Sample records for pike esox lucius

  1. Age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; Pronin, Nikolai M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In 1993, pike, ages 1 to 3, ranged in length from 331 to 810 mm and in 1995 , pike, ages 2 to 10, ranged in length from 365 to 1,111 mm but only three percent were age 7 or older. Most growth in length occurred during the first two years of life. The length-weight relation for pike from Chivyrkui Bay was similar to that of pike from the St. Lawrence River. Calculated total length of pike from Lake Baikal equalled or exceeded the lengths of pike from lakes Erie or Ontario. Good agreement was found between ages from cleithra and from scales. Lengths at age in June 1995 (N=108) varied widely among pike. Females were generally larger than males at a given age among fish age-3 and older. When compared with the circumpolar growth standard, based on the von Bertalanffy growth curve, growth of Lake Baikal pike exceeded all other Asian populations, and equalled or exceeded many other northern hemisphere populations.

  2. Behavioral variation in pelvic phenotypes of brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans , in response to predation by northern pike, Esox lucius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Reist

    1983-01-01

    Populations ofCulaea inconstans, from Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada exhibit phenotypic variation in expression of the pelvic skeleton and associated spines, from complete presence (with) through intermediate forms to complete absence (without). Such variation influences predation byEsox lucius which prefer the least spiny prey. Behavioral differences were investigated before and during pike predation. These differences may be associated either with the

  3. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  4. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P 0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike ( Esox lucius) and burbot ( Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela M. Bennett; David M. Janz

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as “winter stress syndrome”) in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly,

  6. Post-glacial dispersal patterns of Northern pike inferred from an 8800 year old pike (Esox cf. lucius) skull from interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooller, Matthew J.; Gaglioti, Benjamin; Fulton, Tara L.; Lopez, Andres; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-07-01

    The biogeography of freshwater fish species during and after late-Pleistocene glaciations relate to how these species are genetically organized today, and the management of these often disjunct populations. Debate exists concerning the biogeography and routes of dispersal for Northern pike (Esox lucius) after the last glaciation. A hypothesis to account for the relatively low modern genetic diversity for E. lucius is post-glacial radiation from refugia, including lakes from within the un-glaciated portions of eastern Beringia. We report the remains of a Northern pike (E. cf. lucius) skull, including bones, teeth, bone collagen and ancient DNA. The remains were preserved at a depth of between 440 and 446 cm in a 670 cm long core of sediment from Quartz Lake, which initiated at ?11,200 cal yr BP in interior Alaska. A calibrated accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon age of the collagen extracted from the preserved bones indicated that the organism was dated to 8820 cal yr BP and is bracketed by AMS values from analyses of terrestrial plant macrofossils, avoiding any potential aquatic reservoir effect that could have influenced the radiocarbon age of the bones. Scanning electron microscope images of the specimen show the hinged tooth anatomy typically of E. lucius. Molar C:N (3.5, 1? = 0.1) value of the collagen from the specimen indicated well-preserved collagen and its mean stable nitrogen isotope value is consistent with the known predatory feeding ecology of E. lucius. Ancient DNA in the bones showed that the specimen was identical to modern E. lucius. Our record of E. lucius from interior Alaska is consistent with a biogeographic scenario involving rapid dispersal of this species from glacial refugia in the northern hemisphere after the last glaciation.

  7. Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

    2013-04-01

    Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction. PMID:23292487

  8. Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela M; Janz, David M

    2007-09-01

    We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as "winter stress syndrome") in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly, total body lipid and triglyceride, and liver triglyceride levels were greater in effluent-exposed pike and burbot in both fall and spring. However, there were no lake or season differences in growth indices of length, weight, muscle RNA/DNA ratio, or muscle protein levels in pike. In addition, total lipids and triglycerides in burbot were greater in spring compared to fall, while no seasonal differences were observed in pike, suggesting that burbot continued to feed during winter. Findings do not support the winter stress syndrome hypothesis and suggest possible direct and indirect effects of metal mining effluent on lipid dynamics of juvenile fishes. PMID:17368537

  9. Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.

    PubMed

    Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

    2009-07-01

    Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years. PMID:20735553

  10. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; bipolar neurons were seen in the distal and proximal pineal. At the level of the subcommissural organL'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinéales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages

  11. Temporal stability in size distributions and growth rates of three Esox lucius L. populations.

    E-print Network

    Roos, André M. de

    trajectories for three stream living pike Esox lucius populations were studied for 7 years. All three to differences in prey:predator size ratios. The pike populations in the more open and larger streams grew, available online at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com 461 # 2006 The Authors Journal compilation # 2006

  12. Standard Weight Equation for Tiger Muskellunge (Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin B. Rogers; Keith D. Koupal

    1997-01-01

    Weight and length data for tiger muskellunge Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy were solicited from biologists across the continent to develop a 75th-percentile standard weight (Ws) equation for the hybrid. Only 27 populations (N = 1,124 fish) from 9 states yielded adequate data sets for this process. We used a bootstrap technique to demonstrate that the limited number of populations

  13. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions. PMID:24933165

  14. Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae

    PubMed Central

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  15. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation. PMID:26039743

  16. Physiological ecology of larval muskellunge and norlunge: temperature tolerance and growth rates under hatchery conditions. [Esox masquinongy, E. lucius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonin

    1976-01-01

    Critical Thermal Maxima (CTM) and growth rates of larval muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and norlunge (E. masquinongy female x E. lucius male) were determined under hatchery conditions. Two groups of fish were maintained at ambient water temperatures with natural photoperiod. Weekly water samples were collected to monitor the troughs. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia which were within normal

  17. Construct Mechanical Pike and Tow Tank Chengcheng Feng

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Construct Mechanical Pike and Tow Tank Chengcheng Feng Faculty Mentor: Professor Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Biomimicry offers valuable solutions to engineering problems through observing nature. The aim of this project is to examine the mechanisms of a northern pike, esox lucius fast

  18. Using Bioenergetics Modeling to Estimate Consumption of Native Juvenile Salmonids by Nonnative Northern Pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clint C. Muhlfeld; David H. Bennett; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Brian Marotz; Matthew Boyer

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002–2003) and applied food habits data (1999–2003) to estimate their annual consumption

  19. Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Jewett; Xiaoming Zhang; A. Sathy Naidu; John J. Kelley; Doug Dasher; Lawrence K. Duffy

    2003-01-01

    In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike

  20. Reduction of cannibalism in pike (Esox lucius) fry by isolation of full-sib families

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Environmental parameters, such as depth and extent of the banks, may also affect growth and survival. Our, especially temperature change ; 2) nature and quantity of available food : zooplankton, invertebrates, fry on the availability of food : pond fertilization (Colas, 1938), supply of plankton (Arrignon, 1972 ; Huet, 1976

  1. Oviduct Insertion of Radio Transmitters as a Means of Locating Northern Pike Spawning Habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce

    2004-01-01

    I inserted radio transmitters into the oviducts of northern pike Esox lucius in an attempt to find their spawning grounds. Oviduct insertion of miniature radio transmitters was quick and easy. I hoped that transmitters would be expelled with the eggs to aid in identifying critical habitat used for egg deposition. Ten transmitters were implanted in the egg masses of female

  2. Application of Liquid Oxytetracycline in Formulated Feeds to Mark and Treat Tiger Muskellunge (Northern Pike X Muskellunge)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Wahl; Roy A. Stein

    1987-01-01

    When added to pelleted diets, liquid oxytetracycline (500 mg\\/kg of fish per day) was effective in marking (after 12 d) and disease treatment (after 3 d) of tiger muskellunge (the hybrid of northern pike, Esox lucius, and muskellunge, E. masquinongy). Liquid oxytetracycline is more easily applied and costs less than traditional methods for these purposes.

  3. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  4. Density and Biomass of Native Northern Pike Populations in Relation to Basin-Scale Characteristics of North-Central Minnesota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney B. Pierce; Cynthia M. Tomcko

    2005-01-01

    Habitat and ecological constraints that influence populations of northern pike Esox lucius at the scale of the lake basin were determined for 16 north-central Minnesota lakes that varied in size, depth, and chemical productivity. The density and biomass of northern pike greater than 350 mm total length were highly variable among lakes (3.2–59.0 fish\\/ha, 3.6–33.6 kg\\/ha). Densities of large northern

  5. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments. PMID:26022327

  6. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  7. Age, growth, and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Miller, Terence J.

    1978-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) from eastern Lake Ontario were sampled with gill nets and trap nets in 1972-1973. Fish of age-groups IV, V, and VI were predominant in the catch. Although males were slightly longer after the 1st yr of life, females gained a 25-mm advantage in the 2nd yr and a 30-mm advantage in the 3rd yr. In later years, the increments of growth of males and females were similar. All males were mature after 2 yr and females after 3 yr. The stomachs of northern pike contained only fish; the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) was the principal forage species consumed. Electivity indexes for alewives, white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), the three most common species in the diet, indicated a positive selection for alewives that increased from June to October during a period when the relative abundance of alewives steadily decreased.

  8. High sensitivity of northern pike larvae to UV-B but no UV-photoinduced toxicity of retene.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Jani; Vehniäinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2004-03-10

    In order to investigate whether increased UV-B radiation is a risk factor, a series of acute laboratory experiments was conducted with larval stages of the northern pike (Esox lucius L.), hatching in Nordic waters in May. Further, a comparative investigation on the acute phototoxicity of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a PAH compound recently revealed to posses UV-B-induced phototoxicity in larval coregonids, was conducted with pike larvae. In semi-static experiment, larvae were pre-exposed to retene (3, 9, 30 and 82 microg/g), with relevant controls, for 24 h and then irradiated for 3 h once a day (two consecutive days) with three UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 1.0, 1.8 or 2.7 kJ/m2 per day) or with visible light only. In 3 days, the UV-B exposure alone increased mortality by 10-20% in all applied dose rates. Retene (up to 82 microg/l) had no direct UV-B-induced toxicity in pike. However, pike larvae were very sensitive to UV-B even in low doses, indicated as severe neurobehavioral disorders. Monitoring of pike with the neurobehavioral syndrome revealed substantial late mortality. As UV-B had no influence on CYP1A content in larval pike, retene (9-82 microg/l) induced this protein substantially with and without UV-B. In pike, the applied UV-B radiation and water retene alone both decreased HSP70 concentrations. Neither UV nor retene changed SOD activity significantly. Overall, data on pike suggest that only a minor increase in ambient UV-B coming to the earth's surface may cause lethal effects to larval fish. PMID:15168947

  9. Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Naidu, A Sathy; Kelley, John J; Dasher, Doug; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2003-01-01

    In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers had mean concentrations of THg in muscle of 1.506 and 0.628 mg/kg wet wt, respectively. The mean concentrations of THg in grayling muscle from these rivers were 0.264 and 0.078 mg/kg, respectfully. Whitefish had a mean THg concentration in muscle of 0.032 mg/kg. MeHg, in pike and grayling constituted nearly 100% of the THg concentrations; the proportion was less in whitefish. A significant positive correlation between Hg levels and fish length was also found. Generally, there were no changes in Hg concentrations in pike or grayling over the last several years. Only pike from theYukon River had THg concentrations that exceeded the USFDA action level for human consumption of edible fish (1 mg/kg). Human hazard index for pike was > or = 1 for both adults and children, indicating a potential for toxic concern, especially among children. Further studies are needed to determine the environmental and human health impacts associated with these Hg concentrations in western Alaska, especially in the context of potentially increased consumption of resident fishes when anadromous salmon catches are reduced. PMID:12656259

  10. Purification and characterization of troponin C from pike muscle: a comparative spectroscopic study with rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, W D; Oikawa, K; Sykes, B D; Kay, C M

    1982-11-01

    The conformation of troponin C (TN-C) isolated from the white muscle of pike (Esox lucius), in the Ca2+ and metal-free states, was studied by circular dichroism, absorption difference spectroscopy, solvent perturbation difference spectroscopy, intrinsic fluorescence, thiol titration, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, the molecular weight of the protein was determined by sedimentation equilibrium and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The composition of the protein was established by amino acid analysis. The resulting data were compared with those from the widely studied analogue isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. The results indicate near equivalence in many of the properties of pike and rabbit TN-C, such as molecular weight, the magnitude of the calcium-induced conformational change, and urea- or thermal-induced denaturability. However, the pike protein has five additional potential carboxyl groups, and there is good evidence from NMR, solvent perturbation, and fluorescence studies for the presence of a buried tyrosine residue in the apo state. PMID:7150538

  11. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science,Vol. 85 (2006) 247 RECENT RANGE EXTENSIONS,

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    dace, Phoxinus eos, southern redbelly dace, P. erythrogaster, shorthead redhorse, Moxostoma macrolepidotum, yellow bullhead, Ameiurus na- talis, northern pike, Esox lucius, Iowa darter, Etheostoma exile

  12. Learned Recognition of Predation Risk by Enallagma Damselfly Larvae (Odonata, Zygoptera) on the Basis of Chemical Cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan. F. Smith

    1997-01-01

    We studied two populations of damselfly larvae (Enallagma boreale): one population cooccurred with a predatory fish (northern pike, Esox lucius); the other did not. Damselflies that cooccurred with pike adopted antipredator behavior (reduced activity) in response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics, and to chemical stimuli from pike, relative to a distilled water control. Damselflies from an area where pike

  13. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1997 REACTIONS OF Gammarus lacustris TO CHEMICAL

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike, alarm pheromone, kairomone, predator avoidance, antipredator behavior, Esox lucius, Aeshna eremita pheromone decreases the capture efficiency of predatory larvaldragonflies (Aeshna umbrosa) (Hews, 1988

  14. Selective Predation by Three Esocids: The Role of Prey Behavior and Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID H. WAHL; ROY A. STEIN

    1988-01-01

    We documented differential vulnerability of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to predation by muskel- lunge Esox masquinongy. northern pike E. lucius. and tiger muskellunge £\\

  15. Auditory exostoses and evidence for fishing at Vlasac

    E-print Network

    Frayer, David W.

    1988-01-01

    % of the vertebrate fauna recovered at Vlasac is fish. Species identified in clude pike (Esox lucius), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and catfish (Silurus glanis). Bokonyi does not give minimum individual counts but does note that catfish were the most important...

  16. Journal of Fish Biology (1997) 50, 799808 The effect of physical condition and shoalmate familiarity on

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    for review) and only one, attraction of secondary predators, has been demonstrated convincingly. Pike Esox lucius L., and predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) are attracted to chemical cues from injured minnow

  17. COOK, A. F., N. E. STACEY, AND R. E. PETER. 1980. Periovulatory changes in serum cortisol levels in

    E-print Network

    in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen. Compo Endocri- no\\. 40:507-510. HIROSE, K. 1976. Endocrine control pike(Esox lucius), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:974-988. KAYA, C. M

  18. Esox lucius k = (y2 -y1) / (x2 -x1)

    E-print Network

    Aslan, Turkey, PhD Student Pavel Bína, Czech Republic, Fauna Volunteer Monitoring Coordinator Backcover. This is achieved by research, education and environmental monitoring and assessment, in collaboration, as well as environmental monitoring and assessment, are carried out at several research stations

  19. The role of olfaction in chemosensory-based predator recognition in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

    1993-01-01

    Solitary fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were rendered anosmic and exposed to chemical stimuli from a predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) to determine the role of olfaction in the minnow's ability to recognize predators on the basis of chemical stimuli. Anosmic fish did not respond to the pike stimuli with a typical fright reaction, while control fish, with intact olfactory receptors,

  20. Nutritional Requirements and Feeding of Selected Coolwater Fishes: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. George Ketola

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of published and unpublished studies on nutritional requirements, diets, and feeding of selected coolwater species of fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), European perch (P. fluviatilis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), northern pike (Esox lucius), muskellunge (E. masquinongy), and the northern pike x muskellunge hybrid. The published information on nutritional requirements was meager, including only

  1. Damselfly larvae learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the predator's diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; BRIAN D. WISENDEN; R. JAN F. SMITH

    1996-01-01

    Chemosensory recognition of predators by naive prey may be facilitated if the predator's diet chemically ‘labels’ the predator. In a laboratory experiment, behaviour patterns were quantified in individual damselfly larvae,Enallagmaspp., that had never been exposed to pike,Esox lucius, before and after exposing the damselflies to one of three chemical stimuli: water from a tank that held pike fed a diet

  2. Cultural transmission of predator recognition in fishes: intraspecific and interspecific learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA MATHIS; DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; R. JAN F. SMITH

    1996-01-01

    Individuals that live in groups may have the opportunity to learn to recognize unfamiliar predators by observing the fright responses of experienced individuals in the group. In intraspecific trials, naive fathead minnows,Pimephales promelas, gave fright responses to chemical stimuli from predatory northern pike,Esox lucius, when paired with pike-experienced conspecifics but not when paired with pike-naive conspecifics. These pike-conditioned minnows retained

  3. High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

  4. The presence of uric acid, an antioxidantive substance, in fish seminal plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ciereszko; K. Dabrowski; D. Kucharczyk; S. Dobosz; K. Goryczko; J. Glogowski

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of uric acid in seminal plasma of a range of teleost fish species are reported for the first time. Concentrations of urate amounted to 223.4; 121.9–130.0, 355.9, 735.6, 124.0, 192.7 and 148.0 µM for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), Northern pike (Esox lucius), carp koi (Cyprinus carpio), bream (Abramis brama), and tench (Tinca

  5. Response of the residential piscivorous fish community to introduction of a new predator type in a mesotrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torsten Schulze; Ulrich Baade; Hendrik Dörner; Reiner Eckmann; Susanne S. Haertel-Borer; Franz Hölker; Thomas Mehner

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of introduced predators on prey populations in aquatic ecosystems have been studied frequently, less is known about the interactions between predators. We performed a whole-lake experiment by stocking a non-native top predator (pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)) to two residential piscivores (Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)). By analyzing spatial distribution, diet composition, growth, and consump-

  6. Littoral Fish Community Response to Smallmouth Bass Removal from an Adirondack Lake

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    littoral fish abundance, we removed 47,682 smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu from a 271-ha Adirondack 1999). Previous observational studies have shown that introductions of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolo- mieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and northern pike Esox lucius have been associated

  7. A BroadScale Approach to Management of Ontario's Recreational Fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel P. Lester; Terry R. Marshall; Kim Armstrong; Warren I. Dunlop; Bev Ritchie

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable exploitation of Ontario's aquatic resources calls for a new management approach. This vast resource includes more than 250,000 lakes and offers angling opportunities for many popular species (e.g., walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout S. fontinalis, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and muskellunge E. masquinongy). In

  8. Interactions between Walleyes and Four Fish Species with Implications for Walleye Stocking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Fayram; Michael J. Hansen; Timothy J. Ehlinger

    2005-01-01

    We used a number of different data sets and four criteria to evaluate evidence of competition and predation between walleye Sander vitreus and northern pike Esox lucius, muskellunge E. masquinongy, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass M. salmoides in northern Wisconsin lakes. The four criteria were as follows: (1) indices of population abundance were inversely related, (2) two species

  9. Reactions of Gammarus lacustris to Chemical Stimuli from Natural Predators and Injured Conspecifics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Wudkevich; Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

    1997-01-01

    We exposed the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris, to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Exposure to all three stimuli caused G. lacustris to reduce significantly its level of activity relative to activity recorded in response to a distilled water control. The similarity

  10. Structural and functional impairment of the hypothalamo- pituitary-interrenal axis in fish exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent in the St Maurice River, Quebec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICE Hontela; CLAUDE Daniel; JOSEPH B. Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) on blood cortisol levels and the morphology of the pituitary-interrenal axis were investigated in two species of teleost fish, the northern pike, Esox lucius, and the yellow perch, Perca flavescens, sampled upstream and downstream from a pulp and paper mill on the St Maurice River, Quebec. Fish were acutely stressed by a

  11. Ontogenetic niche shifts and resource partitioning in a subarctic piscivore fish guild

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per-Arne Amundsen; Thomas Bøhn; Olga A. Popova; Frode J. Staldvik; Yuri S. Reshetnikov; Nikolay A. Kashulin; Anatoly A. Lukin

    2003-01-01

    The feeding ecology of three piscivorous fish species (perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota)), was studied in the subarctic Pasvik watercourse (69 °?N), northern Norway and Russia. All three species primarily occupied the benthic habitats in the watercourse. Perch and burbot exhibited distinct ontogenetic niche shifts in food resource use, perch changing from a dominance of

  12. Growth of Tiger Muskellunge Fed Different Amounts of Protein at Three Water Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Lemm; Donald V. Rottiers

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates of tiger muskellunge (muskellunge Esox masquinongy ? x northern pike E. lucius ?) fed diets containing 35, 45, or 55% crude protein for 5 weeks at 17, 20, or 23°C were compared. Fish fed diets containing 45 or 55% protein grew faster at all temperatures than those fed 35% protein. Growth of tiger muskellunge fed a diet containing

  13. Largemouth Bass Predation on Stocked Tiger Muskellunge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline; Robert S. Hayward

    1981-01-01

    To better understand why stocked esocids survive poorly, we estimated mortality rates of tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrid of female muskellunge Esox masquinongy x male northern pike E. lucius) that were placed into two Ohio reservoirs (mean fish total lengths, 171 and 179 mm; 62 fish per hectare). Because pond experiments showed that hybrids stocked at night experienced mortality rates as

  14. Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

    1981-01-01

    Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

  15. Mercury evolution (1978–1988) in fishes of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, Quebec, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Verdon; D. Brouard; C. Demers; R. Lalumiere; M. Laperle; R. Schetagne

    1991-01-01

    From 1978 to 1988, the evolution of the Hg content of fish has been monitored in the areas affected by the La Grande hydroelectric\\u000a complex. Four fish species were considered: two non piscivorous, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and two piscivorous, northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). The evolution of Hg concentrations in time

  16. Development of a Riverine Index Netting Protocol: Comparisons of Net Orientation, Height, Panel Order, and Line Diameter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas E. Jones; Geoffrey B. Yunker

    2011-01-01

    We developed a gillnetting protocol by sampling 17 nonwadeable rivers across northern Ontario over the course of four summers from 2005 to 2008. The rivers represented a range of habitats; however, all had a coolwater to warmwater fish community characterized by walleyes Sander vitreus, northern pike Esox lucius, white suckers Catostomus commersonii, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and smallmouth bass Micropterus

  17. Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

    2010-01-01

    The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

  18. OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

  19. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...12-980] Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as the community's second...continuing interest in the proposed Pike Road allotment. It is the Commission's...

  20. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence K Duffy; Erica Scofield; Tauni Rodgers; Molly Patton; R. Terry Bowyer

    1999-01-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 ?g\\/mg protein, while the

  1. Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hosper

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such as the loss of lake-marginal wetlands (nutrient filters, habitat for pike, Esox lucius) and chemical pollution toxic

  2. Diplostomatid Eye Flukes in Young-of-the-Year and Forage Fishes in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Marcogliese; Sacha Compagna

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen species of young-of-the year and forage fishes (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, northern pike Esox lucius, common carp Cyprinus carpio, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides, rosyface shiner Notropis rubellus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, silver redhorse Moxostoma anisurum, brown bullhead Ameirurus nebulosus, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, rock bass Ambloplitis rupestris, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis

  3. Experimental Intensive Culture of Tiger Muskellunge in a Water Reuse System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Pecor

    1979-01-01

    Tiger muskellunge (female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, x male northern pike, E. lucius) 14.5 cm long were reared for 45 days in a three-pass (pass I, II, and III) water reuse system. Cumulative growth rates for the fish were 0.143 cm\\/day in the first use of the water (pass I), 0.125 in the second use (pass II), and 0.108 in the

  4. PIKE is essential for oligodendroglia development and CNS myelination

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Lixia; Liu, Guanglu; Lee, Chi Wai; Feng, Yue; Ye, Keiqang

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelin development are complex events regulated by numerous signal transduction factors. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) is required for OL development and myelination. PIKE-L expression is up-regulated when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells commit to differentiation. Conversely, depleting phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer (PIKE) expression by shRNA prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation. In both conventional PIKE knockout (PIKE?/?) and OL-specific PIKE knockout mice, the number of OLs is reduced in the corpus callosum. PIKE?/? OLs also display defects when forming myelin sheath on neuronal axons during neonatal development, which is partially rescued when PTEN is ablated. In addition, Akt/mTOR signaling is impaired in OL-enriched tissues of the PIKE?/? mutant, leading to reduced expression of critical proteins for myelin development and hypomyelination. Moreover, myelin repair of lysolecithin-induced lesions is delayed in PIKE?/? brain. Thus, PIKE plays pivotal roles to advance OL development and myelinogenesis through Akt/mTOR activation. PMID:24449917

  5. The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. PMID:24845618

  6. EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

  7. Invasive Northern Pike in the Pend Oreille River, Washington

    E-print Network

    Invasive Northern Pike in the Pend Oreille River, Washington Presented by Deane Osterman Kalispel to Boundary Reservoir, upper Columbia River, Lake Roosevelt, and Spokane County lakes · Most other species

  8. What we have learnt about PIKE from the knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is a group of GTPase that belongs to the centaurin superfamily. These proteins have been discovered for more than a decade but our understandings on their functions are still limited. Studies from our research group and others have revealed some of their functions in a cellular context but their roles in organ development or systemic homeostasis just begin to unveil. The generation of PIKE knockout mice thus provides the valuable model to delineate the physiological roles of PIKE. In addition to being a PI3K/Akt enhancer, phenotypic characterization of the PIKE knockout mice demonstrates that the proteins are involved in multiple signaling cascades including Janus kinase (JAK)/ Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and insulin receptor (IR)/Akt. In this article, we will review the current findings from the PIKE knockout mice studies and will discuss how these in vivo observations lead to the identifications of novel signaling cascades regulated by PIKE. PMID:22003435

  9. Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland Rail Trail (milepost 115), C&O Canal, and Potomac River, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  10. Time-lapse seismic modelling for Pikes Peak field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zou; Laurence R. Bentley; Laurence R. Lines

    2002-01-01

    Predicting changes in seismic response within thermally produced reservoirs provides an important tool for time-lapse seismic survey interpretation. As a step towards linking thermal reservoir simulators to synthetic seismogram generation, we have studied the effects of substitution of thermal fluids in a synthetic reservoir that is based on the Pikes Peak field. We used the Gassmann equation and the fluid

  11. Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

    2014-03-01

    Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation. PMID:24716409

  12. S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

  13. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems n-2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  14. Climatic Characteristics of Pike's Peak, Colorado (1874-1888) and Comparisons with Other Colorado Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry F. Diaz; Roger G. Barry; George Kiladis

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is made of the historical climatic data from Pike's Peak, Colorado. Characteristics of the seasonal regime are described and these are compared with modern data for other mountain stations in the area. Temperature and wind conditions are broadly similar at these stations, whereas the precipitation regime at Pike's Peak more closely resembles that at Denver located on the

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of pike perch (Sander canadensis).

    PubMed

    Cao, Ding-Chen; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Guo, Jia-Xiang; Xu, Wei; Xue, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Pike perch (Sander canadensis) is a member of the largest order of Osteichthyes, Perciformes, and is an important ecological and economic freshwater species, which distributes in Ili River and Ergis River of Xinjiang Province, China. In this study, we sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of pike perch, and analyzed the similarity with its related species. The mitochondrial genome of S. canadensis is 16,542?bp in length with 55.05% AT content, contained 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal genes and an 892?bp non-coding region. In control region, 6 CSBs (CSB-1, CSB-2, CSB-3, CSB-D, CSB-E and CSB-F), one potential TAS and one poly-T region were identified. Comparing all protein-coding genes and whole genome sequence with 4 species of Perciformes (three species of Percidae, Perca flavescens. Percina macrolepida. Etheostoma radiosum and one outgroup Oreochromis sp. red tilapia), ND3 gene has the highest mutation rate, and S. canadensis has higher similarity with Perca flavescens than others. The mitochondrial genomic sequence will help us to study the conservation genetic and evolution of Percidae. PMID:23815329

  16. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  17. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  18. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or constituents introduced by human activities that pose a health risk or otherwise were of concern in groundwater in the county. The analyses included major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), selected organic wastewater compounds, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activity, uranium, and radon-222. Analyses of the 20 samples were primarily for dissolved constituents, but six samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total metals. Results of the 2007 sampling indicated few water-quality problems, although concentrations of some constituents indicated influence of human activities on groundwater. No constituent analyzed exceeded any primary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Radon-222 levels were greater than, or equal to, the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in water from 15 (75 percent) of the 20 wells. Radon-222 levels did not exceed the alternative MCL of 4,000 pCi/L in any groundwater sample. Radon-222 is naturally occurring, and the greatest concentrations (up to 2,650 pCi/L) were in water samples from wells in members of the Catskill Formation, a fractured-rock aquifer. The dissolved arsenic concentration of 3.9 micrograms per liter (ug/L) in one sample was greater than the health-advisory (HA) level of 2 ug/L but less than the MCL of 10 ug/L. Recommended or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for pH, dissolved iron, and dissolved manganese. In six samples analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations of selected metals, total concentrations commonly were much greater than dissolved concentrations of iron, and to a lesser degree, for arsenic, lead, copper, and manganese. Concentrations of iron above the SMCL of 300 ug/L may be more widespread in the county for particulate iron than for dissolved iron. The total arsenic concentration in one of the six samples was greater than the HA level of

  19. 1 Datorhjalp 1. Logga in pa pike (130.237.25.115) , perch (116) , eel (117) eller sprat

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    1 Datorhj¨alp 1. Logga in p°a pike (130.237.25.115) , perch (116) , eel (117) eller sprat (118) 2 in "passwd", f¨olj instruktioner 4. Vid behov kan er katalog kopieras fr°an tex. eel till pike genom kom- mandot "cd" f¨oljt av "scp kexarbx@eel:/home/kexarbx/* ." 5. Mathematica startas genom "source /pkg

  20. Life History of the Colorado Squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado Chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, 1964–1966

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. David Vanicek; Robert H. Kramer

    1969-01-01

    Investigations of the ecology and life history of the Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado-Utah, were conducted from May 1964, to October 1966. A total of 1,469 squawfish and 2,393 chubs was collected with gill nets, seines, fry gear, and an electric shocker. The operation of Flaming

  1. Titanium: A HighPerformance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    Titanium: A High­Performance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike National Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high­performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing

  2. Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Alex

    Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

  3. Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,

    E-print Network

    Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

  4. Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population of the Azov Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Tyutyunov; Inna Senina; Christian Jost; Roger Arditi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the fishery of pike-perch (Lucioperca lucioperca L.) in the Azov Sea, Russia. There are indications that this population might be threatened by the anthropogenic deterioration of environmental conditions. Since the species has an economic importance, extinction risk minimization is complemented by the consideration of optimal harvesting. The problem is therefore multicriteria. A stochastic simulation model is developed to

  5. Ecological Modelling 149 (2002) 297311 Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population of

    E-print Network

    Jost, Christian

    2002-01-01

    of the Azov Sea Yuri Tyutyunov a , Inna Senina a , Christian Jost b,1 , Roger Arditi b, * a Research Institute Abstract We consider the fishery of pike-perch (Lucioperca lucioperca L.) in the Azov Sea, Russia in the Azov Sea, Russia. Thus, we study population viability under the double threat of harvesting

  6. Pupil dilation and visual field in the piked dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    E-print Network

    Kajiura, Stephen

    , is visually arrest- ing. However, knowledge of its basic visual character- istics lags far behind other areasPupil dilation and visual field in the piked dogfish, Squalus acanthias Stephen M. Kajiura Received of the horizontal visual field are assessed and compared with both morpho- logical and electrophysiological

  7. Increased Expression of the PI3K Enhancer PIKE Mediates Deficits in Synaptic Plasticity and Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christina; Chang, Chia-Wei; Kelly, Seth M; Bhattacharya, Aditi; McBride, Sean M J; Danielson, Scott W; Jiang, Michael Q; Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang; Gibson, Jay R; Klann, Eric; Jongens, Thomas A; Moberg, Kenneth H; Huber, Kimberly M; Bassell, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    The PI3K enhancer PIKE links PI3K catalytic subunits to group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) and activates PI3K signaling. The roles of PIKE in synaptic plasticity and the etiology of mental disorders are unknown. Here, we show that increased PIKE expression is a key mediator of impaired mGlu1/5-dependent neuronal plasticity in mouse and fly models of the inherited intellectual disability fragile X syndrome (FXS). Normalizing elevated PIKE protein levels in FXS mice reversed deficits in molecular and cellular plasticity and improved behavior. Notably, PIKE reduction rescued PI3K-dependent and -independent neuronal defects in FXS. We further show that PI3K signaling is increased in a fly model of FXS and that genetic reduction of the Drosophila ortholog of PIKE, CenG1A rescued excessive PI3K signaling, mushroom body defects, and impaired short-term memory in these flies. Our results demonstrate a crucial role of increased PIKE expression in exaggerated mGlu1/5 signaling causing neuronal defects in FXS. PMID:25921541

  8. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM-based criteria are commonly lower values than the hardness-based criteria and thus suggest a greater degree or magnitude of impairment at the sampling locations. The riffle-habitat benthic invertebrate richness and abundance data correlate strongly with the extent of impact based on water quality for both brooks. Similarly, the fish community assessments document degraded conditions throughout most of Pike Hill Brook, whereas the data for the tributary to Cookville Brook suggest less degradation to this brook. The sediment environment shows similar extents of impairment to the surface-water environment, with most sampling locations in Pike Hill Brook, including the wetland areas, and the tributary to Cookville Brook affected. Sediment impairment is caused by elevated copper concentrations, although localized degradation due to elevated cadmium and zinc concentrations was documented on the basis of exceedances of probable effects concentrations (PECs). In contrast to impairment determined by exceedances of PECs, equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmarks (based on simultaneously extracted metals, acid volatile sulfides, and total organic carbon) predict no toxic effects in sediments at the background locations and uncertain toxic effects throughout Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook, with the exception of the most downstream Cookville Brook location, which indicated no toxic effects. Acute laboratory toxicity testing using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus on pore waters extracted from sediment in situ indicate impairment (based on tests with H. azteca) at only one location in Pike Hill Brook and no impairment in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Chronic laboratory sediment toxicity testing using H. azteca and C. dilutus indicated toxicity in Pike Hill Brook at several locations in the lower reach and two locations in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Toxicity was not indicated for either species in sediment from the most acidic metal-rich location, likely due to the low lability of copper in that sediment, as indicated by a

  9. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb antibodies in sera of muskellunge Esox masquinongy using competitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Millard, Elena V; Brenden, Travis O; LaPatra, Scott E; Marcquenski, Susan; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) in fish sera. Assay conditions were standardized using known negative and positive muskellunge Esox masquinongy. A positive-negative threshold of 14.6% inhibition was established based on analysis of sera of 60 muskellunge with no previous exposure to VHSV-IVb. The cELISA was then used to investigate immune responses of wild muskellunge sampled from 5 water bodies in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, between 2005 and 2012. Antibodies were detected in fish from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, and Lower Fox River/Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both water systems were considered enzootic for VHSV-IVb. Additionally, antibodies were detected in muskellunge from Thornapple Lake, a Michigan inland lake previously considered negative for VHSV-IVb based on virus isolation methods. Muskellunge populations from Lake Hudson, Michigan, and Butternut Lake, Wisconsin, lacked evidence of an immune response to VHSV-IVb. When results of the cELISA were compared to the 50% plaque neutralization test for several groups of fish, there was 78.4% agreement between the tests for antibody presence. The cELISA is a rapid and efficient test for the detection of binding antibodies to VHSV-IVb and will be a useful non-lethal tool for monitoring the spread of this serious pathogen. PMID:24695232

  10. A Mechanical Fish to Emulate the Fast-Start Performance of Pike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2010-11-01

    A northern pike is capable of achieving an instantaneous acceleration of 25g, far greater than that achieved by any manmade vehicle. In order to understand the secrets behind achieving such high accelerations, we have built a mechanical fish to emulate the motion of a pike, a fast-start specialist. A live pike bends its body into a C-shaped curve and then uncoils it very quickly to send a traveling wave along its body in order to achieve high acceleration. We have designed a mechanical fish whose motion is accurately controlled by servo motors, to emulate the fast-start by bending its body to a C-shape from its original straight position, and then back to its straight position. An earlier design of a mechanical fish, which could start from an initial C-shaped curve, shed two vortex rings downstream, resulting in a transfer of energy from the fish to water, and therefore, a reaction force from the fluid to the fish. A maximum acceleration of around 4g was achieved in that design. Our new design adds an additional motion to the sequence by first bending the fish from its straight position into a C-shaped curve. Furthermore, this new mechanical fish is designed to be adjustable in swimming pattern, tail shape, tail rigidity, and body rigidity, making it possible to study the influence of all of these parameters on the fast-start performance.

  11. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

    1999-10-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated. PMID:10622434

  12. Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

  13. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  14. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  15. I. Fish..........................................................................................................................................2 A) Fish native to both Europe and North America (not analyzed) ........................................2

    E-print Network

    Jeschke, Jonathan

    autumnalis 2. Esox lucius 3. Gasterosteus aculeatus 4. Lampetra richardsoni 5. Lethenteron japonicum 6. Lota lota 7. Petromyzon marinus 8. Pungitius pungitius 9. Salmo salar 10. Salvelinus alpinus 11. Stenodus

  16. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

  17. Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

  18. Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): implications for petrogenetic models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Smith; J. Noblett; R. A. Wobus; D. Unruh; J. Douglass; R. Beane; C. Davis; S. Goldman; G. Kay; B. Gustavson; B. Saltoun; J. Stewart

    1999-01-01

    The ?1.08Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite±amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado):

  20. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  1. Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

  2. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  3. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

  4. The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

    2010-09-01

    The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

  5. Organochlorine concentrations in the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) from Lake Haukivesi, Finland, 1981 to 2000, and in its diet today.

    PubMed

    Kostamo, Auli; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Pellinen, Jukka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2002-07-01

    Organochlorine and mercury (Hg) pollution has been one possible reason for a decline in the size of the population of the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) in Lake Haukivesi, Finland. In this study, we analyzed changes in the concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCls) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) in the blubber of Saimaa ringed seals that died from 1981 to 2000. In addition, the present concentrations and biomagnification factors of OCls and Hg from the main prey fish of ringed seal and pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Concentrations of pollutants in bream (Abramis brama) also were analyzed. The decline in the OCl concentrations in blubber was, on average, 25% during the two decades since polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT compounds were banned. Today, concentrations in blubber of Saimaa ringed seals are similar of those in ringed seals from the Arctic. Correspondingly in fish, the OCl and Hg concentrations were, on average, similar to those found in other studies on Finnish and Arctic areas. The low diet concentrations and metabolism of OCls also reflect the lower age correlation of OCls in the male ringed seals in the 1990s than in the 1980s. Biomagnification was considerably higher from fish to the ringed seal than from prey fish to pike because of higher feeding rate of ringed seals and differences in the metabolisms of these animals. PMID:12109735

  6. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were statistically different (p<0.05) among the three continuously monitored sites (sites 1, 4, and 5). Instantaneous loads of aluminum, iron, and copper decreased by one to three orders of magnitude from site 1 to a site 1.1 mi downstream (site 4). Instantaneous loads of sulfate were similar between sites 1, 4, and at a site 3 mi downstream (site 5). Instantaneous loads of cadmium and zinc were similar between sites 1 and 4, and loads of iron and copper were similar between sites 4 and 5. Loads of chemical constituents were compared at site 1 (closest to the mine waste piles) and site 5 (near the mouth of Pike Hill Brook and below a majority of the wetlands). Annually, the loads of dissolved cadmium and zinc at site 1 were about five times greater than loads at site 5, and the load of dissolved copper at site 1 was about 17 times greater than at site 5. The ratio of loads for dissolved cadmium, copper, and zinc to total cadmium, copper, and zinc at site 1 was about 1. Samples collected in Pike Hill Brook upstream and downstream from the wetlands during low flows in August 2005 showed that oxidation of ferrous iron and precipitation of iron-hydroxides were probably not affecting trace metals in the wetlands through sorption; however, a significant portion of the iron entering the wetlands was in particulate form and may have transported sorbed copper and other trace metals. Thus, aerobic activity in the wetlands was probably not affecting metal cycling in the watershed. Concentrations and loads of sulfate may be unlikely to define unequivocally the role of the wetlands with regard to anaerobic bacterial sulfate reduction; however, bacterial sulfate removal may have affected loads of sulfate. Loads of copper increased downstream from the wetlands and may reflect the reductive dissolution of ferric hydroxide particulates in anaerobic parts of the wetlands.Concentrations of dissolved iron increased downstream from the wetlands. The most apparent effects on the macroinvertebr

  7. International Bridge 

    E-print Network

    W. H. Horne Co.

    2011-09-05

    of endosteal bone surfaces can be observed. Order Mesichthys. A total absence of bone cells identifies this, and all succeeding, teleost groups. With this exception, the acellular bone tissues of the pike, Esox (Plate IX, fig. 6), lizard fish, Synodus...

  8. Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Foord, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

  9. Analysis of fin clips as a nonlethal method for monitoring mercury in fish.

    PubMed

    Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G; Bailey, Sean W; Thoreson, Kristen A; Hammerschmidt, Chad R

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring of mercury in fish typically involves removal of individuals from the sampled population and subsequent analysis of fillets. This study assessed whether the analysis of fins, structures routinely clipped to mark released fish in population studies, could provide a nonlethal approach for estimating mercury concentrations in axial muscle (fillets). We analyzed fillets and selected fins from 401 northern pike (Esox lucius) and 79 walleye (Sander vitreus) from 21 lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin, 19 Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and 14 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Long Island Sound, New York. On average, 83% of mercury in fins was methylmercury, and concentrations in the proximal portion were about half-those in the distal portion in pelvic fins. Mean concentrations of mercury in fins, averaged by species and fin type, ranged from 2.7 to 8.9% of those in fillets. Coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions of mercury concentrations in fillets against those in fins of individual fish ranged from 0.04 to 0.96 among species and water bodies (median r2 = 0.52). The concentration in fin clips was a better predictor of mercury in fillets for individual Arctic grayling (r2 = 0.65, n = 12 and r2 = 0.84, n = 8) and winter flounder (r2 = 0.94, n = 14) than for individual northern pike (median r2 = 0.56) or walleye (median r2 = 0.22) from a given lake. In northern pike in the 400-500 mm total-length interval, the mean concentrations of total mercury in caudal fins and fillets, averaged by lake (n = 12), were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.95). The analysis of composited samples of fin clips from fish within a restricted length interval could, therefore, be a useful screening tool for assessing the relative mercury contamination of fish among different water bodies. PMID:18323115

  10. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  11. A food chain model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran bioaccumulation in a northern Canadian river system

    SciTech Connect

    Starodub, M.E. [CanTox Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Pastershank, G.; Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Field data from a comprehensive study of chemical contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzofurans provided the opportunity for comparison of predicted and observed concentrations in fish and invertebrates in sediment-invertebrate-fish food chains. The field study was from the Athabasca River downstream of a bleached-kraft pulp mill in northwest Alberta, Canada. The food chain model used predator-prey relationships which resulted in distinct exposure pathways for fish inhabiting the river. The model distinguished between exposure to suspended and deposited sediments in the Athabasca River. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in two bottom feeding fish species, mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and one piscivorous fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), as well as in invertebrates were measured in the field samples. A sensitivity analysis revealed that exposure of mountain whitefish to TCDF sorbed to suspended solids through consumption of filter feeding invertebrates was the primary exposure pathway. Furthermore, failure to consider consumption of bottom sediments by longnose sucker resulted in underpredicted tissue concentrations compared to observed values.

  12. Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2007-09-01

    Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary Divergence of Adult Body Size and Juvenile Growth in Sympatric Subpopulations of a Top Predator in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life. PMID:26098342

  15. Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.

    PubMed

    Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

    2013-11-19

    Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada. PMID:24156245

  16. Heterogeneity in levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVB among fish species in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Millard, Elena V; Faisal, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    The presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) was investigated in sera of 13 fish species collected from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, a VHSV-endemic water body. We tested 297 sera collected May 2004-June of 2010, using a complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (50% PNT). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 23% (67/297) of the samples. The highest overall antibody prevalence (85%, 34/40) and mean positive antibody titer (12,113 ± 11,699 SD) were detected in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Antibodies were also detected in 50% (15/30) of sampled northern pike (E. lucius), 25% (15/61) of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), and 7% (3/41) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). All sera from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), silver redhorse (M. anisurum), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were negative. Antibodies in one or more fish species were detected in all sampling years (2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010), whereas in parallel sampling periods, VHS virus was detected only in 2006 and 2009. Our results suggest the continued presence of VHSV-IVb in the Lake St. Clair ecosystem, and underscore the importance of assessing immune responses of fish populations to determine prior virus exposure. PMID:22493115

  17. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the comparison between the two was favorable with a mean absolute difference of 0.58 feet in Area C and 0.32 feet in Area D. Results of a HEC-RAS model of the Little Missouri River watershed upstream from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Langley showed no difference in mean depth in the areas in common between the models, and a difference in mean velocity of only 0.5 foot per second. Predictions of flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent indicated that the extent of inundation of the June 11, 2010, flood exceeded that of the 1 percent flood, and that for both the 1 and 2 percent floods, all of Areas C and D, and parts of Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area were inundated. Predicted water-surface elevations for the 1 and 2 percent floods were approximately 1 foot lower than those predicted by the U.S. Forest Service using a standard-step model.

  18. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: zdyzxb@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation.

  19. Impaired cortisol stress response in fish from environments polluted by PAHs, PCBs, and mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Hontela; Joseph B. Rasmussen; Céline Audet; Gaston Chevalier

    1992-01-01

    The cortisol stress response to capture was investigated in two species of fish (Perca flavescens and Esox lucius) from sites polluted by high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury, and from reference sites in the St. Lawrence river system. Fish from the reference sites exhibited the normal elevation of serum cortisol in response to the

  20. [Cytochemical characteristics of the labrocyte-like cells in the capsule of the plerocercoids of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781) and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) cestodes].

    PubMed

    Pronina, S V

    1977-07-01

    Out of six fish species examined (Esox lucius, Paracottus kessleri, Perca fluviatilis, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratorius, Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) labrocyte-like cells were detected in Esox lucius, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratotius. The cells contain large metachromatic granules. Histochemical methods revealed in them sulfated and carboxylic acid mucopolysacharides. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the capsules around plerocercoids of Triaenophrus nodulosis from Esox lucits liver depends on the age of the capsule and that of the plerocercoid. It increases when the connective tissue papsule is forming and decreases again under aging and degeneration of the capsule containing plerocercoid. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the cestodes capsules of Raillietina increases sharply when they locate in an accidental organ (liver). This demonstrates the acuteness of organ reactivity to a nonspecific helminth. PMID:143258

  1. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff. Observed concentrations of nitrate, which was the most abundant nitrogen species in ground water in t he glacial aquifer, ranged from less than 0.05 to 5.1 mg/L as nitrogen, with a median of 1.1 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrogen measured in ground water were lower than estimated concentrations for recharge suggesting that dissolved nitrogen species may not be conservative in ground water. Nitrate is unstable in anoxic ground water and can be removed by denitrification. Ammonium can be sorbed onto the aquifer materials. Evidence for reducing conditions included a positive correlation between low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and low concentrations of nitrate. The estimated concentration of chloride in recharge ranged from 6.7 to 21 mg/L, and total annual load of chloride to ground water ranged from 19.4 to 50.6 x 10(3) lb/mi2. Chloride is considered to be a chemically conservative ion in ground water. Contributions of chloride to ground water from road salting were greater than contributions from septic tanks. Observed concentrations of chloride in 18 ground-water samples from the glacial aquifer ranged from 2.1 to 32 mg/L, with a median of 17.5 mg/L. Local contamination is indicated by the elevated concentrations of chloride (up to 680 mg/L) detected in four wells located downgradient of an abandoned industry that may have released salts in processing waste. Chloride concentrations in ground water appeared to be greater near major roads and in areas of relatively greater septic-system density than in areas upgradient of roads, farther downgradient from roads, or with less densely spaced septic systems.

  2. Pike and salmon as sister taxa: detailed intraclade resolution and divergence time estimation of Esociformes + Salmoniformes based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; López, J Andrés; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2013-11-01

    The increasing number of taxa and loci in molecular phylogenetic studies of basal euteleosts has brought stability in a controversial area. A key emerging aspect to these studies is a sister Esociformes (pike) and Salmoniformes (salmon) relationship. We evaluate mitochondrial genome support for a sister Esociformes and Salmoniformes hypothesis by surveying many potential outgroups for these taxa, employing multiple phylogenetic approaches, and utilizing a thorough sampling scheme. Secondly, we conduct a simultaneous divergence time estimation and phylogenetic inference in a Bayesian framework with fossil calibrations focusing on relationships within Esociformes+Salmoniformes. Our dataset supports a sister relationship between Esociformes and Salmoniformes; however the nearest relatives of Esociformes+Salmoniformes are inconsistent among analyses. Within the order Esociformes, we advocate for a single family, Esocidae. Subfamily relationships within Salmonidae are poorly supported as Salmoninae sister to Thymallinae+Coregoninae. PMID:23954876

  3. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): Implications for petrogenetic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Noblett, J.; Wobus, R.A.; Unruh, D.; Douglass, J.; Beane, R.; Davis, C.; Goldman, S.; Kay, G.; Gustavson, B.; Saltoun, B.; Stewart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ~1.08 Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite ?? amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado): (1) a sodic series (SiO2= ~44-78 wt%; K/Na=0.32-1.36) composed of gabbro, diabase, syenite/quartz syenite and fayalite and sodic amphibole granite; and (2) a potassic series (SiO2= ~ 70-77 wt%; K/Na=0.95-2.05), composed of biotite granite and minor quartz monzonite. Differences in major and trace element and Nd isotopic characteristics for the two series indicate different petrogenetic histories. Potassic granites of the late-stage intrusions appear to represent crustal anatectic melts derived from tonalite sources, based on comparison of their major element compositions with experimental melt products. In addition, Nd isotopic characteristics of the potassic granites [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -0.2 to -2.7] overlap with those for tonalites/granodiorites [ca 1.7 Ga Boulder Creek intrusions; ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -2.4 to -3.6] exposed in the region. Some of the partial melts evolved by fractionation dominated by feldspar. The late-stage potassic granites share geochemical characteristics with most of the PPG, which is also interpreted to have an anatectic origin involving tonalitic crust. The origin of monzogranites associated with the PPG remains unclear, but mixing between granitic and mafic or intermediate magmas is a possibility. Syenites and granites of the sodic series cannot be explained as crustal melts, but are interpreted as fractionation products of mantle-derived mafic magmas with minor crustal input. High temperature and low oxygen fugacity estimates (e.g. Frost et al., 1988. American Mineralogist 73, 727-740) support a basalt fractionation origin, as do ??(Nd) values for sodic granitoids [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = +2.2 to -0.7], which are higher than ??(Nd) values for Colorado crust at 1.08 Ga (ca -1.0 to -4.0). Enrichments in incompatible elements (e.g. rare earth elements, Rb, Y) and depletions in compatible elements (e.g. Cr, Sr, Ba) in the sodic granitoids compared to coeval mafic rocks are also consistent with fractionation. Accessory mineral fractionation, release of fluorine-rich volatiles and/or removal of pegmatitic fluids could have modified abundances of Ce, Nb, Zr and Y in some sodic granitoid magmas. Gabbros and mafic dikes associated with the sodic granitoids have ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) of -3.0 to +3.5, which are lower than depleted mantle at 1.08 Ga, and their trace element characteristics suggest derivation from mantle sources that were previously affected by subduction-related processes. However, it is difficult to characterize the mantle component in these magmas, because assimilation of crust during magma ascent could also result in their observed geochemical features. The Pikes Peak batholith is composed of at least two petrogenetically different granite types, both of which exhibit geochemical characteristics typical of A-type granites. Models proposed for the petrogenesis of the granitoids imply the existence of mafic rocks at depth and addition of juvenile material to the crust in central Colorado at ~ 1.1 Ga.

  5. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking intensity from year to year, and attempting to match stocking intensity with the abundance of prey species other than walleye may improve the walleye fishery in Spirit Lake.

  6. Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C. [Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Whittle, D.M. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Harbicht, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

  7. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite, Mass., and syenite of Kungnat, Greenland, among others - allowing for different levels of erosion. A suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. ?? 1975.

  8. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate. PMID:20470073

  9. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration, made at a depth of 6.6 feet upstream and downstream of New Cumberland Dam. Continuous monitors were operated from May through October 1993.

  10. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania is underlain by the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and other shales, formations that have potential for natural gas development. During 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District conducted a reconnaissance study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers prior to possible shale-gas development in the county. For the spatial component of the assessment, 20 wells were sampled in summer 2012 to provide data on the occurrence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines. For the temporal component of the assessment, 4 of the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 were sampled monthly from July 2012 through June 2013 to provide data on seasonal variability in groundwater quality. All water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), stable isotopes of water, radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and ethene), and, if possible, isotopic composition of methane. Additional analyses for boron and strontium isotopes, age-dating of water, and radium-226 were done on water samples collected from six wells in June 2013. Results of the summer 2012 sampling show that water from 16 (80 percent) of 20 wells had detectable concentrations of methane, but concentrations were less than 0.1 milligram per liter (mg/L) in most well-water samples; only two well-water samples had concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The groundwater with elevated methane also had a chemical composition that differed in some respects (pH, selected major ions, and inorganic trace constituents) from groundwater with low methane concentrations. The two well-water samples with the highest methane concentrations (about 3.7 and 5.8 mg/L) also had the highest pH values (8.7 and 8.3, respectively) and the highest concentrations of sodium, lithium, boron, fluoride, and bromide. Elevated concentrations of some other constituents, such as barium, strontium, and chloride, were not limited to well-water samples with elevated methane, although the two samples with elevated methane also had among the highest concentrations of these constituents. One sample with elevated methane concentrations also had elevated arsenic concentrations, with the arsenic concentration of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L) exceeding the drinking-water standard of 10 µg/L for arsenic. No other sample from the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 had concentrations of constituents that exceeded any established primary drinking-water standards. However, radon-222 activities ranging up to 4,500 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) exceeded the proposed drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L in 85 percent of the 20 well-water samples. The isotopic composition methane in the two high-methane samples (?CCH4 values of -64.55 and -64.41 per mil and ?DCH4 values of -216.9 and -201.8 per mil, respectively) indicates a predominantly microbial source for the methane formed by a carbon dioxide reduction process. The stable isotopic composition of water (?DH20 and ?18OH20) in samples from all 20 wells falls on the local meteoric line, indicating water in the wells was of relatively recent meteoric origin (modern precipitation), including samples with elevated methane concentrations. Analytical results for 4 of the 20 wells sampled monthly for 1 year ending June 2013 in order to assess temporal variability in groundwater quality show that concentrations of major ions generally varied by less than 20 percent, with most differences less than 4 mg/L. Concentrations of methane varied by less than 1 ?g/L (0.001 mg/L) in samples from three wells with low methane and by as much as 1 mg/L (1,000 ?g/L) in samples from one well with relatively high methane. The isotopic composition of methane in the one well with relatively high

  11. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

  12. Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Echols, Kathy R; May, Tom W; Orazio, Carl E; Tillitt, Donald E

    2006-11-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (

  13. Biological Survey of the Pikes Peak Area

    E-print Network

    participated in this project. Those people are: Liz Klein, Warren Hauk, George Cameron, Mark, Matt and Ingrid of the project. Lee Grunau, CNHP conservation planner, made great efforts to organize and manage the logistics in this role: Jill Handwerk, Amy Lavender, and Jeremy Siemers. 3 #12;Table of Contents THE NATURAL HERITAGE

  14. NFolkstoneCt PepperPikeRd

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    North Campus Admin. Complex NC Microwave Tower Auxiliary Services Laundry NC Housing Service Building NC Lab Aerospace Power Plant G.G. Brown Mich. Memorial Phoenix Lab H.H. Dow Building Industrial and Operations Engineering (IOE) Lurie Tower Cooley Laboratory Lurie Engineering Center Electrical Engin

  15. [Thyroid homeostasis in animals with iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Z I

    1988-01-01

    The content of total iodine, its hormonal and nonhormonal fractions as well the level of protein-bound iodine in blood and basic tissue targets in representatives of 4 classes of animals: Esox lucius L., Rana esculenta, Streptopelia decaocto Priv., Lepus europaeus Pall. inhabiting the mountain regions with iodine deficiency in environment and in the lowlands of Transcarpathia with higher iodine provision have been investigated. A considerable decrease of general and hormone iodine level in the animal tissues of the mountain area accompanied by the suppression of the thyroid function has been stated. The utilization of thyroid hormones under the iodine deficiency condition is increased in the majority of cases and the level of protein-bound iodine is lowered that testifies to the transition of animal organism in the iodine-deficient areas to the lower level of thyroid homeostasis. PMID:3265636

  16. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...Road consistent with the minimum distance separation requirements of the Rules with a site restriction 4.8 kilometers (3.0 miles) south of the community. The reference coordinates are 32-14-29 NL and 86-06-40 WL. DATES: Comments...

  17. Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    prob- lem. While real-time global illumination has received much at- tention [Ritschel et al. 2012 real time solutions for AO exist [Ritschel et al. 2012; Loos and Sloan 2010] it is well known that even

  18. FutureGrid User Support Gregory Pike, Andrew Younge,

    E-print Network

    Documentation Knowledge Base, Manuals, Tutorials, Ticket System, Inca, GNOC status Tier 1: Support through, Archit Kulshrestha, Geoffrey Fox Indiana University #12;Tiered Support Model Knowledge Base Manuals Tutorials Ticket system Inca & GRNOC Status #12;Support Tiers Tier 0: Support through Electronic

  19. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...11-2062] Radio Broadcasting...AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...CFR Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission...the Federal Communications Commission proposes...PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST...

  20. Scrambled Elements Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    -CO2H 42. Slick fish 44. Japanese theater style 45. ____ Any Place (Janet Jackson hit) 46. Scrambled myself..." 11. Vegan meat substitute 12. One in a list 13. Analog display 14. Off-white decorator color. Breeding pairs 35. QB Manning 36. Where one works out 37. A brew 40. Wildebeests 41. 1992 U2 hit 43

  1. Shape by Example Peter-Pike J. Sloan

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    games comes at a cost. Creating the geometric forms with which to generate synthetic charac- ters be to create smooth variations of shape within an individual such as the bulging of a muscle when an arm

  2. Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America--a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases.

    PubMed

    Kamman, Neil C; Burgess, Neil M; Driscoll, Charles T; Simonin, Howard A; Goodale, Wing; Linehan, Janice; Estabrook, Robert; Hutcheson, Michael; Major, Andrew; Scheuhammer, Anton M; Scruton, David A

    2005-03-01

    As part of an initiative to assemble and synthesize mercury (Hg) data from environmental matrices across northeastern North America, we analyzed a large dataset comprised of 15,305 records of fish tissue Hg data from 24 studies from New York State to Newfoundland. These data were summarized to provide mean Hg concentrations for 40 fish species and associated families. Detailed analyses were carried out using data for 13 species. Hg in fishes varied by geographic area, waterbody type, and waterbody. The four species with the highest mean Hg concentrations were muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and northern pike (Esox luscius). Several species displayed elevated Hg concentrations in reservoirs, relative to lakes and rivers. Normalized deviations from mean tissue levels for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were mapped, illustrating how Hg concentrations in these species varied across northeastern North America. Certain geographic regions showed generally below or above-average Hg concentrations in fish, while significant heterogeneity was evident across the landscape. The proportion of waterbodies exhibiting exceedances of USEPA's criterion for fish methylmercury ranged from 14% for standard-length brook trout fillets to 42% for standard-length yellow perch fillets. A preliminary correlation analysis showed that fish Hg concentrations were related to waterbody acidity and watershed size. PMID:15931965

  3. Max Baumhefner & Ed Pike, Co-Authors Andreas Klugescheid, Contributing Author

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    -in Vehicle Clean Energy Nexus 5 Source: California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Owner Survey Rooftop solar in California are already clean vehicles Source: EPA "Beyond Tailpipe Emissions" calculator #12;The Plug #12;The Importance of Time-of-Use Rates 11 Source: California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Owner Survey

  4. Binary Trees: A Challenge Problem For Separating Concerns Scott M. Pike

    E-print Network

    the naysayers of scale and software complexity in a wake of enthusiasm. Conspicuously understated was the so of current soft- ware has out-paced the development of tools and technolo- gies for bringing software complexity within the tractable range of our limited human intellect. Research in separation of concerns has

  5. Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2009 Hendrik Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    algorithms, such as stochastic ray-tracing for GA can result in statisti- cal errors or inaccurate IRs [Len93 propagation algorithm is 10-20X faster than prior accurate geometric acoustic methods. 1. Introduction for acoustic simulation or sound render- ing. Given a point sound source, 3D models of the environ- ment

  6. Classification and descriptions of the ecological species groups of the Forest Lake Club, Pike Co., PA.

    E-print Network

    Syring, John

    . Gaultheria group Gaultheria procumbens Melampyrum lineare Polygola paucifolia Deschampsia caespitosa as the Gaultheria group, but more so than the Polygonatum group. However, often occurs adjacent to both

  7. Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2009 Hendrik P. A. Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan

    E-print Network

    Panne, M. van de

    absorption parameters. At its core, the method assumes that images of hair with similar color distributions as a prime application area. Recently, hairstyle and hair color have been reported to be among the most) Volume 28 (2009), Number 4 Single Photo Estimation of Hair Appearance Nicolas Bonneel1, Sylvain Paris2

  8. Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2009 Hendrik Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan

    E-print Network

    , and the coloration of certain kinds of fish and birds, all mimic Poisson disk distributions. A large body of work exists to generate Poisson disk pat- terns or similar distributions on the plane. While such a pla- nar distribution can be transferred to a 3D surface by means of a parameterization, in general this introduces

  9. Office of Public Affairs 9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20814 The National Institutes of Health

    E-print Network

    a technique to grow stem cells into blood-brain barrier cells, which protect the brain from infections-innovate the rest of the world and create an economy built to last, we must protect and strengthen our investments technology of TomoTherapy [which integrates medical imaging with cancer radiation therapy for precise tumor

  10. Characteristics of a Crappie Population in an Unfished Small Impoundment Containing Northern Pike

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. WILLIS; JOHN F. SMELTZER; STEPHEN A. FLICKINGER

    1984-01-01

    Desirable black trappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and white trappie (Pomoxis annularis) pop- ulations were documented in a small impoundment in Colorado. Individnals 250 mm long and longer comprised 21% of the black trappies and 44% of the white trappies 130 mm long and longer. Mean relative weight (Wr) information indicated that trappie were in good condition and growth rates were average.

  11. [Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Rusinek, O T

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

  12. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  13. “Why don't they come to Pike street and ask us”?: Black American women's health concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tovia G. Freedman

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and

  14. 210 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. these small lakes there are also the bream, crucian, roach, bleak, pike,

    E-print Network

    is considered as a fish of little value, and as not being s wholesome wticle of food, and consequently it does their socond trips with full fares, caught on Banquereau,Western Bank, and Grand Banks. Nearer homu the catches on George's aud Brown's Banks have been good, et the close of the month falling ORon the former

  15. BULLETIN OF THE, UNITED STATES PISH COMMISBION. 295 45.-SPAWNZNG OR ESOX ( P J X E OR P Z C I L E R E L ) I NN O R T H CAIIOLINA.

    E-print Network

    . 6. 1". Baird.] The mackerel catchers'along this coast are doing poorly. Mackerel areplenty letter, the large mackerel Come up once a week, stay one hour, and then sink. They are full of feed. All reports that mackerel were abundant when she left. Two vessels #12;

  16. BULLETIN OF THE, UNITED STATES PISH COMMISBION. 295 45.-SPAWNZNG OR ESOX ( P J X E OR P Z C I L E R E L ) I NN O R T H CAIIOLINA.

    E-print Network

    . 6. 1". Baird.] The mackerel catchers'along this coast are doing poorly. Mackerel areplenty letter, the large mackerel Come up once a week, stay one hour, and then sink. They are full of feed. All reports that mackerel were abundant when she left. Two vessels #12;296 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH

  17. Morphological and genetic characteristics of the anisakid nematode Raphidascaris acus from the southwest Caspian Sea: evidence for the existence of sibling species within a species complex.

    PubMed

    Jahantab, Mikhak; Haseli, Mohammad; Salehi, Zivar

    2014-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that many nematode species are in fact species complex, using exact morphological and genetic studies. In this case, there are no such studies related to the genus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915. Herein, the morphological and genetic variations among the Iranian population of the species Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) Railliet & Henry, 1915 and the other allopatric populations with morphological and genetic information were compared to show whether this species can be considered as a species complex. R. acus is an anisakid species and has been frequently reported from different host species from the Caspian Sea. Nonetheless, there are no morphological and genetic information for this species from the region. In the present study, a total of 20 specimens of R. acus were collected from Esox lucius Linnaeus, and the morphology of the Caspian population of this species was surveyed for the first time using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, some parts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) including internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8 s, and ITS2 were sequenced and presented as the genetic marker for this species. To understand whether R. acus can be considered as a species complex, the Caspian population of this species was compared morphologically with the allopatric populations of Czech and Canada and genetically with the allopatric population of Poland (Vistula lagoon). Morphologically, there was no difference between the Caspian and Czech populations, but the Caspian and Canadian populations differed in the length of ejaculatory duct and the presence of small triangular elevation between the bases of subventral lips. The nucleotide difference between the Caspian and Polish populations was 4.48%. In comparison with the interspecific genetic distances in the genus Raphidascaris, this value is notable. In conclusion, based on morphological and genetic differences among the allopatric populations of R. acus, this species is probably a species complex. Nonetheless, the definitive taxonomic decision in recognizing R. acus as a species complex and the description of its sibling species depend on surveying other allopatric populations morphologically and genetically accompanied by an evaluation of reproductive isolation among them. PMID:24980652

  18. APPENDIX E: Vegetative species list of the Forest Lake Club, Pike Co., PA. Species are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name

    E-print Network

    Syring, John

    /River floodplains Tree Betulaceae Betula papyrifera Paper birch Disturbed woods Tree Betulaceae Betula populifolia Amelanchier arborea Downy serviceberry Woods Tree Betulaceae Betula alleghaniensis Yellow birch Drainages Tree Betulaceae Betula lenta Sweet birch Disturbed woods Tree Betulaceae Betula nigra River birch Lake margin

  19. Threaded structure and blue luminescence of (CuCN)20(Piperazine)7{ Robert D. Pike,* Kathryn E. deKrafft, Amanda N. Ley and Tristan A. Tronic

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    Krafft, Amanda N. Ley and Tristan A. Tronic Received (in CCAUS) 21st May 2007, Accepted 20th June 2007 First interpenetrating sub-lattices. Cu atoms large circles, orange = sublattice A atoms and green = sublattice B atoms

  20. 1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  1. 6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  2. 4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  3. 3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  4. 9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  5. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  6. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  7. 12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  8. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  9. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

  10. An introduction to New York State Fisheries, part 1

    E-print Network

    Limburg, Karin E.

    Sturgeon Pike Sturgeon Pike Eel Pike Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Salmon Carp Shad Elft Twalift Bass Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Salmon Carp Shad Elft Twalift Bass Twalift Dirtienen Sunfish Dirtienen R

  11. Copyright and Publication Status of Pre-1978 Dissertations: A Content Analysis Approach 

    E-print Network

    Clement, Gail; Levine, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    ? ? ? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 17. Wilbur Lucius Cross, ?Concerted Action Toward Full Support of Scholarly Publication,? Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the ? Association of American Universities 23 (1921): 29; Carl E. Seashore, ?The Doctoral Dissertation as a Statement...

  12. 75 FR 19987 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius...absence surveys for humpback chub (Gila cypha) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) within Arizona. Permit TE-160521...

  13. Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Graimann; Brendan Allison; Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike\\u000a on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a\\u000a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair

  14. Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat 

    E-print Network

    Pike, Merritt Ivan

    1974-01-01

    Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

  15. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  16. Claudia Mller-Birn1 Leonhard Dobusch1 James D. Herbsleb2 1 Freie Universitt Berlin, 2 Carnegie Mellon University

    E-print Network

    Herbsleb, James D.

    Claudia Müller-Birn1· Leonhard Dobusch1 · James D. Herbsleb2 1 Freie Universität Berlin, 2 Carnegie York, NY, USA, 453-462. #12;#12;#12;Brian Butler, Elisabeth Joyce, and Jacqueline Pike. 2008. Don, 1101-1110. #12;Brian Butler, Elisabeth Joyce, and Jacqueline Pike. 2008. Don't look now, but we

  17. Big Can Be Great: Enhancing Undergraduate Education at Research-Extensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Although recent results from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) suggest there is considerable variation in levels of undergraduate student engagement within Carnegie institutional classifications, research also suggests different classifications of institutions exhibit different types (Pike and Kuh, 2005) and levels (Pike, Kuh and…

  18. 5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  19. 8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

  1. Swimming Performances of Three Rare Colorado River Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Berry Jr; Richard Pimentel

    1985-01-01

    A stamina tunnel was used to determine the prolonged swimming performance of age-0 humpback chubs Gila cypha, bonytail chubs G. elegans, and Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius and of subadult Colorado squawfish. The “fatigue velocity” in body lengths per second at which 50% of the test fish were fatigued (FV50) was determined at 14, 20, and 26°C. The ranges of FV50

  2. Nonnative Fish Control and Endangered Fish Recovery: Lessons from the Colorado River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold M. Tyus; James F. Saunders III

    2000-01-01

    Native freshwater fish populations are declining in North America and more than 100 fishes are federally listed as threatened or endangered. The Colorado River system in the southwestern United States has been especially affected. Most of its native fish populations are in decline, including four “big river” fishes, Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), humpback chub (Gila cypha), bonytail (G. elegans), and

  3. [Changes in the argyrophil stroma of the liver of fishes infested with the pleurocercoids, Triaenophorus nodulosus and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoidea, Pseudophyllidae)].

    PubMed

    Pronina, S V

    1977-01-01

    The argentaffine stroma of the liver of some fishes (Perca fluviatilis, Exos lucius, Paracottus kessleri, Coregonus autumnalis migratorius, Thymallus arcticus) is described. The nature and depth of pathological changes in the argentaffine stroma of the liver at its infection with pleurocercoids of pseudophyllids depend on the infection intensity, host's specificity and on the biocoenotic relationships of hydrobionts in a waterbody. PMID:896280

  4. MARINE BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF YAP LAGOON UNIVERSITY OF GUAM MARINE LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Mcilwain, Jenny

    Participating Authors STEVEN S. AMESBURY STEVEN E. HEDLUND MICHELL I. CHERNIN R. LOGAN KOCK LUCIUS G. ELDREDGE DENNIS R. LASSUY GEORGIA GREENE STEVE NEUDECKER DEBORAH A. GROSENBAUGH BARRY D. SMITH Submit ted .............. ...... ... 3 Seagrass Assemblages of Yap, Micronesia, by R. LOGAN KOCK and ROY T. TSUDA

  5. Cryopreservation of Muskellunge and Yellow Perch Semen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Glogowski; Andrzej Ciereszko; Konrad Dabrowski

    1999-01-01

    Effect of four extenders on the success of cryopreservation of the semen of muskellunge Esox masquinongy and yellow perch Perca flavescens was tested. These extenders consisted of 0.45 M sucrose and were supplemented with either (1) 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (2) 15% DMSO and 10% hen's egg yolk, (3) 15% dimethylacetamide (DMA), or (4) 15% DMA and 10% egg yolk.

  6. T. A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.Nagy, R. W. Pike, J. R. Hopper, and C. L. Yaws, "A Prototype System for Economic, Environmental and Sustainable Optimization of a Chemical Complex," Proceedings of the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Chemical Company (Kohlbrand, 1998), the chemical industry has gone from end-of-pipe treatment to source representatives working to develop the best methodology for use by the chemical industry. The AIChE/CWRT TCA for Economic, Environmental and Sustainable Optimization of a Chemical Complex," Proceedings of the European

  7. Preserving Muscle Mass as You Age

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with health information for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dietary Proteins Healthy Aging Nutrition About MedlinePlus ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  8. 77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  9. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  10. 77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  11. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  12. 77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  13. 77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  14. 77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  15. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  16. 77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  17. 77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  18. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  19. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  20. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  1. Exercise and Dementia

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Exercise for Seniors About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Vasopressin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder Hormones About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  3. Type 1 Diabetes and Dementia Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... you can use for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Diabetes Type 1 About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  4. Chocolate and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Diseases Nutrition Stroke About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  5. Heartburn Drugs and Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you.. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Attack Heartburn Medicines About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  6. Sticking to a Diet Plan

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... that can lead to healthy tomorrows. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diets Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  7. Reading Sunscreen Labels

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sun Exposure About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  8. High Heel Dangers

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Foot Injuries and Disorders About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  9. Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda March 2009.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised February 27, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 42nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 2-3, 2009 Monday, 2 March 2009

  10. Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  11. Dorsal aorta catheterization in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). II. Glucocorticoid levels, hematological data and resumption

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , hematological data and resumption of feeding for five days after surgery C. BRY, Y. ZOHAR Laboratoire de, hematological and meta- bolic studies, mainly on rainbow trout, brook trout and pike (see e.g. Randall et al

  12. Grant Reference Grant Holder Research Organisation Project Title NE/I015299/1 Robert Upstill-Goddard Newcastle University Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange in coastal waters

    E-print Network

    of phosphate: a potential tool in UK freshwater studies? NE/I01537X/1 Jennifer Pike Cardiff University LATE benefits of polyandry in Atlantic salmon NE/I015566/1 Julie Hawkins University of York Effects of coral

  13. housingreportAn e-publication of UMass Lowell and the Middlesex North Registry of Deeds Merrimack Valley

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Housing; How Much Does the Merrimack Valley Truly Need? By Sarah Pike Deeds, Mortgages, Foreclosures-12 Mar-13 Deeds 97 81 63 81 137 155 74 66 Mortgages 167 152 102 115 240 268 114 189 Foreclosure Deeds

  14. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...miles upstream of Unincorporated Areas Goggin Road. of Boyle County. At approximately 0.6 None +965 mile downstream of Alum Springs Cross Pike. Dix River Tributary 2 (Backwater From the confluence None +760 Unincorporated Areas of effects from...

  15. 78 FR 11138 - Annual List of Newspapers Used for Publication of Legal Notice of Decisions for the Rocky...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...Daily Planet, published daily in Telluride, San Miguel County, Colorado. Ouray District: Montrose Daily Press, published daily in Montrose, Montrose County, Colorado. Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche...

  16. Copyright 2003 by Lipid Research, Inc. This article is available online at http://www.jlr.org Journal of Lipid Research Volume 44, 2003 655

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    ://www.jlr.org Journal of Lipid Research Volume 44, 2003 655 Lipid rafts: bringing order to chaos Linda J. Pike1 order to chaos. J. Lipid Res. 2003. 44: 655­667. Supplementary key words cholesterol · signal

  17. 78 FR 64518 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Zhuqing Li, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Program...7616, Bethesda, MD 20892-7616, 301-402-9523, zhuqing.li@nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  18. THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONS Anthropology Professors

    E-print Network

    Holliday, Vance T.

    THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONS Anthropology Professors Linda Green Mark Nichter Mimi Nichter Ivy Pike, and Household Economics ANTH 438A Women's Health in Global Perspective ANTH 444 Introduction to Medical medical and alternative medical professions Forensics Disaster Help #12;

  19. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Michele C. Hindi-Alexander, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National...

  20. 77 FR 70204 - West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...Pike Ohio: Athens, Gallia, Lawrence, Meigs, Monroe, Washington Virginia: Alleghany, Bath, Bland, Buchanan, Craig, Giles, Highland, Tazewell. All other information in the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal...

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE (EAST ELEVATION) BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN USED AS BLOCK HOUSE - Thomas Cooch House, 961 Old Baltimore Pike, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  2. Source code that talks: an exploration of Eclipse task comments and their implication to repository mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie T. T. Ying; James L. Wright; Steven Abrams

    2005-01-01

    A programmer performing a change task to a system can benefit from accurate comments on the source code. As part of good programming practice described by Kernighan and Pike in the book , comments should \\

  3. The State of the Practice and Common Pitfalls for Porous Asphalt for

    E-print Network

    and Infiltration Beds Joshua F. Briggs, Geosyntec Jeff Pochily, David Duncan, Mary Wescott, Pike Industries Andrew is usually placed on uncompacted soil to facilitate infiltration. 7 #12;8 Porous Asphalt Path, Grey Towers

  4. Porous Pavements in Cold Climates Part 1: Design, Installation, and

    E-print Network

    Pochily, David Duncan, Mary Wescott, Pike Industries Andrew Potts, P.E., LEED AP, Water Resources Project;8 Porous Asphalt Path, Grey Towers National Historic Site, PA (Source: CH2M HILL) Porous Asphalt Commercial

  5. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch...Union. downstream of Bridge Street. Approximately...Birmingham Pike (Railroad Bridge). Murray Run...Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch...Township Building, 7551 Bridge Street,...

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, September 12, 1940 EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW FROM ACROSS THE PIKE. - General Anthony Wayne Inn, 625 Montgomery Avenue, Narberth, Montgomery County, PA

  7. Contact the Office of Budget & Finance

    Cancer.gov

    We welcome your budget questions or comments. Office of Budget & FinanceNational Cancer InstituteBuilding 31/ Room 11A-169000 Rockville PikeBethesda, MD 20892Phone: (301)-496-5803Email: nciobfInquiries@mail.nih.gov

  8. Many sequence-specific chromatin modifying protein-binding motifs show strong positional

    E-print Network

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 8900 Rockville Pike Marin~ o-Rami´rez3 and David Landsman1, * 1 Computational Biology Branch, National Center

  9. 75 FR 55365 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Joint Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...Subcommittee The ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulics Phenomena; Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); and Materials, Metallurgy, and Reactor Fuels will hold a joint meeting on October 4, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  10. Received 23 February 2004 Accepted 13 July 2004

    E-print Network

    Roos, André M. de

    included a lake population of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (Sanderson et al. 1999), a lake population of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) (Persson et al. 2000, 2003) and a stream population of northern pike

  11. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

  12. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  13. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

  14. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

  15. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  16. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  17. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  18. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

  19. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  20. 77 FR 47441 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...available documents, including the final supporting statement, at the NRC's Public Document Room, Room O-1F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web site:...

  1. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  2. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  3. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  4. 76 FR 35483 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...available documents, including the draft supporting statement, at the NRC's Public Document Room, Room O-1F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC Web site:...

  5. 10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

  6. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

  7. AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography Instructor #15; Name: Dr. David Pike #15; OÆce: Henrietta Number Theory) and a computing course (AMAT 2120 or CS 2710 or CS 2602). #15; Textbook: \\Cryptography

  8. CLEMSON UNIVERSITY STAFF SENATE December 10, 2013, 10:30 AM, Madren Conference Center

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    -Purdessy, Sharon Kimbell, Julia Lusk, Rusty McDonald, Amanda Menefee, Angela Nixon, Dede Norungolo, Carol Pike: George Clay, Mike Eads (Anderson Independent Mail), Jennifer Goree, John Mueller, Jackie Todd, and Tom

  9. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Franklin County, Fulton County, Izard County, Johnson County, Logan County, Madison County, Marion County, Montgomery County, Newton County, Pike County, Polk County, Scott County, Searcy County, Stone County, Van Buren...

  10. MS Graduate Research Assistantship in Dr. Jereme Gaeta's Lake Ecology Laboratory Department of Watershed Sciences and the Ecology Center at Utah State University

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    fishes. June sucker (shown below) are endemic to Utah Lake, UT (shown above on June sucker recovery efforts and the future food web structure and protect June sucker. We will evaluate the threat of northern pike predation

  11. Alcohol, Pot Combo Impairs Driving More Than Either Alone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the combined impact leads to greater behind-the-wheel impairment, it didn't double the effect. The ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  12. Summer Motorcycle Season Is Here, Stay Safe

    MedlinePLUS

    ... motorcycle with anti-lock brakes, which prevents the wheels from locking up when braking. This reduces the ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  13. Keep Safety in Mind When Skateboarding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... riding they do. Also, inspect skateboards routinely for wheel problems, cracks, nicks or broken edges. Young people ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  14. 'Novice Driver' Car Decals Don't Cut Crash Rates: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aware that a novice driver is behind the wheel. Using information compiled in New Jersey's driver-licensing ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  15. 78 FR 17747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Go to http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for submitting...Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101. Office hours are from 8 a...Officials (AASHTO), National Association of County Engineers (NACE), toll...

  16. Pelagic C:N:P Stoichiometry in a Eutrophied Lake: Responses to a Whole-Lake Food-Web Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Elser; Robert W. Sterner; Amy E. Galford; Thomas H. Chrzanowski; David L. Findlay; Kenneth H. Mills; Michael J. Paterson; Michael P. Stainton; David W. Schindler

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the ecological stoichiometry of C, N, and P in the pelagic zone are reported from a whole-lake manipulation of\\u000a the food web of Lake 227, an experimentally eutrophied lake at the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada. Addition of northern pike\\u000a eliminated populations of planktivorous minnows by the third year (1995) after pike introduction, and in the fourth year after

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow: A Comparison among Hatchery Stocks and Historic Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Borley; Matthew M. White

    2006-01-01

    The Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius is a federally endangered species restricted to the Colorado River. Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center, Dexter, New Mexico, maintains three separate captive stocks of the Colorado pikeminnow: 1974YC (Yampa River), 1981YC (Green–Colorado rivers), and 1991YC (Colorado River). We surveyed mitochondrial DNA diversity in these three stocks (879 base pairs [bp]; ND-4L and ND-4

  18. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Solids Preferred or Avoided by Endangered Colorado River Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pimentel; R. V. Bulkley

    1983-01-01

    Juveniles (age 0–1) of three endangered Colorado River fishes were subjected to a gradient of total dissolved solids (TDS) to determine the concentrations that they preferred or avoided. Preferred and avoided TDS concentrations, respectively, for juveniles of each species were: Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius, 560–1,150 mg\\/liter and greater than 4,400 mg\\/liter; humpback chub Gila cypha, 1,000–2,500 mg\\/liter and greater than

  19. Factors Affecting Recruitment of Young Colorado Pikeminnow: Synthesis of Predation Experiments, Field Studies, and Individual-Based Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Bestgen; D. W. Beyers; J. A. Rice; G. B. Haines

    2006-01-01

    Predation experiments, field studies, and individual-based-model (IBM) simulations revealed factors that affected the survival and recruitment of early life stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius in the Green River basin, Utah and Colorado. Small-bodied, nonnative red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis attacked Colorado pikeminnow larvae an average of once per minute, and predation success approached 30% in laboratory aquaria. Attack rate

  20. Food Habits of Bald Eagles in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Todd; L. S. Young; R. B. Owen; F. J. Gramlich

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Food remains,were,collected at 78 different bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) breeding and wintering areas in Maine during 1976-80. Nearly 1,400 prey individuals were identified. Fish com- prised 79% of the food items collected in interior Maine. Three species, brown bullhead (Ictalurus neb- ulosus),white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and chain pickerel (Esox niger), were favored foods in freshwater habitats. Birds, primarily gulls

  1. Diets of Muskellunge in Northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL A. BOZEK; THOMAS M. BURRI

    1989-01-01

    The muskellunge Esox masquinongy is an important sport fish in Wisconsin and elsewhere, but more information about its diet is needed to better understand its role in aquatic systems and its effects on other fish. Stomach contents were examined for 1,092 muskellunge (226-1,180 mm total length, TL) captured in the littoral zone from 34 Wisconsin water bodies from July 1991

  2. Development of a wildlife monitoring system on the proposed Woodlands city site, Montgomery County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Poche, Richard Michael

    1973-01-01

    -buildings Blacktailed Jackrabbit* ~Leu us californicus Uncommon-fields & pastures E Ctt ttt*~Sli1 fl td C -dg, p t Swamp Rabbit* White-tailed Deer+ Armadillo* ~gift u t f -khtt I Gd tl ~ftt C ? dd ~Das us novemcinctus Abundant-various habitats *Denotes those... t ) Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) 66 Table 16. List of fish species inhabiting ponds, lakes, and streams on Woodlands . Longnose Gar Shortnose Gar (~ff t * ) (~Lff fBL t t ) El (~dftf t t) Redfin Pickerel (Esox americanus) E p C p (~dd t f...

  3. Relationships of drought and biotic interactions to crayfish assemblage structure in Gulf coastal headwater streams

    E-print Network

    Healy, Brian Daniel

    2002-01-01

    . americanus, L. gulosus, L. unctatus, L. macrochirus, ~Le omis spp. , or M. almoides ensity (individuals/m ) of potential competing rayfish or fish (P. ~kensle i, P. clarkii, O. thalmeri, A. a anus, Etheostoma spp. , P. sciera, E. ~nb)on s, N. oturus...; Appendix B) Ameiurus natalis, ~Le omis , E Ti, ~L' ~l dM~t l ld Tk p t tll predators of crayfish occurred in each seasonal collection in perennial streams, but were absent from intermittent streams during February (Fig. 3). Esox americanus and L. gulosus...

  4. Maria Sticco, Publicist 7500 Thomas Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA 15260 e-mail: mes5@pitt.edu www.upress.pitt.edu

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    of the U.S., as well as to Costa Rica, Ecuador, Australia, and New Zealand. He has run the Pikes Peak awards for a book of short fic- tion. Nelson's manuscript, The Spirit Bird: Stories, was selected will be published by the University of Pittsburgh Press this fall. "The Spirit Bird indicates a seasoned talent

  5. Titanium Language Reference Manual, version 2.19 Paul N. Hilfinger

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Titanium Language Reference Manual, version 2.19 Paul N. Hilfinger Dan Oscar Bonachea Kaushik Datta those of the Government, Sun Microsystems, or Microsoft. #12;Titanium Language Reference Manual Version, Geoff Pike, Jimmy Su, and Katherine Yelick November, 2005 #12;Abstract The Titanium language is a Java

  6. Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda June 2007 F.doc

    Cancer.gov

    revised June 26, 2007 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 37th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Thursday, 28 June 2007 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment -

  7. Using Citizen Science beyond Teaching Science Content: A Strategy for Making Science Relevant to Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lynda L.

    2011-01-01

    I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel…

  8. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer According to Family History of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham A. Colditz; Bernard A. Rosner; Frank E. Speizer

    1996-01-01

    Background: Family history of breast cancer is an established risk factor for this disease and is used to identify women at higher risk, although the im- pact of risk factors for breast cancer among women with a family history is not well defined. Purpose: Using a modified extended log-incidence Pike model, we prospectively examined the impact of risk factors for

  9. Preventing Child Abuse

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Children's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  10. Westward view of (L to R) B&O Railroad (in West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Westward view of (L to R) B&O Railroad (in West Virginia), Potomac River, C&O Canal (wide basin), Western Maryland Rail Trail, I-70, and US 40 (National Pike), milepost 112 vicinity. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  11. Fecundity of Spring and Fall-Run Steelhead from Two Western Lake Superior Tributaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Dubois; Scott D. Plaster; Paul W. Rasmussen

    1989-01-01

    We examined the relationship between egg number and body size for 70 steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) collected during 1985–1987 from the Bois Brule River and Pikes Creek, two Wisconsin tributaries to western Lake Superior. These data were compared with limited historical data from the Bois Brule River and nearby streams along the lake's north shore in Minnesota. Within

  12. The global processing deficit in amblyopia involves noise segregation Behzad Mansouri *, Robert F. Hess

    E-print Network

    Hess, Robert F.

    . Hess McGill Vision Research Unit, 687 Pine Avenue West, Rm. H4-14, Montreal, Que., Canada H3A 1A1 activation (Barnes, Hess, Dumoulin, Achtman, & Pike, 2001; Imam- ura et al., 1997; Muckli et al., 2006 (Imamura et al., 1997). These tasks include position (Hess & Holliday, 1992; Levi & Klein, 1985; Sireteanu

  13. METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

  14. Deliverable 2.4.4 -- Evaluation and single-well models for the demonstration wells, Class 1

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Milind; Morgan Craig D.

    2000-07-12

    Two single-well models were developed for Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike wells. The perforated intervals span thousands of feet in both the wells. Geological properties were calculated for all the perforated beds. The information was used to develop models for these two wells. These were comprehensive models since they took into account all the perforated beds.

  15. Coal resources available for development, Matewan quadrangle, eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.D.; Cobb, J.C.; Eggleston, J.R.; Gardner, N.K. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Matewan quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was selected for a cooperative coal-resource pilot study by the US Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey. The purpose of the study was to determine the coal resources actually available for mining. After calculating original and remaining resources, coal that would be lost because of cultural, environmental, and technological restrictions was quantified.

  16. AGENDA

    Cancer.gov

    National Cancer Institute 8th Meeting of the CLINICAL TRIALS AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Wednesday, July 15, 2009 - OPEN 8:00 a.m. – 8:10

  17. Heavy metal contamination in freshwater fish from the border region between Norway and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per-Arne Amundsen; Frode J. Staldvik; Anatolij A. Lukin; Nikolai A. Kashulin; Olga A. Popova; Yuri S. Reshetnikov

    1997-01-01

    The contents of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni and Zn in muscle, liver and gills were studied in whitefish, perch, pike, brown trout, burbot and vendace from three lake localities in a watercourse in the border region between Norway and Russia, in the vicinity of mining activity and several metallurgic smelters. The contents of Cd and Ni in fish tissue

  18. Northampton Community College Adult Learner Competencies Implementation. Final Report, 1998-1999 [and] Adult Learner Competencies Implementation Manual for Workshops #1 and #2 and NCC Competencies-Based Lesson Plan "Mini-Bank".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Judy

    A project provided training and guidance to Northampton Community College (NCC) staff in implementing the "new" adult learner skill competencies. Two workshops were held to serve 29 staff in Monroe, Wayne, and Pike counties in Pennsylvania. Among the topics covered were defining and introducing portfolios to adult learners, individualizing…

  19. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

  20. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

  1. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

  2. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

  3. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

  4. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just before the…

  5. February 22, 2007

    Cancer.gov

    revised February 27, 2007 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 36th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, 5 March 2007 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment

  6. revised June 16, 2009

    Cancer.gov

    revised June 17, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 43rd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 22, 2009 Monday, 22 June 2009 - 8:00 a.m. to

  7. Vol. 333 No. 10 MOLECULAR MEDICINE 645 MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Boguski, Mark S.

    Vol. 333 No. 10 MOLECULAR MEDICINE 645 MOLECULAR MEDICINE HUNTING FOR GENES IN COMPUTER DATA BASES of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, where reprint requests and distributed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine

  8. A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Peter J.

    The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated…

  9. housingreportAn e-publication of UMass Lowell and the Middlesex North Registry of Deeds Merrimack Valley

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    and National Trends By Sarah Pike Deeds, Mortgages, Foreclosures and Orders of Notice Recorded September 2011 94 35 Mortgages 171 213 94 59 235 264 155 114 Foreclosure Deeds 12 7 12 3 18 7 9 4 Orders of Notice 7

  10. housingreportAn e-publication of UMass Lowell and the Middlesex North Registry of Deeds Merrimack Valley

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    monthly on deeds, mortgages, foreclosures, and order of notices for the northern Essex area. He will also Valley Housing Report By Sarah Pike Deeds, Mortgages, Foreclosures and Orders of Notice Recorded January 92 110 51 70 Mortgages 144 181 78 104 172 267 141 200 Foreclosure Deeds 8 6 10 5 18 14 7 16 Orders

  11. Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications: Models of Collaboration for the Integration of Telecommunications in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, John G.

    1997-01-01

    The Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET), a quasi-public agency, plays a leadership role in distance education and the integration of telecommunications and education locally and nationally. Operator of the Mass LearnPike satellite network and the Mass Ed OnLine LearnNet computer network, MCET provides expanded…

  12. 76 FR 70163 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...Lodge, 4477 Pikes Landing Road, Fairbanks, Alaska 99709-4619. On November 29, the meeting starts at 9:30 a.m. in the Jade meeting room and the council will accept public comment from 3:30 p.m.-4:30 p.m. On November 30, the meeting...

  13. Dynamics of a Boreal Lake Ecosystem during a Long-Term Manipulation of Top Predators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Findlay; Michael J. Vanni; Michael Paterson; Kenneth H. Mills; Susan E. M. Kasian; Willie J. Findlay; Alex G. Salki

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the long-term (16 years) effects of introducing piscivores (northern pike) into a small, boreal lake (Lake 221, Experimental Lakes Area) containing abundant populations of two planktivorous fish species. After the introduction, pearl dace were extirpated and yellow perch abundance was greatly reduced. Daphnia species shifted from D. galeata mendota to larger bodied Daphnia catawba, but the total zooplankton

  14. Results of small-scale passive system trials to treat acid mine drainage, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Trumm; M Watts

    2010-01-01

    Successful passive treatment of acid mine drainage can be improved through the use of small-scale pilot treatment systems to confirm appropriate system selection. Small-scale reducing and alkalinity producing systems were tested at two acid mine drainage sites in the West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand: the Sullivan Mine and the Pike River Adit. A laboratory trial consisting of a

  15. Biomanipulation, new perspectives for restoration of shallow, eutrophic lakes in The Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Hosper

    1989-01-01

    Eutrophication of Dutch lakes has led to massive algal growth, disappearance of most of the macrophytes and disturbance of the food chain. The pike population has fallen sharply and bream developed very strongly, in the absence of this predator. Eutrophication problems are primarily being tackled by reducing nutrient loading. Restoration of water quality, however, seems to be impeded by the

  16. Alternative stable states in eutrophic, shallow freshwater systems: A minimal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scheffer

    1989-01-01

    A simple mathematical model was constructed, describing the relationships between pike, bream, aquatic macrophytes and the nutrient loading of shallow lakes. The model is analyzed with the use of zero-isoclines. It is concluded that, over a certain range of nutrient concentrations, the ecological relations incorporated in the model can give rise to the existence of two alternative stable equilibria;viz. a

  17. Second order coherence of broadband down-converted light on ultrashort time scale

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .4180) Multiphoton processes; (270.5290) Photon statistics. References and links 1. H. Z. Cummins, and E. R. Pike in a silicon avalanche photodiode," Opt. Lett. 28(6), 402­404 (2003). 3. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. E

  18. 77 FR 14405 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...from 2 to 4 p.m. Location: The meeting will be held in the Washington Theater Room at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register...

  19. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...m. to 3:30 p.m. Location: The meeting will be held in the Washington Theater at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register...

  20. 75 FR 18848 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...m. to 4:30 p.m. Location: The meeting will be held at the Washington Theater at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register...

  1. Beleased upon receipt 4 Scienze Service F e a t w

    E-print Network

    that they often found living pike arid LS river s p c i e s of that theso fish in falling froan heaven failed t o land. (All rsghts refiemod by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE Washfngfon,D,C &@ and Constitutim

  2. Phonology and Orthography. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yallop, Colin

    One major view concerning what an orthography should be conforms to Pike's idea that a practical orthography should be phonemic, that is, that there should be a one-to-one correspondence between each phoneme and the symbolization of that phoneme. An alternative view, that of Chomsky and Halle, proposes that the fundamental principle of orthography…

  3. Untitled

    Cancer.gov

    Appendix Table 2. Counties within State Economic Areas (SEAs) by State (continued) County SEA County name County SEA County name County SEA County name code1 code2 code1 code2 code1 code2 Arkansas continued 05109 023 Pike 05111 026 Poinsett 05113 023 Polk 05115 021 Pope 05117 026 Prairie 05119 019 Pulaski 05121 022 Randolph 05123 027 St.

  4. Executive Plaza Route (Orange Line) Effective June 2014 (For Government Use Only)

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Rockville Pike) 6006 Executive Blvd. (Located @ Ride-On Stop) Montrose Parking Lot 6116 Executive Blvd 6001 services Montrose (shuttle times noted in bold) from 10:00AM to 4:00PM. METRO (Arrival) Building 31A METRO (Depart) Rockwall Montrose 6001 6011 2115 E. Jefferson 6116 6100 6006 Metro Bldg.10 (South) #12;#12;

  5. Grant Reference Lead / Sole

    E-print Network

    Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project sediment-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 1 9 NE-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 2 8 NE/K015184/1 Y Alistair Pike

  6. Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

  7. 77 FR 1504 - Certain Kinesiotherapy Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...Marsoner, Inc. d/b/a Fascinations, 315 South Bracken Lane, Chandler, AZ 85224. Love Boutique-Vista, LLC d/b/a Deja vu, 2130 Industrial Court, Vista, CA 92081. Toys in Babeland LLC, 707 East Pike Street, Seattle, WA 98122. (c)...

  8. Current Biology 19, 14, July 14, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.027 Offspring Sex in a Lizard

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    .cub.2009.05.027 Report Offspring Sex in a Lizard Depends on Egg Size Rajkumar S. Radder,1,3 David A. Pike,1 paradigms may substantially underestimate the complexity of reptilian sex determination. In previous work, we have shown that the sex of a hatchling lizard (Bassiana duperreyi, Scincidae) does not depend

  9. Decreased Neurokinin-1 (Substance P) Receptor Binding in Patients with Panic Disorder: Positron

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Decreased Neurokinin-1 (Substance P) Receptor Binding in Patients with Panic Disorder: Positron Burns, Cheryl Morse, Victor W. Pike, and Robert B. Innis Background: Positron emission tomography (PET]SPA-RQ. Methods: Positron emission tomography scans with [18 F]SPA-RQ were performed in 14 patients with panic

  10. Last Updated: 3/18/2013 1:41 PM 1 Project Charter

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    the cost of the project.> o More courses using digital content for textbooks or textbook alternatives. oLast Updated: 3/18/2013 1:41 PM 1 Project Charter Version 1.0 Project Title: Extend the Mobile Learning Initiative Sponsor: Martin Schimpf Project Leader: Dale Pike Project Description · What

  11. Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana State University

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    .................................................................................................................................. 5 The Chemical and Petroleum Refining Industry in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor Biomass Feedstocks into Chemical Production Complexes using New and Existing Processes by Ralph W. Pike ........... 6 Development of New Industries based on Renewable Resources that Initially Require Nonrenewable

  12. Catalysts, additives, environment head up CMRA meeting agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesche, E.S.

    1993-02-03

    Technology leadership in catalyst and additives were hot topics at the Chemical Management and Resources Association's (Staten Island, NY) meeting in Cincinnati last week. In particular, the advent of metallocene single-site catalyst (SSC) are likely to alter the dynamics of the plastics landscape, suggest Gregory McPike, v.p./Exxpol at Exxon Chemical. As SSC technology - which allows accurate tailoring of polymers - gains momentum, the delineation between SSC licensers and licensees will increase, McPike says. And he expects that with only few producers able to afford the huge amount of time and money it takes to develop metallocene technology, there will be proliferation of alliances; Exxon itself has a partnership with Mitsui to develop gas-phase polyethylene. But McPike also expects higher profits and growth for those with metallocene technology, as SSC-based polymers penetrate other than polyolefins. McPike says Exxon plans to license the technology in the next two years for commodity markets. Increased environmental regulations are creating opportunities in catalysts and in water treatment chemicals, speakers noted.

  13. The Personal Health Data Revolution, Connected Health, and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    NO REGISTRATION REQUIRED 9000 Rockville Pike Building 31, Room B2/B37 Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2590 Tel: 3014519399 Fax: 3014515909 E-mail: pcp-r@mail.nih.gov Web site: http://pcp.cancer.gov Twitter: @PresCancerPanel MEETINGS OF THE PRESIDENTS

  14. Continuity and Evolution in an Old Industrial Region: The Labour Market Dynamics of the Rise and Fall of Northern Rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Dawley; Neill Marshall; Andy Pike; Jane Pollard; John Tomaney

    2012-01-01

    Dawley S., Marshall N., Pike A., Pollard J. and Tomaney J. Continuity and evolution in an old industrial region: the labour market dynamics of the rise and fall of Northern Rock, Regional Studies. The Northern Rock mortgage bank was a high-profile casualty of the credit crunch in 2007. An evolutionary geographical political economy approach demonstrates that Northern Rock's growth and

  15. Squinting at Power Series M. Douglas McIlroy

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Norman

    Squinting at Power Series M. Douglas McIlroy AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 in newsqueak, the language of Pike's ``squint'' system; their effectiveness depends critically on the stream in pseudocode; later they will be translated into the language ``newsqueak'' to be run in the ``squint'' system

  16. Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. O. Childress; R. A. Sheets; E. S. Bair

    1991-01-01

    At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated

  17. THE TETHERING ARM OF THE EGF RECEPTOR IS REQUIRED FOR NEGATIVE COOPERATIVITY AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    1 THE TETHERING ARM OF THE EGF RECEPTOR IS REQUIRED FOR NEGATIVE COOPERATIVITY AND SIGNAL receptor tethering arm Address correspondence to: Linda J. Pike, 660 South Euclid Ave., Box 8231, St. Louis in which the dimerization arm of subdomain II interacts with the tethering arm in subdomain IV. Following

  18. Rogerian Rhetoric: Pedagogy and the Ethos of Seduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Byron

    In "Rhetoric, Discovery and Change" (1970), R. Young, A. Becker, and K. Pike took Carl Rogers' empathetic approach out of the context of one-on-one therapy and put it into the writing classroom. They proposed the now standard formulaic structure of argumentation which emphasizes a strong thesis up front, a detailed account of the opposing…

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Changes in the regional abundance of hemlock associated

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    and Analysis, USDA Forest Service, 4700 Old Kingston Pike, Knoxville, TN 37919, USA e-mail: soswalt@fs.fed.us A tsugae Annand), sudden oak death [Phy- tophthora ramorum (Werres, de Cock and Man in't Veld)], the Asian

  20. A prototype system for economic, environmental and sustainable optimization of a chemical complex

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    ), the chemical industry has gone from end-of-pipe treatment to source reduction, recycling and reuse. PollutionA prototype system for economic, environmental and sustainable optimization of a chemical complex T.A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.B. Nagy, R.W. Pike, J.R. Hopper, C.L. Yaws Abstract A prototype of a chemical complex

  1. 1997 Oxford University Press 16Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, Vol. 25, No. 1 Dennis A. Benson*, Mark S. Boguski, David J. Lipman and James Ostell

    E-print Network

    Boguski, Mark S.

    , National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Building 38A, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM. Benson*, Mark S. Boguski, David J. Lipman and James Ostell National Center for Biotechnology Information

  2. 1996 Oxford University Press 15Nucleic Acids Research, 1996, Vol. 24, No. 1 Dennis A. Benson*, Mark Boguski, David J. Lipman and James Ostell

    E-print Network

    Boguski, Mark S.

    , National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Building 38A, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the National Library of Medicine. Benson*, Mark Boguski, David J. Lipman and James Ostell National Center for Biotechnology Information

  3. National Library of Medicine PubMed Central Back Issue Scanning Project

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    National Library of Medicine PubMed Central Back Issue Scanning Project Image Specifications and Functional Requirements for Citation Capture Version 3.2 May, 2007 National Library of Medicine NationalMed Central Back Issue Scanning Specifications U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike

  4. Database Updates The Histone Database: an integrated

    E-print Network

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 8600 Rockville Pike, MSC Moreland3 , Andreas D. Baxevanis3 and David Landsman1 1 Computational Biology Branch, National CenterTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA and 3 Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute

  5. NSF/NIH JOINT SYMPOSIUM: ACCELERATING MATHEMATICAL-BIOLOGICAL LINKAGES

    E-print Network

    Hurdal, Monica K.

    NSF/NIH JOINT SYMPOSIUM: ACCELERATING MATHEMATICAL-BIOLOGICAL LINKAGES KEYNOTE ADDRESS CLUTTER (NSF) AND MICHAEL GOTTESMAN (NIH) WHEN: February 12, 2003, 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM WHERE: Natcher Auditorium, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 ­ nearest

  6. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of such nets may be of nylon and other synthetic material. (c) Gill nets for taking pike shall have a mesh of not less that 31/2 inches extension...nets for taking whitefish shall have a mesh of not less than 51/2 inches...

  7. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of such nets may be of nylon and other synthetic material. (c) Gill nets for taking pike shall have a mesh of not less that 31/2 inches extension...nets for taking whitefish shall have a mesh of not less than 51/2 inches...

  8. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of such nets may be of nylon and other synthetic material. (c) Gill nets for taking pike shall have a mesh of not less that 31/2 inches extension...nets for taking whitefish shall have a mesh of not less than 51/2 inches...

  9. Susceptibility of Tethered Round Gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) to Predation in Habitats With and Without Shelters

    E-print Network

    Corkum, Lynda D.

    . Seven yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were retrieved that were entwined in tethers and in each case, Perca flavescens; walleye, Sander vitrea (formerly Stizostedion vitreum, N.E. Mandrak, Fisheries of Round Gobies to Predation 589 perch, Perca fluviatilis; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; European pike

  10. Avoidance or escape? Discriminating between two hypotheses for the function of schooling in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Grobis, Matthew M.; Pearish, Simon P.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many species, there are antipredator benefits of grouping with conspecifics. For example, animals often aggregate to better avoid potential predators (the ‘avoidance hypothesis’). Animals also often group together in direct response to predators to facilitate escape (the ‘escape hypothesis’). The avoidance hypothesis predicts that animals with previous experience with predation risk will aggregate more than animals without experience with predation risk. In contrast, the escape hypothesis predicts that immediate exposure to predation risk causes animals to aggregate. We simultaneously tested these two nonexclusive hypotheses in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Schooling behaviour (time spent schooling, latency to school and time schooling in the middle of the school) was quantified with a mobile model school. Fish that had been chased by a model predator in the past schooled more, started schooling faster and spent a marginally greater proportion of time schooling in the middle of the school than fish that had not been chased. In contrast, there was no difference in the schooling behaviour of fish that were immediately exposed to either a model pike or a control, stick stimulus. A second experiment confirmed that fish perceived the model pike and stick differently: fish froze more often in the presence of the model pike, oriented to it more often and spent less time with the model pike than they did with the stick. These results provide strong support for the avoidance hypothesis. PMID:24707059

  11. Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Scramblase 1 Is Enriched in Lipid Rafts and Interacts with the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), an endofacial plasma membranePlasma Membrane Phospholipid Scramblase 1 Is Enriched in Lipid Rafts and Interacts with the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Jun Sun, Meera Nanjundan, Linda J. Pike,§ Therese Wiedmer, and Peter J

  12. 10 CFR 9.21 - Publicly available records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...made available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov, and/or at the Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, between 7:45 am and 4:15 pm on...

  13. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Road, Springfield, VA 22161. A copy is available for inspection and/or copying in the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b) Power reactor facility licensees may prepare,...

  14. 10 CFR 75.6 - Facility and location reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Washington, DC 20555-0001. Written communications may be delivered in person to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-2738 between 7:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. eastern time. If a...

  15. 10 CFR 75.6 - Facility and location reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Washington, DC 20555-0001. Written communications may be delivered in person to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-2738 between 7:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. eastern time. If a...

  16. 10 CFR 75.6 - Facility and location reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Washington, DC 20555-0001. Written communications may be delivered in person to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-2738 between 7:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. eastern time. If a...

  17. 10 CFR 9.21 - Publicly available records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...made available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov, and/or at the Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, between 7:45 am and 4:15 pm on...

  18. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Road, Springfield, VA 22161. A copy is available for inspection and/or copying in the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b) Power reactor facility licensees may prepare,...

  19. 75 FR 39055 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...development. A copy of the final supporting statement may be viewed free of charge at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1 F21, Rockville, MD 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC...

  20. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Road, Springfield, VA 22161. A copy is available for inspection and/or copying in the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b) Power reactor facility licensees may prepare,...

  1. 10 CFR 75.6 - Facility and location reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Washington, DC 20555-0001. Written communications may be delivered in person to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-2738 between 7:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. eastern time. If a...

  2. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Road, Springfield, VA 22161. A copy is available for inspection and/or copying in the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b) Power reactor facility licensees may prepare,...

  3. 10 CFR 75.6 - Facility and location reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Washington, DC 20555-0001. Written communications may be delivered in person to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-2738 between 7:30 a.m. and 4:15 p.m. eastern time. If a...

  4. 10 CFR 9.21 - Publicly available records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...made available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov, and/or at the Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, between 7:45 am and 4:15 pm on...

  5. 10 CFR 9.21 - Publicly available records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...made available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov, and/or at the Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, between 7:45 am and 4:15 pm on...

  6. 10 CFR 9.21 - Publicly available records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...made available at the NRC Web site, http://www.nrc.gov, and/or at the Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, between 7:45 am and 4:15 pm on...

  7. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Road, Springfield, VA 22161. A copy is available for inspection and/or copying in the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b) Power reactor facility licensees may prepare,...

  8. Doctor Recommendations 2011 Page 1 of 10

    E-print Network

    Allergy & Dr. Loren Southern 24 Vreeland Drive (609) 921-2022 1 Asthma Skillman, NJ 08558 Cardiology Group Pike, 2 nd Floor (609) 895-1919 1 Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 Cardiology Associates Dr. John Hagaman 281 Cardiology Dr. James Beattie Princeton, NJ Chiropractors Group Name Doctor Name(s) Address Phone

  9. Marine Conservation Science and Policy Learning Service Program

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    and inserts #12;3 List of the 5 fins of the dogfish shark- 2 dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, caudal The Depressor shark, or piked dogfish, Squalus acanthias, is one of the best known of the dogfish which are members, Squalus acanthias is distinguished by having two spines (one anterior to each dorsal fin) and lacks

  10. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard application. If the lagoons are improperly constructed and leak, they can contaminate ground waterArkansas Water Resources Center RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER

  11. Intrinsic optical signals in neural tissues: measurements, mechanisms, and applications

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    , 6), rabbit vagus nerve (7), pike olfactory nerve (7), and garfish olfactory nerve (8 of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Signaling phenomena in nerve tissues are accompanied by a number of intrinsic optical signals, including changes in absorption, scattering, birefringence, refractive index, and nerve

  12. KILLARNEY LAKE, COEUR D'ALENE RIVER SYSTEM IDAHO - PILOT SAMPLING FOR HEAVY METALS IN FISH FLESH, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study sampled largemouth bass, northern pike, black crappie, brown bullhead, and yellow perch from Killarney Lake, a lateral lake on the Coeur dAlene River in northern Idaho (17010301, 17010303) and analyzed edible flesh for concentrations of zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, co...

  13. I. INTRODUCTION The Forest Lake Club

    E-print Network

    Syring, John

    club in Pike County of northeastern Pennsylvania just northeast of the Pocono Mountains. It was formed members reside permanently in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. Many of the members own vacation of the history and culture of the FLC. The first, "History of the Forest Lake Club, 1882-1932," was written by Dr

  14. Intelligent Language Comprehension System for Automatic Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Lung Tsai; Thomas Chiang Chuang

    2006-01-01

    The 911 attacking, London and India explosion, South Asia tsunami, Pakistan earthquake and North Korea missile launching incidences all brought terrible disaster or big threat. It is quite important for government agencies to acquire significant information and have good preparation before the disaster occurs. However, there are huge pike of information. How to extract and display the significant information in

  15. Planned Papers, Theses & Dissertations for Biocomplexity project: As of September 7, 2005 Version (Fred, Loomis)

    E-print Network

    in Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) from Northeastern Puerto Rico, Caribbean Journal of Science, 2005 Characterizing fisheries in NE Puerto Rico streams. Aquatic Conservation, Caribbean Journal of Science, (It of aquatic migrations in the LEF. Journals: Ecological Modelling, Ecological Complexity Ramirez, Pike, Wohl

  16. How to Measure the Radius of the Earth on Your Beach Vacation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Zachary H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for determining the distance to the horizon which leads to determining the radius of the Earth. The article answers two interesting science questions: (1) Can you see the state of Kansas from Pike's Peak in Colorado? and (2) Can you see two sunsets in one day on the Keys of Florida? (MVL)

  17. Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair controlled by his brain waves. He can only communicate through a light integrated into his wheelchair to signal the answers "yes" or "no". Commodore Mendez, the commander of Starbase 11, describes the condition of Captain Pike as follows: "He is totally unable to move, Jim. His wheelchair is constructed to respond to his brain waves. He can turn it, move it forwards, backwards slightly. Through a flashing light he can say 'yes' or 'no'. But that's it, Jim. That is as much as the poor ever can do. His mind is as active as yours and mine, but it's trapped in a useless vegetating body. He's kept alive mechanically. A battery driven heart. …"

  18. Rural Community Colleges: A Pennsylvania Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Kenneth B., Jr.

    This report describes the development, functions, and operations of the Delaware Valley Community College Service Center in Pike County, Pennsylvania, which is designed to provide diversified and comprehensive two-year postsecondary education to residents of a large, rural area without a postsecondary institution. The Center is sponsored by the…

  19. A study of the strains and deflections caused by horizontal forces applied to vertically cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Glenn Allen

    1956-01-01

    Lateral ectksa sa4 retacfaa of Cey ?f ealosca vs kee4, gg& gages at 3 kereks ebece as4- lise ea4 3 keaaks bakes fet sksgka pile, 4 oboe? aa4 S bakes far 3~a 4sfkeeciea va keeg, aseeere4 ~ C Cey of pile, re- bessf ~esre4 eekp of s Akk pikes 4...

  20. Antti Leino Helsinki Institute for Information Technology

    E-print Network

    Leino, Antti

    of Finland Pikes and perches go together: A data-analytical view on Finnish lake names 1. Introduction names, that is, those names that are used for at least 90 lakes each. The size of these data sets Entire Register 303 626 717 747 Lakes 25 178 58 267 Common lake names 54 9 008 Table 1: Place Name

  1. Two interesting invertebrates, Limnadia lenticularis (L.) (Crutacea Phyllopoda) and Gonionemus vertens A. Agassiz (Limnomedusae), found in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Leentvaar

    1961-01-01

    Limmadia lenticularis (L.) In July 1960 Mr. E. Blok of the Netherlands Fishery Inspection showed me some specimens of a Crustacean which he had identified as Limnadia lenticularis (L.) (Phyllopoda Conchostraca). The specimens were found in fish ponds in the municipality of Valkenswaard, province of Noord-Brabant. These fish ponds are used to rear carp and pike. They are nowhere over

  2. Competency-Based Geropsychology Training in Doctoral Internships and Postdoctoral Fellowships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Hinrichsen; Antonette M. Zeiss; Michele J. Karel; Victor A. Molinari

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for geropsychology training in doctoral internships and postdoctoral fellowships have slowly grown over the years. There will be a need for more geropsychology training programs as the U.S. population ages concurrent with increased demand for mental health services from older adults. This article provides recommendations for competency-based geropsychology training that derive from the Pikes Peak Model for Training in

  3. Clowning Around May Be Good Medicine for Kids Facing Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children's Health Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's Health Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  4. Lake Michigan VANDERBURGH

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Lake Michigan LAKE JAY ALLEN KNOX VIGO WHITE CASS PIKE JASPER RUSH CLAY PARKE VERMILLION LAPORTE WHITLEY WASHINGTON JENNINGS TIPTON DELAWARE LAGRANGE HENDRICKS MONTGOMERY STEUBEN JOHNSON HOWARD HANCOCK 50 60 Kilometers Map of Indiana Counties Indiana Geological Survey · 611 North Walnut Grove Ave

  5. Joan M. Dukes Rhonda Whiting

    E-print Network

    Idaho W. Bill Booth Idaho Bill Bradbury Oregon Tom Karier Washington Phil Rockefeller Washington July 24, 2012 MEMORANDUM TO: Council Members FROM: Stacy Horton, Washington Policy Analyst/Biologist SUBJECT with the Council about this significant threat. #12;Invasive Northern Pike in the Pend Oreille River, Washington

  6. Single channel blind image deconvolution from radially symmetric

    E-print Network

    . on Image Processing 8, 202­219 (1999). 8. E. Moulines, P. Duhamel, J.-F. Cardoso, and S. Mayrargue, San Diego, CA, USA, 1996). 4. D. A. Fish, A. M. Brinicombe, E. R. Pike, and J. G. Walker, "Blind of input colored signals," IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 43, 134­149 (1995). 11. X. Yan, N. Olson, J

  7. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS ON SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH. (TOXICITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM AND LEAD TO EGGS AND FRY OF SEVEN FISH SPECIES.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryo and larvae of rainbow trout, lake trout, channel catfish, bluegill, white sucker, northern pike, and walleye were exposed for 60 days after hatch to lead and chromium in soft water. Brook trout, channel catfish, and walleyes were also exposed for 60 days after hatch to cop...

  8. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  9. Laue diffraction study on the structure of cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    E-print Network

    Fülöp, Vilmos

    6, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA Background: Cytochrome c peroxidase from yeast with a new software package (LEAP), overcoming many of the former problems encountered in extracting-resolved crystallography Introduction Cytochrome c peroxidase from yeast mitochondria (CCP, ferrocytochrome c:H 202

  10. Miller, K.G., Sugarman, P.J., Browning, J.V., et al. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports Volume 174AX

    E-print Network

    , Initial Reports Volume 174AX (Suppl.) 5. MILLVILLE SITE1 Peter J. Sugarman, Kenneth G. Miller, James V, Monteverde MILLVILLE SITE SUMMARY Millville was the ninth site drilled as part of the Coastal Plain Drilling Project (CPDP) and the fifth site drilled as part of Leg 174AX. Drilling at the Bridgeton Pike Well

  11. Teach Them All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike County Board of Education, Troy, AL.

    Six social studies units for teachers of elementary and secondary students are presented. The document, written by various authors, is one component of the Pike County, Alabama, ethnic studies inservice training project. Objectives of the units are to help students develop an awareness and understanding of differing cultures and customs. Topics…

  12. Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional…

  13. Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

  14. Identity: a complex structure for researching students' academic behavior in science and mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-06-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an analysis of how the authors conceptualize the problem of scientific career choices, the theoretical framework through which they study the problem, and the methodology they use to collect and analyze data. In addition, we examine the perspective they provide in light of new developments in the field of students' attitudes towards science and mathematics. More precisely, we draw attention to and explicate the authors' use of identity from the perspective of emerging theories that explore the relationships between the learner and culture in the context of science and mathematics.

  15. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pajak, Paul; Bradshaw, William H.; DeSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Existing aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries was assessed for its relationship to the present size, distribution, and maintenance of all salmonid species, northern pike, and largemouth bass populations. The objectives were to assess how and to what extent hydroelectric development and operation affects the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries and life stages of existing trout, pike, and largemouth bass populations, evaluate the potential for increasing quality habitat, and thus game fish production, through mitigation, and develop an array of fisheries management options to mitigate the impacts of present hydroelectric operations, demonstrating under each management option how fish populations would benefit and hydroelectric generation capabilities would be modified.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in muscle of fish collected from the Nové Mlýny reservoir in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zelní?ková, Lenka; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Maršálek, Petr; Dobšíková, Radka

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muscle tissues of fish, i.e. carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.), bream (Abramis brama, L.) and pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca, L.) from the middle Nové Mlýny reservoir and compare our results with previous corresponding studies. Samples were analysed by gas chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The highest contents of all pollutants were determined in muscle tissue of bream. The analysis of HCHs showed that ?-HCH was the most abundant. PCB congener 28 was evaluated as the predominant PCB congener. The metabolite p,p'-DDE exhibited the highest concentration of all the monitored metabolites. The monitoring confirmed significantly (P?pike perch. The contents of pollutants in our study were found to be lower in comparison to the findings of some previous studies. PMID:26092236

  17. 2012 Existing Vegetation Plan Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2012 Existing Vegetation Plan - Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  18. 1935 Period Plan Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1935 Period Plan - Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  19. 1972 Period Plan Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1972 Period Plan - Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  20. 2012 Existing Landscape Plan Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2012 Existing Landscape Plan - Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  1. Remote sensing applications to hydrology in Minnesota. [Rice Creek watershed and St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D.; Skaggs, R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of low lying southeastern shore of Pike Lake is described as part of the Rice Creek watershed study. Several small wetlands in Arden Hills, Minnesota were incorporated into the drainage plans as pollutant and nutrient sinks rather than being infilled. Lake water quality in the St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area was analyzed using Landsat images. In the same urban area, the inventory and seasonal change of the open water were also studied.

  2. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (principal investigators); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

  3. Cortical and Subcortical Correlates of Ororhythmic Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Estep, Meredith Emslie

    2009-12-09

    encoding sensorimotor mechanisms of healthy adult ororhythmic behaviors including mastication (Foki, Geissler, Gartus, Pahs, Deecke, et al., 2007) and speech production (Gracco, Tremblay, & Pike, 2005; Riecker, Wildgruber, Dogil, Grodd, & Ackermann, 2002... control points in the motor system as they are the final common pathway for neural impulses to reach the orofacial muscles. Human ororhythmic behaviors rely on a combination of many different ?driving? signals affecting the timing and amplitude...

  4. Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students’ lives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda L. Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that\\u000a students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science\\u000a education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to\\u000a their lives or

  5. A screening procedure for determinig levels of resistance to downy mildew and its inheritance in cucumber 

    E-print Network

    McFerson, James Robert

    1978-01-01

    . , University of Wisconsin Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leonard Pike An optimal disease screening procedure for dif- ferentiating various levels of resistance to downy nvZdew in ououmhes (Guoumis sat'vus L. ) was developed. Phe pse- dictive value... days until evaluation for symptom expression. Nature plants were also evaluated at two stages of development in the greenhouse and. unde natural and. artificial inoculation conditions in the field. Lines screened include commercial cvs, the F1, F2...

  6. 58 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. hatched, setsthem outinthe mostsuitableplaces. This steameralsogoes

    E-print Network

    . The very first p a r , this thoroughly exhausted peat-bog and lime-pit was stocked with one-year old pike peat-bog may be used as a fish-pond, if it contains water. Such bogs, however, must admit of fishing away and used as manure. Such ponds, which have formerly been peat-bogs, are found in many places

  7. Inheritance of mature green fruit color in cucumber 

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Gregory Calvin

    1986-01-01

    INHERITANCE OF MATURE GREEN FRUIT COLOR IN CUCUMBER A Thesis by GREGORY CALVIN PETERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986... Major Subject: plant Breeding INHERITANCE OF MATURE GREEN FRUIT COLOR IN CUCUMBER A Thesis by GREGORY CALVIN PETERSON Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairman of Committee) J. Creighton Miller, J (Member) James D. Smith...

  8. Syracuse, NY 1/27/2014 5:50:27 PM List of Publications (D)

    E-print Network

    Movileanu, Liviu

    , K.R. Howard, M.P. McPike, P.N. Borer and L. Movileanu, 2012, Engineering a Rigid Protein Tunnel for Biomolecular Detection, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(22), 9521-9531. PMCID: PMC3415594 D50. E. Eren, J. Vijayaraghavan York, pp. 21-37. PMCID: PMC3708658 #12;D-2 D48. L. Movileanu, 2012, Single-molecule detection

  9. 6I).-TIEE TENCII RECORUITlENDED P O R CULTIIVATION I N SWEDEN. ]By FIEIY TILtYICLQRI.

    E-print Network

    with food which the carp does not care for, or could not easily get at. In Germany it is said that the tench of Snitlland, it reaches e weight of 6: or more pounds. I do not lrxiow how fast it grows in Sweden in a free uevertheIess be planted in ~ a t e r s where pike and perch are ound, as it knows me11 how to hide

  10. Acid mine-drainage problem of the Patoka River watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1969-01-01

    Of the 20,000 acres of cast overburden ground-water aquifers in Pike County, less than 4,000 acres produce acidic water. The remaining 16,000 acres produce nonacidic water, most of which is high in sulfate, and in some instances, high in chloride. The acid mine-drainage problem is a creation of past mining operations for coal, and not one of current origin as

  11. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Black Hills, Manitou, Colorado, and Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (principal investigators)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.

  12. nci-2006-fact-book

    Cancer.gov

    The information set forth in this publication is compiled and amended annually by the financial management staff of the National Cancer Institute and is intended primarily for use by members of the Institute, principal advisory groups to the Institute and others involved in the administration and management of the National Cancer Program. Questions regarding any of the information contained herein may be directed to the Financial Management Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892.

  13. nci-2005-fact-book

    Cancer.gov

    The information set forth in this publication is compiled and amended annually by the financial management staff of the National Cancer Institute and is intended primarily for use by members of the Institute, principal advisory groups to the Institute and others involved in the administration and management of the National Cancer Program. Questions regarding any of the information contained herein may be directed to the Financial Management Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892.

  14. THEJOURNALOF BIOLOGICALCHEMISTRY Vol. 264, No. 21, Issue of July 25, pp. 12700-12708, 1989 Printed in U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    and fd gene V products (2, 3), the phage Ike PIKE protein (4), the bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein ( 5.Thedegree of cooperativity (w) is relatively independent of salt con- centration. At 37 "Cin 0.22M NaCl, the protein hasan site size of 11nucleotides per monomer. The protein lowers the melting pointof poly(dA. dT).poly(dA-dT

  15. Top execs eye competitive dragons; wield non-traditional swords

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanaugh, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Driven by changes in legislation, demographics, and ideologies, the painful revolution that has stormed through the electric-utility industry during the past decade is finally giving a new and discernible shape to the missions and goals of utilities. Spurred by three persistent ideas-cost reduction, customer service, and competition-many of the industry's top executives have become shrewd, tough competitors, no longer saddled by the orthodoxy of the past and ready for whatever comes down the pike.

  16. Survival Creole

    E-print Network

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2002-01-01

    asparagus aspèj avocado zaboka bacon bekonn banana fig (mi) bean pwa beef bèf beer byè beet bètwouj bone zo brains sèvèl bread pen breadfruit lamveritab brown-sugar candy rapadou butter bè butterbean pwa bè cabbage chou cake gato candy... pepper piman pike chips (usually plantain) papita chocolate chokola cinnamon kanèl cocoa kakawo coconut kokoye codfish lanmori coffee kafe conch lanbi cookie bonbon corn mayi cornmeal mayi moulen cornmeal pudding akasan crab krab cracker...

  17. A screening technique for salt tolerance in onion

    E-print Network

    Wannamaker, Mary Jordon

    1985-01-01

    A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by MARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major... Subject: Horticulture A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by NARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairma f Cp 'ttee) 'eg C. Cobb (Member) Ron Newton (Member) . Grant Vest (Head...

  18. Evaluation of postharvest quality of onion varieties during storage

    E-print Network

    Rajapakse, Nihal Chandrakumara

    1983-01-01

    EVALUATION OF POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF ONION VARIETIES DURING STORAGE A Thesis NIHAL CHANDRAKUMARA RAJAPAESE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Horticulture EVALUATION OF POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF ONION VARIETIES DURING STORAGE A Thesis NIHAL CHANDRAKUMARA RAJAPAKSE Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairman of Committee) J. Benton...

  19. The effect of ammonium sulfate and various herbicides on two short-day onion varieties

    E-print Network

    Agraz Merino, Agustin

    1987-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF AMMONIUM SULFATE AND VARIOUS HERBICIDES ON TWO SHORT-DAY ONION VARIETIES A Thesis by AGUSTIN AGRAZ MERINO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Horticulture THE EFFECT OF AMMONIUM SULFATE AND VARIOUS HERBICIDES ON TWO SHORT-DAY ONION VARIETIES A Thesis AGUSTIN AGRAZ MERINO Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairman...

  20. CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low permeability reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this study are: to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-damaging liquid, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in creating sand-propped hydraulic fractures in ``tight`` gas bearing formations within the Appalachian Basin; and to compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). The preliminary results are encouraging, and although only a few months of production is available, the rate of gas production from the CO{sub 2} treated candidate wells is greater than that from the control wells. The CO{sub 2}/sand fracs appear to be 56 percent better than the nitrogen fracs in Pike County. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/sand fracs are 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the Pike County study area. It should be recognized that these results are from a very limited data set and overall conclusions may change as more control wells are added to the analysis. From a stimulation process achievement viewpoint, the maximum amount of sand pumped is 46,000 pounds at an average concentration of 3.1 pound per gallon. It should be pointed out that additional foam and nitrogen stimulations have recently been performed by the operator in the Pike County area, and subsequent discussions in the future will include additional control wells to the baseline data sets.

  1. Transfer of the English Common Law to the English Colonies

    E-print Network

    Hilkey, Charles Joseph

    1907-01-01

    : Commentaries on the Laws of England i n f o u r Books w i t h Notes "by Thomas M. GTooley. Fourth E d i t i o n by James De Witt Andrews (2 Vols.) Chicago, 1899. B o u r i n o t , John G: A Manual of the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f Canada....Nash, New York 1903. Cloud, D.M.: A r t . Common Law i n America and E n g l i s h Encyclopedia of Law, V o l . 6, E d i t e d "by David S. Garland and Lucius P.McGehee, under the s u p e r v i s i o n of James Cockoroft, New York, 1898. D i l k e...

  2. A study of charm meson in heavy collisions

    E-print Network

    Di, Tiegang

    2002-01-01

    &ber 2002 &&Iajor Snl&ject: Physics A STUDY OI CII &, R. '& I KI ESOX IX HE &'& 3' ION COLLISIOXS A Thesis TIERS'A%4 BI Sul?iiiti& d to Texas A&?M University in pari, inl fnlfill&neet of th&i r& quiren&ents for i, hc d&;pre& &&f i&:IASTER OF SCIENCE...-psmnloscalar-vector meson couplings and the exchange of light rnesons [3]. 18 Cross sections I' or D meson scattering by K or K* with cutoff parameter A I GeV. Cross sections for D' meson scattering by K or K* with cutoff parameter A ? I GeV. 20 CHAPTER I Il...

  3. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge. PMID:21797039

  4. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2014-05-20

    Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 ?g/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 ?g/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 ?g/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude. PMID:24678891

  5. Intensive survey of the bay creek watershed, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Short, M.B.; Kelly, T.G.; Hefley, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    During July 1992, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive survey of the Bay Creek basin, a fifth order tributary in the Mississippi River North Central Basin. Bay Creek drains approximately 176.4 square miles primarily in Pike and a small portion of Calhoun counties. Four stations were sampled on the Bay Creek main stem and one on Honey Creek. The survey focused on macroinvertebrate communities, fish populations, instream habitat, fish tissue, sediment and water chemistry, and land use as well as a review of ambient water quality data from IEPA station KCA-01 near Nebo, Illinois, as tools to document the biological and chemical status of Bay Creek.

  6. A new trap-jawed ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Haidomyrmecini) from Canadian Late Cretaceous amber

    E-print Network

    McKellar, Ryan C.; Glasier, James R. N.; Engel, Michael S.

    2013-05-15

    terrestrial settings (Ho¨lldobler and Wilson 1990), but this was not the case in the Mesozoic. The fossil record of Formicidae is sparse within the Cretaceous, suggesting that the family R.C. McKellar,1 Division of Entomology (Paleoentomology), Natural History... radiation. The botanical source, geological setting, and biodiversity of inclusions in Canadian amber have recently been reviewed (e.g., Pike 1995; McKellar et al. 2008; McKellar and Wolfe 2010). Canadian amber was formed ,78–79 million years ago, as resins...

  7. A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, D.E.; Guldry, F.K.; Graham, R.L.; Curtis, J.B.; Shaw, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the data collected on the well, to present the data analyses, and to demonstrate how the various analyses are being integrated to form a better overall understanding of Devonian shale gas reservoirs.

  8. Preliminary results of sequential extraction experiments for selenium on mine waste and stream sediments from Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the preliminary results of sequential partial dissolutions used to characterize the geochemical distribution of selenium in stream sediments, mine wastes, and flotation-mill tailings. In general, extraction schemes are designed to extract metals associated with operationally defined solid phases. Total Se concentrations and the mineralogy of the samples are also presented. Samples were obtained from the Elizabeth, Ely, and Pike Hill mines in Vermont, the Callahan mine in Maine, and the Martha mine in New Zealand. These data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion. Further analysis of the data will be presented elsewhere.

  9. Media Training

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  10. Wine of Calvoro 

    E-print Network

    Piacentini, Valerie

    1978-01-01

    call for assistc'.l1co from Tesla; nor mfllly the agent lMdo his report direct to Intelligence Ho[\\dquarters by sub space radio, but tho signal Uhur[~ he-d picked up two days ago had been weak, distorted 1 his equipmont was failing, beyond his skill... Chris Pike I s ship~ the Enterprise," Tesla said. "How dOGS it foel, hevinc your OV1n comlYl?md?" "Ylondorful - and frighteninG, sometimes," Kirk ad.mittod with 8. grin. liTho responsibili ty OEm bo protty awesome, knowing thD,t It m the ultimate 2...

  11. Safe and Secure Partitioning with Pikeos: Towards Integrated Modular Avionics in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, J.; Prochazka, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents our approach to logical partitioning of spacecraft onboard software. We present PikeOS, a separation micro-kernel which applies the state-of-the- art techniques and widely recognised standards such as ARINC 653 and MILS in order to guarantee safety and security properties of partitions executing software with different criticality and confidentiality. We provide an overview of our approach, also used in the Securely Partitioning Spacecraft Computing Resources project, an ESA TRP contract, which shifts spacecraft onboard software development towards the Integrated Modular Avionics concept with relevance for dual-use military and civil missions.

  12. Colorado as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An oblique westward view, across the wheat fields and cattle pastures, of eastern Colorado to the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is bisected at the center of the right edge of the frame. Pikes Peak and Colorado Springs are left of center, and the Arkansas River Valley with Canyon City and the Royal Gorge are along the left edge of the frame. This view shows the startling contrast between the nearly-flat High Plains and the ancient geological uplift of the Rockies.

  13. Stoichiometric Constraints on Food-Web Dynamics: A Whole-Lake Experiment on the Canadian Shield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Elser; Thomas H. Chrzanowski; Robert W. Sterner; Kenneth H. Mills

    1998-01-01

    A whole-lake manipulation of food-web structure (introduction of a top predator, northern pike, to a minnow-dominated lake)\\u000a was performed in a Canadian Shield lake (L110) to examine the stoichiometric consequences of changes in planktonic community\\u000a structure generated by altered food-web structure. Minnow abundance, zooplankton biomass and community composition, microconsumer\\u000a abundance, and concentration and carbon–phosphorus (C:P) ratio of suspended particulate matter

  14. Sanctuary 

    E-print Network

    Kiesel, M.; Lovett, S.; Bonds, M.

    1997-01-01

    's agenda, not after the man had seen fit to hand ? out free get-out-of-jail cards to Lococco's Dirty Dozenclones. The last thing he'd expected to hear had been Roger shattering like that, his lost, broken voice asking the forgiveness of a dead woman over...Pike. When Vinnie witnesses that man's m suicide by electricity, he flashes back to the death of Sonny Steelgrave and has to get away. He ends up seeking sanctuary in a church, where finally, Frank finds him ? and where Frank is shot and seriously wounded...

  15. Novel brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in three fish species from the St. Lawrence River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Berryman, David; de Lafontaine, Yves; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Restrictions in the utilization of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures have led to the increased usage of alternative flame retardant additives in a wide range of commercial applications. The present study examined the occurrence of established and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in fish from a densely-populated urbanized sector of the St. Lawrence River (Montreal, Quebec, Canada). Thirty-eight PBDE congeners and sixteen emerging FRs were determined in fish belonging to three predatory species (yellow perch, northern pike, and muskellunge). The ?PBDE in fish were up to 24,115 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) in the apex predator muskellunge. Twelve emerging FRs including bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), Dechlorane Plus (anti and syn), dechloranes (Dec) 602, Dec 604, Dec 604 Compound B (Dec 604 CB), and Chlordene Plus (CP) were detected (>0.01 ng/gl.w.) in the liver of muskellunge and northern pike but not in yellow perch homogenates. This is the first report of Dec 604 CB in any fish species. The bioavailability of these FRs in human-impacted aquatic ecosystems warrants further environmental assessment and toxicity testing. PMID:24534698

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  17. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  18. Flood of June 11, 2010, in the Upper Little Missouri River watershed, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Robert R.; Wagner, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic flash flooding occurred in the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, in the upper Little Missouri River and tributary streams in southwest Arkansas. The flooding, which resulted in 20 fatalities and substantial property damage, was caused by as much as 4.7 inches of rain falling in the upper Little Missouri River watershed in 3 hours. The 4.7 inches of rain in 3 hours corresponds to estimated annual exceedance probability of approximately 2 percent for a 3-hour duration storm. The maximum total estimated rainfall in the upper Missouri River watershed was 5.3 inches in 6 hours. Peak streamflows and other hydraulic properties were determined at five ungaged locations and one gaged location in the upper Little Missouri River watershed.The peak streamflow for the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike, Arkansas was 40,100 cubic feet per second, estimated to have occurred between 4:00 AM and 4:30 AM the morning of June 11, 2010. The peak streamflow resulted in average water depths in the nearby floodplain (Area C of the Albert Pike Campground) of 7 feet flowing at velocities potentially as great as 11 feet per second. Peak streamflow 9.1 miles downstream on the Little Missouri at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage near Langley, Arkansas was 70,800 cubic feet per second, which corresponds to an estimated annual exceedance probability of less than 1 percent.

  19. Evaluation of the fish biochemistry data from the Slave River monitoring program, NWT, 1988--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Lockhart, W.L.; Metner, D.A. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Harbicht, S. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Yellowknife, Northwest Territory (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    With the possibility of impending industrial development in Northern Alberta and within the Slave River Basin, scientists and resource managers felt it appropriate that background data be collected to determine baseline concentrations for the Slave River basin. This monitoring program incorporated a suite of studies analyzing various components in the environment including fish, water, bottom sediment and suspended sediment. One aspect of the fish component included biochemical effects studies which comprised a series of MFO analyses on lake whitefish, burbot, walleye and northern pike. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the biochemical component of the Slave River Monitoring program. Physiological changes (i.e, in the form of EROD, AHH, P450 activity), age, weight, condition factor, liver and gonadal somatic indices were looked at. Limited conclusions were made with the lake whitefish and burbot data due to a conflict with the spawning season (i.e., MFO activity was depressed during spawning), however, a good data set has been collected for walleye and northern pike. Hepatic MFO enzyme activity indicated that some differences were evident in fish sampled from the Slave River relative to background/control lakes, however, in many cases no differences were observed. Five years of biochemical effects studies have determined that the Slave River has low levels of induction suggesting a relatively pristine environment, but further studies are required to confirm this.

  20. Levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in edible Baltic, freshwater, and farmed fish in Finland.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Hallikainen, Anja; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Mannio, Jaakko; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2015-03-17

    Fish is the major source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for Finnish consumers. To estimate the PBDE contamination in fish that Finns regularly consume as food, a large-scale sampling was undertaken in 2009-2010. Altogether 207 samples of 17 edible fish species were collected from commercially and recreationally important fishing areas in the Baltic Sea, freshwater lakes, and farming facilities. The analysis of 15 PBDE congeners was performed in an accredited testing laboratory with high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In all of the samples, the ?15PBDE varied between 0.029 and 73 ng/g fw. The most abundant congeners were BDE-47 (average proportion 42%), -99 (8.4%), -100 (11%), -154 (5.6%), and -209 (27%). High levels of BDE-209 were observed in the Baltic Sea, off the coast of Pori, in Baltic herring, perch, pike, and pike-perch. Overall, the PBDE levels in Baltic and freshwater fish were low. The levels in farmed whitefish were slightly higher than in wild whitefish. The reasons for the high BDE-209 levels in Baltic herring in Pori and the elevated levels of PBDEs in farmed whitefish should be investigated more thoroughly. PMID:25699573

  1. Partitioning of mercury in the north Saskatchewan River

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Mercury levels in fish, water and sediments were determined during 1982 along a 600 km stretch of the North Saskatchewan River (NSR) in the province of Alberta. Migratory fish species such as goldeye, walleye, and sauger in the NSR were found to contain total mercury levels ranging from 0.104 to 1.553 mg/kg (mean greater than or equal to 0 5 mg/kg). Northern pike, white sucker, longnose sucker and northern redhorse sucker had total mercury levels ranging from 0.003 to 1.003 mg/kg. Regression analysis of the data revealed that neither the sex of the fish nor the location of the sampling site contributed significantly to the mercury burden in fish in the entire study section of the river. Sediment analysis showed a low and more or less uniform concentration of mercury in Alberta. The total mercury in NSR water averaged 0.09 ..mu..g/L in upstream Edmonton and was found to elevate in downstream NSR (0.22 ..mu..g/L) near industrial discharge sites and agriculture runoff areas. Calculated partition coefficients seem to group the fish into two categories, (i) goldeye, walleye, and sauger (bioconcentration factor (BCF) = 3-3.7x10/sup 3/) and (ii) northern pike, longnose sucker, white sucker and northern redhorse sucker (BCF=1.2-1.8x10/sup 3/).

  2. [Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Karpov, A D; Bolsunovski?, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F) < 1). An effective accumulation of 40K is possible in muscles of non-predatory and piscivorous fish species from food (C(F) = 2:6-3.1 and 1.3-1.4, respectively). C(Fs) of K and 40K were equal in all trophic pairs, but C(Fs) of 40K and 137Cs differed considerably. PMID:25775829

  3. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053

  4. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March through October, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2012 sam-pling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptycho-cheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determinedby instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight were 6.0 to 10.7, 8.8 ± 1.3 for common carp; 2.9 to 8.7, 5.6 ± 2.4 for Colorado pikemin-now; and 1.4 to 7.3, 3.4 ± 2.7 for razorback sucker. The selenium concentration for one bonytail chub sample was 0.8 micrograms per gram dry weight. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 1 Colorado pikeminnow and 12 common carp exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  5. Relative sensitivity of three endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker, to selected metal pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity of four metal pollutants to larval and juvenile stages of endangered Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were determined in a water quality representative of that in the Green River, Utah. The rank order of toxicity (96-hr LC50) of the metals to all species and life stages from most toxic to least toxic was mercury (57-168 ??G/liter) > cadmium (78-168 pg/liter) > hexavalent chromium (32,000-123,000 ??g/liter) > lead (>170,000 ??G/liter). In tests with lead, a precipitate formed in all test solutions and no mortalities occurred in these treatments. The larvae of each species were as sensitive or more sensitive than the juveniles to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Overall, the three species exhibited similar sensitivities to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Comparison of test results for the juveniles with toxicity values reported for other freshwater fishes tested in different water qualities indicates that the endangered fishes are more sensitive to cadmium than other cyprinids and centrarchids and less sensitive than salmonids, whereas their sensitivity to hexavalent chromium and mercury is similar to that of other cyprinids, centrarchids, and salmonids.

  6. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Brant, Heather A; Jagoe, Charles H; Snodgras, Joel W; Bryan, A Lawrence; Gariboldi, Joan C

    2002-01-01

    Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchuspomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands. PMID:12395855

  7. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Smith, John G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations in the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.

  8. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qiuping [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wei, Yuanyan, E-mail: yywei@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jiang, Jianhai, E-mail: jianhaijiang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2010-07-09

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  9. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)] [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  10. Interactions of multiple predators with different foraging modes in an aquatic food web.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael P; Wahl, David H

    2010-02-01

    Top predators can have different foraging modes that may alter their interactions and effects on food webs. Interactions between predators may be non-additive resulting from facilitation or interference, whereas their combined effects on a shared prey may result in emergent effects that are risk enhanced or risk reduced. To test the importance of multiple predators with different foraging modes, we examined the interaction between a cruising predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides) and an ambush predator (muskellunge, Esox masquinongy) foraging on a shared prey (bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus) with strong anti-predator defense behaviors. Additive and substitution designs were used to compare individual to combined predator treatments in experimental ponds. The multiple predator interaction facilitated growth of the cruising predator in the combined predator treatments, whereas predator species had substitutable effects on the growth of the ambush predator. The combined predator treatments created an emergent effect on the prey; however, the direction was dependent on the experimental design. The additive design found a risk-reducing effect, whereas the substitution design found a risk-enhancing effect for prey fish. Indirect effects from the predators weakly extended to lower trophic levels (i.e., zooplankton community). Our results highlight the need to consider differences in foraging mode of top predators, interactions between predators, and emergent effects on prey to understand food webs. PMID:19777265

  11. A survey of size-specific mercury concentrations in game fish from Maryland fresh and estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, C C; Riedel, G S

    2000-07-01

    A survey of size-specific mercury (Hg) concentrations in game fish from a subset of Maryland fresh and estuarine waters was conducted, in which Hg concentrations in 112 fish from seven freshwater impoundments and three tidal and four estuarine locations in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries were measured. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) was the most intensively examined species. Of the fish examined, the largest freshwater sportfish contained the highest Hg concentrations. Striped bass and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries contained less Hg at the same size than the same species in fresh waters. Large striped bass, chain pickerel (Esox niger), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from Deep Creek Lake and Liberty Reservoir exceeded the FDA action level of 1 mg Hg/kg. Striped bass, largemouth bass, and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) in other impoundments equaled or exceeded a common advisory level of 0.5 mg Hg/kg. Large differences in size-normalized Hg concentrations among lakes and particularly between fresh and salt waters highlight the large differences in MeHg production and bioaccumulation among ecosystems. This work indicates that a more comprehensive study of Hg in Maryland fish is warranted to protect human and wildlife health. PMID:10790502

  12. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  13. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids. PMID:19014685

  14. Effects of exploitation, environmental changes, and new species on the fish habitats and resources of Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1973-01-01

    No other lake as large as Lake Erie (surface area, 25,690 km2) has been subjected to such extensive changes in the drainage basin, the lake environment, and the fish populations over the last 150 years. Deforestation and prairie burning led to erosion of the watershed and siltation of valuable spawning grounds. Marsh spawning areas were drained. Lake-to-river spawning migrations of sturgeon, walleye, and other fishes were blocked by mill dams. Accelerated cultural nutrient loading increased total dissolved solids by nearly 50% (1920-70). Phosphate loading reached 469 metric tons per year by the 1950's and continued to increase. The biomass of phytoplankton increased 20-fold between 1919 and 1963. Oxygen demand for decomposition of these algae so degraded oxygen regimes in the western and central basins by the 1950's that the once abundant mayfly nymphs were destroyed and the central basin hypolimnion became anoxic. The sequence of disappearance or severe depletion of fish species was as follows: lake trout, sturgeon, lake herring, lake whitefish, sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Yellow perch are now declining. All resources were intensively exploited at one time or another. Lake trout suffered only this stress, but changes in the watershed significantly stressed sturgeon and lake whitefish. Degradation of the lake spawning grounds, benthos, and oxygen regimes culminated in severe stress by the 1950's on the remnants of the lake herring and lake whitefish, and on the sauger, blue pike, and walleye. Additional mortality may have been imposed on walleye and blue pike fry by predacious smelt that successfully colonized Lake Erie after first appearing in 1932. The cultural stresses, in the probable order of greatest to least net effects on the fish community of Lake Erie, appear to have been: (1) an intense, opportunistic, ineffectively controlled commercial fishery; (2) changes in the watershed, such as erosion and siltation of stream beds and inshore lake areas, and construction of dams in tributaries; (3) nutrient loading, destruction of biota, and reduction of dissolved oxygen; and (4) the competitive and predatory activities of invading species.

  15. Triad 

    E-print Network

    David, Glen

    1982-01-01

    ?,1 HPretty dQ.l'!l goodQ Six of them onywayo OnerE; cot ,:i, GDDE9 2,8 I rGcall.!I Fliok:Lng through the Dames Pike f01.U1d himself '.vonder'iDg uhich mxt of that shifting suooeSS:Lon of inscrut8.,bl(~ faoes Hent with tLis collc;ction of tangled...TH REf STORIES BY GLEN DAVID A STAR TREK 'FANZINE TEIiill by Glen D;:wid 1:Rli\\D is em l'rnp2,thy publicZ\\tioD9 0,11 rightB arc; reserv(~d to the 2~uthor end tho publishors 0 lillyonc Hishing to reprint o.ny p"rt of this I zine should obt...

  16. Airborne mercury deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to mercury concentrations in water, sediments, plankton, and fish of eighty northern Minnesota lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.A.; Glass, G.E.; Schmidt, K.W.; Huber, J.K.; Rapp, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with extensive watershed and lake chemistry data for 80 lake watersheds in the study region of northeastern Minnesota including the Superior National Forest, Voyageurs National Park, and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Atmospheric deposition of mercury, transport, water column lifetimes, and sedimentation in lakes are determined. The factors relating mercury concentrations within the lake watershed components are analyzed and discussed. The notable correlates with mercury residue levels in northern pike of a standard length and weight (55 cm, 1.0 kg) were mercury concentrations in zooplankton and water, total organic carbon concentration, and pH. The primary source of mercury was found to be of atmospheric origin.

  17. Fast Craft and the COLREGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millns, A. T. C.

    1998-09-01

    I understand that The Netherlands are pressing the IMO to change the COLREGS so that high speed craft (HSC) have the obligation of keeping out of the way of other vessels.There is an IMO definition of high speed craft which was adopted by resolution MSC 36(63) in May 1995. It is the International Code of Safety for High Speed Craft. It covers vessels on international routes but does not cover, for instance, warships, troopships, fishing and pleasure craft. However, for the purpose of the COLREGS, I am sure that this definition should be widened and then incorporated.I agree with many of the points in Mr R. D. Pike's article printed in this Journal in May 1997.

  18. Open Media Training Session

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  19. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and sedimentation. Among the consequences of the present operational regime are constant, rapid changes in river discharge during spawning and Incubation seasons of trout species present in the lower river. Hamilton and Buell (1976) reported that similar fluctuation might exceed tolerance limits of adults and inhibit spawning behavior, dewater redds, strand fry, and displace juveniles to habitats less suitable for survival. Similar problems are felt to exist on the lower river. Constant fluctuations over backwater vegetation have been linked to major problems in successful northern pike spawning and recruitment by preventing access to spawning sites, and dewatering eggs and attached fry. Phase I of the South Bay investigation was completed this year resulting in a detailed study program for the next three years. Dominant habitat types were mapped, and physical habitat and biological monitoring methods were evaluated and selected. Permanent habitat transects, water quality stations, fish sampling, gillnetting, seining, and trapping sites were established.

  20. Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1977-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J R; Siniff, D B

    1980-06-01

    Engineering design and development concentrated on five aspects during the past year: (1) development of high power output transmitters for monitoring animals from greater distances; (2) improvement and updating of a sonic transmitting and receiving system for monitoring fish and marine mammals; (3) design and testing of corrosive links which permit a transmitter to release from an animal at a specified time; (4) development of high frequency transmitters; and (5) development and testing of time delay transmitters. Field efforts resulted in further information on activity patterns and movements of sea otters in California and Alaska and of walleye pike in experimental channels. Three manuscripts and two theses presented as part of this report describe these aspects in detail.

  1. Open Media Training Session

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-19

    Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  2. Safe and Secure Virtualization: Answers for IMA next Generation and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, J.; Vatrinet, F.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges the aerospace industry is facing for the future and explains why and how a safe and secured virtualization technology can help solving these challenges Efforts around the next generation of IMA have already started, like the European FP7 funded project SCARLETT or the IDEE5 project and many avionics players and working groupware focused on how the new technologies like SMP capabilities introduced in latest CPU architectures, can help increasing system performances in future avionics system. We present PikeOS, a separation micro-kernel, which applies the state-of-the-art techniques and widely recognized standards such as ARINC 653 and MILS in order to guarantee safety and security properties, and still improve overall performance.

  3. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, whitespotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development. PMID:25929869

  4. Pickling cucumber yield as influenced by plant population, spacing and bed width

    E-print Network

    Burkett, Albert Leroy

    1974-01-01

    181 a 72. 5 bcd 190. 5a 91. 5 d 253. 5ab 282 b 19. 2a 19. 7 bc 38. 9 bc 21. 4a 22. 2 c 43. 6 c Wide beds 203 cm centers 4-W 4-0 5-W 5-0 6-W 6-0 188. 3a 205. 8a 168. 3a 190. 8a 194. 3s 207. 3a 52 ab 50. 5a 50 a 50. 5a 69. 8abc 80... to express sincere appreciation to Drs. L. M. Pike, Bruce A. Perry and Charlie G. Cable under whose guidance this research was conducted. Appreciation is also extended to Dr. Bill D. Kingston, Ron Shellenberger, Fred Sneed and Etta Ruth Williams whose...

  5. Airborne mercury deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to mercury concentrations in water, sediments, plankton, and fish of eighty northern Minnesota lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, J.A.; Schmidt, K.W.; Huber, J.K.; Rapp, G.R. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Glass, G.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (USA))

    1990-11-01

    In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with extensive watershed and lake chemistry data for 80 lake watersheds in the study region of northeastern Minnesota including the Superior National Forest, Voyageurs National Park, and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Atmospheric deposition of mercury, transport, water column lifetimes, and sedimentation in lakes are determined. The factors relating mercury concentrations within the lake watershed components are analyzed and discussed. The notable correlates with mercury residue levels in northern pike of a standard length and weight (55 cm, 1.0 kg) were mercury concentrations in zooplankton and water, total organic carbon concentration, and pH. The primary source of mercury was found to be of atmospheric origin.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sloop, Christy

    2013-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 569 comprises the following nine corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area • 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area • 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area • 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area • 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area • 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area • 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area • 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area • 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 569 based on the implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-2.

  7. One Among You 

    E-print Network

    Alain, Alinda

    1985-01-01

    ~ie Piacentini Typing - Sheila Cla~k P~oof~eading - Janet Qua~ton, Sheila Cla~k & Vale~ie Piacentini P~inting of Maste~s - Janet Qua~ton P~inting - Wa~ped Out Publications Inc. Dist~acting - Shona ONE AMONG YOU, in which Ki~k meets up with an old enemy... Captain," Numbe. One confi.med qUietly. "Whe.e is he now?" "Content," was all Numbe. One would say, knowing that Ch.is Pike's location was top sec.et. "And his successo. is this famous womanise., James T. Ki.k." 2saza.a's tone held obvious disdain...

  8. Dose Rate Calculations from Radioactive Vascular Stents: DPK Versus Exact MC Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkov, S.; Möslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.

    Vascular stents activated with radioactive isotopes are planned to be used in clinical practice to prevent restenosis in human coronary arteries after balloon angioplasty. Medical stents are cylindrical meshes and their complex geometry is usually treated for energy dose calculation with approximate dose point kernel (DPK) approach. The important point missed in the DPK approach is the absence of the stent material and, hence, the absence of energy absorption inside the stent. We have performed a comparison between DPK and exact Monte Carlo calculations for some simplified stent models. It appears that DPK approximation significantly overestimates pike dose values especially for the case of ?-emitting sources. We suggest DPK kernel normalization, which minimizes the difference at relatively far distances, while significant discrepancies near the stent surface still remain.

  9. Port and harbor patrol car loaded Xenon search light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoh, Hiroshi; Takenami, Takashi

    2005-05-01

    The container ship yard is brighten by the lighting, but after Sunset of the sea side is dark during a crescent. On the sea side lighting, we propose to use to patrol car loaded Xenon search light. Generally, the Pacific Ocean of a surface of the sea swimming fishes such as Samma (Mackerel pike) likes strong visible light as a Xenon search light beam. In the feeling of the human eyes and brains with a strong visible light beam such as Xenon search light, the reaction is divided two kind of types, to avoid reaction's humans have a feeling that bad conscience, and no reaction's humans tend to have a feeling of good mind. For the black painted unmanned objects of visible watching is needed as possible as strong visible light beam of the Xenon search light. The optical system of the Xenon search light consists of a Xenon lamp, a parabolic mirror and the filters.

  10. Tritium planigraphy: From the accessible surface to the spatial structure of a?protein

    PubMed Central

    Bogacheva, Elena N.; Gol’danskii, Vitalii I.; Shishkov, Alexander V.; Galkin, Alexander V.; Baratova, Ludmila A.

    1998-01-01

    The method of tritium planigraphy, which provides comprehensive information on the accessible surface of macromolecules, allows an attempt at reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of a protein from the experimental data on residue accessibility for labeling. The semiempirical algorithm proposed for globular proteins involves (i) predicting theoretically the secondary structure elements (SSEs), (ii) experimentally determining the residue-accessibility profile by bombarding the whole protein with a beam of hot tritium atoms, (iii) generating the residue-accessibility profiles for isolated SSEs by computer simulation, (iv) locating the contacts between SSEs by collating the experimental and simulated accessibility profiles, and (v) assembling the SSEs into a compact model via these contact regions in accordance with certain rules. For sperm whale myoglobin, carp and pike parvalbumins, the ? cro repressor, and hen egg lysozyme, this algorithm yields the most realistic models when SSEs are assembled sequentially from the amino to the carboxyl end of the protein chain. PMID:9501168

  11. Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.

    1967-01-01

    In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

  12. A history of total mercury in edible muscle of fish from lakes in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, W L; Stern, G A; Low, G; Hendzel, M; Boila, G; Roach, P; Evans, M S; Billeck, B N; DeLaronde, J; Friesen, S; Kidd, K; Atkins, S; Muir, D C G; Stoddart, M; Stephens, G; Stephenson, S; Harbicht, S; Snowshoe, N; Grey, B; Thompson, S; DeGraff, N

    2005-12-01

    Subsistence fishing has been an important source of food for Native People in northern Canada since prehistoric time. Measurements of the levels of mercury in edible muscle of northern fish have been undertaken for over three decades in efforts to evaluate the risks of consuming northern fish. This report summarizes the data obtained from 7974 fish of 25 species from sites distributed from the Yukon to Labrador. The most abundant species were lake trout, lake whitefish, arctic char, walleye, northern pike and burbot. The question being asked was essentially "Are the fish safe to eat?" The results were used to support decisions on fishing and consumption of fish. They were sorted in several ways, into concentration ranges corresponding to human consumption guidelines, into political jurisdictions and into types of bedrock geology. Overall walleye, northern pike and lake trout, usually exceeded the subsistence consumption guideline of 0.2 microg g-1 total mercury and often exceeded the higher guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 total mercury for commercial sales of fish. Mercury in burbot, another facultative predator, was often lower but several still exceeding a guideline. Arctic char collections were mostly from anadromous populations and these had very low levels of mercury, presumably reflecting marine food sources. Lake whitefish were among the cleanest fish examined with 69 of 81 collections falling in the lowest range. Most collections were from sites in sedimentary rock. However a few sites were in metamorphic, intrusive or volcanic rocks and these, taken together, tended to have a higher proportion of sites in the higher ranges of mercury. These results indicate a widespread problem with mercury in subsistence fisheries for predator species of fish with the problem being most problematic for Nunavut. PMID:16169059

  13. Assessment of doses caused by electrons in thin layers of tissue-equivalent materials, using MCNP.

    PubMed

    Heide, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Absorbed doses caused by electron irradiation were calculated with Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) for thin layers of tissue-equivalent materials. The layers were so thin that the calculation of energy deposition was on the border of the scope of MCNP. Therefore, in this article application of three different methods of calculation of energy deposition is discussed. This was done by means of two scenarios: in the first one, electrons were emitted from the centre of a sphere of water and also recorded in that sphere; and in the second, an irradiation with the PTB Secondary Standard BSS2 was modelled, where electrons were emitted from an (90)Sr/(90)Y area source and recorded inside a cuboid phantom made of tissue-equivalent material. The speed and accuracy of the different methods were of interest. While a significant difference in accuracy was visible for one method in the first scenario, the difference in accuracy of the three methods was insignificant for the second one. Considerable differences in speed were found for both scenarios. In order to demonstrate the need for calculating the dose in thin small zones, a third scenario was constructed and simulated as well. The third scenario was nearly equal to the second one, but a pike of lead was assumed to be inside the phantom in addition. A dose enhancement (caused by the pike of lead) of ?113 % was recorded for a thin hollow cylinder at a depth of 0.007 cm, which the basal-skin layer is referred to in particular. Dose enhancements between 68 and 88 % were found for a slab with a radius of 0.09 cm for all depths. All dose enhancements were hardly noticeable for a slab with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm(2), which is usually applied to operational radiation protection. PMID:23576794

  14. Dietary supplementation of essential fatty acids in larval pikeperch (Sander lucioperca); short and long term effects on stress tolerance and metabolic physiology.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ivar; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of feeding pike perch larvae Artemia, enriched with either docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), oleic acid (OA), olive oil (OO) or a commercial enrichment DHA Selco (DS) on tissue lipid deposition, stress tolerance, growth and development, and metabolic rate. There was higher tissue retention of ARA than DHA at comparable inclusion levels. No differences were observed between diets on the percentage contribution of ARA or DHA to the fatty acid profile of tissues (head and trunk). Total fatty acid content (mgg(-1)) was significantly higher in the head, reflecting its high content of neural tissue. Observations on larval erratic behaviour and mortality following exposure to salinity stress suggested that high inclusions levels of DHA had an alleviating effect, while ARA did not. Particularly larval groups reared for 16 days on diets enriched with OO and OA had mortality rates approaching 100% within two hours. Interestingly, this tendency, although not as pronounced, was also apparent in juvenile fish after 120 days of rearing on a common diet. Standard metabolic rate in larvae on an OO enriched diet was significantly elevated, but otherwise no groups had significant changes to their respiratory physiology. In addition to increased stress challenge sensitivity, early feeding with OA had long term impact on pike perch neural development indicated by a smaller brain size in juvenile fish. In conclusion, lack of DHA in the diet of pikeperch larvae suggests that this long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is involved in processes that increase stress tolerance and that lack of dietary DHA in early larval stage caused increased stress sensitivity and long-term impaired neural development, while it does not appear to affect metabolic rate at rest. PMID:22537878

  15. Sulfur and oxygen isotope study of the Vermont copper belt: evidence of seawater hydrothermal alteration and sulfate reduction in a high-grade metamorphic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Woodruff, L.G.; Slack, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits of the Orange County copper district, in east-central Vermont, consist of stratiform lenses of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and minor sphalerite within amphibolite-facies rocks of Early Devonian (.) age. The deposits occur at several different stratigraphic levels. The two largest, Elizabeth and Ely, are in quartz-mica schists of the Gile Mountain Formation; the Pike Hill deposit occurs in calcareous quartz-mica schist of the underlying Waits River Formation. Two small deposits (Orange and Gove) are within the Standing Pond Volcanics, a thin tholeiitic amphibolite near the Gile Mountain-Waits River contact. The Elizabeth deposit in particularly distinctive, and contains a suite of unusual wall rocks rich in quartz, carbonate, muscovite, amphibole, phlogopite, tourmaline, spessartine, and sodic plagioclase. Sulfur isotope values at Elizabeth and Ely of 5.1 to 9.1 per thousands contrast with values for Gove (1.9 to 4.2) and Pike Hill (1.5 to 4.6). Disseminated sulfides in amphibolites of the Standing Pond Volcanics have sulfur isotope values in the range -0.1 to 1.7 per thousands, typical of MORB. These data require sulfur contributions to massive sulfide deposits both from basalt and from contemporaneous seawater sulfate sources. Whole-rock (carbonate free) oxygen isotope analyses of host lithologies range from 7.9 per thousands (Standing Pond Volcanics) to 19.9 per thousands (Waits River Formation). Detailed sampling of Elizabeth wall rocks (including those high in B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Mn) yields a narrow range of oxygen isotope values (11.1 to 14.1); heavier values correlate with higher silica contents. Isotopically light wallrock lithologies are probably due to premetamorphic seawater hydrothermal alteration.

  16. CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

  17. CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shale

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area. In addition, production is also 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the same area. These results are encouraging enough to formally combine existing pumping equipment, a closed system blender, and liquid carbon dioxide supplies to develop a new fracturing service in the eastern US A total of 22 additional jobs are planned in the eastern US in low permeability gas formations over the next year.

  18. Determining effective subject-specific strength levels for forward dives using computer simulations of recorded performances.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Kong, Pui W; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2009-12-11

    This study used optimisation procedures in conjunction with an 8-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the takeoff phase in springboard diving to determine appropriate subject-specific strength parameters for use in the simulation of forward dives. Kinematic data were obtained using high-speed video recordings of performances of a forward dive pike (101B) and a forward 2 1/2 somersault pike dive (105B) by an elite diver. Nine parameters for each torque generator were taken from dynamometer measurements on an elite gymnast. The isometric torque parameter for each torque generator was then varied together with torque activation timings until the root mean squared (RMS) percentage difference between simulation and performance in terms of joint angles, orientation, linear momentum, angular momentum, and duration of springboard contact was minimised for each of the two dives. The two sets of isometric torque parameters were combined into a single set by choosing the larger value from the two sets for each parameter. Simulations using the combined set of isometric torque parameters matched the two performances closely with RMS percentage differences of 2.6% for 101B and 3.7% for 105B. Maximising the height reached by the mass centre during the flight phase for 101B using the combined set of isometric parameters and by varying torque generator activation timings during takeoff resulted in a credible height increase of 38 mm compared to the matching simulation. It is concluded that the procedure is able to determine appropriate effective strength levels suitable for use in the optimisation of simulated forward rotating dive performances. PMID:19767003

  19. Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, C.J.O.; Sheets, R.A.; Bair, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated by the City of Columbus. The Jackson Pike WTF discharges effluent into Scioto River about 6 mi upstream from the South Well Field. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), undertook a study to evaluate the hydrologic consequences of changes in effluent discharge to Scioto River and to clarify the interaction of Scioto River and carbonate bedrock and glacial drift aquifers at the South Well Field. The report describes the hydrology and water quality of the South Well Field area by presenting the results of (1) surface-water-transport simulations of a conservative constituent during low flow of Scioto River from Frank Road to the South Well Field and (2) ground-water-flow simulations of the glacial drift and carbonate bedrock aquifers at the South Well Field. The simulations are examined along with surface-water and ground-water quality to describe the relation between the quantity and quality of flow in the Scioto River; the nature of the ground-water-flow system; and the quantity, quality, and sources of water pumped from the South Well Field. Data collection in the study area in August and September 1987 and 1988 included sampling for surface-water and ground-water quality and measurement of surface-water discharge, Scioto River travel-times, ground-water levels, and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity.

  20. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Canfield, T J; Mount, D R; Mayer, F L

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia--or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. PMID:15750777

  1. Gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand I. Prevalence and fish species.

    PubMed

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Komalamisra, Chalit

    2004-09-01

    Between August 2000 and August 2001, 12,216 fish of 73 species were purchased from several local markets in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, and examined for the presence of Gnathostoma larvae. Almost all species were fresh-water fish that had grown naturally, rather than raised commercially. Eight species were found to be infected with gnathostome larvae. The overall prevalence was 5.1% (626/12,216) and a total of 5,969 larvae was recovered. The highest rate of infection (30.1 %) was found in Monopterus albus (swamp eel). The rates in the remaining infected fish were as follows: Anabas testudineus (climbing perch) 7.7%, Channa striata (striped snake-head fish) 7.4%, Clarius macrocephalus (Gunther's walking catfish) 6.7%, Channa micropeltes (giant snake-head fish) 5.1%, Channa lucius (blotched snake-head fish) 4.0%, Clarius batrachus (Batrachian walking catfish) 1.4%, and Ompok krattensis (butter sheatfish) 0.6%. The mean number of larvae/fish was highest in swamp eels (10.0 larvae/eel), and the maximum number of 698 larvae was recovered from one eel. The body sizes of the recovered G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae were 2.70-5.10 mm in length (average, 3.97+/-0.50 mm) and 0.29-0.60 mm in width (average, 0.40+/-0.04 mm). The average number of cephalic hooklets of the larvae from rows 1 to 4 were 41.8+/-0.5 (range, 40-43), 43.6+/-0.6 (range, 42-45), 46.1+/-0.9 (range, 44-48) and 49.3+/-0.7 (range, 48-51), respectively. PMID:15689060

  2. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Cryopreservation of Sperm from the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiersch, T.R.; Figiel, C.R., Jr.; Wayman, W.R.; Williamson, J.H.; Gorman, O.T.; Carmichael, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed methods for the cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius. Sperm were collected from a captive broodstock population of Colorado pikeminnow reared and maintained at the Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects on sperm motility of 24-h storage in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS); (2) characterize sperm motility and duration; (3) examine the relationship between sperm motility and osmotic pressure; (4) examine the effect of four cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], dimethyl acetamide [DMA], glycerol, and methanol [MeOH] at two concentrations [5% and 10%]) on postthaw motility; and (5) compare the effect of two cooling rates (40??C/ min and 4??C/min) on postthaw motility. The sperm samples diluted with HBSS retained higher motility (mean ??SD, 77 ?? 22%; n = 9) than did undiluted samples (12 ?? 30%; n = 9) after 24 h of storage. When exposed to HBSS at 274 mosmols/kg or more, few sperm became motile (???1%). Exposure to HBSS at 265 mosmols/kg elicited threshold activation (defined as 10% motility), and maximum motility (>95%) was observed at 93 mosmols/ kg. The maximum motility of sperm was observed within 10 s after activation with deionized water, and sperm remained motile for 57 s. The sperm that were cooled at a rate of 40??C/min and cryopreserved with 5% MeOH retained higher postthaw motility (56 ?? 13%) than did sperm cryopreserved with DMSO, DMA, or glycerol (at 5% and 10%). When the sperm samples were cooled at a rate of 4??C/min, sperm cryopreserved with MeOH (5% or 10%) or DMSO (5% or 10%) retained the highest postthaw motilities (???14%). The use of cryopreserved sperm can assist hatchery managers in the production of fish, provide for the long-term conservation of genetic resources, and assist in the recovery of endangered species such as the Colorado pikeminnow.

  4. Mortality event in freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens from Lake Ontario, Canada, associated with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus, type IV.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, J S; Morrison, B; Yason, C; Russell, S; Young, K; Yazdanpanah, A; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Stone, D; Way, K

    2007-06-29

    A mortality event primarily affecting freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens was noted during April and May 2005 in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada. A conservative estimate of the number of dead drum was approximately 100 metric tonnes. Large numbers of dead round goby Neogobius melanostomus were also seen, as well as a few muskellunge Esox masquinongy. In the drum, there was a consistent histological pattern of variably severe panvasculitis, a necrotising myocarditis, meningoencephalitis and a segmental enteritis. Moderate numbers of bullet-shaped viral particles consistent with a rhabdovirus were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in affected heart tissue. Following primary isolation from pooled tissues on fathead minnow (FHM) cells, a morphologically similar virus, approximately 165 x 60 nm in size, was visualised. Identification of the isolate as viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and by polymerase chain reaction. An appropriately sized product (468 bp) of the G-glycoprotein gene (nucleotides [nt] 340 to 807) was generated with RNA extracted from FHM cell supernatant. Analysis of a 360 nt partial glycoprotein gene sequence (nt 360 to 720) indicated a 96.4 to 97.2% nucleotide identity with known strains of North American (NA) VHSV. Analysis using Neighbour-joining distance methods assigned the isolate to the same lineage as the NA and Japanese isolates (Genogroup IV). However, there was sufficient sequence divergence from known NA VHSV isolates to suggest that this isolate may represent a distinct subgroup. The effects of ongoing mortality in freshwater drum and in multiple species during spring 2006 suggest that this newly recognised virus in the Great Lakes will have continued impact in the near future. PMID:17760383

  5. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus by Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction from Two Fish Species at Two Sites in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwell, Emily R.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Batts, William N.; Casey, Rufina N.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Bowser, Paul R.; Bain, Mark B.; Casey, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 2005 during a mortality event in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Subsequent analysis of archived samples determined that the first known isolation of VHSV in the Laurentian Great Lakes was from a muskellunge Esox masquinongy collected in Lake St. Clair in 2003. By the end of 2008, mortality events and viral isolations had occurred in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes except Lake Superior. In 2009, a focused disease surveillance program was designed to determine whether VHSV was also present in Lake Superior. In this survey, 874 fish from 7 sites along the U.S. shoreline of Lake Superior were collected during June 2009. Collections were focused on nearshore species known to be susceptible to VHSV. All fish were dissected individually by using aseptic techniques and were tested for the presence of VHSV genetic material by use of a quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene. Seventeen fish from two host species at two different sites tested positive at low levels for VHSV. All attempts to isolate virus in cell culture were unsuccessful. However, the presence of viral RNA was confirmed independently in five fish by using a nested PCR that targeted the glycoprotein (G) gene. Partial G gene sequences obtained from three fish were identical to the corresponding sequence from the original 2003 VHSV isolate (MI03) from muskellunge. These detections represent the earliest evidence for the presence of VHSV in Lake Superior and illustrate the utility of the highly sensitive qRT-PCR assay for disease surveillance in aquatic animals.

  6. Industrial landfill affects on fish communities at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States); Simon, T.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    INDU, an urban park near the third largest metropolitan area in the US, provides access to over two million visitors per year. The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Ship Canal is the only Area of Concern (AOC) with all 14 designated uses impaired. The Grand Calumet Lagoons are the former mouth of the Grand Calumet River and form part of the western boundary of INDU, adjacent to Gary, IN. An industrial landfill (slag and other industrial waste) forms the westernmost boundary of the lagoon and a dunal pond. A least-impacted lagoon and a pond lying across a dune ridge were compared to sites adjacent to the landfill. Fish communities censused from twelve sites during the summer of 1994 were analyzed for several community metrics including species richness and composition, trophic structure, and community and individual health. A modified headwater Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was utilized to evaluate lacustrine community health. Results include the first record of the Iowa darter (Etheostoma exile) found in northwest Indiana. Examination of the fish community found the least impacted lagoon to contain Erimyzon sucetta, Esox americanus, and Lepomis gulosus. The landfill lagoon lacked these species, with the exception of fewer L. gulosus, while Pimephales notatus was found at all sites in the impacted lake but not at all in the least impacted lagoon. Statistically significant differences in species diversity and IBI can be attributed to landfill proximity. Whole fish analyses of a benthic omnivore (Cyprinus carpio) revealed PAH levels near 1 mg/kg of total PAH in several fish analyzed.

  7. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  8. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Tenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-05-13

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin will is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil- bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch Formations in the Bluefell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project. Data (net pay thickness, porosity, and water saturation) of more than 100 individuals beds in he lower Green River and Wasatch Formations were used to generate geostatistical realization (numerical- representation) of the reservoir properties. The data set was derived from the Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike demonstration wells and 22 other wells in a 20 (52 km{sup 2}) square-mile area. Beds were studied independently of each other. Principles of sequential Gaussian simulations were used to generate geostatistical realizations of the beds.

  9. Field operations for cooperative treatment tests. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, March 1987-December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    Columbia Gas System Service Corporation is working under contract to the Gas Research Institute to coordinate field activities associated with comprehensive research of selected Devonian shale gas wells in the Appalachian basin. The primary objectives of the research are to: (1) improve stimulation practices; (2) identify prospective completion intervals; and (3) better define production mechanisms in the Devonian shale. Field activities designed to accomplish these objectives include: supervision of drilling activities; performance of cased-hole and open-hole stress tests; mud logging; onsite geochemistry; retrieval of whole, oriented core; retrieval of sidewall cores; analysis of cores; collection and analysis of complete suites of open-hole dry and open-hole fluid filled logs; pre-stimulation well testing; breakdown treatments with nitrogen; nitrogen stimulation; proppant laden foam treatment; and post-stimulation well testing. The research is being conducted by a team of GRI-contracted petroleum engineers, logging specialists, geologists, etc. with Columbia's role being that of field coordinator. Five comprehensive study wells were drilled and studied in detail and several other wells studied in less detail. These wells are located in Martin and Breathitt and Pike counties, Kentucky, and Calhoun, Logan, Jackson and Wyoming counties, West Virginia.

  10. Field operations for cooperative treatment tests. Volume 1. Text. Final report, March 1987-December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    Columbia Gas System Service Corporation is working under contract to the Gas Research Institute to coordinate field activities associated with comprehensive research of selected Devonian shale gas wells in the Appalachian basin. The primary objectives of the research are to: (1) improve stimulation practices; (2) identify prospective completion intervals; and (3) better define production mechanisms in the Devonian shale. Field activities designed to accomplish these objectives include: supervision of drilling activities; performance of cased-hole and open-hole stress tests; mud logging; onsite geochemistry; retrieval of whole, oriented core; retrieval of sidewall cores; analysis of cores; collection and analysis of complete suites of open-hole dry and open-hole fluid filled logs; pre-stimulation well testing; breakdown treatments with nitrogen; nitrogen stimulation; proppant laden foam treatment; and post-stimulation well testing. The research is being conducted by a team of GRI-contracted petroleum engineers, logging specialists, geologists, etc. with Columbia's role being that of field coordinator. Five comprehensive study wells were drilled and studied in detail and several other wells studied in less detail. These wells are located in Martin and Breathitt and Pike counties, Kentucky, and Calhoun, Logan, Jackson and Wyoming counties, West Virginia.

  11. Reciprocal Behavioral Plasticity and Behavioral Types during Predator-Prey Interactions

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral variation (i.e., behavioral types) within both predator and prey populations. We assessed the behavior of a predator species (northern pike) and a prey species (three-spined stickleback) during one-on-one encounters. We also measured additional behavioral and morphological traits in each species. Using structural equation modeling, we found that reciprocal behavioral plasticity as well as predator and prey behavioral types influenced how individuals behaved during an interaction. Thus, the progression and ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions depend on both the dynamic behavioral feedback occurring during the encounter and the underlying behavioral type of each participant. We also examined whether predator behavioral type is underlain by differences in metabolism and organ size. We provide some of the first evidence that behavioral type is related to resting metabolic rate and size of a sensory organ (the eyes). Understanding the extent to which reciprocal behavioral plasticity and intraspecific behavioral variation influence the outcome of species interactions could provide insight into the maintenance of behavioral variation as well as community dynamics. PMID:24231533

  12. Characterization of perch rhabdovirus (PRV) in farmed grayling Thymallus thymallus.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Tuija; Viljamaa-Dirks, Satu; Holopainen, Riikka; Koski, Perttu; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia

    2013-10-11

    Two Finnish fish farms experienced elevated mortality rates in farmed grayling Thymallus thymallus fry during the summer months, most typically in July. The mortalities occurred during several years and were connected with a few neurological disorders and peritonitis. Virological investigation detected an infection with an unknown rhabdovirus. Based on the entire glycoprotein (G) and partial RNA polymerase (L) gene sequences, the virus was classified as a perch rhabdovirus (PRV). Pairwise comparisons of the G and L gene regions of grayling isolates revealed that all isolates were very closely related, with 99 to 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that they were closely related to the strain isolated from perch Perca fluviatilis and sea trout Salmo trutta trutta caught from the Baltic Sea. The entire G gene sequences revealed that all Finnish grayling isolates, and both the perch and sea trout isolates, were most closely related to a PRV isolated in France in 2004. According to the partial L gene sequences, all of the Finnish grayling isolates were most closely related to the Danish isolate DK5533 from pike. The genetic analysis of entire G gene and partial L gene sequences showed that the Finnish brown trout isolate ka907_87 shared only approximately 67 and 78% identity, respectively, with our grayling isolates. The grayling isolates were also analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test. This is the first report of a PRV causing disease in grayling in Finland. PMID:24113245

  13. Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

  14. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  15. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  16. PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1998-11-15

    An 1991 investigation of PCB concentrations in water and fish along a river was repeated in 1996 after the completion of a remediation of PCB-containing sediment in a lake within the river system. The PCB concentrations in the lake water decreased significantly, and the concentrations in fish was halved (significantly lower) after remediation. PCB still remaining in littoral sediment was probably the cause for a recorded gradient of PCB concentrations in fish from the lake and downstream. The PCB concentrations in water and fish was lower in 1996 compared to 1991 in all locations studied. The decreased levels of PCB in fish between the years for the two upstream locations, probably results from a decline in background PCB exposure. Monitoring data from 30 years back, recorded in a south Swedish lake, has shown a 5% decline per year in the PCB concentration in pike. The data on PCB concentration in fish from the two upstream locations were recalculated on the basis of this yearly decline and resulted in concentrations close to those measured in 1996. The results indicated, that changes in background exposure must be taken into account when evaluating the success of remedial actions measures carried out over several years.

  17. US Department of Energy Portsmouth annual environmental report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Portsmouth plant is one of two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-managed uranium enrichment facilities in operation. As of July 1, 1993, responsibility for implementing environmental compliance at the facility was split between DOE, as site owner, and the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government-owned corporation formed by the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, to operate the nation`s uranium enrichment business. The management contractor for DOE is Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems), which is responsible for waste management, environmental restoration, removal of highly enriched uranium (HEU), and operation of nonleased facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE/PORTS). Lockheed Martin Utility Services (formerly Martin Marietta Utility Services) provides management services for USEC. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission will assume direct oversight of USEC operations in 1997. Until then, DOE will provide oversight of nuclear safety and safeguards and security. DOE/PORTS is located on about six square miles in Pike County, Ohio. The County has approximately 24,250 residents. The total population within 50 miles of the plant is about 900,000. The main process at PORTS has been the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Uranium is no longer enriched by DOE at PORTS. The uranium enrichment production operation facilities at the site are leased to USEC and are managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Utility Services.

  18. Segregation and co-occurrence of larval cestodes in freshwater fishes in the Bothnian Bay, Finland.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K I; Valtonen, E T

    1992-02-01

    Two autogenic (Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus) and four allogenic (Diphyllobothrium latum, D. dendriticum, D. ditremum and Schistocephalus solidus) larval cestode species were found in 13 out of 31 fish species studied from the Bothnian Bay, NE Baltic. Gasterosteus aculeatus was the most heavily infected fish with 4 larval cestode species; for two of them (D. ditremum and S. solidus) the three-spined stickleback was found to be the required fish intermediate host. Among allogenic cestode species, those restricted to different definitive host species segregated their larval population in relation to the fish host, while, for example, D. ditremum and S. solidus, both maturing in fish-eating birds, had the highest percentage of co-occurrences. D. dendriticum, which had the widest range of definitive hosts, was found in the greatest number (8) of fish species and co-occurred with all other species found except T. crassus. The two autogenic species totally segregated their larval population from each other although they both require pike as definitive host. The ecological and evolutionary relationships behind the patterns found for larval cestodes are discussed. PMID:1614732

  19. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-07-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  2. Reciprocal behavioral plasticity and behavioral types during predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Katie E; Pintor, Lauren M; Bell, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral variation (i.e., behavioral types) within both predator and prey populations. We assessed the behavior of a predator species (northern pike) and a prey species (three-spined stickleback) during one-on-one encounters. We also measured additional behavioral and morphological traits in each species. Using structural equation modeling, we found that reciprocal behavioral plasticity as well as predator and prey behavioral types influenced how individuals behaved during an interaction. Thus, the progression and ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions depend on both the dynamic behavioral feedback occurring during the encounter and the underlying behavioral type of each participant. We also examined whether predator behavioral type is underlain by differences in metabolism and organ size. We provide some of the first evidence that behavioral type is related to resting metabolic rate and size of a sensory organ (the eyes). Understanding the extent to which reciprocal behavioral plasticity and intraspecific behavioral variation influence the outcome of species interactions could provide insight into the maintenance of behavioral variation as well as community dynamics. PMID:24231533

  3. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  4. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  5. Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

  6. The contribution of a pyrethroid insecticide to the massive eel (Anguilla anguilla) devastation, in Lake Balaton, in 1995.

    PubMed

    Nemcsók, J; Bálint, T; Fazakas, J; Kátai, F; Kiss, I; Hieu, L H; Kufcsák, O; Láng, G; Polyhos, C; Szabó, I; Szegletes, T

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1995, 30 tonnes of eel (Anguilla anguilla) died in Lake Balaton, Hungary. An investigation was carried out to find the causes of this ecocatastrophe. During this investigation, certain biochemical parameters, i.e. the blood sugar level, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.2.3), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, EC 2.6.1.1), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, EC 2.6.1.2) activities in the blood serum of the collected surviving and dying eels were examined. Deltamethrin, the active ingredient of the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV, used against mosquitoes was detected in different animal species, i.e. eel, bream (Abramis brama), pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), and the common gull (Larus canus) and in sediment samples from the lake. Additionally, laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of deltamethrin on eels. During the investigation in the field it appeared that the AChE activity was significantly lower in the blood serum of the dying eels as compared to that in living animals (P<0.05, Student's t-test). The blood glucose content exhibited a difference, too: it was 2.5 times higher in the dying eels than in the surviving ones. A huge increase in the LDH level was measured in the dying eels. The GOT activities of the serum were twice as high in the dying eels as in the living fish, while the GPT was not significantly changed. Deltamethrin was detected in different tissue samples of the dying eels: 2.70-18.1 microg/kg in the liver, 9.0-31.1 microg/kg in the gill and 3.0 microg/kg wet tissue in the muscle. Deltamethrin residues were found in tissue samples from other animals, in the following concentrations: 0.44 microg/kg in bream, 2.14 microg/kg in pike perch and 1.06 microg/kg wet tissue in dead gulls. The sediment samples collected from the sites of the devastation contained deltamethrin in a concentration of 5.50-30.00 microg/kg wet sediment at the time of the eel deaths, and in a concentration 7.00-8.75 microg/kg wet sediment a month later. Laboratory experiments with the insecticide K-OTHRIN 1 ULV revealed that 1.00 microg/l of its active ingredient, deltamethrin, caused the death of 50% of the eels after an exposure time of 96 h. During this experiments similar trends could be observed in changes of enzyme activities of the treated eels to those that were detected in filed study during the eel devastation in Lake Balaton. At the end of a one-week treatment with the insecticide at the concentration of 0.5 microg/l of its active ingredient the gills of the treated eels contained deltamethrin at 12.6-44.8 microg/kg wet tissue concentration, while at the 24th hour after the treatment (11.2-42.7 microg/kg wet tissue) deltamethrin concentration in the liver of treated eels could be detected. All the above-mentioned changes and the detected deltamethrin residue in the eels appear to demonstrate the contribution of deltamethrin to the severe eel devastation. This information on the ecological risk of pyrethroid insecticides might be useful in their further application. PMID:10574437

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews; Christy Sloop

    2012-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 569 comprises the nine numbered corrective action sites (CASs) and one newly identified site listed below: (1) 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Annie, Franklin, George, and Moth); (2) 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Harry and Hornet); (3) 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Fizeau); (4) 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Rio Arriba); (5) 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Catron); (6) 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Humboldt); (7) 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Coulomb-B); (8) 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Coulomb-A); (9) 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area (hereafter referred to as Pike); and (10) Waste Consolidation Site 3A. Because CAU 569 is a complicated site containing many types of releases, it was agreed during the data quality objectives (DQO) process that these sites will be grouped. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the DQOs developed on September 26, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 569. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 569 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose (TED) at sample locations to the dose-based final action level (FAL). The TED will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the center of each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. A field investigation will be performed to define any areas where TED exceeds the FAL and to determine whether contaminants of concern are present at the site from other potential releases. The presence and nature of contamination from other types of releases (e.g., excavation, migration, and any potential releases discovered during the investigation) will be evaluated using soil samples collected from biased locations indicating the highest levels of contamination. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the objectives specific to each study group.

  8. Silver-rich telluride mineralization at Mount Charlotte and Au-Ag zonation in the giant Golden Mile deposit, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Muhling, Janet R.

    2013-03-01

    The gold deposits at Kalgoorlie in the 2.7-Ga Eastern Goldfields Province of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, occur adjacent to the D2 Golden Mile Fault over a strike of 8 km within a district-scale zone marked by porphyry dykes and chloritic alteration. The late Golden Pike Fault separates the older (D2) shear zone system of the Golden Mile (1,500 t Au) in the southeast from the younger (D4) quartz vein stockworks at Mt Charlotte (126 t Au) in the northwest. Both deposits occur in the Golden Mile Dolerite sill and display inner sericite-ankerite alteration and early-stage gold-pyrite mineralization replacing the wall rocks. Late-stage tellurides account for 20 % of the total gold in the first, but for <1 % in the second deposit. In the Golden Mile, the main telluride assemblage is coloradoite + native gold (898-972 fine) + calaverite + petzite ± krennerite. Telluride-rich ore (>30 g/t Au) is characterized by Au/Ag = 2.54 and As/Sb = 2.6-30, the latter ratio caused by arsenical pyrite. Golden Mile-type D2 lodes occur northwest of the Golden Pike Fault, but the Hidden Secret orebody, the only telluride bonanza mined (10,815 t at 44 g/t Au), was unusually rich in silver (Au/Ag = 0.12-0.35) due to abundant hessite. We describe another array of silver-rich D2 shear zones which are part of the Golden Mile Fault exposed on the Mt Charlotte mine 22 level. They are filled with crack-seal and pinch-and-swell quartz-carbonate veins and are surrounded by early-stage pyrite + pyrrhotite disseminated in a sericite-ankerite zone more than 6 m wide. Gold grade (0.5-0.8 g/t) varies little across the zone, but Au/Ag (0.37-2.40) and As/Sb (1.54-13.9) increase away from the veins. Late-stage telluride mineralization (23 g/t Au) sampled in one vein has a much lower Au/Ag (0.13) and As/Sb (0.48) and comprises scheelite, pyrite, native gold (830-854 fine), hessite, and minor pyrrhotite, altaite, bournonite, and boulangerite. Assuming 250-300 °C, gold-hessite compositions indicate a fluid log f Te2 of -11.5 to -10, values well below the stability of calaverite. The absence of calaverite and the dominance of hessite in the D2 lodes of the Mt Charlotte area point to a kilometer-scale mineral and Au/Ag zonation along the Golden Mile master fault, which is attributed to a lateral decrease in peak tellurium fugacity of the late-stage hydrothermal fluid. The As/Sb ratio may be similarly zoned to lower values at the periphery. The D4 gold-quartz veins constituting the Mt Charlotte orebodies represent a younger hydrothermal system, which did not contribute to metal zonation in the older one.

  9. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of environmental condition. Objects of monitoring in the Caspian Sea will be: air, sea water, bottom sediments, coastal ecosystems, benthos, plankton, aquatic vegetation, fish, birds, seals. The main component of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian Sea will be conducted on the basis of the complex program "Ecologist". 1.Modeling of Ecological processes •Data support by 3 types of sources: files with List structure, Prototype Files and files with Analogs of Normative •International and Regional Regulation •Creating of Pollution Matrix •Adjusting of adaptive Factors 2.Choosing and elaborating the proper mathematical methods for Resource Control •Consecutive Calculations Method •Coordinated Descend Method •Liner Programming 3.Computerizing •Analyses of Environment State •Multi Projecting of resource control •Algorithmic and Graphical Support of Step by step Project forming Block Scheme of System New Object - Creating New Object for Applied Ecological Study (OAES) Choosing Territory, Environment Media, Harmful Substances Description of Pollution Sources, Measures and Natural Phenomena Forming Models Old Object - Choosing Old OAES Model Creating and Parameters Adjusting Report - Analyses of Ecological State Control - Multi Project Designing of Environment Measures The system of environmental monitoring of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea will allow to evaluate the ecosystem of Caspian Sea and the coastal areas in the Kazakhstan sector, air pollution, sediment, impacts on biodiversity, to identify the oil film on water surface, to determine the parameters of the spill, to convert the monitoring results in graphical and tabular form, to predict the development of the current situation with regard to the influence of external factors in the geographic information (GIS) environment, to plan operations localization of zones of pollution and disaster situations.

  10. Modifications of the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules for sperm transport in Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Abbigail E; Siegel, Dustin S

    2014-08-01

    Male salamanders use nephrons from the genital kidney to transport sperm from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian duct. The microstructure of the epithelia of the genital kidney proximal tubule and distal tubule was studied over 1 year in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from Crawford and Pike counties in central Missouri. Through ultrastructural analysis, we were able to support the hypothesis that the genital kidney nephrons are modified to aid in the transportation of sperm. A lack of folding of the basal plasma membrane, in both the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules when compared to the pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules, reduces the surface area and thus likely decreases the efficiency of reabsorption in these nephron regions of the genital kidney. Ciliated epithelial cells are also present along the entire length of the genital kidney proximal tubule, but are lacking in the epithelium of the pelvic kidney proximal tubule. The exact function of these cilia remains unknown, but they may aid in mixing of seminal fluids or the transportation of immature sperm through the genital kidney nephrons. Ultrastructural analysis of proximal and distal tubules of the genital kidney revealed no seasonal variation in cellular activity and no mass production of seminal fluids throughout the reproductive cycle. Thus, we failed to support the hypothesis that the cellular activity of the epithelia lining the genital kidney nephrons is correlated to specific events in the reproductive cycle. The cytoplasmic contents and overall structure of the genital and pelvic kidney epithelial cells were similar to recent observations in Ambystoma maculatum, with the absence of abundant dense bodies apically in the epithelial cells lining the genital kidney distal tubule. PMID:24643856

  11. Management of percids in Lake Erie, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Richard W.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; Rawson, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Erie's fish populations and their habitats have undergone very substantial changes since 1945. Of the four percid forms originally present, the blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) is presumed extinct, and the sauger (S. canadense) was commercially extinct by the 1950's. The walleye (S. v. vitreum) has remained stable in eastern Lake Erie but the highly productive stock of the western basin collapsed in the 1960's. Closure of the walleye fishery from 1970 to 1973, necessitated by mercury contamination, provided an opportunity for the development of an international management plan for restoration of the stock. An inter-agency Scientific Protocol Committee evaluated walleye dynamics and recommended management by quota beginning in 1976. Although quotas have been exceeded several times, the walleye stock responded well to limited exploitation, steadily increased, and expanded its range. Landings of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) increased during the 1950's, but a steady decline in abundance, beginning in the early 1970's led to the formation in 1980 of another international inter-agency task group to recommend a basis for quota management. The short-term management recommendation, reported and accepted in 1986, was to reduce fishing effort by 20% by 1990. Both management schemes evolved when the resource agencies of the five jurisdictions (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario), in the two nations surrounding Lake Erie, perceived a need for the increased and improved management of a shared resource. They sought an international forum in which to develop strategies, appointed inter-agency scientific task groups to develop a basis for management recommendations, and adopted a quota management scheme. Each jurisdiction is responsible for the enforcement and allocation of its portion of the quota between user groups. Reports of catch, effort, and biological observations on stock performance are submitted annually to a standing technical committee charged with updating quotas.

  12. Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, Barbara E.; Hansen, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

  13. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  14. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

  15. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian Basin; past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report on Appalachian basin coal production consists of four maps and associated graphs and tables, with links to the basic data that were used to construct the maps. Plate 1 shows the time (year) of maximum coal production, by county. For illustration purposes, the years of maximum production are grouped into decadal units. Plate 2 shows the amount of coal produced (tons) during the year of maximum coal production for each county. Plate 3 illustrates the cumulative coal production (tons) for each county since about the beginning of the 20th century. Plate 4 shows 1996 annual production by county. During the current (third) cycle of coal production in the Appalachian basin, only seven major coal-producing counties (those with more than 500 million tons cumulative production), including Greene County, Pa.; Boone, Kanawha, Logan, Mingo, and Monongalia Counties, W.Va.; and Pike County, Ky., exhibit a general increase in coal production. Other major coal-producing counties have either declined to a small percentage of their maximum production or are annually maintaining a moderate level of production. In general, the areas with current high coal production have large blocks of coal that are suitable for mining underground with highly efficient longwall methods, or are occupied by very large scale, relatively low cost surface mining operations. The estimated cumulative production for combined bituminous and anthracite coal is about 100 billion tons or less for the Appalachian basin. In general, it is anticipated that the remaining resources will be progressively of lower quality, will cost more to mine, and will become economical only as new technologies for extraction, beneficiation, and consumption are developed, and then only if prices for coal increase.

  16. Compact fluorescent lighting in Wisconsin: elevated atmospheric emission and landfill deposition post-EISA implementation.

    PubMed

    Arendt, John D; Katers, John F

    2013-07-01

    The majority of states in the USA, including Wisconsin, have been affected by elevated air, soil and waterborne mercury levels. Health risks associated with mercury increase from the consumption of larger fish species, such as Walleye or Pike, which bio-accumulate mercury in muscle tissue. Federal legislation with the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the Wisconsin legislation on mercury, 2009 Wisconsin Act 44, continue to aim at lowering allowable levels of mercury emissions. Meanwhile, mercury-containing compact fluorescent lights (CFL) sales continue to grow as businesses and consumers move away from energy intensive incandescent light bulbs. An exchange in pollution media is occurring as airborne mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of mercury, are being reduced by lower energy demand and standards, while more universal solid waste containing mercury is generated each time a CFL is disposed. The treatment of CFLs as a 'universal waste' by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to the banning of non-household fluorescent bulbs from most municipal solid waste. Although the EPA encourages recycling of bulbs, industry currently recycles fluorescent lamps and CFLs at a rate of only 29%. Monitoring programs at the federal and state level have had only marginal success with industrial and business CFL recycling. The consumer recycling rate is even lower at only 2%. A projected increase in residential CFL use in Wisconsin owing to the ramifications of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will lead to elevated atmospheric mercury and landfill deposition in Wisconsin. PMID:23635464

  17. Epistemic Uncertainty in Evalustion of Evapotranspiration and Net Infiltration Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-01

    Uncertainty is typically defined as a potential deficiency in the modeling of a physical process, owing to a lack of knowledge. Uncertainty can be categorized as aleatoric (inherent uncertainty caused by the intrinsic randomness of the system) or epistemic (uncertainty caused by using various model simplifications and their parameters). One of the main reasons for model simplifications is a limited amount of meteorological data. This paper is devoted to the epistemic uncertainty quantification involved in two components of the hydrologic balance-evapotranspiration and net infiltration for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates at Yucca Mountain, using the data from analogue meteorological stations. In particular, the author analyzes semi-empirical models used for evaluating (1) reference-surface potential evapotranspiration, including temperature-based models (Hargreaves-Samani, Thornthwaite, Hamon, Jensen-Haise, and Turc) and radiation-based models (Priestly-Taylor and Penman), and (2) surface-dependent potential evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models). Evapotranspiration predictions are then used as inputs for the evaluation of net infiltration using the semi-empirical models of Budyko, Fu, Milly, Turc-Pike, and Zhang. Results show that net infiltration ranges are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The propagation of uncertainties through model predictions for different climates is characterized using statistical measures. Predicted evapotranspiration ranges are reasonably corroborated against the data from Class A pan evaporometers (taking into account evaporation-pan adjustment coefficients), and ranges of net infiltration predictions are corroborated against the geochemical and temperature-based estimates of groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone obtained at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Darnerud, P O; Eriksen, G S; Jóhannesson, T; Larsen, P B; Viluksela, M

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels are often found in aquatic biotopes from different parts of the world. During the mid-1970--1980s there was a substantial increase in the PBDE levels with time in both sediments and aquatic biota, whereas the latest Swedish data (pike and guillemot egg) may indicate that levels are at steady state or are decreasing. However, exponentially increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mother's milk during 1972--1997. Based on levels in food from 1999, the dietary intake of PBDE in Sweden has been estimated to be 0.05 microg per day. Characteristic end points of animal toxicity are hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, and thyroid effects as well as maternal toxicity during gestation. Recently, behavioral effects have been observed in mice on administration of PBDEs during a critical period after birth. Based on the critical effects reported in available studies, we consider the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) value of the PBDE group to be 1 mg/kg/day (primarily based on effects of pentaBDEs). In conclusion, with the scientific knowledge of today and based on Nordic intake data, the possible consumer health risk from PBDEs appears limited, as a factor of over 10(6) separates the estimated present mean dietary intake from the suggested LOAEL value. However, the presence of many and important data gaps, including those in carcinogenicity, reproduction, and developmental toxicity, as well as additional routes of exposure, make this conclusion only preliminary. Moreover, the time trend of PBDEs in human breast milk is alarming for the future. PMID:11250805

  19. Factors Associated with Concordance and Variability of Sleep Quality in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the day-to-day variation in sleep characteristics and the concordance between nighttime sleep of persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family caregivers. Participants: N = 44 community-dwelling older adults with probable or possible AD and their co-residing family caregivers. Design: Participants wore an Actillume (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc) for one week and completed an assessment battery to evaluate patient and caregiver mood, physical function, medication use, caregiver behavior management style, and patient cognitive status. Measurements and Results: Actigraphically derived sleep measures included bedtime, rising time, total time in bed, total sleep time, number of awakenings, total wake time, and sleep percent (efficiency). For each sleep parameter, total variance was determined for between-subject variance and within-subject variance from day-to-day. Sleep concordance was examined using multinomial logistic regression to compare trichotomous patient-caregiver combinations of good and bad sleepers. For both patients and caregivers, between-subject daily variability accounted for more of the variance in sleep than within-subject variability. Patient depression and caregiver management style were significant predictors both for concordant poor sleep (both patient and caregiver with sleep efficiency <85%) and patient-caregiver sleep discordance. Conclusions: This study provides data that sleep disturbances for persons with AD and their family caregivers vary considerably night to night, and that poor sleep in one member of the caregiving dyad is not necessarily linked to disturbed sleep in the other. Understanding the complex interrelationship of sleep in AD patients and caregivers is an important first step towards the development of individualized and effective treatment strategies. Citation: McCurry SM; Pike KC; Vitiello MV; Logsdon RG; Teri L. Factors associated with concordance and variability of sleep quality in persons with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. SLEEP 2008;31(5):741-748. PMID:18517044

  20. Rock-eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance trends in the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rimmer, S.M.; Cantrell, D.J.; Gooding, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Within eastern Kentucky, organic petrographic and geochemical data indicate a southeastwards increase in maturation of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (Devonian-Mississippian). Reflectance levels of dispersed organic material in the Cleveland Shale increase from 0.5% in the outcrop belt in central Kentucky, to slightly over 1.0% in Pike County, eastern Kentucky. A decrease in fluorescence intensity of liptinitic components, such as Tasmanites, accompanies this reflectance increase, as does a shift in fluorescence color of the alginite towards the red. In the highest rank areas, fluorescence is almost absent. Groundmass fluorescence is observed also, and follows trends similar to those shown by the alginite. Kerogen in the Cleveland Shale is primarily Type II, as indicated by petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon contents of this shale decrease from over 12% in the outcrop belt, to less than 2% in the eastern-most part of the study area. Source rock potential ranges from good to very good, with the highest potentials occurring in the outcrop belt. Tmax values for this unit increase from under 430??C in the outcrop belt to over 450??C in the southeast, confirming the increase in maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data. Both petrographic and geochemical maturation parameters place the Cleveland Shale of eastern Kentucky within the oil window. Comparison with maturation data for Pennsylvanian-age coals upsection suggests that maturation indices are retarded, or suppressed, in the Devonian shales. The level of maturation indicated for the Cleveland may be problematical considering that the Ohio Shale is a major gas-producer in this area. ?? 1993.