments at the background locations and uncertain toxic effects throughout Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook, with the exception of the most downstream Cookville Brook location, which indicated no toxic effects. Acute laboratory toxicity testing using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus on pore waters extracted from sediment in situ indicate impairment (based on tests with H. azteca) at only one location in Pike Hill Brook and no impairment in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Chronic laboratory sediment toxicity testing using H. azteca and C. dilutus indicated toxicity in Pike Hill Brook at several locations in the lower reach and two locations in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Toxicity was not indicated for either species in sediment from the most acidic metal-rich location, likely due to the low lability of copper in that sediment, as indicated by a

  13. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  14. Life History of the Colorado Squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado Chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, 1964–1966

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. David Vanicek; Robert H. Kramer

    1969-01-01

    Investigations of the ecology and life history of the Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado-Utah, were conducted from May 1964, to October 1966. A total of 1,469 squawfish and 2,393 chubs was collected with gill nets, seines, fry gear, and an electric shocker. The operation of Flaming

  15. Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients. PMID:19609567

  16. Perchlorate trophic transfer increases tissue concentrations above ambient water exposure alone in a predatory fish.

    PubMed

    Furin, Christoff G; von Hippel, Frank A; Hagedorn, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 d and/or through feeding, 1 per day over 14 d, sticklebacks that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:24188192

  17. WBIC Code (Lipsett Lake – 2678100)

    E-print Network

    Lipsett Lake; Larry Damman; Senior Fisheries Biologist

    2008-01-01

    Lipsett Lake provides an important multi-species sport fishery. This report compares data collected using similar methods over an 18 year period between 1990 and 2007. Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and northern pike Esox lucius were the most abundant game fish species. Walleye Sander vitreus were a highly sought after species on Lipsett Lake by sport and tribal fishers despite low populations. Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus were the most abundant and sought after panfish species. Angler harvest of walleye has been low. Projected angler harvest of walleye in the 1994-95, 1997-98 and 2004-04 creel survey was 24,188, and 85, respectively. The largest walleye harvest is related to good survival of a stocking of sub-adult walleye in 1994 which had recruited to legal size (15 in) by the 1997 season. Largemouth bass relative abundance has increased but growth rates decreased. Smallmouth bass M. dolomieui were present but rare. Northern pike and panfish populations have been relatively stable in terms of size structure, relative abundance and contribution to the creel. Muskellunge Esox masquinongy have been present in low numbers due to immigration from adjoining waters. A muskie stocking program began in 2001 which is expected to enhance sport fishing opportunities for this species. 2

  18. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4?h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  19. [The internal cavities of pike alpha-parvalbumin probably contain water].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrogen exchange of pike a-parvalbumin was investigated using the method of infrared spectroscopy (sensitive to the amide hydrogen atoms in the peptide) and radioisotope method (sensitive to all labile hydrogen atoms). Ultraslow exchangeable hydrogen atoms were found to be substantially less in the first case than in the second one. Taking into account that the internal cavities in the parvalbumin are formed by hydrophobic amino acid residues, devoid of labile hydrogen atoms, it is possible to make the most appropriate assumption, namely, these cavities contain water molecules, hydrogen atoms of which are ultraslow exchangeable. PMID:22873060

  20. An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. PMID:23597093

  1. Induced histopathologic alterations in early life stages (ELS) of medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos, S.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Agricultural and industrial pollutants cause extensive alterations in fish embryos, and the cardiovascular system is often targeted. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds produce lesions in lake and rainbow trout (Salvelinus namaycush and Oncorhynchus mykiss), and northern pike (Esox lucius), ultimately compromising ELS survival, and possibly stock recruitment. Pericardial edema was produced by exposure of medaka embryos to thiobencarb, molinate, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, dioxin, and products of incomplete combustion from trichloroethylene incineration. These lesions closely resembled those observed in birds, Xenopus, and other fish species. This work focuses on gross morphologic and histologic alterations of heart, major blood vessels, pericardial cavity, skeletal muscle, and brain. Endothelium, perivascular connective tissue, and other tissues of embryos and larvae were examined in semithin (4 {mu}m) glycolmethacrylate-embedded serial sections. Structural defects and their microscopic features will be presented.

  2. Predicting change in fish mercury concentrations following reservoir impoundment.

    PubMed

    Therriault, T W; Schneider, D C

    1998-01-01

    Fish mercury concentrations frequently increase after impoundment of a reservoir. Soil flooding releases organic matter and nutrients, providing food to bacterial communities that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylation and bioaccumulation are the primary pathways for mercury accumulation in fish. We investigated if changes in fish mercury concentrations could be predicted from the change in reservoir size. Data for three fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from reservoirs in northern Manitoba and northern Quebec were used to evaluate four simple models of change in mercury with change in flooded area. For three additional fish species, all primary carnivores, the preferred model consisted of a single exponential enrichment term. This model successfully predicted two cases not used in model development-one with a large change in area and one with a small change in area. Models with good predictive skill can be developed when the underlying dynamics are known. PMID:15093096

  3. Noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and tryptophan concentrations in the brains of four cohabiting species of fish.

    PubMed

    Sloley, B D; Rehnberg, B G

    1988-01-01

    1. The concentrations of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and the amino acid tryptophan were determined in the telencephalon, optic lobes and rest of the brains of four species of fish collected from a stream in central Saskatchewan. 2. The species investigated were white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), longnosed dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) and northern pike (Esox lucius). 3. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of amines in different regions of the brain within species and within the same brain region between species. 4. These results may be related to the phylogenetic differences or to patterns in brain development evolved by fish species to adapt to particular lifestyles. PMID:2898995

  4. Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

  5. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, M.R.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels in fish from the two lakes were reported. Fish samples from Lake Dufault had low mercury concentrations but elevated levels of selenium. Fish samples from Lake Duparquet, however, had elevated mercury levels and low selenium levels. Elevated mercury levels were present in sediment samples from both lakes. Mercury and selenium levels in water samples from both lakes were at or below analytical detection limits. (15 references, 3 tables)

  6. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  7. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  8. Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

  9. Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

  10. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

  11. Harvest-induced disruptive selection increases variance in fitness-related traits.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2009-12-01

    The form of Darwinian selection has important ecological and management implications. Negative effects of harvesting are often ascribed to size truncation (i.e. strictly directional selection against large individuals) and resultant decrease in trait variability, which depresses capacity to buffer environmental change, hinders evolutionary rebound and ultimately impairs population recovery. However, the exact form of harvest-induced selection is generally unknown and the effects of harvest on trait variability remain unexplored. Here we use unique data from the Windermere (UK) long-term ecological experiment to show in a top predator (pike, Esox lucius) that the fishery does not induce size truncation but disruptive (diversifying) selection, and does not decrease but rather increases variability in pike somatic growth rate and size at age. This result is supported by complementary modelling approaches removing the effects of catch selectivity, selection prior to the catch and environmental variation. Therefore, fishing most likely increased genetic variability for somatic growth in pike and presumably favoured an observed rapid evolutionary rebound after fishery relaxation. Inference about the mechanisms through which harvesting negatively affects population numbers and recovery should systematically be based on a measure of the exact form of selection. From a management perspective, disruptive harvesting necessitates combining a preservation of large individuals with moderate exploitation rates, and thus provides a comprehensive tool for sustainable exploitation of natural resources. PMID:19740875

  12. Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

  13. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming. PMID:25473013

  14. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2014-12-01

    SUMMARY The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

  15. LES CELLULES DE SERTOLI DES POISSONS TLOSTENS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Salvelinus fontinalis HENDERSON (1962) qualifie également les cellules de la paroi des lobules de « lobules'espace extralobulaire). Il s'agit de : Esox lucius, Salvelinus willughbü et Labeo (MARSH!,r, et LOFTS, ig56 ; LOFTS et

  16. Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovi?ová, Danka; Tur?eková, L'udmila

    2012-11-01

    The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

  17. Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

  18. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  19. [Genetic study of pike perch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) and bersh Sander volgensis (Gmelin, 1789) from the fishery water-bodies of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Barmintseva, A E; Shalgimbayeva, G M; Koishibayeva, S K; Sarbakanova, S T; Asylbekova, S Z; Isbekov, K B; Mugue, N S

    2014-07-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the pike perch Sander lucioperca, sampled on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Lake Balkhash, Urals River, Syrdarya River and Shardara water reservoir, North Aral Sea) and in the Volga River, and the bersh Sandler volgensis (Lake Balkhash, Volga River) populations was examined at six microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA cytochirome b gene. All examined loci were successfully amplified in both species and produced quite different allele profiles, whichallows them to be used for accurate species identification of pike perch and bersh. At the same time, neither nuclear nor mitochondrial markers revealed statistically significant differentiation betweenthe examined pike perch samples, excluding some isolation of the population from Volga River. PMID:25720143

  20. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition. PMID:23280299

  1. Short- and long-term patterns of ¹³?Cs in fish and other aquatic organisms of small forest lakes in southern Finland since the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rask, Martti; Saxén, Ritva; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Arvola, Lauri; Järvinen, Marko; Koskelainen, Ulla; Outola, Iisa; Vuorinen, Pekka J

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the patterns of ¹³?Cs activity concentrations and transfer into fish and other biota in four small forest lakes in southern Finland during a twenty-year period following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The results from summer 1986 showed fastest accumulation of ¹³?Cs into planktivorous fishes, i.e. along the shortest food chains. Since 1987, the highest annual mean values of ¹³?Cs have been recorded in fish occupying the highest trophic levels, for perch (Perca fluviatilis) 13,600 Bq/kg (ww) and for pike (Esox lucius) 20,700 Bq/kg (ww). At the same time, activity concentrations of ¹³?Cs in crustacean zooplankton and Asellus aquaticus have ranged between 1000 and 19,500 Bq/kg (dw). In 2006, 5-28% of the 1987 ¹³?Cs activity concentration levels were still present in perch and pike. Since 1989 their ¹³?Cs activity concentrations in oligohumic seepage lakes have remained significantly higher than in polyhumic drainage lakes due to the increased transfer of ¹³?Cs into fish in the seepage lakes with lower electrolyte concentrations, longer water retention times and lower sedimentation rate. PMID:22036157

  2. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

  3. The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

    2010-09-01

    The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

  4. Behavioural syndrome in a solitary predator is independent of body size and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Marina J; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J Robert

    2012-01-01

    Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted. PMID:22363687

  5. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

  6. Cooperation under Predation Risk: Experiments on Costs and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Luthi, Jean H.; Eggler, Rolf; Parker, Geoffrey A.

    1997-06-01

    Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the predator is approached and the potential benefits of cooperation was carried out strictly experimentally. We made either singletons or pairs of dead sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, approach hungry pike, Esox lucius, by remote control according to an algorithm that mimicked natural inspection. The predation risk of both single inspectors and parallel inspecting pairs increased with closer inspection distances. A member of an inspecting pair had only about half the risk of that of a single inspector. In pairs, a companion diluted the lead fish's risk of being caught, depending on its distance behind the leader. The absolute risk difference between leader and follower was greatest for close inspection distances and decreased further away from the predator. The leader's relative risk increased with its distance ahead of the laggard. However, for a given distance between leader and laggard, the relative risks to the two fish remained similar with distance from the predator. The cost side of the inequalities that define a 'Prisoner's Dilemma' has thus been measured for this system. In a second experiment the 'attack deterrence hypothesis' of predator inspection (i.e. inspection decreases attack probability) was tested. The pike was offered a choice between two sticklebacks, one of which had carried out a predator inspection visit. There was no indication of attack deterrence through predator inspection.

  7. Accumulative heavy metal patterns in the sediment and biotic compartments of the Tisza watershed.

    PubMed

    Fleit, Ernö; Lakatos, Gyula

    2003-04-11

    The paper presents data on toxic heavy metals in sediments measured after two large chemical spills on the Tisza watershed area. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that significant volume, high concentration heavy metals reached the Upper Tisza and Szamos River sections. Based on the longitudinal distribution of the heavy metals in sediments, the primary sedimentation zones and concentration increase compared with reference site was determined. Results verified arrival of fresh spills of mining origin and superimposed pollution. Regarding to chronic ecotoxicological effects, degradation and bioaccumulation rates of heavy metals priority problems are associated with arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium in the sediments of the Tisza and Szamos Rivers after the spills of Romanian origin in 2000. Results indicate that the biological availability of the various heavy metals significantly differ along the river, particularly upstream and downstream of the Tisza Lake. The recent investigation did not identify one single sample in which muscular metal concentration of pike (Esox lucius L.) exceeded the present Hungarian consumer guidelines. The investigated pike population on the Tisza River could be divided into characteristic subgroups based on muscular tissue metal concentrations (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu and As), depending on the bioavailability of the metalloids at the different river sections. On the basis of the data evaluation, it is concluded that the present state of pollution on Tisza River indicates the potential for deterioration and need for further biomonitoring. PMID:12676481

  8. Behavioural Syndrome in a Solitary Predator Is Independent of Body Size and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Nyqvist, Marina J.; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted. PMID:22363687

  9. A field methodology to study effects of UV radiation on fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Jani; Oikari, Aimo

    2004-07-01

    There is a considerable lack of in situ specific information about the effects of UV-B radiation on limnic animals studied in the field. We exposed larval pike (Esox lucius L.) in two types of cuvettes (glass and quartz) placed at different depths (5 or 15 cm) to natural solar UV or to artificially enhanced UV-B (lamps on 3 h per day), simulating the scenarios for coming decades. Dose realism and comparability with earlier laboratory experiments was the main purpose, and therefore UV-B irradiances to the surface as well as underwater irradiances were directly measured. Result showed that UV-B dose rates in natural waters are low even though DOC concentration was low (4.8 mg/l) in our study lake. A slight increase in ambient UV-B dose rates was enough to cause neurobehavioral symptoms in pike larvae. However, the dose rates applied were inadequate to affect superoxide dismutase (SOD) or HSP70. While assessing the suggested risks due to increased UV, conclusions emphasize the importance of conducting field UV studies as supplements to laboratory experiments. We also recommend direct measurements of UV-radiation at sites where the target organisms are actually exposed. PMID:15223283

  10. Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

  11. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  12. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  13. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Smith, Michael E; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; MacGillivray, Alexander O; Austin, Melanie E; Mann, David A

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. PMID:16018498

  14. Total mercury in sediments, macrophytes, and fish from a shallow steppe lake in eastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Jirsa, Franz; Pirker, Daniel; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2014-08-01

    During summer 2011, samples of sediment, macrophytes, and fish tissues from the shallow, slightly alkaline Lake Neusiedl, Austria, were evaluated for their total Hg content. This is the first report of Hg levels from this lake. Sediments displayed Hg contents between 0.025 and 0.113 ?g g(-1) dw (dry weight), significantly correlating with the proportion of organic components pointing to a small anthropogenic impact on the lake's Hg content. Hg Levels in plants and fish were unexpectedly high: both investigated submerged plant species, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, showed mean values of 0.245 ± 0.152 and 0.298 ± 0.115 ?g g(-1) dw, respectively. Biomagnification was evident when comparing muscle samples of the planktivorous fish species rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (n = 10, mean = 0.084 ?g g(-1) ww (wet weight)) with the piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis (n = 21, mean = 0.184 ?g g(-1) ww) or pike-perch Sander lucioperca (n = 9, mean = 0.205 ?g g(-1) ww). Significantly lower values were found in the muscle of the piscivorous pike Esox lucius (n = 25, mean = 0.135 ?g g(-1) ww), pointing to a specific Hg metabolism of this fish, presumably under the particular physicochemical properties of the lake. Hg Concentrations in fish could pose a risk to piscivorous birds in this protected wetland system. PMID:25146770

  15. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  16. Threaded structure and blue luminescence of (CuCN)20(Piperazine)7{ Robert D. Pike,* Kathryn E. deKrafft, Amanda N. Ley and Tristan A. Tronic

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    Threaded structure and blue luminescence of (CuCN)20(Piperazine)7{ Robert D. Pike,* Kathryn E. de and highly luminescent 20 : 7 complex of CuCN with piperazine (Pip) was formed under aqueous conditions; its of luminescent metal­organic networks based on CuCN,9 we herein report the formation of a copper-rich network

  17. Acute and chronic nitrite toxicity in juvenile pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and its compensation by chloride.

    PubMed

    Wuertz, S; Schulze, S G E; Eberhardt, U; Schulz, C; Schroeder, J P

    2013-05-01

    Pike-perch Sander lucioperca is currently considered as one of the most promising candidates for production in freshwater recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Here, due to the lack of studies on nitrite (NO(2)(-)) toxicity in pike-perch, a flow-through exposure at 0, 0.44, 0.88, 1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N was carried out to determine the acute and chronic toxicity over a period of 32 days. In juvenile pike-perch, 120 h LC(50) was 6.1mg/L NO(2)(-)-N and at ?14 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N all fish had died within 24 h. Chronic exposure revealed a significant build up of NO(2)(-) in the plasma as well as in the muscles at ?0.44 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N peaking in fish exposed to the highest concentration of 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N after 32 days. Still, due to high individual variation methemoglobin (MetHb) was only significantly increased (p<0.01) at 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N. No adverse effects on red blood cells (RBC) and hematocrit were observed in any of the treatments. In a second experiment, compensation of NO(2)(-) toxicity at increasing chloride concentrations (40 (freshwater), 65, 90, 140, 240, 440 mg/L Cl(-)) was observed at a constant exposure of 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N for 42 days. At ?240 mg/L Cl(-), NO(2)(-) build-up in blood plasma and muscle was completely inhibited. At lower Cl(-) concentrations (?140 mg/L), NO(2)(-) was significantly increased in plasma, but only insignificantly elevated in muscle due to high individual variation. MetHb was increased significantly difference only at 40 mg/L Cl(-) (freshwater control) compared to the control. Again, high individual variations were observed. As a conclusion, S. lucioperca is moderately sensitive towards NO(2)(-) and acceptable levels in RAS should hence not exceed 1.75 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N to avoid MetHb formation. However, based on the 120 h LC(50) and a factor of 0.01 according to Sprague (1971), a NO(2)(-) concentration of ?0.061 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N is considered as "safe." Thereby, no NO(2)(-) should accumulate in the plasma or muscle tissue during chronic exposure. For 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N, ?240 mg/L chloride compensates for NO(2)(-) uptake in plasma and muscle. PMID:23318298

  18. Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, D.M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not correlate with color zoning, whereas Zn variations (up to 1.1 wt. %) are entirely independent. The dark color zones probably reflect Fe-Ti charge transfer. The mica composition sequence described here is typical of the extreme fractionation observed in pegmatites of the NYF family, associated with anorogenec granites. Elevated Fe, Zn, and enhanced Sc contents are characteristic of this family. Strong enrichment in Li, Rb, and F is present, particularly in the micas of the miarolitic cavities. Sharp color zonation and compositional variation in cavity-grown zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite crystals suggest rapid changes in the intensive parameters, particularly the f(O2), of the parent fluid during the final stages of pegmatite consolidation ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, E; Faisal, M; Thomas, M; Whelan, G; Batts, W; Winton, J

    2006-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and contained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate of kidney and spleen tissues from affected fish. Focal areas of cell rounding and granulation appeared as early as 24 h post-inoculation and expanded rapidly to destroy the entire cell sheet by 96 h. Electron microscopy revealed virions that were 170-180 nm in length by 60-70 nm in width having a bullet-shaped morphology typical of rhabdoviruses. The virus was confirmed as VHSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the entire nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes revealed the virus was a member of the North American genotype of VHSV; however, the isolate was sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate sublineage, suggesting its origin may have been from marine species inhabiting the eastern coastal areas of the USA or Canada. PMID:17026670

  20. Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Foord, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

  1. Microbiological properties and biogenic amines of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca, linnaeus 1758): a perspective on fish safety during postharvest handling practices and frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

    2012-12-01

    The biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, cadaverine, and puterscine) and microbiological properties (mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonas spp.) of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) was investigated during 2 d prestorage icing and 90 d frozen storage (-24 °C). At the end of ice storage, a noticeable increase only was found for puterscine level (P < 0.05), and microbial loads of fish increased in comparison with fresh fish (P < 0.05). During the frozen storage, as time passed, a continuous increase of biogenic amines and decrease of bacterial load (except for Pseudomonas spp. at the last 30 d) was detected (P < 0.05). The total contents of biogenic amines ranged from 6.24 to 91.76 ?g/g during the investigated period. Puterscine was the major amine detected in pike-perch and its concentration varied between 1.75 and 56.95 ?g/g; due to a more step-wise increase it was a good quality indicator. At the end of storage, all of the obtained values are below the tolerable maximum amounts based on available regulations. Based on biogenic amines content and microbial load, it could be concluded that pike-perch can be consumed without any health risks after 2 d icing condition and 90 d frozen storage. PMID:23106405

  2. A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (?sat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”. Results Walleye populations are distinguished by considerable genetic divergence (mean FST mtDNA?=?0.32?±?0.01, ?sat?=?0.13?±?0.00) and substantial diversity across their range (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.53?±?0.02, ?sat?=?0.68?±?0.03). Southern populations markedly differ, possessing unique haplotypes and alleles, especially the Ohio/New River population that houses the oldest haplotype and has the most pronounced divergence. Northern formerly glaciated populations have greatest diversity in Lake Erie (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.79?±?0.00, ?sat?=?0.72?±?0.01). Genetic diversity was much less in the historic Lake Erie samples from 1923–1949 (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.05?±?0.01, ?sat?=?0.47?±?0.06) than today. The historic “blue pike” had no unique haplotypes/alleles and there is no evidence that it comprised a separate taxon from walleye. Turquoise mucus walleye also show no genetic differentiation from other sympatric walleye and no correspondence to the “blue pike”. Conclusions Contemporary walleye populations possess high levels of genetic diversity and divergence, despite habitat degradation and exploitation. Genetic and previously published tagging data indicate that natal homing and spawning site philopatry led to population structure. Population patterns were shaped by climate change and drainage connections, with northern ones tracing to post-glacial recolonization. Southerly populations possess unique alleles and may provide an important genetic reservoir. Allelic frequencies of Lake Erie walleye from ~70–90 years ago significantly differed from those today, suggesting population recovery after extensive habitat loss, pollution, and exploitation. The historic “blue pike” is indistinguishable from walleye, indicating that taxonomic designation is not warranted. PMID:24941945

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  4. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: zdyzxb@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation.

  5. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ? Northern Pike Esox lucius × ? Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

  6. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  7. Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophy in Northwestern Poland.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Monika; Protasowicki, Miko?aj

    2013-04-01

    This study presents concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in selected tissues of two fish species: pike (Esox lucius L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) living in lakes I?sko and Wisola, Northwestern Poland. The lakes differ in their trophic status. The effect of gender and environmental conditions on metals accumulation was also investigated. Metal analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Considering all studied fish species and tissues, the average metal concentrations (micrograms per gram wet weight) in both lakes occurred in the following ranges: Fe 0.8-240.6, Mn 0.2-8.4, Zn 3.0-185.9, and Cu 0.14-7.76. The lowest levels of the studied metals were always detected in the muscles. The spleen, kidneys, and liver were found to accumulate the highest amounts of Fe. In the case of the other metals, the highest levels were found, as follows: Mn in skin, gills, and gonads, Zn in digestive tract and gills, Cu in liver. Heavy metal content in fish gonads was observed to be sex dependent. PMID:22923375

  8. Trophic ecology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in its introduced areas: a stable isotope approach in southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Dorothée; Cucherousset, Julien; Syväranta, Jari; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-08-01

    During the last decades, non-native predatory fish species have been largely introduced in European lakes and rivers, calling for detailed information on the trophic ecology of co-existing native and non-native predators. The present study describes the trophic ecology of the introduced pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in two southwestern French rivers, using stable isotope analysis. Pikeperch could be categorized as a top-predator, and had a significantly higher trophic position (TP, mean+/-SE=4.2+/-0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP=3.7+/-0.1) and the introduced European catfish (Silurus glanis, TP=3.8+/-0.1). Most studies of resource use in freshwaters consider predatory fish as ecologically equivalent; however, this study showed that the pikeperch occupied a higher trophic niche compared to other predatory species in the Lot and Tarn rivers (Garonne River basin). This apparent specialization may thus have consequences upon interspecific relationships within the predatory guild and upon the functional organization of biological communities. PMID:19632657

  9. [Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].

    PubMed

    Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

    2013-01-01

    By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

  10. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.

    PubMed

    Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

    2010-11-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

  11. Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status.

    PubMed

    Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603

  12. Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.

    PubMed

    Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zi?ba, G; Wesley, K J

    2011-12-01

    The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species. PMID:22136242

  13. Comparative ultrastructure of Langerhans-like cells in spleens of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Lovy, Jan; Wright, Glenda M; Speare, David J; Tyml, Tomas; Dykova, Iva

    2010-10-01

    We studied the morphology and occurrence of splenic Langerhans-like (LL) cells in species representing 11 orders of ray-finned fishes, Actinopterygii. LL cells were frequent in spleen tissue of species among Cypriniformes, Esociformes, Salmoniformes, and Pleuronectiformes. These cells contained granules which resembled Birbeck granules known to occur in mammalian Langerhans cells. The ultrastructure of LL cells in Northern pike, Esox lucius, and in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus were similar to those reported in salmonids. LL cells found in cyprinids shared some characteristics with the LL cells in other Actinopterygii species, although unique structures distinguished them from the latter. They contained dense bodies within the Birbeck-like (BL) granules, a characteristic that was never observed in species outside the Cypriniformes. Two types of BL granules were characterized in cyprinid LL cells. The ultrastructure of BL granules across the species is discussed. LL cells in all Actinopterygii species demonstrated close contacts with nearby cells, characterized by adherens-like junctions. Additionally, multivesicular bodies were present within the cytoplasm and large aggregates of exosomes were observed closely associated with the plasma membrane suggesting their release from the cells. These structures are discussed in relation to mammalian dendritic cells. Macrophages found in European perch, Perca fluviatilis, blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus contained lysosomes and residual bodies with structures resembling Birbeck granules. These granules and cells were clearly distinct from LL cells. PMID:20623556

  14. Differential diagnosis of Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus experimental infection in Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus (Copepoda) from the Alpine Lake Grundlsee (Austria) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Zibrat, Uroš; Jehle, Robert; Craig, Philip S; Gassner, Hubert; Schabetsberger, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In 2005, an epidemic of the cestode Triaenophorus crassus in Arctic charr, Salvelinus umbla from Lake Grundlsee (Austria) was reported, resulting in the closure of the local fisheries. The parasite uses a copepod and a salmonid fish as intermediate hosts, and the European pike (Esox lucius) as definitive host. In Lake Grundlsee procercoids of T. crassus, T. nodulosus and Eubothrium salvelini use the copepod Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus as their first intermediate host. We report on the development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the specific differentiation between the procercoids of the three cestode species. Ban I restriction sites within a 207-bp 18S rRNA-amplified fragment yielded two and three species-specific products to unequivocally distinguish between T. crassus and T. nodulosus, respectively. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to characterise a single procercoid of both Triaenophorus species in their copepod host, enabling a direct measure of infection. This assay will be useful in monitoring the progress of the control methods currently in place. PMID:21424806

  15. Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Adamovský, Ond?ej; Ziková, Andrea; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Ji?í; Mareš, Jan; Bláha, Lud?k

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

  16. Effects of climate change on trait-based dynamics of a top predator in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Edeline, Eric; Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-02-01

    Predicted universal responses of ectotherms to climate warming include increased maximum population growth rate and changes in body size through the temperature-size rule. However, the mechanisms that would underlie these predicted responses are not clear. Many studies have focused on proximate mechanisms of physiological processes affecting individual growth. One can also consider ultimate mechanisms involving adaptive explanations by evaluating temperature effects on different vital rates across the life history and using the information in a population dynamical model. Here, we combine long-term data for a top predator in freshwater ecosystems (pike; Esox lucius) with a stochastic integral projection model to analyze concurrent effects of temperature on vital rates, body size, and population dynamics. As predicted, the net effect of warming on population growth rate (fitness) is positive, but the thermal sensitivity of this rate is highly size- and vital rate-dependent. These results are not sensitive to increasing variability in temperature. Somatic growth follows the temperature-size rule, and our results support an adaptive explanation for this response. The stable length structure of the population shifts with warming toward an increased proportion of medium-sized but a reduced proportion of small and large individuals. This study highlights how demographic approaches can help reveal complex underlying mechanisms for population responses to warming. PMID:24464198

  17. Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-02-15

    The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

  18. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

  19. The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Linløkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

    2011-08-01

    Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

  20. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dawson, G. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 {micro}g/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife.

  1. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

  2. Heterogeneity in levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVB among fish species in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Millard, Elena V; Faisal, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    The presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) was investigated in sera of 13 fish species collected from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, a VHSV-endemic water body. We tested 297 sera collected May 2004-June of 2010, using a complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (50% PNT). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 23% (67/297) of the samples. The highest overall antibody prevalence (85%, 34/40) and mean positive antibody titer (12,113 ± 11,699 SD) were detected in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Antibodies were also detected in 50% (15/30) of sampled northern pike (E. lucius), 25% (15/61) of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), and 7% (3/41) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). All sera from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), silver redhorse (M. anisurum), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were negative. Antibodies in one or more fish species were detected in all sampling years (2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010), whereas in parallel sampling periods, VHS virus was detected only in 2006 and 2009. Our results suggest the continued presence of VHSV-IVb in the Lake St. Clair ecosystem, and underscore the importance of assessing immune responses of fish populations to determine prior virus exposure. PMID:22493115

  3. Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

  4. Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ?3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

  5. Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.

    PubMed

    Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

    2013-11-19

    Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada. PMID:24156245

  6. Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  9. Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2007-09-01

    Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

  10. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  11. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  12. Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance. PMID:19114002

  13. A food chain model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran bioaccumulation in a northern Canadian river system

    SciTech Connect

    Starodub, M.E. [CanTox Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Pastershank, G.; Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Field data from a comprehensive study of chemical contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzofurans provided the opportunity for comparison of predicted and observed concentrations in fish and invertebrates in sediment-invertebrate-fish food chains. The field study was from the Athabasca River downstream of a bleached-kraft pulp mill in northwest Alberta, Canada. The food chain model used predator-prey relationships which resulted in distinct exposure pathways for fish inhabiting the river. The model distinguished between exposure to suspended and deposited sediments in the Athabasca River. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in two bottom feeding fish species, mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and one piscivorous fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), as well as in invertebrates were measured in the field samples. A sensitivity analysis revealed that exposure of mountain whitefish to TCDF sorbed to suspended solids through consumption of filter feeding invertebrates was the primary exposure pathway. Furthermore, failure to consider consumption of bottom sediments by longnose sucker resulted in underpredicted tissue concentrations compared to observed values.

  14. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  15. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 ?g g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 ?g g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations. PMID:21691859

  16. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis

    PubMed Central

    Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher’s linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

  17. Sigmoidal diagnostics with SOHO/CDS G. Del Zanna 1 , S. E. Gibson 1;2 , H. E. Mason 1 , C.D. Pike 3 , and C. H. Mandrini 4

    E-print Network

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    Sigmoidal diagnostics with SOHO/CDS G. Del Zanna 1 , S. E. Gibson 1;2 , H. E. Mason 1 , C.D. Pike 3 (SOHO), and with other instruments, both satellite and ground­based. On August 21st, a small flare, associated with a brightening of the sigmoidal structure, occurred. SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS

  18. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jankovi?, Saša; Cur?i?, Marijana; Radi?evi?, Tatjana; Stefanovi?, Sr?an; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijevi?, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  19. Differential habitat use and antipredator response of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to olfactory and visual cues from multiple predators.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Fodrie, F Joel; Heck, Kenneth L; Mattila, Johanna

    2010-04-01

    The indirect, behavioral effects of predation and predator-predator interactions can significantly alter the trophic ecology of many communities. In numerous instances, the strength of these effects may be determined by the ability of prey to identify predation risk through predator-specific cues and respond accordingly to avoid capture. We exposed juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common forage fish in many brackish and freshwater environments, to vision and/or olfactory cues from two predators with different hunting methods: northern pike (Esox lucius, an ambush predator) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis, a roving predator). Our results demonstrated that responses of roach to perceived risk (as evidenced by their selection of structured or open-water habitats) were highly dependent on cue type and predator identity. For instance, roach responded to olfactory cues of pike by entering open-water habitat, but entered structured habitat when presented with a vision cue of this predator. Opposite responses were elicited from roach for both olfactory and visual cues of perch. Interestingly, roach defaulted to selection of structured habitat when presented with vision + olfaction cues of either predator. Moreover, when presented individual cues of both predators together, roach responded by choosing open-water habitat. Upon being presented with vision + olfaction cues of both predators, however, roach strongly favored structured habitat. Differences in habitat selection of roach were likely in response to the alternative foraging strategies of the two predators, and suggest that prey species may not always use structured habitats as protection. This appears particularly true when a threat is perceived, but cannot immediately be located. These results provide insight to the complex and variable nature by which prey respond to various cues and predators, and offer a mechanistic guide for how behaviorally mediated and predator-predator interactions act as structuring processes in aquatic systems. PMID:20127367

  20. Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

  1. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  2. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff. Observed concentrations of nitrate, which was the most abundant nitrogen species in ground water in t he glacial aquifer, ranged from less than 0.05 to 5.1 mg/L as nitrogen, with a median of 1.1 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrogen measured in ground water were lower than estimated concentrations for recharge suggesting that dissolved nitrogen species may not be conservative in ground water. Nitrate is unstable in anoxic ground water and can be removed by denitrification. Ammonium can be sorbed onto the aquifer materials. Evidence for reducing conditions included a positive correlation between low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and low concentrations of nitrate. The estimated concentration of chloride in recharge ranged from 6.7 to 21 mg/L, and total annual load of chloride to ground water ranged from 19.4 to 50.6 x 10(3) lb/mi2. Chloride is considered to be a chemically conservative ion in ground water. Contributions of chloride to ground water from road salting were greater than contributions from septic tanks. Observed concentrations of chloride in 18 ground-water samples from the glacial aquifer ranged from 2.1 to 32 mg/L, with a median of 17.5 mg/L. Local contamination is indicated by the elevated concentrations of chloride (up to 680 mg/L) detected in four wells located downgradient of an abandoned industry that may have released salts in processing waste. Chloride concentrations in ground water appeared to be greater near major roads and in areas of relatively greater septic-system density than in areas upgradient of roads, farther downgradient from roads, or with less densely spaced septic systems.

  3. Pike and salmon as sister taxa: detailed intraclade resolution and divergence time estimation of Esociformes + Salmoniformes based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; López, J Andrés; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2013-11-01

    The increasing number of taxa and loci in molecular phylogenetic studies of basal euteleosts has brought stability in a controversial area. A key emerging aspect to these studies is a sister Esociformes (pike) and Salmoniformes (salmon) relationship. We evaluate mitochondrial genome support for a sister Esociformes and Salmoniformes hypothesis by surveying many potential outgroups for these taxa, employing multiple phylogenetic approaches, and utilizing a thorough sampling scheme. Secondly, we conduct a simultaneous divergence time estimation and phylogenetic inference in a Bayesian framework with fossil calibrations focusing on relationships within Esociformes+Salmoniformes. Our dataset supports a sister relationship between Esociformes and Salmoniformes; however the nearest relatives of Esociformes+Salmoniformes are inconsistent among analyses. Within the order Esociformes, we advocate for a single family, Esocidae. Subfamily relationships within Salmonidae are poorly supported as Salmoninae sister to Thymallinae+Coregoninae. PMID:23954876

  4. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

  5. Predation on ruffe by native fishes of the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Derek H.; Selgeby, James H.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Newman, Raymond M.; Henry, Mary G.

    1996-01-01

    The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, an exotic Eurasian percid, recently became established in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, after accidental introduction. Management action (catch regulations and stocking) were enacted in 1989 to increase the density of top-level predators in the estuary, and thus to increase predation on ruffe. We conducted a field and laboratory study to determine if, and to what extent, native piscivores consume ruffe. Stomachs of 3,669 predators were examined in 1989-1991. Ruffe occurred in 6.7% of burbot Lota lota, 5.8% of bullheads Ictalurus spp., 4.7% of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, 2.6% of northern pike Esox lucius, 2.6% of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and 1.3% of yellow perch Perca flavescens (4.5% after 1989) captured during the 3-year study. No ruffe were found in 967 stomachs of walleyes Stizostedion vitreum examined. Ruffe were 22.7% of the diet (by weight) of bullheads (during the only year bullheads were captured) and 0.1-17.9% of the diet of northern pike. Ruffe were 0.9-24.5% of the diet of smallmouth bass that contained fish, 1.5-6.9% of yellow perch that contained fish, and 0.0-10.9% of black crappies that contained fish. Most ruffe eaten were age-0 or small age-1 fish. In the laboratory, walleyes that were first fed soft-rayed prey or that were also offered soft-rayed prey consumed very few ruffe, whereas walleyes that were first fed spiny-rayed yellow perch or were also offered yellow perch consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch. Northern pike and burbot consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch in the laboratory. It is unlikely that predation will effectively control the initial expansion of ruffe in other areas of the Great Lakes because native predators initially consume few ruffe, especially if more preferred soft-rayed prey are available.

  6. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite, Mass., and syenite of Kungnat, Greenland, among others - allowing for different levels of erosion. A suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. ?? 1975.

  7. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate. PMID:20470073

  8. Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.

    PubMed

    Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

    2009-02-23

    A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature. PMID:19185121

  9. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  10. A fish bradykinin (Arg0, Trp5, Leu8-bradykinin) from the defensive skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus: structural characterization; molecular cloning of skin kininogen cDNA and pharmacological effects on mammalian smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaole; Wang, Lei; Wang, He; Chen, Hang; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Extensive studies on bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) generated from plasma kininogens in representative species of various vertebrate taxa, have confirmed that many amphibian skin BRPs reflect those present in putative vertebrate predators. For example, the (Val(1), Thr(6))-bradykinin, present in the defensive skin secretions of many ranids and phyllomedusines, can be generated from plasma kininogens in colubrid snakes-common predators of these frogs. Here, we report the presence of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, and have found it to be encoded in single copy by a kininogen with an open-reading frame of 68 amino acid residues. This peptide is the archetypal bony fish bradykinin that has been generated from plasma kininogens of the bowfin (Amia calva), the long-nosed gar (Lepisosteus oseus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). More recently, this peptide has been shown to be encoded within cloned kininogens of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spotted wolf-fish (Anarichas minor), zebrafish (Danio rerio), pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and Northern pike (Esox lucius). The latter species is regarded as a major predator of P. kl. esculentus. Synthetic (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin was previously reported as having multiphasic effects on arterial blood pressure in conscious trout and here we have demonstrated that it can antagonize the relaxation in rat arterial smooth muscle induced by canonical mammalian bradykinin. The discovery of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the defensive skin secretion of this amphibian completes the spectrum of vertebrate taxon-specific BRPs identified from this source. PMID:20923691

  11. Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Psuty, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. PMID:20359718

  12. Rotenone formulation fate in Lake Davis following the 2007 treatment.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Martice E; Rinderneck, Janna; Newman, Julie; McMillin, Stella; Finlayson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2012-05-01

    In September 2007, Lake Davis (near Portola, California) was treated by the California Department of Fish and Game with CFT Legumine, a rotenone formulation, to eradicate the invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). The objective of this report is to describe the fate of the five major formulation constituents-rotenone, rotenolone, methyl pyrrolidone (MP), diethylene glycol monethyl ether (DEGEE), and Fennedefo 99-in water, sediment, and brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus; a rotenone-resistant species) by determination of their half-lives (t(1/2)) and pseudo first-order dissipation rate constants (k). The respective t(1/2) values in water for rotenone, rotenolone, MP, DEGEE, and Fennedefo 99 were 5.6, 11.1, 4.6, 7.7, and 13.5 d; in sediments they were 31.1, 31.8, 10.0, not able to calculate, and 48.5 d; and in tissues were 6.1, 12.7, 3.7, 3.2, and 10.4 d, respectively. Components possessing low water solubility values (rotenone and rotenolone) persisted longer in sediments (not detectable after 157 d) and tissues (<212 d) compared with water, whereas the water-miscible components (MP and DEGEE) dissipated more quickly from all matrices, except for Fennedefo 99, which was the most persistent in water (83 d). None of the constituents was found to bioaccumulate in tissues as a result of treatment. In essence, the physicochemical properties of the chemical constituents effectively dictated their fate in the lake following treatment. PMID:22407799

  13. Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C. [Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Whittle, D.M. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Harbicht, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

  14. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  15. Estimating naphthenic acids concentrations in laboratory-exposed fish and in fish from the wild.

    PubMed

    Young, Rozlyn F; Wismer, Wendy V; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2008-09-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the most water-soluble organic components found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, and these acids are released into aqueous tailing waters as a result of bitumen extraction. Although the toxicity of NAs to fish is well known, there has been no method available to estimate NAs concentrations in fish. This paper describes a newly developed analytical method using single ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure NAs in fish, down to concentrations of approximately 0.1mgkg(-1) of fish flesh. This method was used to measure the uptake and depuration of commercial NAs in laboratory experiments. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 3mg NAsl(-1) for 9d gave a bioconcentration factor of approximately 2 at pH 8.2. Within 1d after the fish were transferred to NAs-free water, about 95% of the NAs were depurated. In addition, the analytical method was used to determine if NAs were present in four species of wild fish - northern pike (Esox lucius), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), walleye (Sander vitreus) - collected from near the oil sands. Flesh samples from 23 wild fish were analyzed, and 18 of these had no detectable NAs. Four fish (one of each species) contained NAs at concentrations from 0.2 to 2.8mgkg(-1). The GC-MS results from one wild fish presented a unique problem. However, with additional work it was concluded that the NAs concentration in this fish was <0.1mgkg(-1). PMID:18667226

  16. Clear as mud: a meta-analysis on the effects of sedimentation on freshwater fish and the effectiveness of sediment-control measures.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jacqueline M; Proulx, Catherine L; Veilleux, Maxime A N; Levert, Caroline; Bliss, Shireen; André, Marie-Ève; Lapointe, Nicolas W R; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    Increase in fine sediments in freshwater resulting from anthropogenic development is a potential stressor for fish and thus may cause population declines. Though a large body of literature exists on the topic, there have been few attempts to synthesize this information in a quantitative manner. Through meta-analysis we investigated the effects of sediment in lotic environments on resident ichthyofauna using ecologically-relevant endpoints for tolerant (e.g., northern pike Esox lucius) and intolerant (e.g., brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis) species. Further, the efficiency of sediment-control devices was explored to inform mitigation measures. An increase in suspended and deposited sediments was demonstrated to have a negative effect on all parameters and tolerances tested (feeding behavior [feeding rate, reaction distance to food item]; spawning success [survival of fry to eyed stage, fry emergence]; species richness; P < 0.001) except fish abundance (P = 0.058). Heterogeneity between studies was a factor in all analyses. Although there were insufficient studies to conduct meta-analysis on sediment-control devices, weighted percent efficiency estimates revealed that properly installed sediment-control fences tended to have a higher percent efficiency (73-80%) than sediment traps and basins (40-52%). These results highlight the negative impact that increases in suspended and deposited sediments can have on resident fishes from the individual to the population, and the need for more transparent and thorough statistical reporting. The analysis also identifies a clear need for rigorous experimental studies contrasting different sediment-control devices and strategies given that little such work has been published. That alone is remarkable given that sediment-control devices are often a requirement of regulators for riparian development activities, yet the evidence to support the effectiveness of the primary mitigative strategies is weak. PMID:24681235

  17. Mercury content in the trophic chain of the Tanew River, Poland, ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wa?kuska, Grazyna; Cha?abis-Mazurek, Agnieszka; Szkoda, Józef

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal posing a hazard to water ecosystems. This investigation was aimed at determining Hg content in the Tanew River, Poland, and subsequent transfer to fish inhabiting this lake. The area studied included approximately a 50-km distance of the river, with 5 sampling locations selected. Samples of water and bottom sediments were collected from 10 sites along the river-bank zone for each location. At the same location, fish were caught and samples of coastal water plants were collected. Fish that were caught included the following species: chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), ide (Leuciscus idus), and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Dominanting species of water plants included reed-mace (Typha angustifolia), rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), and water knotweed (Polygonum amphibium). Mercury content in samples of water, bottom sediments, water plants, and fish tissues (muscles and gills) were determined by using a Mercury/MA-2000 system (NIC, Japan). The average Hg content in the waters of Tanew ranged between 1 and 5 microg/L, and in the bottom sediments ranged between 17 and 214 microg/kg dry weight, which are characteristic values for typical unpolluted areas. The highest Hg contamination of waters and bottom sediments was found where the Tanew estuary enters the San River. Mercury levels in fish from the Tanew delta appeared to be higher compared to other sampling sites. Data indicated that even if water environment is contaminated with Hg to a limited extent, fish accumulate this metal at higher levels, probably due to a bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factor. PMID:20706942

  18. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

  19. Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

  20. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

    1998-03-01

    The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

  1. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania is underlain by the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and other shales, formations that have potential for natural gas development. During 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District conducted a reconnaissance study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers prior to possible shale-gas development in the county. For the spatial component of the assessment, 20 wells were sampled in summer 2012 to provide data on the occurrence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines. For the temporal component of the assessment, 4 of the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 were sampled monthly from July 2012 through June 2013 to provide data on seasonal variability in groundwater quality. All water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), stable isotopes of water, radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and ethene), and, if possible, isotopic composition of methane. Additional analyses for boron and strontium isotopes, age-dating of water, and radium-226 were done on water samples collected from six wells in June 2013. Results of the summer 2012 sampling show that water from 16 (80 percent) of 20 wells had detectable concentrations of methane, but concentrations were less than 0.1 milligram per liter (mg/L) in most well-water samples; only two well-water samples had concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The groundwater with elevated methane also had a chemical composition that differed in some respects (pH, selected major ions, and inorganic trace constituents) from groundwater with low methane concentrations. The two well-water samples with the highest methane concentrations (about 3.7 and 5.8 mg/L) also had the highest pH values (8.7 and 8.3, respectively) and the highest concentrations of sodium, lithium, boron, fluoride, and bromide. Elevated concentrations of some other constituents, such as barium, strontium, and chloride, were not limited to well-water samples with elevated methane, although the two samples with elevated methane also had among the highest concentrations of these constituents. One sample with elevated methane concentrations also had elevated arsenic concentrations, with the arsenic concentration of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L) exceeding the drinking-water standard of 10 µg/L for arsenic. No other sample from the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 had concentrations of constituents that exceeded any established primary drinking-water standards. However, radon-222 activities ranging up to 4,500 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) exceeded the proposed drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L in 85 percent of the 20 well-water samples. The isotopic composition methane in the two high-methane samples (?CCH4 values of -64.55 and -64.41 per mil and ?DCH4 values of -216.9 and -201.8 per mil, respectively) indicates a predominantly microbial source for the methane formed by a carbon dioxide reduction process. The stable isotopic composition of water (?DH20 and ?18OH20) in samples from all 20 wells falls on the local meteoric line, indicating water in the wells was of relatively recent meteoric origin (modern precipitation), including samples with elevated methane concentrations. Analytical results for 4 of the 20 wells sampled monthly for 1 year ending June 2013 in order to assess temporal variability in groundwater quality show that concentrations of major ions generally varied by less than 20 percent, with most differences less than 4 mg/L. Concentrations of methane varied by less than 1 ?g/L (0.001 mg/L) in samples from three wells with low methane and by as much as 1 mg/L (1,000 ?g/L) in samples from one well with relatively high methane. The isotopic composition of methane in the one well with relatively high

  3. K. S. Telang, R. W. Pike, F. C. Knopf, J. R. Hopper, J. Saleh, S. Waghchoure, S. C. Hedge and T. A. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 23, p. S727-730 (1999

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    . Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers Chemical and Refinery Processes K. S. Telang, X. Chen, R. W. Pike and F. C. Knopf Louisiana State and refineries for process improvements. The system integrates programs for on-line optimization, chemical

  4. Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA.

    PubMed

    de Rosemond, Simone; Xie, Qianli; Liber, Karsten

    2008-12-01

    The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great Slave Lake, near the city of Yellowknife, NT, Canada. The total concentration (dry weight) of arsenic in muscle ranged from 0.57 to 1.15 mg/kg, in the liver from 0.42 to 2.52 mg/kg and in the GIT from 1.48 to 8.92 mg/kg. Among fish species, C. commersoni had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations in the GIT than S. vitreum, E. lucius and C. clupeaformis, and higher total arsenic concentrations in the liver than C. clupeaformis. The mean concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the muscle of all fish ranged from < or =0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg and < or =0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and together comprised < or =7.5% of the total arsenic measured in muscle. The concentrations of MMA were below detection in the muscle of all five fish species. However, AsB and DMA were measured in all fish species and nearly all fish tissues. The concentrations of AsB ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg and the concentrations of DMA ranged from <0.02 to 0.45 mg/kg. The majority (>50%) of organic arsenic in almost all of the tissues from fish caught in Back Bay was not directly identified. Evidence from the literature suggests that most of these other organic arsenic species were likely trimethylated arsenic compounds, however, further analytical work would need to be performed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:18214701

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Babaei, Hadi; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

    2011-10-01

    The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium, 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while the lowest (cadmium,0.21; copper,7.2; zinc,19.4; lead,0.9; chromium,0.6 ?g/g) found in the muscle of Carassius gibelio. Results showed that the metal concentrations were in fishes in descending order of zinc > copper > lead > chromium > cadmium, similarly in the tissue liver > kidney > gill ~ intestine > muscle. PMID:21858708

  6. Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

  7. Postimpoundment time course of increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bodaly, R A Drew; Jansen, W A; Majewski, A R; Fudge, R J P; Strange, N E; Derksen, A J; Green, D J

    2007-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in boreal reservoirs have been shown to be increased for up to 3 decades after impoundment. However, the time course of increased concentrations is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of Hg concentrations in fish in the boreal reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, and its relationship with severity of flooding. We determined total Hg concentrations in three species of fish for up to 35 years after impoundment in 14 lakes and lake basins. Postimpoundment trends depended on fish species and reservoir. In the benthivorous lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), Hg concentrations increased after flooding to between 0.2 and 0.4 microg g(-1) wet weight compared with preimpoundment concentrations between 0.06 and 0.14 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes between 0.03 and 0.06 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in lake whitefish were usually highest within 6 years after lake impoundment and took 10 to 20 years after impoundment to decrease to background concentrations in most reservoirs. Hg concentrations in predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) were highest 2 to 8 years after flooding at 0.7 to 2.6 microg g(-1) compared with preimpoundment concentrations of 0.19 to 0.47 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes of 0.35 to 0.47 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in these predatory species decreased consistently in subsequent years and required 10 to 23 years to return to background levels. Thus, results demonstrate the effect of trophic level on Hg concentrations (biomagnification). Peak Hg concentrations depended on the amount of flooding (relative increase in lake surface area). Asymptotic concentrations of approximately 0.25 microg g(-1) for lake whitefish and 1.6 microg g(-1) for both walleye and northern pike were reached at approximately 100% flooding. Downstream effects were apparent because many reservoirs downstream of other impoundments had higher Hg concentrations in fish than would be expected on the basis of flooding amount. PMID:17728990

  8. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints, and 10 lethal yellow perch effect endpoints resulted in the observation of several statistically significant differences at the future exposure area relative to the reference area and/or areas. When the data from 2 reference areas assessed for the benthic invertebrate community survey were pooled, no significant differences in effect endpoints were observed. These results demonstrate weaknesses in the definition of an "effect" used by the MMER EEM program and in the use of a single reference area. Determination of the ecological significance of statistical differences identified as part of EEM programs conducted during the operational period should consider preexisting (background) natural variability between reference and exposure areas. PMID:22888037

  9. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS) policy stipulates that natural coastal processes be maintained to the greatest extent possible and not be impeded so as to conserve landforms, habitats and natural ecosystem resources that reply on the landforms and processes for long-term sustainability of the national park. Storms and associated processes such as waves, tides, currents and relative sea-level change are critical elements for the formation and evolution of these barrier islands, sand dunes, back-barrier sand flats and lagoons and vegetated wetlands. Processes such as wave run-up, overwash and barrier beaching, which occur during elevated storm surge are all necessary processes in enabling the efficient transfer of sediments, nutrients and marine water from the Atlantic Ocean across barriers and into Great South Bay. A large body of scientific data and information published over the past 50 years shows that such transfers of sediment and water from the ocean to the bays are essential for the long-term maintenance of the barrier island and back-bay systems and their biologically diverse habitats an d ecosystems. Current relative sea-level rise (~12 in/century) is chronic and pervasive in driving Long Island coastal change and with the likelihood of accelerating sea level rise in the near future, coastal hazards such as erosion, inundation, and storm surge flooding will increase, with corresponding increased risk to life and property on both Fire Island and on the mainland. In addition, the cumulative effects over the past century and more, both direct and indirect, of human impacts on the Long Island coast have altered the barrier beach and dunes and sediment transport processes. These impacts have likely increased the potential for breaching and increased risk to life and property on the coast and the mainland. Examples of direct impacts are: the stone jetties at Moriches, Shinnecock, and Fire Island tidal inlets and groin field structures at Westhampton that alter littoral processes, armoring and erosion-control stabilization of the headlandds such as the Montauk Point headlands, and deepening of n

  10. Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

    2014-04-01

    Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91?±?7?mm total length, L(T), mean?±?s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84?±?8?mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85?±?5?mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2?weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4?weeks. PMID:24689672

  11. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected with lower contribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the contamination of inland water fish. PMID:23336927

  12. Various aspects of piscine toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

    2010-09-01

    In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

  13. Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-01

    There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-? estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity. Male and female white sucker showed greatest sensitivity to forskolin, while male and female walleye showed greatest sensitivity to prochloraz. Also, gonad explants from these species were found to have greater sensitivity than responses previously reported for in vitro explants of other fish species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and stable cell lines currently used as screening applications to detect chemicals that might disrupt the endocrine system. Therefore, current approaches that use stable cell lines or tissue explants from standardized small bodied laboratory species might not be protective of some wild fish species. Future research is required that investigates whether this in vitro gonadal explant assay is predictive of in vivo effects in wild species of fishes. PMID:24800870

  14. Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Echols, K.R.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p???-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (???1.7 pg/g), arsenic (0.03-1.95 ??g/g), cadmium (<0.02-0.12 ??g/g), copper (0.41-1.49 ??g/g), and lead (<0.21-0.27 ??g/g) did not exceed toxicity thresholds for growth and reproduction in YRB fish. Concentrations of mercury (0.08-0.65 ??g/g), selenium (0.23-0.85 ??g/g), and zinc (11-56 ??g/g) exceeded toxicity thresholds in one or more samples and were included in the risk analysis for piscivorous wildlife. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHCs) and low effect hazard concentrations (LEHCs), derived from literature-based toxicity reference values and avian and mammalian life history parameters, were calculated for mercury, selenium, and zinc. Mercury concentrations in YRB fish exceeded the NEHCs for all bird and small mammal models, which indicated that mercury concentrations in fish may represent a risk to piscivorous wildlife throughout the YRB. Low risk to piscivorous wildlife was associated with selenium and zinc concentrations in YRB fish. Selenium and zinc concentrations exceeded the NEHCs and LEHCs for only the small bird model. These results indicate that mercury should continue to be monitored and assessed in Alaskan fish and wildlife. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Nobelists Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    1903, radiation 90. Figure of speech 92. Play guitar well 93. Salicylic acid, e.g. 94. Chemistry 1936 additive, abbrev. 2. Cheers 3. Assist 4. Convey 5. Holy ____ 6. Fade away 7. Outer skin 8. FTIR technique 9

  16. Glassware Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    . Passions 7. Away with it 8. Kind of love 9. Arrested 10. Gives religiously 11. Ore ____ 12. Palm ____ 13. 23. Ultimatum 25. Technique in M.O. calcns. 26. Pet food brand 27. Greek goddess of discord 29. I

  17. Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or decreasing-head conditions resulted in dye being trapped in hydraulically dead zones in water- depleted fractures. Residual dye was remobilized from storage and transported (over periods ranging from several months to about 2 years) by increased recharge to the hydrologic system. Subsequent fluctuations in hydraulic gradients, resulting from increases or decreases in recharge to the hydrologic system, acted to speed or slow the transport of dye along the fracture-controlled flow paths. The dye-tracer tests also demonstrated that mining-related disturbances significantly altered the natural fracture-controlled flow paths of the hydrologic system over time. An abandoned underground mine and subsidence-related surface cracks extend to within 250 ft of the principal dye- injection core hole. Results from two of the dye-tracer tests at the site indicate that the annular seal in the core hole was breached by subsurface propagation of the mining-induced fractures. This propagation of fractures resulted in hydraulic short-circuiting between the dye-injection zone in the core hole and two lower piezometer zones, and a partial disruption of the hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and downgradient piezometers on the ridge crest and valley wall. In addition, injected dye was detected in piezometers monitoring a flooded part of the abandoned underground mine. Dye was apparently transported into the mine through a hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and subsidence-related fractures.

  18. Tissue alkaline phosphatase activity in selected freshwater teleosts.

    PubMed

    Cvancara, V A; Huang, W M

    1978-01-01

    1. Kinetic studies of tissue alkaline phosphatase activity were carried out on eight species of teleost fishes taken from the Mississippi River. 2. Liver alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in mumoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute per gram of protein were as follows: Micropterus salmoides, 20.31; Stizostedion vitreum, 19.22; Pomoxis nigromaculatus, 18.76; Lepisosteus platostomus, 16.26; Esox lucius, 16.14; Hiodon tergisus, 13.83; Ictalurus punctatus, 10.87; Aplodinotus grunniens, 7.94. 3. Specific activity of the kidney alkaline phosphatase was about ten times the level of liver alkaline phosphatase for the species examined. PMID:318337

  19. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest disturbance, especially the historic forest fire pattern (Woodruff and Cannon, 2002). Forest fire has an essential role in the forest ecosystems of VNP (Heinselman, 1996). Because resource and land managers need to integrate both natural wildfire and prescribed fire in management plans, the potential influence of fire on an element as sensitive to the environment as mercury becomes a critical part of their decisionmaking. A number of recent studies have shown that while fire does have a significant impact on mercury at the landscape level, the observed effects of fire on aquatic environments are highly variable and unpredictable (Caldwell and others, 2000; Garcia and Carrigan, 2000; Kelly and others, 2006; Nelson and others, 2007). Caldwell and others (2000) described an increase in methylmercury in reservoir sediments resulting from mobilization and transport of charred vegetative matter following a fire in New Mexico. Krabbenhoft and Fink (2000) attributed increases in total mercury concentrations in young-of-the-year fish in the Florida Everglades to release of mercury resulting from peat oxidation following fires. A fivefold increase in whole-body mercury accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a fire in Alberta, Canada, apparently resulted from increased nutrient concentrations that enhanced productivity and restructured the food web of a lake within the fire's burn footprint (Kelly and others, 2006). For this study, we determined the short-term effects of forest fire on mercury concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments in VNP by comparing and contrasting mercury concentrations in forest soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch for a burned watershed and an adjacent lake, with similar samples from watersheds and lakes with no fire activity (control watersheds and lakes). The concentration of total mercury in whole, 1-year-old yellow perch serves as a good biological indicator for monitoring trends in methylmercury conce

  20. Dining Philosophers with Crash Locality 1 Scott M. Pike

    E-print Network

    Sivilotti, Paul

    problem subject to crash failures. The optimal crash locality for dining is 0 in synchronous networks]. The locality radius of a distributed algorithm demarcates a halo outside of which faults are masked. As such to failure locality 0. Dining philosophers is a fundamental problem in distributed resource allocation

  1. FutureGrid User Support Gregory Pike, Andrew Younge,

    E-print Network

    University, consisting of researchers, post docs, and graduate students. Each FutureGrid project is assigned Structure Portal #12;Account application procedure #12;Portal Slideshots #12;Manual Content Dissemination

  2. It's a Gas Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    or racetrack 62. Natural gas 64. Mason School deg. 67. Food for 61 down 68. Personal aviation milestone 70 game is scheduled, abbrev. 12. Nomenclature term for the C=N group 13. Goes off on 14. Disinfectant gas 15. What's more 24. Pharma. product 25. Kind of enemy 28. Ten to the minus 18 prefix 30. Garden tool

  3. [Thyroid homeostasis in animals with iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Z I

    1988-01-01

    The content of total iodine, its hormonal and nonhormonal fractions as well the level of protein-bound iodine in blood and basic tissue targets in representatives of 4 classes of animals: Esox lucius L., Rana esculenta, Streptopelia decaocto Priv., Lepus europaeus Pall. inhabiting the mountain regions with iodine deficiency in environment and in the lowlands of Transcarpathia with higher iodine provision have been investigated. A considerable decrease of general and hormone iodine level in the animal tissues of the mountain area accompanied by the suppression of the thyroid function has been stated. The utilization of thyroid hormones under the iodine deficiency condition is increased in the majority of cases and the level of protein-bound iodine is lowered that testifies to the transition of animal organism in the iodine-deficient areas to the lower level of thyroid homeostasis. PMID:3265636

  4. Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Koz?owska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength ? = 254 nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation. PMID:24985207

  5. Chemical Alarm Signals Enhance Survival of Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) During Encounters with Predatory Chain Pickerel (Esox niger)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reehan S. Mirza; Douglas P. Chivers

    2001-01-01

    A diversity of aquatic organisms release chemical alarm signals when attacked or captured by a predator. These alarm signals are thought to warn other conspecifics of danger and, consequently, may benefit receivers by increasing their survival. Here we experimentally investigated the diÄerences in behaviour and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis that had been exposed to either brook

  6. Binary Trees: A Challenge Problem For Separating Concerns Scott M. Pike

    E-print Network

    for understanding is limited. Developing applications at the pace of Moore's Law dwarfs our raw ability to manage of current soft- ware has out-paced the development of tools and technolo- gies for bringing software complexity within the tractable range of our limited human intellect. Research in separation of concerns has

  7. Chili's Market Place Dr & Richmond Rd Denny's Newtown Pike & Nicholasville Rd

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    Breakage Fees · Coke® machines · Football Stadium Concession ­ Student Section · Football Tickets · Hilary · Wildcat Cafe - 3rd Floor KY Clinic OFF CAMPUS ATTORNEY · Edward L. Cooley ­ S. Limestone AUTO · Meineke · University Bookstore ­ Student Center CLEANING/LAUNDRY SERVICES · Commonwealth Cleaning ­ Bryan Station

  8. PIKing the right isoform: the emergent role of the p110beta subunit in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Silvia; Milanezi, Fernanda; Costa, José Luís; Amendoeira, Isabel; Schmitt, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Class IA phosphoinositide-3'-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate many cellular processes. Despite a clear implication of PI3K in cancer, the involvement of each of its isoforms namely p110alpha and p110beta in the development of breast cancer remains elusive. Until recently, the spotlight was given to the alpha subunit; however, the p110beta isoform has now emerged as an interesting target as well. In order to determine the importance of both these subunits in breast cancer, we aimed to study the expression of p110alpha and p110beta in a series of invasive breast carcinomas. We constructed tissue microarrays from 315 invasive breast carcinomas and performed immunohistochemistry for p110alpha and beta, correlating the expression patterns with clinicopathological parameters. Furthermore, overall survival was analysed through Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression. We found that p110 subunits are expressed in 23.8% of invasive breast carcinomas, of which 11.8% express p110alpha and 15.2% p110beta. The p110alpha positive tumours correlated with hormone receptor (HR) expression, and were not associated with overall survival. The membrane expression of p110beta was associated with worse prognosis. This was due to its link to HER2-overexpression, lower age of onset, higher grade, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and was inversely associated with HR status. Furthermore, p110beta expression was associated with worse overall survival. Importantly our results indicate a role for the beta subunit in the development/progression of HER2-overexpressing tumours, highlighting possible therapeutic associations between HER2 and p110beta inhibitors. PMID:20130907

  9. The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long

    E-print Network

    , Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Bluegill and yellow perch size structure increased probably because perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) (Anderson & Schupp 1986; Findlay, Kasian, Hendzel, Regehr, Schindler & Shearer 1994; Paukert & Willis 2003, Paukert, Stancill, DeBates & Willis 2003), and Eurasian perch, Perca

  10. Characteristics of a Crappie Population in an Unfished Small Impoundment Containing Northern Pike

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. WILLIS; JOHN F. SMELTZER; STEPHEN A. FLICKINGER

    1984-01-01

    Desirable black trappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and white trappie (Pomoxis annularis) pop- ulations were documented in a small impoundment in Colorado. Individnals 250 mm long and longer comprised 21% of the black trappies and 44% of the white trappies 130 mm long and longer. Mean relative weight (Wr) information indicated that trappie were in good condition and growth rates were average.

  11. Max Baumhefner & Ed Pike, Co-Authors Andreas Klugescheid, Contributing Author

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    building efficiency PEV buyers are strong candidates for energy efficiency programs Offset load is to create large-scale environmental benefits for our clients by implementing market-based solutions ownership in California PEV driver population #12;Five Potential Pathways 6 On-site energy efficiency

  12. Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. P. French; Douglas A. Wilcox; S. Jerrine Nichols

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control\\u000a system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be\\u000a placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of

  14. Vector specificity of Trypanosoma catostomi and its infectivity to freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Woo, P T

    1992-02-01

    Trypanosoma catostomi was found in 36.2% of 558 white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) from Ontario, Canada. The abundance of Actinobdella inequiannulata was 35% (68 leeches/197 suckers examined for leeches). The susceptibility of 3 species of leeches (Hemiclepsis marginata, Desserobdella phalera, and A. inequiannulata) and 7 species of fishes (C. commersoni, Amia calva, Anguilla rostrata, Ictalurus nebulosus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Perca flavescens, and Esox lucius) to infection with T. catostomi was examined. Metatrypanosomes were found in the crop and proboscis sheath of 13 of 21 A. inequiannulata and in the crop of 10 of 12 H. marginata and 1 of 21 D. phalera. Only flagellates from A. inequiannulata were infective to C. commersoni. Cultured T. catostomi infected C. commersoni and A. calva but not any other fish species. Laboratory-reared C. commersoni were more susceptible than wild-caught specimens. Cultured Trypanosoma phaleri did not infect its natural host, A. calva. Host specificity should be established experimentally before a specific diagnosis is made. Cultures may be useful in simulating factors that affect development in the vector. PMID:1738075

  15. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Harper, D. [Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States). Environmental Geology Section

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  16. “Why don't they come to Pike street and ask us”?: Black American women's health concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tovia G. Freedman

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and

  17. 78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...potential oil and gas areas available and unavailable...available for oil and gas leasing and to identify...would be necessary in areas where protection of...reconstruction on oil and gas leases issued within a Colorado Roadless Area after July 3,...

  18. 210 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. these small lakes there are also the bream, crucian, roach, bleak, pike,

    E-print Network

    their socond trips with full fares, caught on Banquereau,Western Bank, and Grand Banks. Nearer homu the catches and iucressing on theIstter. The July catch by the Gloucester fleet of the past two seasoua, on theso two, banks from the Grand and other banks. The total receipts or the month show s falling off of 170,350pounds

  19. Bio 5319 Molecular Foundations of Medicine Tuesdays and Thursdays, 8:30 10:00 a.m.

    E-print Network

    Glucose Homeostasis Pike Berg 27 5 Th Sep 4 G proteins Pike Berg 14 6 Tu Sep 9 Receptor tyrosine kinases and Glycogen Pike Berg 20 Berg 21 9 Tu Sep 23 Glucose Sensing and TCA cycle Pike Berg 17 Th Sep 25 Quiz 1 Lodish 14 12 Tu Oct 7 Body weight homeostasis Pike Berg 24 Th Oct 9 Case studies ­ in class/small group

  20. APPENDIX E: Vegetative species list of the Forest Lake Club, Pike Co., PA. Species are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name

    E-print Network

    Syring, John

    Aceraceae Acer rubrum Red maple Widespread Tree Aceraceae Acer saccharum Sugar maple Drainages Tree Rosaceae Tree Fagaceae Quercus prinus Chestnut oak Woods Tree Fagaceae Quercus rubra Red oak Woods/Lake margin Northern white-cedar Ornamental Tree Tiliaceae Tilia americana Basswood Moist woods/Drainages Tree Pinaceae

  1. Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

  2. In 2006 hIstory buffs celebrated the 200th anniversary of the moment when explorer Zebulon Pike first saw the mountain that would later bear his name.

    E-print Network

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    work- ing in the North American High Plains. A meeting ground of different geo- graphic regions of an area tucked between the Rocky Mountains and the vast interior Plains of North America. Here one at a broad scale, archaeologists have recently addressed cultural construction of the landscape as it shapes

  3. Morphological and genetic characteristics of the anisakid nematode Raphidascaris acus from the southwest Caspian Sea: evidence for the existence of sibling species within a species complex.

    PubMed

    Jahantab, Mikhak; Haseli, Mohammad; Salehi, Zivar

    2014-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that many nematode species are in fact species complex, using exact morphological and genetic studies. In this case, there are no such studies related to the genus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915. Herein, the morphological and genetic variations among the Iranian population of the species Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) Railliet & Henry, 1915 and the other allopatric populations with morphological and genetic information were compared to show whether this species can be considered as a species complex. R. acus is an anisakid species and has been frequently reported from different host species from the Caspian Sea. Nonetheless, there are no morphological and genetic information for this species from the region. In the present study, a total of 20 specimens of R. acus were collected from Esox lucius Linnaeus, and the morphology of the Caspian population of this species was surveyed for the first time using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, some parts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) including internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8 s, and ITS2 were sequenced and presented as the genetic marker for this species. To understand whether R. acus can be considered as a species complex, the Caspian population of this species was compared morphologically with the allopatric populations of Czech and Canada and genetically with the allopatric population of Poland (Vistula lagoon). Morphologically, there was no difference between the Caspian and Czech populations, but the Caspian and Canadian populations differed in the length of ejaculatory duct and the presence of small triangular elevation between the bases of subventral lips. The nucleotide difference between the Caspian and Polish populations was 4.48%. In comparison with the interspecific genetic distances in the genus Raphidascaris, this value is notable. In conclusion, based on morphological and genetic differences among the allopatric populations of R. acus, this species is probably a species complex. Nonetheless, the definitive taxonomic decision in recognizing R. acus as a species complex and the description of its sibling species depend on surveying other allopatric populations morphologically and genetically accompanied by an evaluation of reproductive isolation among them. PMID:24980652

  4. BULLETIN OF THE, UNITED STATES PISH COMMISBION. 295 45.-SPAWNZNG OR ESOX ( P J X E OR P Z C I L E R E L ) I NN O R T H CAIIOLINA.

    E-print Network

    . 6. 1". Baird.] The mackerel catchers'along this coast are doing poorly. Mackerel areplenty letter, the large mackerel Come up once a week, stay one hour, and then sink. They are full of feed. All reports that mackerel were abundant when she left. Two vessels #12;

  5. BULLETIN OF THE, UNITED STATES PISH COMMISBION. 295 45.-SPAWNZNG OR ESOX ( P J X E OR P Z C I L E R E L ) I NN O R T H CAIIOLINA.

    E-print Network

    . 6. 1". Baird.] The mackerel catchers'along this coast are doing poorly. Mackerel areplenty letter, the large mackerel Come up once a week, stay one hour, and then sink. They are full of feed. All reports that mackerel were abundant when she left. Two vessels #12;296 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH

  6. NC State AIChE Student Chapter Faculty Advisors, Officers and Conference Locations Year Faculty Advisor President Vice President Treasurer

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    ) 1948-1949 Phil Pike Hugh Horne Robert Yoder Joe Hartsoe Homer Ketchie 1949-1950 Phil Pike Robert Becker Foland Burnell Curtis John Yonce Chuck Bullock David Freas NC State Chicago, IL 1963-1964 Ed Schoenborn

  7. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852...Counsel for Hearings, Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD...

  8. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  9. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  10. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  11. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  12. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  13. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852...Counsel for Hearings, Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD...

  14. 1 Kihlberg T. & Lngstrm B. Method and apparatus for production and use of [11 C]carbon monoxide in

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    ) 48, 735-747. 7 Briard E. & Pike V.W. Substitution-reduction - an alternative process for the no Constantinou M., Shah F. & Pike V.W. Radiofluoridation of m-substituted nitrobenzenes. J. Label. Compd., Pike V.W., Rzepa H.S. & Widdowson D.A. An ab initio and MNDO-d SCF-MO computational study

  15. Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-02-01

    Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56?, W85°31'28.15?; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100?m) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra. PMID:25240698

  16. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, 1940. BRICKWORK DETAIL - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  18. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Montgomery, Neshoba, Newton, Noxubee, Oktibbeha, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Pontotoc, Prentiss, Rankin, Scott, Simpson, Smith, Stone, Tippah, Tishomingo, Union, Walthall, Warren, Wayne, Webster, Wilkinson, Winston, Yazoo....

  19. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Nine Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...Tiger Beetle, Dwarf Wedgemussel, and Bog Turtle AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...1978 (43 platysayoides. FR 28932). Turtle, bog...Beverly Pike, Elkins, WV 26241. Bog turtle.....................

  20. Drought:Drought: What is the Status?What is the Status?

    E-print Network

    Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Canon City and Salida Average Max and Min Temperatures (1971(F) CO Springs Denver Pueblo Canon City Buena Vista #12;Pike's Peak vs. Colorado Springs Pike's Peak Nov Dec Month Temperature(degreesF) Tmax Tmin #12;Mean Monthly Pan Evaporation Average Monthly Pan

  1. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1997 REACTIONS OF Gammarus lacustris TO CHEMICAL

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike aquaria. However, no such trend was apparent in response to chemical stimuli from dragonfly larvae. The differences in response to chemical stimuli from pike and larval dragonflies suggest that G. lacustris does

  2. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    /L,respectively). Nitrate levels in ground water for pike and Howard Counties were all below the 10 mg/L NO3-N drinkingArkansas Water Resources Center RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard

  3. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

  4. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

  5. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

  6. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

  8. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

  9. 78 FR 25459 - Notice of Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...Building 38A), National Library of Medicine, on the NIH Campus at 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894. The meeting is...Building 38A), National Library of Medicine, on the NIH Campus at 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894. FOR FURTHER...

  10. AND

    E-print Network

    I I Pegmatitesi; Eucenb B. Gnoss; Calijornia Diris; Ion Of Mines

    Two contrasting swarms of pegmatite dikes occur intermingled in the Pikes Peak granite and in related alkalic granites in the Mount Rosa area, west of Colorado Springs. One is the older calc-alkalic Pikes Peak type; the younger is the alkalic Mount Rosa type. The accessory assemblage of the Mount

  11. Distribution and food habits of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and the northern brook silverside, Labidesthes sicculus, in Lake Conroe, Texas

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joseph Eugene

    1982-01-01

    catch data for March during 1980 and 1981. ? August from Lake Conroe, Texas, Species M tdt ~hill. Labidesthes si. cculus 174 713 Total number 1980 1981 2093 1715 Percent 1980 1981 42. 55 51. 70 3. 54 21. 50 D ~*dt D. Esox americanus N.... 00 0. 00 Table 2. Seine catch data for Conroe, Texas. September ? December 1980 from Lake S 'ecies M tdt ~htlt Labidesthes sicculus Total number 1058 691 Percent 28. 88 18. 86 D ~*dt D. Esox americanus Ntit ~L ~ND t ~tt N. texanus N...

  12. T. A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.Nagy, R. W. Pike, J. R. Hopper, and C. L. Yaws, "A Prototype System for Economic, Environmental and Sustainable Optimization of a Chemical Complex," Proceedings of the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    . Yawsd a Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Company, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 b Louisiana State University, Baton include those associated #12;with manufacturing. Associated costs include those associated with compliance program uses five types of costs. Type 1 costs are direct costs for the manufacturing site. Type 2 costs are

  13. A review of "Literature and Religious Culture in Seventeenth-Century England." by Reid Barbour

    E-print Network

    Holly Faith Nelson

    2005-01-01

    in the fallen world over the terms and costs of an ex- change between violence and spirituality? (53). At Great Tew, heroism was less a military than an intellectual endeavor. For Lucius Cary, Protestant hero- ism was neo-Platonic, sceptical, and irenic...

  14. Interaction of slow growth and increased early-life mortality: an hypothesis on the decline of Colorado squawfish in the upstream regions of its historic range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn R. Kaeding; Douglas B. Osmundson

    1988-01-01

    The Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, the principal native piscivore of the Colorado River basin, was once widespread and abundant in large rivers and their major tributaries. It occurs today only in the upstream regions of its historic range and is threatened with extinction. Growth rate of the species there is much slower than its potential rate and the rate that

  15. Movements of Adult Colorado Squawfish during the Spawning Season in the Upper Colorado River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES W. MCADA; LYNN R. KAEDING

    1991-01-01

    Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius spawned in widely separated areas through- out the 350-km section of the upper Colorado River upstream from Lake Powell, Utah, as evi- denced by the movement of radio-tagged adults during the spawning season and the later capture of larvae. With one exception, tagged fish remained separated from each other during the spawning season. Distances moved by

  16. Toxicity of five shale oils to fish and aquatic invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Woodward; Edward E. Little; Lawrence M. Smith

    1987-01-01

    The chemical composition and toxicity of three shale crude oils (Tosco, Paraho, and Geokinetics), a hydrotreated oil (Paraho HDT), and a refined shale oil (Paraho JP-4) were assessed to determine the potential hazards to native fish species and food chain organisms posed by accidental spills of such materials. Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki),

  17. Bioconcentration factors for metals in humic waters at different pH in the Rönnskär area (N. Sweden)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lithner; K. Holm; H. Borg

    1995-01-01

    The metal content of bryophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica), invertebrates (Asellus aquaticus, Sialis lutaria, Libellulidae) and fish (Perca fluviatilis, Esux lucius) was measured along an aquatic concentration gradient of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, As, Hg, generated by air emissions from the Rönnskär smelters. The separation of pH effects on metal uptake, was facilitated by metal and pH vectors being mostly well separated

  18. Nonnative Fish Control and Endangered Fish Recovery: Lessons from the Colorado River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold M. Tyus; James F. Saunders III

    2000-01-01

    Native freshwater fish populations are declining in North America and more than 100 fishes are federally listed as threatened or endangered. The Colorado River system in the southwestern United States has been especially affected. Most of its native fish populations are in decline, including four “big river” fishes, Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), humpback chub (Gila cypha), bonytail (G. elegans), and

  19. Engineer's Council Representatives Engineers Council

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    -1942 L. P. Zachary James Sturkey Bill Wommack 1942-1943 Tom Hughes Bill Wommack Max Sayah Robert Schmidt. Johnson 1953-1954 Aubrey Sawyer Dick Ball 1954-1955 Bill Edwards Robin Gardner Lucius Gray David Hostetler Keistler Charles Davis 1961-1962 James Myhre John Earnhardt Tom Gray 1962-1963 Arthur Foland John Earnhardt

  20. From Dr. Moreau to Dr. Mengele: The Biological Sublime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elana Gomel

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural genealogy of the image of Dr. Death: the godlike surgeon with power over life and death, who uses this power to torture and mutilate. First appearing in H. G. Wells's The Island of Doctor Moreau (????), this image has become firmly associated with Nazi medicine, as demonstrated by Lucius Shep- ard's short story ''Mengele'' (????).This

  1. Chronological List of LSU School of Renewable Natural Resources Graduates 1926-2008 Prepared by Dr. Paul Y. Burns, Prof. Emeritus, School of RNR, Dec. 26, 2008

    E-print Network

    Kean, Alexander Selkirk. 1930 BSF McKellar, Alfred D. 1930 BSF Tarver, Claude L. 1930 BSF Adams, William Porter. 1931 BSF McKeithen, Togo V. 1931 BSF Morgan, Roy B. 1931 BSF Risch, Lucius J. 1931 BSF Smith, Francis A Tannehill, George M., Jr. 1932 BSF Mathews, Willie P. 1933 BSF Smith, Horace E. 1933 BSF Hebert, Clyde H

  2. AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING

    E-print Network

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING, without finding it. ­ Lucius Annaeus Seneca #12;v ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS An Integrated Lung for detection. In this research, we replicate the Lung-on- a-Chip platform with a cystic fibrosis cell line

  3. An Ecological Context for Evaluating the Factors Influencing Muskellunge Stocking Success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Wahl

    1999-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, predation, competition or resource partitioning, and abiotic factors interact to affect species distribution and abundance. To make management recommendations, I review research dealing with the relative influence of these factors in determining stocking success of muskellunge Esox masquinongy. Survival of stocked muskellunge is affected by losses to resident predators. Prey preference and composition are also important,

  4. Fish Community Responses to the Introduction of Muskellunge into Minnesota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Knapp; Steven W. Mero; David J. Bohlander; David F. Staples; Jerry A. Younk

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of sportfishing for muskellunge Esox masquinongy in Minnesota has increased substantially during the last 20 years and has resulted in a call for creating more fishing opportunities. As new waters are considered for muskellunge management, some anglers have expressed concern over the effects on other popular game fish species of adding a top-level predator. We evaluated the responses

  5. An Overview of Fisheries Management for Lake Simcoe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McMurtry M. J; C. C. Willox; T. C. Smith

    1997-01-01

    Eutrophication, increased fishing pressure, habitat destruction and invasion of non-native plants and animals have transformed Lake Simcoe and its assemblage of fishes over the past 150 years. Notable changes include die extirpation of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), decline of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), and failure of recruitment of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Many species, including lake

  6. Simulated Effects of Recruitment Variability, Exploitation, and Reduced Habitat Area on the Muskellunge Population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick K. Frohnauer; Clay L. Pierce; Larry W. Kallemeyn

    2007-01-01

    The genetically unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabiting Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, is potentially at risk for loss of genetic variability and long-term viability. Shoepack Lake has been subject to dramatic surface area changes from the construction of an outlet dam by beavers Castor canadensis and its subsequent failure. We simulated the long-term dynamics of this

  7. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus by Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction from Two Fish Species at Two Sites in Lake Superior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Cornwell; Geofrey E. Eckerlin; Rodman G. Getchell; Geoffrey H. Groocock; Tarin M. Thompson; William N. Batts; Rufina N. Casey; Gael Kurath; James R. Winton; Paul R. Bowser; Mark B. Bain; James W. Casey

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 2005 during a mortality event in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Subsequent analysis of archived samples determined that the first known isolation of VHSV in the Laurentian Great Lakes was from a muskellunge Esox masquinongy collected in Lake St. Clair in 2003. By the end

  8. The influence of littoral zone structural complexity on fish assemblages in Lake Conroe, TX

    E-print Network

    Trial, Perry Felix

    1999-01-01

    Pimephales vi gi 1 ax Esox ameri canus vermi cvlatus Fundulus chrysotus Fundulus notatus 5 8 1100 949 680 18 28 20 17 1 8 127 67 451 434 204 21 41 69 85 9 12 2 17 13 27 184 16 36 59 10 27 1444 143 1919 370 216 56 125 Table 1. Continued...

  9. Monitoring the execution of temporal plans for robotic systems

    E-print Network

    Levine, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    To achieve robustness in dynamic and uncertain environments, robotic systems must monitor the progress of their plans during execution. This thesis develops a plan executive called Pike that is capable of executing and ...

  10. Monitoring the Execution of Temporal Plans for Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Levine, Steven J.

    2012-10-04

    To achieve robustness in dynamic and uncertain environments, robotic systems must monitor the progress of their plans during execution. This thesis develops a plan executive called Pike that is capable of executing and ...

  11. MedlinePlus 2012 User Survey Results: What is your preferred reading language on the Web? (Los usuarios de MedlinePlus ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Index | Previous | Next What is your preferred reading language on the Web? (MedlinePlus en español users ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  12. Microsoft Word - M&E_Archive_2002_SEPT5-6_Speakers.doc

    Cancer.gov

    Nutritional Genomics and Proteomics in Cancer Prevention Conference Speakers List Confirmed Speakers as of July 9, 2002 Richard G. Allison, Ph.D. Executive Officer American Society for Nutritional Sciences 9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20814 Phone:

  13. Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  14. Microsoft Word - Tentative Joint Agen 2004.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised 10 March 2004 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 9th Joint Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS (BSA) and BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC COUNSELORS (BSC) Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda,

  15. Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda March 2009.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised February 27, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 42nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 2-3, 2009 Monday, 2 March 2009

  16. RIFLE GAP RESERVOIR FISHERY INVESTIGATION Photo: Willow Hibbs

    E-print Network

    ) were stocked by CDOW and established self-sustaining populations. In 1993 it was determined that black crappie (BCR) had been illegally introduced and by 1999 yellow perch (YPE) and northern pike (NPK

  17. 78 FR 17944 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting onb April 10, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public...

  18. AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography Instructor #15; Name: Dr. David Pike #15; OÆce: Henrietta Number Theory) and a computing course (AMAT 2120 or CS 2710 or CS 2602). #15; Textbook: \\Cryptography

  19. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...International, Inc.; Mike The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources...operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is a Delaware corporation based in California....

  20. 76 FR 37150 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...1909 Schofield St., Knoxville, 11000457 Robertson County Russell House, 2520 Memorial Blvd., Springfield, 11000458 Rutherford...Family Farms in Middle Tennessee MPS) 455 W. Jefferson Pike, Walter Hill, 11000459 Shelby County Memphis Landing, E. side...

  1. Lure of the intimate : power practices in Japanese adolescent friendship

    E-print Network

    Hallman, Heather Spector

    2011-01-01

    such as eating disorders and fut?k?, young men and women mayeating disorders, attributes the phenomena of Japanese womeneating disorder etiology, Pike and Borovoy (2004) argue that these are protests by young Japanese women

  2. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...Unincorporated Areas Tucson Road. of Santa Cruz County. Approximately 100 feet...AZ 85621. Unincorporated Areas of Santa Cruz County Maps are available for inspection...of Alum Springs Cross Pike. Dix River Tributary 2 (Backwater From...

  3. Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda - 3-4 March 2008 _2_.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised February 29, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 39th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 3-4, 2008 Monday, 3 March 2008

  4. NC State Chemical Engineering Degrees -MS Graduation Name NicknameGrad Date Hometown StateUndergrad Chair Initial Employer Employer City State

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Undergrad Chair Initial Employer Employer City State James Whitney Perry 5/15/1928 Raleigh NC NC State Randolph Monsanto Frank Jeremiah Connelly Jr Frank 6/10/1951 Staten Island NY Pike Henry Cheng Hsing Pan Henry 6

  5. Received 23 February 2004 Accepted 13 July 2004

    E-print Network

    Roos, André M. de

    included a lake population of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (Sanderson et al. 1999), a lake population of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) (Persson et al. 2000, 2003) and a stream population of northern pike

  6. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:313322, 2003 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003

    E-print Network

    was positively related to size structure of yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus when perch Perca fla- vescens, may be reduced with increased northern pike abundance (Margenau 1995

  7. Source code that talks: an exploration of Eclipse task comments and their implication to repository mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie T. T. Ying; James L. Wright; Steven Abrams

    2005-01-01

    A programmer performing a change task to a system can benefit from accurate comments on the source code. As part of good programming practice described by Kernighan and Pike in the book , comments should \\

  8. Microsoft Word - Tentative Joint BSA-BSC Mtg Agenda March 20061.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised March 7, 2006 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 10th Joint Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS (BSA) AND BOARDS OF SCIENTIFIC COUNSELORS (BSCS) Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda,

  9. 76 FR 32387 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...the Commonwealth of KENTUCKY, dated 05/19/2011...the disaster: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage...Henderson, Lawrence, McLean, Pike. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kentucky: Elliott,...

  10. VIADUCT LOOKING SOUTHEAST WHERE IT CROSSES ELLIOTT AVENUE AT BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIADUCT LOOKING SOUTHEAST WHERE IT CROSSES ELLIOTT AVENUE AT BOTTOM OF PICTURE AND PASSES ALONG WATERFRONT PARK AND PIKE PLACE. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. Concussion Recovery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... their symptoms, as well as their physical and mental activity level and energy exertion. Cognitive and balance ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  12. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  13. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch...Union. downstream of Bridge Street. Approximately...Birmingham Pike (Railroad Bridge). Murray Run...Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch...Township Building, 7551 Bridge Street,...

  14. Falls on the Rise Among U.S. Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Falls on the Rise Among U.S. Seniors Study found more than a third of ... Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, ...

  15. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 410 287 338 373 143 ???? ??????? ??? (g) ???????? mahi mahi, orange roughy, perch, pike, plaice, red fish, red snapper, ... food, Burger King® frozen, baked canned Onions, raw Orange, fresh 2 5/8" diam Orange drink Orange ...

  16. 78 FR 70064 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the...days for public comment. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

  17. 78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

  18. Area Restaurants

    Cancer.gov

    Area Restaurants Restaurants within Walking Distance $-Inexpensive $$-Moderate $$$-Mid-Expensive $$$$-Expensive American Meritage $$ Hotel Lobby Casual, Breakfast, Dinner Daily, Lunch Mon-Fri Ext. 6240 Addies $$ 11120 Rockville Pike Casual,

  19. Cryopreservation of the sperm of some freshwater teleosts H. STEIN H. BAYRLE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), the brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario L.), the brooktrout(Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill), the danube salmon (Hucho hucho L.), the grayling (Thymallus thymallus L.), the pike

  20. 76 FR 39405 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-827-0314, or FDA Advisory Committee Information Line, 1-800-741-8138 (301-443-0572 in the Washington, DC area), and follow the prompts to the desired center...

  1. 78 FR 15726 - Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike (HFM- 71), Rockville, MD 20852, or FDA Advisory Committee Information Line, 1-800-741-8138 (301-443-0572 in the Washington, DC area). A notice in the Federal Register about last...

  2. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  3. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  4. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  5. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents; methods; proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and (iii) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (f) When...

  6. 10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

  7. 10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

  8. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents; methods; proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and (iii) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (f) When...

  9. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  10. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  11. 10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

  12. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  13. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  14. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents; methods; proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and (iii) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (f) When...

  15. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  16. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  17. 10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

  18. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  19. Find a Pediatric Dentist

    MedlinePLUS

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  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

  1. This article was downloaded by: [University of Arizona] On: 21 September 2013, At: 04:44

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched

  2. 1 in 10 U.S. Teens Has Tried Hashish

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. Fewer U.S. Children Getting Melanoma: Study

    MedlinePLUS

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  4. 78 FR 50436 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Administrator, under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Michael L. Parker, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal Coordinating Officer...Perry, Pike, Putnam, Ralls, Shelby, St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Stoddard, Sullivan, Texas, and...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of other Army intelligence matters to the Commander, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, ATTN: IAMG-CIC-FOI/PO, 4552 Pike Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-5995. (k) Inspector General records. Send requests involving...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of other Army intelligence matters to the Commander, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, ATTN: IAMG-CIC-FOI/PO, 4552 Pike Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-5995. (k) Inspector General records. Send requests involving...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 518 - Addressing FOIA Requests

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of other Army intelligence matters to the Commander, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, ATTN: IAMG-CIC-FOI/PO, 4552 Pike Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-5995. (k) Inspector General records. Send requests involving...

  8. 75 FR 39040 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...10000477 Wayne County Rosedale Gardens Historic District, Arden to Hubbard Sts. between Plymouth Rd. and W Chicago St., Livonia, 10000478...Church Rd., Huntingdon, 10000466 Davidson County Daniel, John Beauregard, House, 3206 Hillsboro Pike, Nashville,...

  9. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea Electric Power Corporation...O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...developed in the Republic of Korea. Based on the...

  10. 78 FR 42560 - In the Matter of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Co., Ltd. and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...Project No. 0782] In the Matter of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Co., Ltd...Information (Effective Immediately) I Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Co., Ltd...Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Madison County, Marion County, Newton County, Pearl River County, Perry County, Pike County, Rankin County, Scott County, Simpson County, Smith County, Stone County, Walthall County, Warren County, Wayne County, Wilkinson...

  12. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Madison County, Marion County, Newton County, Pearl River County, Perry County, Pike County, Rankin County, Scott County, Simpson County, Smith County, Stone County, Walthall County, Warren County, Wayne County, Wilkinson...

  13. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Madison County, Marion County, Newton County, Pearl River County, Perry County, Pike County, Rankin County, Scott County, Simpson County, Smith County, Stone County, Walthall County, Warren County, Wayne County, Wilkinson...

  14. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Madison County, Marion County, Newton County, Pearl River County, Perry County, Pike County, Rankin County, Scott County, Simpson County, Smith County, Stone County, Walthall County, Warren County, Wayne County, Wilkinson...

  15. 78 FR 15055 - License Renewal Application for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...Sequoyah Nuclear Plant is located in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. The current operating license for...necessary. Both sessions will be held at the Soddy Daisy City Hall, 9835 Dayton Pike, Soddy Daisy, TN 37379. Both meetings will be...

  16. 78 FR 4469 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...PDR, located at One White Flint North, Room O1-F21, 11555...Fermi 2, Monroe County, Michigan Date of amendment request...Rock), Charlevoix County, Michigan Entergy Nuclear...

  17. 75 FR 8139 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville, Pike...their submission. Indiana Michigan Power Company, Docket No...Unit 2, Berrien County, Michigan Date of amendment request...Joseph, Berrien County, Michigan, on January 29 and 30,...

  18. 78 FR 21164 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...PDR, located at One White Flint North, Room O1-F21, 11555...Fermi 2, Monroe County, Michigan Date of amendment request...Fermi 2, Monroe County, Michigan Exelon Generation...

  19. 19 CFR 12.22 - Labels; samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...which describe and identify the shipment shall be forwarded to the Director, Bureau of Biologics, Food and Drug Administration, 8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014. For shipments of 20 or less final containers, samples need not be forwarded,...

  20. 76 FR 27337 - National Center for Research Resources; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Center for Research Resources, Office of Review,...