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1

Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.  

PubMed

This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

2012-04-01

2

Prey capture of pike Esox lucius larvae in turbid water.  

PubMed

Pike Esox lucius larvae captured fewer calanoid and cyclopoid copepods in turbid than in clear water, whereas no differences were detected in feeding rates on Daphnia longispina. Decreased capture of copepods may lead to lower growth and survival of E. lucius larvae in turbid areas, in particular, if cladocerans are scarce. PMID:20557612

Salonen, M; Engström-Ost, J

2010-06-01

3

Precocious induction of maturation and ovulation in northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

Precocious induction of maturation and ovulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) G. DE MONTALEMBERT. Introduction. Hormonal control of ovulation is of particular interest in northern pike (Esox lucius) since

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

4

Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw  

E-print Network

Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw R . A R L I N G The behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius L., released with a retained lure in the mouth was studied Mitchell, and pike, Esox lucius L., are important targets for recreational anglers in the northern hemi

Cooke, Steven J.

5

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Ɓ Northern pike

Bernatchez, Louis

6

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada. In  

E-print Network

6 Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada. In South Dakota, northern pike and muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) ranked second in total number of fishing days provided during 1991 (USDOI and USDOC 1993). In Minnesota, northern pike are the most widespread

7

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

8

Individual specialization and trophic adaptability of northern pike (Esox lucius): an isotope and dietary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are often considered to be specialist piscivores, but under some circumstances will continue to eat invertebrates as adults. To examine effects of fish assemblage composition on the trophic ecology of pike, we combined stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon and nitrogen and stomach content analysis (SCA) on pike from five lakes in northern Alberta, three of

Catherine P. Beaudoin; William M. Tonn; Ellie E. Prepas; Leonard I. Wassenaar

1999-01-01

9

Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations. PMID:24062552

Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Gryzi?ska, Magdalena; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

2013-09-24

10

Reduction of cannibalism in pike (Esox lucius) fry by isolation of full-sib families  

E-print Network

Reduction of cannibalism in pike (Esox lucius) fry by isolation of full-sib families C. BRY, C of other species ; 3) cannibalism. In extensive or semi-intensive conditions, work has mainly been focused) and of perch fry (Chauderon, 1969 ; Arrignon, 1972), Cannibalism is common in pike, especially in the fry which

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

11

Analysis of sibling cannibalism among pike, Esox lucius , juveniles reared under semi-natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Sibling cannibalism in pike, Esox lucius, larvae and juveniles living in outdoor rearing ponds was studied using stomach contents analysis. For the two initial densities tested (6 and 18 larvae m?2, equivalent to 12 and 36 larvae m?3), cannibalism was non-existent during the larval period (13 to 35 mm total length) and was observed only during the juvenile stages.

Christian Bry; Edgar Basset; Xavier Rognon; Franēois Bonamy

1992-01-01

12

An experimental breakage of Reissner's fibre in the central canal of the pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The spinal cords of newly hatched pike (Esox lucius) fry were divided into two pieces by transverse cuts. After periods of different lengths, the appearances of the brokenReissner's fibres were investigated anatomically. The fibre normally terminates in the caudal end as a secretory accumulation, a caudal mass. After the operation this mass gradually disappears, apparently through the spinal cord wall

Ragnar Olsson

1957-01-01

13

New series of fatty acids in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence in Northern Pike (Esox locius) liver and testes lipids of a group of eight homologous fatty acids of as yet unknown structure is reported. They occur esterified\\u000a to cholesterol and to glycerol as triglycerides but are absent from the phospholipids. They contain three oxygens and are\\u000a characterized further by being more resistant to hydrogenation than normal unsaturated fatty

R. L. Glass; Thomas P. Krick; Allen E. Eckhardt

1974-01-01

14

General morphology and axonal ultrastructure of the olfactory nerve of the pike, Esox lucius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory nerve of the European pike (Esox lucius) contains 5.1 × 106 axons with an average diameter of 0.20 ± 0,04 µm and a length of 5.5 cm in 1 meter long pike. Each axon contains an average of 4 microtubules as well as neurofilaments, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and about 500 mitochondria per centimeter. The number of neurofilaments ranges

Georg W. Kreutzberg; Guenter W. Gross

1977-01-01

15

Mercury concentrations in northern pike, Esox lucius L., in small lakes of Evo area, southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured Hg concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius) from 17 small lakes in Evo forest area, Lammi, southern Finland. The mean Hg concentration in muscle tissue of a 1 kg pike\\u000a ranged from 0.15 to 1.36 ?g g?1 (ww) in the lakes. There was a trend towards higher concentrations in acidic and humic lakes than in circumneutral and clear-water

M. Rask; T.-R. Metsälä

1991-01-01

16

Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation.  

PubMed

Young-of-the-year pike Esox lucius foraging on copepods experienced different foraging success depending on prey pigmentation in water visually degraded by brown colouration or algae. Both attack rate and prey consumption rate were higher for E. lucius foraging on transparent prey in brown water, whereas the opposite was true in algal turbid water. Pigments in copepod prey may have a cryptic function in brown water instead of a photo-protective function even if prey-size selectivity was stronger than selection based on pigmentation in juvenile E. lucius. PMID:21722125

Jönsson, M; Hylander, S; Ranåker, L; Nilsson, P A; Brönmark, C

2011-07-01

17

A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty acid composition in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty acids during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty acids (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty

Karl Schwalmel

1992-01-01

18

The inf luence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of pike Esox lucius L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the invasive black bullhead Ameiurus melas on the predatory efficiency of the pike Esox lucius was investigated using an additive experimental design. Pike predatory success on 0ž years roach Rutilus rutilus was significantly reduced in the presence of black bullhead. Among the different hypotheses that may explain such a pattern, the hypothesis of direct competition between pike

K. KREUTZENBERGER; F. L EPRIEUR; S. BROSSE

2008-01-01

19

Altered energetics and parasitism in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting metal-mining contaminated lakes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors that could be contributing to altered bioenergetics of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) living in lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Although glycogen and triglycerides stores in liver and muscle were significantly greater in pike from exposure lakes compared to the reference, triglycerides stores of aquatic insects and spottail shiners that are prey items of juvenile pike showed no overall differences among lakes. Measures of parasitism, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with pike bioenergetics thereby reflecting a possible energetic cost of parasitism on reference lake fishes. The degree of infection, as measured by the abundance and biomass of intestinal parasites and the abundance of monogeneans on pike gills, was greatest in reference fishes and intermediate in low-exposure pike, whereas high-exposure fishes harbored no parasites. PMID:18329711

Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

2008-07-01

20

THE MECHANICAL POWER OUTPUT AND HYDROMECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF NORTHERN PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS) FAST-STARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical power output and hydrodynamic efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, during acceleration from rest (fast-start) are calculated from hydrodynamic theory for two kinematic patterns, C-starts (used in escape) and S-starts (used in prey capture). The Weihs model is employed and modified to calculate the mechanical power produced by a fish during a fast-start. A term is included for

H. RUSS FRITH; ROBERT W. BLAKE

21

Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E)

Sven Burreau; Johan Axelman; Dag Broman; Eva Jakobsson

1997-01-01

22

Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

2010-01-01

23

Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius L.).  

PubMed

The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability. PMID:21637562

Wang, Jun; Wang, Chenghui; Qian, Long; Ma, Yuqing; Yang, Xinxin; Jeney, Zsigmond; Li, Sifa

2011-01-01

24

Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius L.)  

PubMed Central

The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability. PMID:21637562

Wang, Jun; Wang, Chenghui; Qian, Long; Ma, Yuqing; Yang, Xinxin; Jeney, Zsigmond; Li, Sifa

2011-01-01

25

Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day?1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

2014-01-01

26

Adrenergic neurons in the spinal cord of the pike ( Esox lucius ) and their relation to the caudal neurosecretory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower spinal cord including the caudal neurosecretory system of the pike (Esox lucius) was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy and also with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck and Hillarp for the visualization of monoamines. A system of perikarya displaying a specific green fluorescence of remarkably high intensity is disclosed in the basal part of the

H. G. Baumgarten; B. Falck; H. Wartenberg

1970-01-01

27

The population dynamics of pike, Esox lucius , and perch, Perca fluviatilis , in a simple predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics and predator-prey relationship of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, were examined in simple fish communities in two adjacent shallow lakes, Lochs Kinord and Davan, Deeside, Scotland. Few perch survive to age 3 but Z is low for fish > 3 years and perch live up to 17 years. Population fecundity remained relatively high and constant

James W. Treasurer; Roger Owen; Eric Bowers

1992-01-01

28

The photosensory function of the pineal organ of the pike ( Esox lucius L.) Correlation between structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical recordings from the exposed pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius L.) were performed in order to localize the photoreceptive structures. Extracellular recordings showed a maintained activity of nerve fibers from the pineal tract and of single neurons from the distal region of the pineal organ. At increasing levels of steady exposure to white light, the impulse frequency decreased.

Jacky Falcón; Hilmar Meissl

1981-01-01

29

ENDOCRINE (SEXUAL) DISRUPTION IS NOT A PROMINENT FEATURE IN THE PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS), A TOP PREDATOR, LIVING IN ENGLISH WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high incidence of intersex roach ( Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius)

Emma Vine; Jan Shears; Ronny van Aerle; Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

2005-01-01

30

Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius--effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations.  

PubMed

The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The delta(15)N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 (per thousand delta(15)N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans. PMID:18485450

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrųm, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jųrgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjųrn Olav

2008-07-25

31

Mercury toxicity in livers of northern pike (Esox lucius) from Isle Royale, USA.  

PubMed

Many laboratory studies have documented that mercury can be toxic to fish, but it is largely unknown if mercury is toxic to fish in their natural environments. The objective of our study was to investigate the toxic effects of mercury on northern pike (Esox lucius) at Isle Royale, Michigan. In 124 northern pike from eight inland lakes, concentrations of total mercury in skin-on fillets ranged from 0.069 to 0.622 microg/g wet mass (wet wt). Concentrations of total mercury in livers increased exponentially compared with concentrations in fillets, to a maximum of 3.1 microg/g wet wt. Methylmercury constituted a majority of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations <0.5 microg/g wet wt, but declined to 28-51% of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g wet wt. Liver color (absorbance at 400 nm) varied among northern pike and was positively related to liver total mercury concentration. The pigment causing variation in liver color was identified as lipofuscin, which results from lipid peroxidation of membranous organelles. An analysis of covariance revealed lipofuscin accumulation was primarily associated with mercury exposure, and this association obscured any normal accumulation from aging. We also documented decreased lipid reserves in livers and poor condition factors of northern pike with high liver total mercury concentrations. Our results suggest (i) northern pike at Isle Royale are experiencing toxicity at concentrations of total mercury common for northern pike and other piscivorous fish elsewhere in North America and (ii) liver color may be useful for indicating mercury exposure and effects in northern pike at Isle Royale and possibly other aquatic ecosystems and other fish species. PMID:18262851

Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P; Otter, Ryan R; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Klaper, Rebecca; Oris, James T

2008-04-01

32

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P 0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Hinck, J. E.; Blazer, V. S.; Denslow, N. D.; Myers, M. S.; Gross, T. S.; Tillitt, D. E.

2007-01-01

33

'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

1999-01-01

34

Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.  

PubMed

The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500 MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12 °C for up to 70 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12 °C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5 °C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality. PMID:24423558

K?ķžek, Martin; Mat?jkovį, Kate?ina; Vįcha, František; Dadįkovį, Eva

2014-05-15

35

Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.  

PubMed

Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.7±6.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish. PMID:22014468

Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

2012-02-01

36

Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.  

PubMed

In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation. PMID:19402450

Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbųll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

2009-02-25

37

The desaturation and elongation of 14 C-labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids by pike ( Esox lucius L.) in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the ability of pike (Esox lucius L.) to modify exogenous PUFA by desaturation and elongation, 14C-labelled 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) were injected intraperitoneally and the distribution of radioactivity in tissue lipid classes and liver PUFA measured. In all tissues examined, radioactivity from all 14C-PUFA was recovered in many classes of acyl lipids and the level of recovery

R. James Henderson; Moira T. Park; John R. Sargent

1995-01-01

38

Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland  

PubMed Central

Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies for this species.

Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

2014-01-01

39

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

2008-01-01

40

Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics.  

PubMed

Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio-temporal distributions should be directly affected and thereby more easily assessed and avoided by prey, with potential consequences for encounter rates. PMID:22551189

Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, H; Boel, M; Meier, K; Jacobsen, L; Rokkjaer, E M; Clausen, T; Skov, C

2012-05-01

41

Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., with special regard to 5-hydroxytryptamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal organ of adult pikes, Esox lucius L., maintained under normal diurnal conditions, was studied with a combination of light microscopy, fluorescence histochemistry of certain arylethylamines, and electron microscopy.1.The pineal parenchyma consists of sensory cells, supporting cells, and a third cell type which may be identical with previously described ganglion cells. The nerve fibres constituting the pineal tract were

Christer Owman; Claes Rüdeberg

1970-01-01

42

Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike ( Esox lucius) and burbot ( Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as “winter stress syndrome”) in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly,

Pamela M. Bennett; David M. Janz

2007-01-01

43

Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

2003-01-01

44

Rhipidocotyle fennica (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from Anodonta anatina and pike Esox lucius in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Ribosomal DNA sequences of Rhipidocotyle sp. adults from Esox lucius were shown to be identical to sequences of larval Rhipidocotyle fennica, occurring in Anodonta anatina in Lake Vilkokšnis, Lithuania. Morphological features and host specificity of this adult worm correspond with that, determinate in the first description of R. fennica in Finland. These data give the first evidence that a viable population of R. fennica exists in east central Europe. Bucephalus polymorphus which was reported in unionids in all previous publications is probably R. fennica. PMID:25190013

Stunž?nas, Virmantas; Petkevi?i?t?, Romualda; Stanevi?i?t?, Gražina; Binkien?, Rasa

2014-10-01

45

Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.  

PubMed

Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most notably arsenic and selenium, were bioaccumulating in tissue. PMID:19304330

Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

2009-05-17

46

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction  

E-print Network

L'organe pinƩal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinƩales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages. In order to elucidate the sensory function of the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

47

Side-aspect target strength of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ), and pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The side-aspect acoustic target strengths (TS) of 19 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar), 16 brown trouts (Salmo trutta), 10 whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and 9 pikes (Esox lucius) were measured using a 200 kHz split-beam echosounder, in order to study the relationship between TS and fish size indices (length, weight and side area). The effect of side aspect angle on TS was also

Juha Lilja; Timo J Marjomäki; Raimo Riikonen; Juha Jurvelius

2000-01-01

48

Changes in mercury levels in lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) in the LG2 reservoir since flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

After flooding of the LG-2 reservoir in 1978–1979, it was noticed that Hg levels in fish rose dramatically. In this study the Hg data have been examined on the basis of fish age for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius), representing two different trophic levels. Data were fit to Von Bertalanffy functions using non-linear regression analyses. Reductions

K. A. Morrison; N. Thérien

1995-01-01

49

The mast cell nature of granule cells in the digestive tract of the pike, Esox lucius : similarity to mammalian mucosal mast cells and globule leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on sections of intestinal tissue from the pike,Esox lucius, fixed in a solution containing 4% formaldehyde and 5% acetic acid in methanol. Four staining procedures, using May-Grünwald Giemsa combi-nation dye, hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and alcian blue in sequence with safranin, were applied. Numerous granule cells were found in the area of stratum compactum and in

OLA B. REITE

1996-01-01

50

Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet  

SciTech Connect

The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E) were in the range 35 to 90% and differ in some respect from earlier studies. The E-values for those substances with effective cross sections (ECS) >9.5 {angstrom} were considerably higher than expected if the membrane permeation at dietary uptake was restricted as proposed previously in the literature. There was no hydrophobicity dependency of the total dietary uptake efficiency as suggested by an earlier proposed empirical model. The difference between the results presented here and earlier studies is likely to depend on cotransport with lipids and/or proteins through a mediated, possibly active uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in the gastrointestinal tract enabled by the actual exposure method. For the proposed mediated/active uptake of HOCs, the uptake efficiency varied with molecular weight and was greatest for a molecular weight of approximately 450.

Burreau, S.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Jakobsson, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

1997-12-01

51

Food of Young Pike, Esox Lucius L., and Associated Fishes in Peterson's Ditches, Houghton Lake, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach contents of 551 young pike (11–152 millimeters in length), 345 small yellow perch, and 431 other fish representing 18 species were examined. All specimens were collected from an area widely used by spawning pike from Houghton Lake, Michigan. Organisms utilized for food by young pike included Entomostraca, insects (chiefly Chironomidae), tadpoles, minnows, darters, and other pike. As pike increased

Burton P. Hunt; William F. Carbine

1951-01-01

52

Induction of gene responses in St. Lawrence River northern pike (Esox lucius) environmentally exposed to perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

Municipal waste water effluents (MWWEs) are important sources of chemical contamination for aquatic environments. This study investigated the presence and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmentally exposed northern pike (Esox lucius) collected upstream and downstream a major municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Twelve PFCs, including the newly detected perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), were quantified in fish muscle, liver, and plasma. Additionally, the expression of eight genes and the activity of three biomarkers were analyzed in fish tissues at both sites. Mean ?PFC concentration in fish plasma collected upstream the WWTP was 185ng/g w.w. compared to 545ng/g w.w. downstream the point of release. PFECHS was quantified for the first time in St. Lawrence River fish (mean plasma concentration in MWWE fish: 5.07±4.72ng/g w.w.). Results of transcriptomic responses were tissue-specific and indicated significant up-regulation for metallothionein (MT) in blood and MT, glutathion-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in gill tissue of fish collected in the MWWE suggesting greater stress responses for organisms at this location. Significant relationships were found between vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in liver, Vtg activity in plasma and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA), and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) plasma concentrations. The possible endocrine effects of these PFCs should be further investigated. PMID:23453599

Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Despatie, Simon-Pierre; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine

2013-08-01

53

Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.  

PubMed

The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities. PMID:18925789

Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

2009-06-01

54

{sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L. [Stockholm Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden)

1995-12-31

55

Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius)  

PubMed Central

Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting.

Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

2009-01-01

56

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) V. Etude radioautographique de l'incorporation in vivo  

E-print Network

L'organe pinƩal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) V. Etude radioautographique de l'incorporation in vivo Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). V. Radioautographic study

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

57

Turbidity decreases anti-predator behaviour in pike larvae, Esox lucius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  We tested how algal turbidity and light conditions influence anti-predator behaviour of first-feeding pike. Results showed that pike larvae were able to detect the predator by both chemical and visual signals in turbid water. However, the anti-predator behaviour was reduced in turbid water compared with clear water. Larvae hid in the vegetation in the presence of predator cues more in

Maiju Lehtiniemi; Jonna Engström-Öst; Markku Viitasalo

2005-01-01

58

Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).  

PubMed

Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (P<0.05). In general, the greatest percentage of motile spermatozoa and highest spermatozoa velocity were observed between 125 and 235 mOsmol kg(-1). Osmolality above 375 mOsmol kg(-1) inhibited the motility of spermatozoa. After triggering of sperm motility in activation media, beating waves propagated along the full length of flagella, while waves appeared dampened during later periods in the motility phase, and were absent at the end of the motility phase. By increasing osmolality, the velocity of spermatozoa reached the highest value while wave length, amplitude, number of waves and curvatures also were at their highest values. This study showed that sperm morphology can be used for fish classification. Sperm morphology, in particular, the flagellar part showed several changes during activation in distilled water. Sperm motility of pike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters. PMID:19269024

Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

2009-07-01

59

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytologique  

E-print Network

L'organe pinĆ©al du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytologique J. FALCON Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., I. A light ; Plecoglossus : Omura et al.,1969 ; Omura et Oguri, 1971 ; Esox : Owman et RĆ¼deberg, 1970; Anguilla et Lebistes

Boyer, Edmond

60

Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Clark, Clarence F.

1965-01-01

61

Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

Meldrum, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halden, N.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1997-12-31

62

Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as "winter stress syndrome") in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly, total body lipid and triglyceride, and liver triglyceride levels were greater in effluent-exposed pike and burbot in both fall and spring. However, there were no lake or season differences in growth indices of length, weight, muscle RNA/DNA ratio, or muscle protein levels in pike. In addition, total lipids and triglycerides in burbot were greater in spring compared to fall, while no seasonal differences were observed in pike, suggesting that burbot continued to feed during winter. Findings do not support the winter stress syndrome hypothesis and suggest possible direct and indirect effects of metal mining effluent on lipid dynamics of juvenile fishes. PMID:17368537

Bennett, Pamela M; Janz, David M

2007-09-01

63

Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.  

PubMed

Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years. PMID:20735553

Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

2009-07-01

64

Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

1984-07-01

65

Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.  

PubMed

In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors. PMID:20537014

Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

2010-04-01

66

2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS) POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONS TO  

E-print Network

Knowledge of the population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius), an important recreational and top t t t The northern pike (Esox lucius) is an important recreational fish in North America, including the Nebraska2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS

67

Assessment of larval deformities and selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to metal mining effluent.  

PubMed

Uranium mining and milling operations in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) release effluents with elevated levels of certain trace metals and metalloids, including selenium. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the presence of selenium-induced deformities in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae originating from adults collected downstream of a uranium mine. Eggs were fertilized in the field and incubated in the laboratory following a two-way (crossover) analysis-of-variance experimental design to discriminate effects from maternal transfer versus those from exposure to site water in the developing embryos. Selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker eggs (8.02 and 4.89 microg/g dry wt, respectively; mean +/- standard error throughout) from the exposure site were approximately two- to threefold higher than reference (2.35 +/- 0.20 and 1.94 +/- 0.25 microg/g dry wt, respectively). Among all evaluated deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, fin deformities, and edema), only edema in white sucker fry from the exposure site was slightly elevated ( approximately 3%) compared to reference. The occurrence of edema, however, can be associated with factors other than selenium (e.g., other metals and organic compounds). Both fish species displayed strong linear relationships between the selenium concentrations in eggs and other tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and bone), suggesting that selenium concentrations in eggs could be predicted from selenium concentrations in adult tissues. The lack of a clear, toxic response in the present study is in agreement with selenium thresholds for early life-stage deformities reported in other studies, with egg selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker collected at the exposure site being less than the 10 microg/g (dry wt) threshold associated with the presence of deformities. PMID:18939891

Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

2009-03-01

68

Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.  

PubMed

The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution. PMID:24865502

Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

2014-12-01

69

The influence of angling-induced exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Capture by angling was used to induce burst exercise in northern pike. By 3 h after exercise blood lactate had risen to levels\\u000a of 15.2 mmol l?1 (Fig. 2), which greatly exceeded the maximum post-exercise levels (4.0 mmol l?1) previously reported for muskellunge, a close relative of pike. White muscle lactate level was high, 41.8 mmol kg?1, immediately after capture

K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay

1985-01-01

70

Four decades of opposing natural and human-induced artificial selection acting on Windermere pike (Esox lucius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of natural selection to drive local adaptation has been appreciated ever since Darwin. Whether human impacts can impede the adaptive process has received less attention. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying natural selection and harvest selection acting on a freshwater fish (pike) over four decades. Across the time series, directional natural selection tended to favour large individuals whereas

Stephanie M. Carlson; Eric Edeline; L. Asbjųrn Vųllestad; Thrond. O. Haugen; Ian J. Winfield; Janice M. Fletcher; J. Ben James; Nils Chr. Stenseth

2007-01-01

71

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

Bjųrn Midttun

1980-01-01

72

Northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species and size composition of fish communities in shallow stagnant waters appear to be associated with the type, abundance and pattern of the vegetation. Man-induced impacts as eutrophication, and suppression of vegetation for reasons of water quantity management or angling pleasure may induce irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Water quality management should aim at restoring former pike habitat. Submerged

M. P. Grimm

1989-01-01

73

Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool 2. Effects on lower trophic levels in Lake Lyng, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study how pike stocking affects trophic structurepikefingerlings (0–3600 ha-1) were stocked during six yearsineutrophic Lake Lyng (lake area 10 ha), Denmark. Subsequently,marked changes were recorded in the abundance ofzooplanktivorousfish, catch per unit effort of roach, which was the dominantfishspecies, thus varied from 17 to 272. Simultaneously, markedchangeswere recorded in the abundance and relative composition ofzooplankton. Daphnia abundance

Martin Sųndergaard; Erik Jeppesen; Sųren Berg

1997-01-01

74

Pineal-retinal relationships: rhythmic biosynthesis and immunocytochemical localization of melatonin in the retina of the pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of melatonin and the activities of two enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were measured throughout the light-dark cycle in the retina of a teleost fish, the pike. HIOMT activity did not display significant variations, whereas NAT activity and melatonin content showed a daily rhythm, high levels occurring during the night. The

Jacky Falcón; Jean-Pierre Collin

1991-01-01

75

Changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition during development in pike (Esox lucius L) eggs and larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the changes which occur during embryogenesis and early larval development, eggs, yolk sac larvae and swim-up\\u000a larvae of pike were examined for lipid class and fatty acid composition. At a water temperature of 15.5°C, the embryonic phase\\u000a was short (6 days) and characterized by a 41.3% decline in the lipid content of eggs, accompanied by large reductions in

C. Desvilettes; G. Bourdier; J. C. Breton

1997-01-01

76

UV-B exposure causes DNA damage and changes in protein expression in northern pike (Esox lucius) posthatched embryos.  

PubMed

The ongoing anthropogenically caused ozone depletion and climate change has increased the amount of biologically harmful UV-B radiation, which is detrimental to fish in embryonal stages. The effects of UV-B radiation on the levels and locations of DNA damage manifested as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and p53 protein in newly hatched embryos of pike were examined. Pike larvae were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of CPDs in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. Also at a fluence rate occurring in nature, the DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences. PMID:22145705

Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Oikari, Aimo

2012-01-01

77

Större gädda (Esox lucius) konsumerar inte storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus).  

E-print Network

?? Övergödningen i Östersjön har varit ett problem de senaste årtionden vilket påverkar akvatiska organismer och minskar undervattenvegetationen som är viktig för fisklivet. Gädda (Esox lucius)… (more)

Nilsson, Klas

2010-01-01

78

Early Life History of the Northern Pike, Esox lucius L., with Special Reference to the Factors Influencing the Numerical Strength of Year Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early life history of northern pike was studied to determine the relationship of adult pike abundance to the strength of resulting year classes and the existence and chronology of critical survival periods, along with the nature and origin of the mortality mechanisms involved. Adult abundance and the strength of the resulting year classes were not directly related. Two critical

Donald R. Franklin; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1963-01-01

79

Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.  

PubMed

Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries. PMID:23566175

Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

2013-05-01

80

Retention of Floy FD-94 Anchor Tags and Effect on Growth and Condition of Northern Pike and Largemouth Bass  

E-print Network

and October 1995.315 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and 170 northern pike (Esox lucius) were captured 1973. Tranquilli and Childers 1982) and northern pike (Esox lucius; Gengerke 1977, Scheirer and Coble

81

The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.  

PubMed

The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

2014-01-01

82

The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei  

PubMed Central

The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50?=?16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50?=?700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N?=?50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

2014-01-01

83

Cytological identification of cell types in the testis of Esox lucius and E. niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes of Esox lucius and Esox niger were investigated histologically, cytochemically, and ultrastructurally in reproductive fish. Intralobular Sertoli cells possessed numerous lipid droplets in Esox lucius, but not in Esox niger. In both species, interlobular cell types included myoid cells and lipid-negative Leydig cells within the extravascular space. Evidence is presented for a contractile network of myoid cells within the

H. J. Grier; R. Hurk; R. Billard

1989-01-01

84

A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

1995-01-01

85

Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )  

SciTech Connect

Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. (Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

86

Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to

Per Larsson; Lennart Okla; Lars Collvin

1993-01-01

87

Diet and Growth of Northern Pike in the Absence of Prey Fishes: Initial Consequences for Persisting in Disturbance-Prone Lakes  

E-print Network

of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada Abstract.--The northern pike Esox lucius is a renowned to stunting. The northern pike Esox lucius is considered to be piscivorous throughout most of its circumpolar

Venturelli, Paul

88

Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on early life stages of the pike (Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly fertilized pike eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ppt (ng\\/liter) for 96 hours. At all concentrations examined egg development was retarded by 23%, and the growth of fry was also significantly retarded for a long period after exposure. A dose-related mortality was observed. Highest mortality rates occurred during resorption of the yolk

T. Helder

1980-01-01

89

Production, consumption and prey availability of northern pike ( Esox lucius ), pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca ) and European catfish ( Silurus glanis ): a bioenergetics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergetics models were applied for the assessment of food consumption of northern pike, pikeperch and European catfish\\u000a in drainable ponds of 0.4 ha. The ponds were stocked with known numbers of the 0+ predators. The prey fish consisted of naturally recruited 0+ cyprinids (rudd, roach and bream). The study shows that the impact of the three 0+ piscivores on the

Alexander J. P. Raat

1990-01-01

90

The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).  

PubMed

The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, P<0.024) corresponds to the gradient in repolarization times. No significant transmural difference in repolarization duration is observed in pike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopike and frogs. PMID:21281734

Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

2011-05-01

91

The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in K?z?l?rmak River (K?r?kkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ?3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ?6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ?3/?6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

2014-10-01

92

Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.  

PubMed

We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilņ, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

2011-01-01

93

Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in  

E-print Network

(Mieropferus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic overlap. Resume: L'Achigan it grande bouche (Mieropferus salmoides) et Ie Brochet du Nord (Esox lucills

94

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). IV. Srotonine endogne et activit monoamine oxydasique ;  

E-print Network

.). IV. Endogenous serotonin and monoamine oxidase activity : An histochemical, ultracytochemical-cored vesicles which were observed previously with electron microscopy (Falcon, 1979a). Monoamine oxidase (MAOL'organe pinĆ©al du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). IV. SĆ©rotonine endogĆØne et activitĆ© monoamine

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

95

Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.  

PubMed

The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p?pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens. PMID:21713472

Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

2012-05-01

96

An Overview of Northern Pike Regulations in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a popular sport fish in the United States and Canada that is currently managed for multiple angler uses. However, there has been increased concern over lower quality (i.e., smaller fish) northern pike populations. In 1997, the Esocid Technical Committee (ETC) of the North Central Division of the American Fisheries Society surveyed natural resource agencies about

Craig P. Paukert; Joel A. Klammer; Rodney B. Pierce; Timothy D. Simonson

2001-01-01

97

Construct Mechanical Pike and Tow Tank Chengcheng Feng  

E-print Network

Construct Mechanical Pike and Tow Tank Chengcheng Feng Faculty Mentor: Professor Yahya Modarres-Sadeghi, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Biomimicry offers valuable solutions to engineering problems through observing nature. The aim of this project is to examine the mechanisms of a northern pike, esox lucius fast

Mountziaris, T. J.

98

Masculinization of Northern Pike Fry Using the Steroid 11 ?-Hydroxyandrostenedione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and histological studies of gonads demonstrated that 11 ?-hydroxyandrostenedione (11 ?-HA) can be used to control the phenotypic sex in northern pike Esox lucius. Oral administration of 11 ?-HA (30 mg\\/kg pelleted food) to northern pike juveniles (average total length ± SD = 2.80 ± 0.18 cm) for 2 weeks resulted in sex reversal of most of the females

Krystyna Demska-Zakes; Jaroslaw Krol; Marek J. Luczynski; Konrad Dabrowski; Miroslaw Luczynski

2000-01-01

99

Using Bioenergetics Modeling to Estimate Consumption of Native Juvenile Salmonids by Nonnative Northern Pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002–2003) and applied food habits data (1999–2003) to estimate their annual consumption

Clint C. Muhlfeld; David H. Bennett; R. Kirk Steinhorst; Brian Marotz; Matthew Boyer

2008-01-01

100

Combining ecology, human demands, and philosophy into the management of northern pike in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus) are a common sportfish native to most waters in Michigan. Early use of northern pike was unregulated consumptive\\u000a harvest. Pike anglers today vary from those interested in intense harvest, to winter spear fisheries, to those interested\\u000a in catching trophy fish. Michigan pike are now managed within three ecological groupings: 1. High density and slow growing

James S. Diana; Kregg Smith

2008-01-01

101

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike

Stephen C. Jewett; Xiaoming Zhang; A. Sathy Naidu; John J. Kelley; Doug Dasher; Lawrence K. Duffy

2003-01-01

102

Walleye and Northern Pike: Boost or Bane to Northwest Fisheries?  

E-print Network

of these species in the northwestern United States and outline some approaches for evaluating risks and benefits popularity of nonnative walleye (Stizostedion vit- reum) and northern pike (Esox lucius) as sport fishes has, while state agencies have ini- tiated detailed environmental re- views to evaluate risks and benefits

McMahon, Thomas E.

103

A Review of Northern Pike Population Genetics Research andIts Implications for Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving genetic diversity within and among populations of northern pike Esox lucius is important for maintaining their short-term fitness and long-term evolutionary potential. Northern pike have consistently shown low within-population variation, as detected by allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Microsatellite DNA loci reveal considerably greater variation in northern pike, yet microsatellite variation tends to be less than

Loren M. Miller; Wansuk Senanan

2003-01-01

104

A Review of Northern Pike Population Genetics Research andIts Implications for Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving genetic diversity within and among populations of northern pike Esox lucius is important for maintaining their short-term fitness and long-term evolutionary potential. Northern pike have consistently shown low within-population variation, as detected by allozymes, mitochon- drial DNA, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Microsatellite DNA loci reveal considerably greater variation in northern pike, yet microsatellite variation tends to be less

Loren M. Miller; Wansuk Senanan

2003-01-01

105

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy).  

PubMed

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. PMID:21585899

Sloss, Brian L; Franckowiak, Ryan P; Murphy, Edward L

2008-07-01

106

Genetic Divergence among Northern Pike from Spawning Locations in the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ecological consequences associated with the degradation of riparian wetlands that historically provided spawning and rearing habitat for northern pike Esox lucius, annual spawning migrations and genetic structure were used to examine this species' dependence on four specific spawning areas in the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River. Tagging and recapture over three consecutive spawning seasons

Aaron Bosworth; John M. Farrell

2006-01-01

107

Electrofishing Catchability of Walleyes, Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Northern Pike, and Muskellunge in Wisconsin Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether electrofishing catchability was density dependent and varied with physical and biological factors for walleyes Sander vitreus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, smallmouth bass M. dolomieu, northern pike Esox lucius, and muskellunge E. masquinongy in Wisconsin lakes. Electrofishing catch rate (number of fish caught per shoreline mile) was linearly related to population density (number of fish per

Casey W. Schoenebeck; Michael J. Hansen

2005-01-01

108

Oviduct Insertion of Radio Transmitters as a Means of Locating Northern Pike Spawning Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

I inserted radio transmitters into the oviducts of northern pike Esox lucius in an attempt to find their spawning grounds. Oviduct insertion of miniature radio transmitters was quick and easy. I hoped that transmitters would be expelled with the eggs to aid in identifying critical habitat used for egg deposition. Ten transmitters were implanted in the egg masses of female

Rodney B. Pierce

2004-01-01

109

Temporal stability in size distributions and growth rates of three Esox lucius L. populations.  

E-print Network

. A result of cannibalism? L. PERSSON*, A. BERTOLO* AND A. M. DE ROOSĀ§ *Department of Ecology-history characteristics such as minimum and maximum victim:cannibal size ratios and (2) the cannibal-driven population: cannibalism; growth rates; pike; population length structure; predation window. INTRODUCTION The ability

Roos, AndrƩ M. de

110

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

111

Comparison of dietary mercury exposure in two sympatric top predator fishes, largemouth bass and northern pike: a bioenergetics modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and ecological factors, including lake temperature, fish physiology, and diet, influence methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in fish. We employed bioenergetics modeling to compare dietary MeHg exposure in sympatric top predators, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). We compared simulations using field data to hypothetical simulations with (1) ± 25% change in mean daily lake temperature for juvenile

Nicole K. MacRury; Brian D. S. Graeb; Brett M. Johnson; William H. Clements

2002-01-01

112

Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.  

PubMed

This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures. PMID:25242691

Denys, Gaėl Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnčs; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

2014-09-01

113

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sloss, B.L.; Franckowiak, R.P.; Murphy, E.L.

2008-01-01

114

Year-Class Formation of Upper St. Lawrence River Northern Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974–1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and

Brian M. Smith; John M. Farrell; H. Brian Underwood; Stephen J. Smith

2007-01-01

115

Young northern pike, yellow perch and crayfish as bioindicators in a mercury contaminated watercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young-of-the-year and yearling northern pike (Esox lucius), yearling yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and adult crayfish (Orconectes virilis) were collected in the mercury-contaminated Wabigoon\\/English\\/Winnipeg River System, Ontario, and analyzed for total mercury. Analysis of mercury concentrations in these organisms produced consistent geographical trends; i.e. mercury concentrations in biota downstream of Dryden > English River system > Winnipeg River system > control

J. W. Parks; C. Curry; D. Romani; D. D. Russell

1991-01-01

116

Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

2013-01-01

117

Comparison of dietary mercury exposure in two sympatric top predator fishes, largemouth bass and northern pike: a bioenergetics modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and ecologicalfactors, including lake temperature, fishphysiology, and diet, influence methylmercury(MeHg) exposure in fish. We employedbioenergetics modeling to compare dietary MeHgexposure in sympatric top predators, largemouthbass (Micropterus salmoides) and northernpike (Esox lucius). We comparedsimulations using field data to hypotheticalsimulations with (1) ± 25% change in meandaily lake temperature for juvenile and adultbass and pike; (2) ± 25% change inlong-term growth

Nicole K. MacRury; Brian D. S. Graeb; Brett M. Johnson; William H. Clements

2002-01-01

118

Pikes (Esox lucius L. ) shown to be affected by low pH values during first weeks after hatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing amount of sulfurous fuels combusted, more and more sulfur is being emitted into the air. The sulfur is primarily converted to SOā during combustion but will form HāSOā in the air (Brosset, 1973). This has led to a decreased pH of rainwater, and thus to a decreased pH in lakes and rivers (Oden and Ahl, 1970).

N. Johansson; J. E. Kihlstroem

1973-01-01

119

The conservation and fishery benefits of protecting large pike (Esox lucius L.) by harvest regulations in recreational fishing  

E-print Network

a Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries regulatory approach of man- agement by small minimum-length limits (so that culling of large fish

Dieckmann, Ulf

120

Spatial behaviour of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded  

E-print Network

freshwater environments (Cassel- man 1996), and seasonally flooded and vegetated areas are essential spawning of Freshwater Fish 2009: 18: 314Ā­322 Printed in Malaysia Ć? All rights reserved Ć? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH Cucherousset J, Paillisson J-M, Cuzol A, Roussel J-M. Spatial behaviour

Cucherousset, Julien

121

Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population  

PubMed Central

Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

1997-01-01

122

J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc., 2005, 24(4):904918 2005 by The North American Benthological Society  

E-print Network

Invertivory by northern pike (Esox lucius) structures communities of littoral macroinvertebrates in small and subsequent recovery even when such fluctuations involve the normally piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius

Venturelli, Paul

123

Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

2013-01-01

124

Young northern pike, yellow perch and crayfish as bioindicators in a mercury contaminated watercourse.  

PubMed

Young-of-the-year and yearling northern pike (Esox lucius), yearling yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and adult crayfish (Orconectes virilis) were collected in the mercury-contaminated Wabigoon/English/Winnipeg River System, Ontario, and analyzed for total mercury. Analysis of mercury concentrations in these organisms produced consistent geographical trends; i.e. mercury concentrations in biota downstream of Dryden > English River system > Winnipeg River system > control sites. In the Wabigoon River system the bioavailability of mercury increases with distance downstream of the historical point source. Mercury concentrations in the biota studied were highly correlated with mercury concentrations in fish species which are of sport and commercial interest. The locations where young fish obtain their bodyburdens are known typically within 100 m. The biota studied compare favourably with the criteria proposed by Phillips (1980) as prerequisites for biological indicators. The wide distribution of young pike, perch and crayfish in North America, Europe and Asia may enhance their appeal as biomonitors. PMID:24241775

Parks, J W; Curry, C; Romani, D; Russell, D D

1991-01-01

125

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

126

First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

2011-06-16

127

THE TRUE PIKES by E rnest G . K arvelis  

E-print Network

THE TRUE PIKES by E rnest G . K arvelis The true pikes are members of the family Esocidae), northern pike (E s ox lucius), chain picke rel (E s OJ; niger), redfinpickerel (E s OJ; americanus are those recommended in 1960 b y the Committee on Names of Fishes of the American Fi sheries Society

128

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational  

E-print Network

of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius) Robert Arlinghaus,1-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find

Dieckmann, Ulf

129

Fisheries Research 97 (2009) 223233 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

-and-release angling on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) Robert Arlinghausa,b, , Thomas Klefotha , Steven J. Cookec stressors using a combined laboratory and field study in northern pike (Esox lucius L.). A labora- tory

Suski, Cory David

130

Trait changes in a harvested population are driven by a dynamic tug-of-war between  

E-print Network

-based data on Windermere pike (Esox lucius), we show that trait changes tracked the adaptive peak, which populations. We performed this task in pike (Esox lucius) from Windermere, U.K. This system is particu- larly

Carlson, Stephanie

131

ORIGINAL PAPER Assessing evolutionary consequences of size-selective  

E-print Network

on multiple life-history traits, with an application to northern pike (Esox lucius) Shuichi Matsumura Ā· Robert- selective exploitation of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) with recreational-fishing gear. An age

Dieckmann, Ulf

132

Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 9: 137147, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). We compared simulations using field data to hypothetical taken. For instance, northern pike (Esox lucius) are more strict piscivores compared to largemouth bass

133

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:186193, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000  

E-print Network

fit between predicted and observed food consumption for northern pike Esox lucius. Similarly, poor, 1999 kellunge Esox masquinongy and tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy E. lucius (Wahl and Stein 1991

134

Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

2003-01-01

135

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers.  

PubMed

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers had mean concentrations of THg in muscle of 1.506 and 0.628 mg/kg wet wt, respectively. The mean concentrations of THg in grayling muscle from these rivers were 0.264 and 0.078 mg/kg, respectfully. Whitefish had a mean THg concentration in muscle of 0.032 mg/kg. MeHg, in pike and grayling constituted nearly 100% of the THg concentrations; the proportion was less in whitefish. A significant positive correlation between Hg levels and fish length was also found. Generally, there were no changes in Hg concentrations in pike or grayling over the last several years. Only pike from theYukon River had THg concentrations that exceeded the USFDA action level for human consumption of edible fish (1 mg/kg). Human hazard index for pike was > or = 1 for both adults and children, indicating a potential for toxic concern, especially among children. Further studies are needed to determine the environmental and human health impacts associated with these Hg concentrations in western Alaska, especially in the context of potentially increased consumption of resident fishes when anadromous salmon catches are reduced. PMID:12656259

Jewett, Stephen C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Naidu, A Sathy; Kelley, John J; Dasher, Doug; Duffy, Lawrence K

2003-01-01

136

Nearshore fish assemblages associated with introduced predatory fishes in lakes  

E-print Network

Micropterus salmoides, pike Esox lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and walleye Sander vitreus

Ricciardi, Anthony

137

United States Department of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary  

E-print Network

) . In North America the~e are five specie s: Esox masquinongy (muskellunge) , Esox lucius (northern #12;pike confused as pike and pickerel. The true pikes a ll belong to one fam- ily (Esocidae) and to one genus (Esox, pike, pickerel, jack), Esox niger (chain or eastern picker el) ) Esox vermiculatus (grass, mud

138

United States Department of the Interior, Douglas McKay, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, John L. Farley, Director  

E-print Network

). In North America there are five species: Esox masquinongy (muskellunge), Esox lucius (north- ern pike, pike confused as pike and pickerel. The true pikes all belong to one family (Esocidae) and to one genus (Esox, pickerel, jack), Esox nig)r (chain-or-eastern pickerel), Esox vermiculatus (mUd or little pickerel

139

Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

2008-01-01

140

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

-tagged hatchery-reared young-of-the-year northern pike Esox lucius (mean fork length FL 51.0 mm Ā± 5.3 S: Passive integrated transponder; Portable detector; Esox lucius; Survival; Stocking program 1. Introduction Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a predatory keystone species that tolerates a broad range of environmental

Cucherousset, Julien

141

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

pike (Esox lucius L.) S.M. Hadi Alavi a,*, Marek Rodina a , Ana T.M. Viveiros b , Jacky Cosson c; received in revised form 23 January 2009; accepted 25 January 2009 Abstract Northern pike (Esox lucius L reserved. Keywords: Esox lucius; Sperm; SEM; Flagella; Osmolality 1. Introduction

Villefranche sur mer

142

2004 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Copeia, 2004(4), pp. 743757  

E-print Network

Amur Pike) is restricted to the Amur River basin of northeastern Asia. Esox lucius is the type species lucius (the Amur and Northern Pike, respectively). Incongru- ent results between the morphological

Laten, Howard M.

143

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:488-492, 1989 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1989  

E-print Network

) is an index used to quantify length-frequency data. The PSD of populations ofnorthern pike Esox lucius- son and Weithman (1978) suggested that walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and northern pike Esox lu- cius

144

Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

1982-01-01

145

Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

Hassler, T.J.

1982-10-01

146

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01

147

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15 :838-844, 1995 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1995  

E-print Network

of northern pike Esox lucius (Fisheries Techniques Standardization Committee 1992) . Seasonal variations Fisheries Society 1995 Seasonal Variation in Gill-Net Sample Indexes for Northern Pike Collected from pike Esox lucius in 416 gill-net sets on 17 monthly oc- casions from July 1991 to June 1993 to examine

148

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6158  

E-print Network

roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.). The two methods vegetation. It is likely microhabitat; scuba diving; lake; Rutilus rutilus; Perca fluviatilis; Esox

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

149

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

of catch-and-release angling on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) Robert Arlinghausa,b, , Thomas Klefotha, catch-and-release related stressors using a combined laboratory and field study in northern pike (Esox lucius L.). A labora- tory experiment was conducted to investigate the recovery dynamics of physiological

Cooke, Steven J.

150

Structural and functional impairment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis in fish  

E-print Network

pike, Esox lucius, and the yellow perch, Perca flavescens, sampled upstream and downstream from a pulp cortisol following a standardized capture and handling stress were lower in pike and perch from sites

Rasmussen, Joseph

151

Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar  

Microsoft Academic Search

1825-1893 U.S. Senator 1856-60, 1872 Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court 1888-92 Artist: Maurice Siegler Donor: Law Classes of 1925 and 1926 Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus Lamar was born in Putnam County, Georgia, September 17, 1825. He received his early education in Oxford, Mississippi and was graduated from Emory College in 1845. Later he read law in Macon and was admitted to

Lucius Q. C. Lamar

2009-01-01

152

C. R. Biologies 332 (2009) 741746 Ecology / cologie  

E-print Network

Ā± SE = 4.2 Ā± 0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP = 3.7 Ā± 0 brochet (Esox lucius, TP = 3,7 Ā± 0,1) ou le silure (Silurus glanis, TP = 3,8 Ā± 0,1). La plupart des Ć©tudes

Cucherousset, Julien

153

Development of the head skeleton and pectoral girdle in Esox.  

PubMed

A consideration of head development in two species of Esox, lucius and americanus (ssp. vermiculatus) representing the two subgenera Esox and Kenozoa respectively, focused on the significance of the variations of the latero-sensory canal system, its associated bones, and other skeletal elements. In living forms only aspects of "regression" or specialization can be studied. Canals tend to be reduced to pit lines first at their termini but can be broken in their course. Pit lines range from nearly canals to surface structures, or even fail to develop. The number of neuromasts varies. Canal bones develop from two centers: neuromast related and deeper membranous centers which may have no relationship to neuromasts. Tooth-bearing and non-canal-related dermal bones have only membranous (original) centers. The number of neuromasts associated with a bone usually does not affect its development or form. In the case of the circumorbital bones, the extrascapulars, and the nasal, a one to one relationship has developed by regression--towards the development of the latero-sensory component only. The idea that reductions in bone number are commonly traceable to fusion is rejected although examples of fusion are know. Most bones that disappear are simply lost (no blastema or other evidence of their presence seen in development). The relationship between dermal bone and chondral bone is examined and there is evidence of the former giving rise to the latter. The ontogenic order of appearances shows a feeding (functional) correlation. PMID:1159792

Jollie, M

1975-09-01

154

This article was downloaded by: [University of Wisconsin -Madison] On: 28 May 2013, At: 05:28  

E-print Network

Wisconsin. Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, black bass (i.e., Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and Largemouth Bass M. salmoides), Northern Pike E. lucius, Walleye Sander vitreus, and panfish were released

155

fisheriesresearch Introduction  

E-print Network

in fishery research. Zooplankton abundance and size structure have been related to yellow perch (Perca-den- sity populations of yellow perch, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and north- ern pike (Esox lucius

156

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1997 REACTIONS OF Gammarus lacustris TO CHEMICAL  

E-print Network

pheromone decreases the capture efficiency of predatory larvaldragonflies (Aeshna umbrosa) (Hews, 1988 and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike, alarm pheromone, kairomone, predator avoidance, antipredator behavior, Esox lucius, Aeshna eremita

Wisenden, Brian D.

157

Selective Predation by Three Esocids: The Role of Prey Behavior and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented differential vulnerability of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to predation by muskel- lunge Esox masquinongy. northern pike E. lucius. and tiger muskellunge £\\

DAVID H. WAHL; ROY A. STEIN

1988-01-01

158

COOK, A. F., N. E. STACEY, AND R. E. PETER. 1980. Periovulatory changes in serum cortisol levels in  

E-print Network

in the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Gen. Compo Endocri- no\\. 40:507-510. HIROSE, K. 1976. Endocrine control pike(Esox lucius), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33:974-988. KAYA, C. M

159

DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

160

Effects of exposure to predatory cues on territorial behaviour of male fathead minnows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a laboratory study to determine if male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, altered their territorial behaviour associated with reproduction in response to combinations of visual and chemical cues from northern pike, Esox lucius. We introduced the following stimuli to a territorial male: a brick (control), fathead minnow alarm pheromone, a pike fed brook stickleback, Culea inconstans, or a pike

Hilary M. Jones; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

1997-01-01

161

Esox lucius k = (y2 -y1) / (x2 -x1)  

E-print Network

was later made into a college. 1813The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture was founded at the incentive.renren.com/601498210 youtube.com/SLUutbildning Follow us on facebook! 2 #12;Table of contents 02 SLU in brief 05 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences was formed, combining the three existing separate colleges

162

The role of olfaction in chemosensory-based predator recognition in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were rendered anosmic and exposed to chemical stimuli from a predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) to determine the role of olfaction in the minnow's ability to recognize predators on the basis of chemical stimuli. Anosmic fish did not respond to the pike stimuli with a typical fright reaction, while control fish, with intact olfactory receptors,

Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

163

Damselfly larvae learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the predator's diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemosensory recognition of predators by naive prey may be facilitated if the predator's diet chemically ‘labels’ the predator. In a laboratory experiment, behaviour patterns were quantified in individual damselfly larvae,Enallagmaspp., that had never been exposed to pike,Esox lucius, before and after exposing the damselflies to one of three chemical stimuli: water from a tank that held pike fed a diet

DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; BRIAN D. WISENDEN; R. JAN F. SMITH

1996-01-01

164

High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

2010-01-01

165

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

166

Determinants of habitat use in large roach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study gillnet catches of large roach Rutilus rutilus and their potential predators, large perch Perca fluviatilis, pikeperch Sander lucioperca and pike Esox lucius, in combination with data on food resources and abiotic variables were used to reveal the variables influencing the habitat use of large roach in Lake Großer Vatersee. The occurrence of large roach was negatively coupled

T. Schulze; H. Dörner; F. Hölker; T. Mehner

2006-01-01

167

The relationship between piscivory and growth of white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) and yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) in headwater lakes of the Canadian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from a survey of 36 headwater lakes of the Canadian Shield to investigate the relationship between piscivory and growth, abundance, and longevity of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). The occurrence of northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) explained variations in the abundance of both white sucker and yellow perch, suggesting strong

Andrea Bertolo; Pierre Magnan

2005-01-01

168

Mercury evolution (1978–1988) in fishes of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1978 to 1988, the evolution of the Hg content of fish has been monitored in the areas affected by the La Grande hydroelectric\\u000a complex. Four fish species were considered: two non piscivorous, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and two piscivorous, northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). The evolution of Hg concentrations in time

R. Verdon; D. Brouard; C. Demers; R. Lalumiere; M. Laperle; R. Schetagne

1991-01-01

169

Über die Muster ninhydrinpositiver Substanzen im Muskelgewebe von Knochenfischen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The free ninhydrimeactive substances have been estimated by column chromatography in the white lateral body muscles of the following fishes: 6 mirror carps (Cyprinus carpio, L.), 3 tenches (Tinca vulgaris, Cuv.), 3 rainbowtrouts (Salmo gairdneri, R.), 3 pikes (Esox lucius, L), 4 eels (Anguilla anguilla, L.),14 cods (Gadus morrhua, L.), 3 haddocks (Gadus aeglefinus, L.), 3 coalfishes (Gadus virens,

W. Partmann; H. Schlaszus

1973-01-01

170

Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all

Glenn R. Phillips; Thomas E. Lenhart; Richard W. Gregory

1980-01-01

171

Fish Community Responses to the Introduction of Muskellunge in Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We evaluated responses of seven ,fish species to muskellunge ,by comparing catch per unit effort (CPUE) before and after muskellunge ,were stocked in 41 Minnesota lakes composed of 12 lake classes. The species examined were: northern pike Esox lucius, walleye Sander vitreus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and tullibee Core-

Michael L. Knapp; Steven W. Mero; David J. Bohlander; David F. Staples; E. Hwy; Grand Rapids

172

Trends in Abundance and Mean Size of Fish Captured in Gill Nets from Minnesota Lakes, 1983–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated seasonal and 15-year trends in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and mean weight of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, ciscoes Coregonus artedi, northern pike Esox lucius, walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), white suckers Catostomus commersoni, and yellow perch Perca flavescens captured in gill nets from 433 Minnesota lakes between 1983 and 1997. Seasonal trends were modeled using least-squares

Gerold C. Grant; Yaniv Schwartz; Sanford Weisberg; Dennis H. Schupp

2004-01-01

173

Seasonal Variation in Catch Rate and Body Condition for Four Fish Species in a South Dakota Natural Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in catch rate (catch per unit effort, CPUE) and body condition (relative weight, Wr) for northern pike Esox lucius, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and walleye Stizostedion vitreum sampled with trap (modified fyke) nets was evaluated in Lake Madison, a natural lake in eastern South Dakota, from March through October, 1990. Seasonal variation in CPUE

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1991-01-01

174

Some Factors Influencing Seasonal Changes in Angler Catch in a Minnesota Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken in a small Minnesota lake to determine the relationship between angler success for northern pike (Esox lucius), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and food availability and food selectivity by these species. Fishing success was determined by creel census and food selectivity by stomach analysis of angler-caught fish. Food availability was determined by bottom sampling

Fred E. Lux; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1960-01-01

175

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1997 LEARNED RECOGNITION OF PREDATION RISK BY  

E-print Network

minnows (Pimephales promelas). The response to injured fathead minnows was not a general response). European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and brook stick- leback promelas, northern pike, Esox lucius. *To whom correspondence should be addressed at Center for Ecology

Wisenden, Brian D.

176

Ranking Predatory Threats by Nonnative Fishes in the Yampa River, Colorado, via Bioenergetics Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its relatively natural hydrograph, the Yampa River, Colorado, is considered the crown jewel of native fish habitat in the upper basin of the Colorado River and has supported a relatively intact native fish assemblage. Nonnative fishes are thought to pose the greatest threat to native fishes in this system. Removal programs for nonnative northern pike Esox lucius and

Brett M. Johnson; Patrick J. Martinez; John A. Hawkins; Kevin R. Bestgen

2008-01-01

177

Biological Methylation of Mercury in Aquatic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRESHWATER fish, especially pike (Esox lucius), from Sweden sometimes contain abnormally large amounts of mercury1. It was initially concluded to be either inorganic mercury or phenyl mercury, which are known to be released as industrial wastes, but later it was shown that the mercury was present almost entirely as methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)2. A possible explanation is that living organisms have

S. Jensen; A. JERNELÖV

1969-01-01

178

Growth and Relative Size of Calcified Structures of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between size of calcified structures and the body of fish has been used widely in fisheries science to estimate body size at a younger age by “back-calculation.” I labeled the calcified tissue of northern pike Esox lucius with tetracycline to examine the concurrent linear growth of calcified structures and the body. I also conducted comparisons of the sizes

John M. Casselman

1990-01-01

179

Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

2010-01-01

180

Response of the residential piscivorous fish community to introduction of a new predator type in a mesotrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effects of introduced predators on prey populations in aquatic ecosystems have been studied frequently, less is known about the interactions between predators. We performed a whole-lake experiment by stocking a non-native top predator (pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)) to two residential piscivores (Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)). By analyzing spatial distribution, diet composition, growth, and consump-

Torsten Schulze; Ulrich Baade; Hendrik Dörner; Reiner Eckmann; Susanne S. Haertel-Borer; Franz Hölker; Thomas Mehner

2006-01-01

181

Reactions of Gammarus lacustris to Chemical Stimuli from Natural Predators and Injured Conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exposed the freshwater amphipod Gammarus lacustris, to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and to chemical stimuli from two types of natural predators: dragonfly larvae (Aeshna eremita) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Exposure to all three stimuli caused G. lacustris to reduce significantly its level of activity relative to activity recorded in response to a distilled water control. The similarity

Karen Wudkevich; Brian D. Wisenden; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1997-01-01

182

Littoral Fish Community Response to Smallmouth Bass Removal from an Adirondack Lake  

E-print Network

littoral fish abundance, we removed 47,682 smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu from a 271-ha Adirondack 1999). Previous observational studies have shown that introductions of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolo- mieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and northern pike Esox lucius have been associated

Kraft, Clifford E.

183

Interactions between Walleyes and Four Fish Species with Implications for Walleye Stocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a number of different data sets and four criteria to evaluate evidence of competition and predation between walleye Sander vitreus and northern pike Esox lucius, muskellunge E. masquinongy, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass M. salmoides in northern Wisconsin lakes. The four criteria were as follows: (1) indices of population abundance were inversely related, (2) two species

Andrew H. Fayram; Michael J. Hansen; Timothy J. Ehlinger

2005-01-01

184

A BroadScale Approach to Management of Ontario's Recreational Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable exploitation of Ontario's aquatic resources calls for a new management approach. This vast resource includes more than 250,000 lakes and offers angling opportunities for many popular species (e.g., walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout S. fontinalis, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and muskellunge E. masquinongy). In

Nigel P. Lester; Terry R. Marshall; Kim Armstrong; Warren I. Dunlop; Bev Ritchie

2003-01-01

185

76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2011-01-13

186

78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2013-08-09

187

76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2011-05-27

188

76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2011-02-18

189

77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2012-08-21

190

75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2010-08-23

191

76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2011-05-11

192

75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2010-10-26

193

75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado....

2010-12-16

194

77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed Pike Road allotment. It is the Commission's policy to refrain from making an allotment to a community absent an expression of interest. We will not allot Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama. ADDRESSES: Secretary, Federal Communications...

2012-06-29

195

OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

196

PILOT EVALUATION OF ENHANCED E-SOX PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses pilot-plant tests with a 28 cu m/min (1000 cfm)electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to evaluate techniques that havea potential for enhancing the S02 removal of the E-SOx process forretrofit application. he techniques investigated includedmass-transfer additives, ...

197

PIKE is essential for oligodendroglia development and CNS myelination.  

PubMed

Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelin development are complex events regulated by numerous signal transduction factors. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) is required for OL development and myelination. PIKE-L expression is up-regulated when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells commit to differentiation. Conversely, depleting phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer (PIKE) expression by shRNA prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation. In both conventional PIKE knockout (PIKE(-/-)) and OL-specific PIKE knockout mice, the number of OLs is reduced in the corpus callosum. PIKE(-/-) OLs also display defects when forming myelin sheath on neuronal axons during neonatal development, which is partially rescued when PTEN is ablated. In addition, Akt/mTOR signaling is impaired in OL-enriched tissues of the PIKE(-/-) mutant, leading to reduced expression of critical proteins for myelin development and hypomyelination. Moreover, myelin repair of lysolecithin-induced lesions is delayed in PIKE(-/-) brain. Thus, PIKE plays pivotal roles to advance OL development and myelinogenesis through Akt/mTOR activation. PMID:24449917

Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Lixia; Liu, Guanglu; Lee, Chi Wai; Feng, Yue; Ye, Keiqang

2014-02-01

198

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjųrn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

2009-01-01

199

[The forms of the population variability of the chitinoid formations in Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea: Tetraonchidae)].  

PubMed

Population variability of the adhesive apparatus and copulatory organ of Tetraonchus momenteron from young and adult pikes (Esox lucius) from Rybinsk reservoir (Volga river system) and adult pikes from lake Baikal has been studied. Comparison analysis of seven plastic and one meristic characters allowed to discover differences between the groups of monogeneans from young and adult pikes from "rybinsk" population by frequently of the variations of number of the tight coils of copulatory organ support bar. Differences between "rybinsk" and "baikal" populations of T. monenteron were found. The "baikal" monogeneans differ from the "rybinsk" ones by frequently of the copulatory organ phenes and also more large sizes of the chitinoid formations. PMID:8177612

Malashenko, A A

1994-01-01

200

Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

Sprigg, R. K.

1991-01-01

201

Dining Philosophers with Crash Locality 1 Scott M. Pike  

E-print Network

Dining Philosophers with Crash Locality 1 Scott M. Pike The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA pike@cis.ohio-state.edu Paolo A. G. Sivilotti The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 problems such as drinking philosophers [4], job-scheduling [5], and committee coordination [6]. Dining has

202

The challenge of lipid rafts Linda J. Pike1  

E-print Network

The challenge of lipid rafts Linda J. Pike1 Washington University School of Medicine Department to as lipid rafts. This review sum- marizes current thinking on the nature of lipid rafts focusing on the role of these membrane do- mains.--Pike, L. J. The challenge of lipid rafts. J. Lipid Res. 2009. S323Ā­S328. Supplementary

Pike, Linda J.

203

The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. PMID:24845618

Gündner, Anna Lisa; Hahn, Ines; Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

2014-01-01

204

Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic\\u000a acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different\\u000a fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great

Simone de Rosemond; Qianli Xie; Karsten Liber

2008-01-01

205

Environmental Contaminants in Fish and Their Associated Risk to Piscivorous Wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data\\u000a and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted\\u000a to screen

Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kathy R. Echols; Tom W. May; Carl E. Orazio; Donald E. Tillitt

2006-01-01

206

Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such as the loss of lake-marginal wetlands (nutrient filters, habitat for pike, Esox lucius) and chemical pollution toxic

H. Hosper

1997-01-01

207

Diplostomatid Eye Flukes in Young-of-the-Year and Forage Fishes in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of young-of-the year and forage fishes (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, northern pike Esox lucius, common carp Cyprinus carpio, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides, rosyface shiner Notropis rubellus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, silver redhorse Moxostoma anisurum, brown bullhead Ameirurus nebulosus, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, rock bass Ambloplitis rupestris, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis

David J. Marcogliese; Sacha Compagna

1999-01-01

208

Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 ?g\\/mg protein, while the

Lawrence K Duffy; Erica Scofield; Tauni Rodgers; Molly Patton; R. Terry Bowyer

1999-01-01

209

Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m?2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows,\\u000a whereas

Jacqueline F. Savino; Roy A. Stein

1989-01-01

210

Variability and loading of mercury in a small Prairie River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug\\/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug\\/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye

Wm. D. Gummer

1980-01-01

211

Chloride uptake in freshwater teleosts and its relationship to nitrite uptake and toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The relationship between rate of chloride uptake and external chloride concentration was investigated in Rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri, and Perch,Perca fluviatilis. The relationship between nitrite uptake and external nitrite and the inhibition of chloride uptake by nitrite was also investigated. Nitrite tolerance tests were performed on a variety of freshwater animals, including Carp,Cyprinus carpio, Tench,Tinca tinca, Pike,Esox lucius, Eel,Anguilla anguilla, and

E. M. Williams; F. B. Eddy

1986-01-01

212

FutureGrid User Support Gregory Pike, Andrew Younge,  

E-print Network

FutureGrid User Support Gregory Pike, Andrew Younge, Gregor von Laszewski, Fugang Wang, Javier Diaz;My Projects Screenshot #12;My Contents Contributions (Manual Pages) Screenshot #12;Project Committee

213

DAVID L. PIKE Department of Literature, American University  

E-print Network

DAVID L. PIKE Department of Literature, American University 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW & Critical Theory, 1985. EMPLOYMENT HISTORY Professor, Department of Literature, American University, 2008Ā­. Associate Professor, Department of Literature, American University, 2001Ā­2008. Assistant Professor

Lansky, Joshua

214

PIKE PLACE MARKET, CENTER OF PICTURE; ALASKAN WAY AT BOTTOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PIKE PLACE MARKET, CENTER OF PICTURE; ALASKAN WAY AT BOTTOM OF PICTURE. SECTION OF VIADUCT AS IT SEPARATES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

215

Pikes Peak Community College Institutional Profile, 1987-1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared to facilitate budgeting and planning at Pikes Peak Community College (PPCC), this institutional profile presents information on the college's programs, enrollments, students, staff, administration, finances, and facilities. The first sections provide a brief history of PPCC and a demographic profile of its service area. The next section…

Pikes Peak Community Coll., Colorado Springs.

216

EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

217

Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R(2) < 0.198) in all examined predatory fish species. There was an inverse correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content in the muscle tissues of dace, pike perch, pike, European catfish and asp. The muscle tissue of rainbow trout exhibits a linear correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content. The total mercury concentration of all examined samples did not exceed the hygienic limit for Hg for predatory fish. PMID:24779785

Strapį?, Imrich; Sokol, Jozef; Žatko, Daniel; Baranovį, Mįria

2012-01-01

218

Scrambled Elements Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems  

E-print Network

Scrambled Elements Robert D. Pike 1 15 19 23 29 38 42 50 58 62 70 78 82 86 2 30 51 71 3 31 52 72 24's sometimes represented as X 18. Auricular 19. Superior serve 20. Scrambled element #87 22. Response to danger element #101 50. Folklore 53. Psych lab need 54. Org. that scans the heavens 58. Brits 59. Vehicles 61

Pike, Robert D.

219

Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

2009-09-01

220

METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

221

Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 ?g/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 ?g/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 ?g/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 ?g/g) than those of pike (˜30 ?g/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

2014-01-01

222

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

The results of mercury and selenium analyses conducted on northern pike (Esox lucius) muscle tissue indicate distinct and significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels of fish from two lakes in Quebec. While fish samples from Lake Dufault had very low mercury concentrations, they appeared to have elevated amounts of selenium. Conversely, fish samples originating from Lake Duparquet had elevated mercury concentrations and low selenium levels. In both cases a comparison of means by the Student t test indicated significant (P < 0.01) differences between the mercury and selenium concentrations of fish samples from the two lakes.

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

223

Variability and loading of Mercury in a small prairie river. [None  

SciTech Connect

Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and other game fish in the Fishing Lakes of the Qu'Appelle River Basin contain mercury in excess of the Canadian guideline of 0.5 mg/kg.

Gummer, W.D.

1980-10-01

224

From Uplift to Glaciation: The Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Sarah, a 17 year old student from Colorado, takes a look at the geological past of Pikes Peak and its region. Her essay has a field-journal focus and covers how geologists divide Earth's history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic)and the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras.

225

Emulating the fast-start swimming performance of the Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) using a mechanical fish design  

E-print Network

Mean maximum start-up accelerations and velocities achieved by the fast-start specialist, northern pike, are reported at 120 ms-2 and 4 ms-1, respectively (Harper and Blake, 1990). In this thesis, a simple mechanical system ...

Watts, Matthew Nicholas

2006-01-01

226

Asymptotic growth, egg production and trivariate allometry in Esox masquinongy Mitchill.  

PubMed

Multivariate growth models based on the Lotka-Volterra equations seem more complicated than necessary for a fruitful analysis of relative growth data. A simpler and more practical approach combines multivariate allometry with parabolic or asymptotic growth with respect to time. A modified von Bertalanffy curve, X = A [1-exp (-t/D)]C, is compatible with allometry and yields a satisfactory description of somatic growth and egg production in the female muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). A multiplicative variation model appears adequate and partial linearization can be used. While the muskellunge reaches a large size, the present analysis suggests that its growth pattern is limited (asymptotic, determinate). The allometry exponents inferred from the multivariate asymptotic growth model differ slightly from those obtained from principal component analysis or from a trivariate linear structural relationship, but the latter may reflect physiological age rather than physical time. PMID:3792904

Lebeau, B; Jolicoeur, P; Pageau, G; Crossman, E J

1986-01-01

227

Hauen kasvu ja ravinto Tornionjoen alajuoksulla.  

E-print Network

??Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään hauen (Esox lucius) kasvunopeutta ja ravinnonkäyttöä Tornionjoen alajuoksulla sekä, onko hauen ravinnonkäyttö muuttunut lohen (Salmo salar) vaelluspoikasten kasvaneen määrän johdosta. Osaa tuloksista… (more)

Peltola, Mikko

2010-01-01

228

SeasonalVariationin Gill-NetSample Indexesfor Northern Pike Collectedfrom a GlacialPrairieLake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We captured702 northernpike Esox luciusin 416 gill-netsetson 17 monthly oc- casions from July 1991 to June 1993 to examine seasonal variationin sampling data in Lake Thompson, South Dakota.Mean catchper effort(CPE) of northernpike 35 cm or longerdiffered significantly among months during both years. Mean CPE was lowest in winter and peaked in springof both years.Size structureestimateswere lowest duringearlyspringand summer when males

ROBERT M. NEUMANN; DAVID W. WILLIS

229

From Uplift to Glaciation: Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 'Young Naturalist' award-winning essay reviews the geologic history of Pikes Peak and the southern Rocky Mountains, from Precambrian foundation to roughly contoured summits. The essay, in the form of a field journal, focuses on how geologists divide Earth's 4.6-billion-year history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic). It also discusses the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras, and the inevitable geologic changes the future will bring. References are included.

230

Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate.  

PubMed

Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (lambda) by 37-56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of lambda to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics. PMID:19923130

Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vųllestad, L Asbjųrn

2010-03-22

231

Spatio-temporal trends of PCBs in the Swedish freshwater environment 1981-2012.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been monitored in perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in reference lakes since the late 1960s. Temporal trends and spatial patterns are currently monitored in nine and 32 lakes, respectively. Overall, PCB concentrations are decreasing. However, this is not consistent for all congeners across all lakes and species. Perch has comparatively low PCB concentrations relative to suggested target levels, but individual congener concentrations in some lakes are concerningly high. No temporal trend is seen for CB-118 and CB-153 in perch, but significant decreasing trends exist for Arctic char and pike, for which monitoring started earlier than for perch. The lower/higher chlorinated congener ratio decreased over time in most lakes, indicating fewer new emissions. CB-118 and CB-153 concentrations in perch show spatial gradients across Sweden, with higher concentrations found near urban/industrial areas. PMID:25403969

Nyberg, Elisabeth; Danielsson, Sara; Eriksson, Ulla; Faxneld, Suzanne; Miller, Aroha; Bignert, Anders

2014-12-01

232

Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

1980-06-01

233

[Effect of temperature on proteinase activities of enteral microbiota and intestinal mucosa of fish of different ecological group].  

PubMed

Effect of temperature on proteinases activities of enteral microbiota and of intestinal mucosa was studied in five fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common perch Perca fluviatilis, pike-perch Zander lucioperca, and pike Esox lucius) belonging by the nutrition type to different ecological groups. Essential differences of temperature characteristics of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and of enteral microbiota are revealed in fish belonging by the nutrition type to different ecologic groups. The character of the t0-function of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and enteral microbiota by casein and hemoglobin as a rule is different. The highest values of relative proteinases activities for casein in the zone of low temperatures (38 and 45.3 % of the maximal activity) are found at study of proteinases of enteral microbiota in common perch and crucian carp. The latter indicates a significant adaptability of the enteral microbiota proteinases of common perch and crucial carp to functioning at low temperatures. PMID:22645973

Kuz'mina, V V; Shalygin, M V; Skvortsova, E G

2012-01-01

234

Uptake of pentachlorophenol in fish of acidified and nonacidified lakes  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to examine the uptake of pentachlopophenol (PCP) in fish (northern pike, Esox lucius L.) in one acidified and two non-acidified lakes. The lakes are situated in southern Sweden within 30 km of each other and are only exposed to persistent pollutants from the atmosphere. Because the lakes are of similar size and depth and situated in the same fall-out area, atmospheric input of PCP should be similar. Concentrations of PCP were significantly higher in pike from the acidified lake than from the non-acidified lakes. The results suggest that fish in acidified lakes are subjected to higher PCP exposure and uptake than fish from non-acidified lakes. 24 refs., 1 fig.

Larsson, P.; Bremle, G.; Okla, L. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

235

Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.  

PubMed

Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish. PMID:22864703

Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

2012-01-01

236

Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hakan; Brodersen, Jakob; Bronmark, Christer

2007-01-01

237

Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

1989-01-01

238

Ecological Modelling 149 (2002) 297311 Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population of  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 149 (2002) 297Ā­311 Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population is developed to assess simulta- neously the annual yield and the extinction risk of the exploited population resulting from different harvesting strategies (i.e. combinations of harvesting efforts on yearlings

Jost, Christian

239

DAVID L. PIKE Department of Literature 450 East 20th Street, 9D  

E-print Network

DAVID L. PIKE Department of Literature 450 East 20th Street, 9D American University New York, NY: dpike@american.edu EDUCATION Columbia University, Ph.D. with Distinction in Comparative Literature, 1993 of Literature, American University, 2008Ā­. Associate Professor, Department of Literature, American University

Carlini, David

240

Evidence to Support the Pike's Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program  

PubMed Central

The University of Alabama’s Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike’s Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike’s Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs. PMID:24883167

Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R.; Allen, Rebecca S.

2014-01-01

241

Growth factor receptors, lipid rafts and caveolae: An evolving story Linda J. Pike*  

E-print Network

Review Growth factor receptors, lipid rafts and caveolae: An evolving story Linda J. Pike to be localized to lipid rafts and caveolae. Consistent with a role for these cholesterol-enriched membrane to the relationship between growth factor receptors, lipid rafts and caveolae and presents a model for understanding

Pike, Linda J.

242

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) in the brain: is it simply a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt enhancer?  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in 2000, phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) has been recognized as a class of GTPase that controls the enzymatic activities of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in the central nervous system (CNS). However, recent studies suggest that PIKEs are not only enhancers to PI3K/Akt but also modulators to other kinases including insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinases. Moreover, they regulate transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor ?B. Indeed, PIKE proteins participate in multiple cellular processes including control of cell survival, brain development, memory formation, gene transcription, and metabolism. In this review, we have summarized the functions of PIKE proteins in CNS and discussed their potential implications in various neurological disorders. PMID:22499674

Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang

2013-01-01

243

Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions.  

PubMed

A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

Hein, Catherine L; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

2014-01-22

244

Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

2014-01-01

245

Androgenesis and homozygous gynogenesis in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy): evaluation using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on denucleation of eggs and investigate the heat-shock conditions for diploidization for induction of androgenesis in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Several egg incubation media, including saline, Ringer's solution, and Ringer's solution supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), were found suitable to maintain the egg fertility as high as in muskellunge ovarian fluid. The optimal doses of UV radiation were 660-1320 J/m2, at which 100% haploid larvae were produced at a hatching rate of 22.5 +/- 2.8%. UV irradiation at low doses (165-330 J/m2) generated abnormal larvae, which were morphologically identical to haploids. Using a flow cytometry method, it was found that cellular DNA content of these larvae was close to that of diploids but significantly lower in value and had a wider distribution (expressed as coefficient of variation) than that of control fish. This suggested that a low dose of UV irradiation might cause gene mutations, alteration of chromosomal conformation and fragmentation, but did not prevent maternal DNA from participating in mitotic division. Interference of maternal DNA residues could be another reason for the poor viability of androgenetic fish. A high dose of UV radiation (1980 J/m2) caused development of severely deformed embryos, indicating that UV radiation also damaged molecules in the eggs other than the denucleation. Our results suggest that classic color and allozyme markers might not be sufficient to prove a complete androgenesis. In order to optimize time and duration of shock for induced diploidization, we investigated the heat-shock conditions for inhibiting the first mitotic cleavage through induction of homozygous gynogenesis. We found that heat-shock treatment at 31 degrees C for 9 min starting at 1.4 tau 0 (a dimensionless factor describing progress in embryo development) after fertilization produced the highest percentage of diploids at hatching. PMID:9406191

Lin, F; Dabrowski, K

1998-01-01

246

Shedding of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (Genotype IVb) by experimentally infected muskellunge (Esox masquinongy).  

PubMed

Previous experimental infection demonstrated that juvenile muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) can survive experimental infection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) at a low concentration of exposure. Herein we report that survivors of experimental infection with VHSV IVb shed the virus into the surrounding environment for an extended period of time. When muskellunge were exposed to VHSV IVb by immersion at a concentration of 1,400 plaque forming units (PFU)/ml, VHSV IVb was detected in the water of surviving fish for up to 15 weeks postexposure (p.e.) with the highest levels of shedding occurring between weeks 1 and 5 p.e. We estimated that each juvenile muskellunge can shed upwards of 1.36×10(5) PFU/fish/h after initial exposure signifying the uptake and amplification of VHSV to several orders of magnitude above the original exposure concentration. Muskellunge surviving low concentration exposure were re-infected with VHSV IVb by immersion at week 22 p.e. at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10(6) PFU/ml. Viral shedding was detected in all re-exposed fish, including mock rechallenged controls up to 15 consecutive weeks. Rates of viral shedding were substantially higher following rechallenge in the first 5 weeks. The highest rate of viral shedding was approximately 4.6×10(6) PFU/fish/h and shedding did not necessarily correspond to the re-exposure VHSV concentration. The results of this study shed new light into the dynamics of VHSV IVb shedding in a highly susceptible host and provide useful insights to fishery managers to design effective control strategies to this deadly virus. PMID:22538657

Kim, Robert K; Faisal, Mohamed

2012-04-01

247

S- and C-start escape responses of the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) require alternative neuromotor mechanisms.  

PubMed

The startle response is a model system for examining the neural basis of behavior because of its relatively simple neural circuit organization and kinematic pattern. In fishes, the two primary types of startle behavior differ in their initial movements. In the C-start type of startle, the fish bends into a C shape, while the S-start involves an S-shaped body bend. Although considerable research has focused on determining how the C-start is generated neurally, S-start neurobiology has not been examined. I quantify the kinematics and electromyographic patterns of the initial movements of the C-start and S-start behaviors of the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) to test three hypotheses for how the S-start is generated. (i) The S-start is generated by the same motor neural circuit as the C-start, but passive bending of the tail causes the body to take on an S shape. (ii) The S-start is generated by the same motor neural circuit as undulatory swimming. (iii) The S-start is generated by an independent neural mechanism from that used either in the C-start or in undulatory swimming. Results from kinematics and muscle activity patterns support the third hypothesis. In the muskellunge, the S-start is a high-performance startle behavior with peak angular velocity and peak angular acceleration of its initial bending comparable with those of the C-start and higher than would be expected for undulatory swimming. The S-start motor pattern, however, is distinct from the C-start motor pattern in having simultaneous muscle activity anteriorly on one side of the body and posteriorly on the opposite side. In contrast, the C-start is characterized by simultaneous unilateral muscle activity along the full length of the body. Alternative models are proposed for S-start neural circuit organization involving reticulospinal and local control of muscle activity. PMID:12089206

Hale, Melina E

2002-07-01

248

Pupil dilation and visual field in the piked dogfish, Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively large eye and pupil of the Piked Dogfish, Squalus acanthias, is visually arresting. However, knowledge of its basic visual characteristics lags far behind other areas in this generally\\u000a well studied species. This study quantifies pupil dilation in a species that is naturally exposed to a broad range of light\\u000a intensities and finds that the pupil area in the

Stephen M. Kajiura

2010-01-01

249

PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

1995-12-31

250

Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and con- tained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate

E Elsayed; M Faisal; M Thomas; G Whelan; W Batts; J Winton

2006-01-01

251

Photoperiodic growth enhancement in a tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor.  

PubMed

The effect of photoperiod on growth and survival in early life was determined in the tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor. The results demonstrate high sensitivity of newly hatched C. estor to photoperiod treatments up to 90 days post hatch shown by improved growth in mass (43%) under continuous illumination. This is accompanied by increased fat deposition, which suggests a critical interaction between different photoperiod-mediated mechanisms. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms can help to optimize the development of aquaculture of C. estor and similar species. PMID:24976358

Martķnez-Chįvez, C C; Tello-Ballinas, A; Fonseca-Madrigal, J; Ross, L G; Martķnez-Palacios, C A

2014-08-01

252

An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. PMID:23597093

2013-01-01

253

Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

Kile, D. E.

2005-01-01

254

Optimisation of high bar circling technique for consistent performance of a triple piked somersault dismount.  

PubMed

The dismount from the high bar is one of the most spectacular skills performed in Men's Artistic Gymnastics. Hiley and Yeadon [2005. Maximal dismounts from high bar. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 2221-2227] optimised the technique in the backward giant circle prior to release using a computer simulation model to show that a gymnast could generate sufficient linear and angular momentum to perform a triple piked backward somersault dismount with a sufficiently large release window (the period of time during which the gymnast could release the bar and successfully complete the dismount). In the present study, it was found that when the timing of the actions at the hip and shoulder joints from the optimum simulation were perturbed by 30ms the resulting simulation could no longer meet the criteria for sufficient aerial rotation and release window. Since it is to be expected that a gymnast's technique can cope with small errors in timing for consistent performance, a requirement of robustness to timing perturbations should be included within the optimisation process. When the technique in the backward giant circle was optimised to be robust to 30ms perturbations, it was found that sufficient linear and angular momentum for a triple piked dismount could be achieved with a realistic release window. PMID:18402965

Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

2008-01-01

255

Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?  

PubMed

Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients. PMID:19609567

Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

2009-10-01

256

Perchlorate trophic transfer increases tissue concentrations above ambient water exposure alone in a predatory fish.  

PubMed

This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 d and/or through feeding, 1 per day over 14 d, sticklebacks that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:24188192

Furin, Christoff G; von Hippel, Frank A; Hagedorn, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd M

2013-01-01

257

PERCHLORATE TROPHIC TRANSFER INCREASES TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE AMBIENT WATER EXPOSURE ALONE IN A PREDATORY FISH  

PubMed Central

This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 days and/or through feeding one stickleback per day over 14 days that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:24188192

Furin, Christoff G.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Hagedorn, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

258

Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

Parsons, John W.

1967-01-01

259

Predicting change in fish mercury concentrations following reservoir impoundment.  

PubMed

Fish mercury concentrations frequently increase after impoundment of a reservoir. Soil flooding releases organic matter and nutrients, providing food to bacterial communities that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylation and bioaccumulation are the primary pathways for mercury accumulation in fish. We investigated if changes in fish mercury concentrations could be predicted from the change in reservoir size. Data for three fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from reservoirs in northern Manitoba and northern Quebec were used to evaluate four simple models of change in mercury with change in flooded area. For three additional fish species, all primary carnivores, the preferred model consisted of a single exponential enrichment term. This model successfully predicted two cases not used in model development-one with a large change in area and one with a small change in area. Models with good predictive skill can be developed when the underlying dynamics are known. PMID:15093096

Therriault, T W; Schneider, D C

1998-01-01

260

A new leech species (Clitellata: Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) from the ?yna River near Olsztyn, Poland.  

PubMed

A new species of fish leech from Poland, Piscicola burresoni n. sp. (Piscicolidae), is described. The leech was found in 2007 on stones and on pike ( Esox lucius L.) and chub ( Leuciscus cephalus L.) in the ?yna River, Poland. The leech is small, relatively flattened, with a prominent coarctation between the trachelosome and urosome. The pigmentation is unique to the new species and it has 14 annuli with gonopores separated by 4 annuli. The receptaculum seminis consists of an elliptical aperture located at a distance of 3 annuli behind the female gonopore. The copulatory area on the clitellum is characteristic in the shape of a parallel ellipse. The vector tissue is in the form of a transverse plate below the oviduct outlet. For a complete description of the external morphology, a geometric-mathematical model of the leech body form was used. PMID:23276262

Bielecki, Aleksander; Cichocka, Joanna M; ?wi?tek, Piotr; Gorzel, Ma?gorzata

2013-06-01

261

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels in fish from the two lakes were reported. Fish samples from Lake Dufault had low mercury concentrations but elevated levels of selenium. Fish samples from Lake Duparquet, however, had elevated mercury levels and low selenium levels. Elevated mercury levels were present in sediment samples from both lakes. Mercury and selenium levels in water samples from both lakes were at or below analytical detection limits. (15 references, 3 tables)

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

262

Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.  

PubMed

In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated. PMID:10622434

Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

1999-10-01

263

Induced histopathologic alterations in early life stages (ELS) of medaka (Oryzias latipes)  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural and industrial pollutants cause extensive alterations in fish embryos, and the cardiovascular system is often targeted. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds produce lesions in lake and rainbow trout (Salvelinus namaycush and Oncorhynchus mykiss), and northern pike (Esox lucius), ultimately compromising ELS survival, and possibly stock recruitment. Pericardial edema was produced by exposure of medaka embryos to thiobencarb, molinate, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, dioxin, and products of incomplete combustion from trichloroethylene incineration. These lesions closely resembled those observed in birds, Xenopus, and other fish species. This work focuses on gross morphologic and histologic alterations of heart, major blood vessels, pericardial cavity, skeletal muscle, and brain. Endothelium, perivascular connective tissue, and other tissues of embryos and larvae were examined in semithin (4 {mu}m) glycolmethacrylate-embedded serial sections. Structural defects and their microscopic features will be presented.

Villalobos, S.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

264

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

265

Noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and tryptophan concentrations in the brains of four cohabiting species of fish.  

PubMed

1. The concentrations of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and the amino acid tryptophan were determined in the telencephalon, optic lobes and rest of the brains of four species of fish collected from a stream in central Saskatchewan. 2. The species investigated were white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), longnosed dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) and northern pike (Esox lucius). 3. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of amines in different regions of the brain within species and within the same brain region between species. 4. These results may be related to the phylogenetic differences or to patterns in brain development evolved by fish species to adapt to particular lifestyles. PMID:2898995

Sloley, B D; Rehnberg, B G

1988-01-01

266

Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

Holland, L. E.

1987-01-01

267

Development of neutralizing antibody responses in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), experimentally exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (genotype IVb).  

PubMed

A complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test was used to assess the neutralizing antibody response in sera of muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, experimentally infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV, genotype IVb) by immersion. Groups of muskellunge were challenged with varying concentrations of VHSV: Group 1 with 10(2) plaque-forming units (pfu)?mL(-1) , Group 2 with 4?×?10(3) ?pfu?mL(-1) , Group 3 with 10(5) ?pfu?mL(-1) and Group 4 with 0?pfu?mL(-1) . The fish were held at a temperature of 11?±?1?°C and were sampled over a 20-week period. Neutralizing antibodies were not detected in sera of any of the negative control fish throughout the study. Low neutralizing titres were detected in Groups 1-3 by 6?days post-infection (p.i.). Neutralizing titres of ?80 [corrected]. were not detected again until 3, 4 and 7?weeks p.i. for Groups 2, 3 and 1, respectively, with peak titres for those groups occurring 16, 11 and 17?weeks p.i., respectively. VHSV was detected in serum for up to 11?weeks p.i. Results of this study show that survivors can be detected by a serological technique, despite being virus negative. This may benefit the investigation of VHSV IVb distribution in the Great Lakes and the study of host immune responses to this emerging sublineage. PMID:22091537

Millard, E V; Faisal, M

2012-01-01

268

Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb antibodies in sera of muskellunge Esox masquinongy using competitive ELISA.  

PubMed

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) in fish sera. Assay conditions were standardized using known negative and positive muskellunge Esox masquinongy. A positive-negative threshold of 14.6% inhibition was established based on analysis of sera of 60 muskellunge with no previous exposure to VHSV-IVb. The cELISA was then used to investigate immune responses of wild muskellunge sampled from 5 water bodies in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, between 2005 and 2012. Antibodies were detected in fish from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, and Lower Fox River/Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both water systems were considered enzootic for VHSV-IVb. Additionally, antibodies were detected in muskellunge from Thornapple Lake, a Michigan inland lake previously considered negative for VHSV-IVb based on virus isolation methods. Muskellunge populations from Lake Hudson, Michigan, and Butternut Lake, Wisconsin, lacked evidence of an immune response to VHSV-IVb. When results of the cELISA were compared to the 50% plaque neutralization test for several groups of fish, there was 78.4% agreement between the tests for antibody presence. The cELISA is a rapid and efficient test for the detection of binding antibodies to VHSV-IVb and will be a useful non-lethal tool for monitoring the spread of this serious pathogen. PMID:24695232

Millard, Elena V; Brenden, Travis O; LaPatra, Scott E; Marcquenski, Susan; Faisal, Mohamed

2014-04-01

269

Antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens alters food-web structure.  

PubMed

Selection can alter predator-prey interactions. However, whether and how complex food-webs respond to selection remain largely unknown. We show in the field that antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens on prey body-size can be a primary driver of food-web functioning. In Windermere, U.K., pike (Esox lucius, the predator) selected against small perch (Perca fluviatilis, the prey), while a perch-specific pathogen selected against large perch. The strongest selective force drove perch trait change and ultimately determined the structure of trophic interactions. Before 1976, the strength of pike-induced selection overrode the strength of pathogen-induced selection and drove a change to larger, faster growing perch. Predation-driven increase in the proportion of large, infection-vulnerable perch presumably favored the pathogen since a peak in the predation pressure in 1976 coincided with pathogen expansion and a massive perch kill. After 1976, the strength of pathogen-induced selection overrode the strength of predator-induced selection and drove a rapid change to smaller, slower growing perch. These changes made perch easier prey for pike and weaker competitors against juvenile pike, ultimately increasing juvenile pike survival and total pike numbers. Therefore, although predators and pathogens exploited the same prey in Windermere, they did not operate competitively but synergistically by driving rapid prey trait change in opposite directions. Our study empirically demonstrates that a consideration of the relative strengths and directions of multiple selective pressures is needed to fully understand community functioning in nature. PMID:19064927

Edeline, Eric; Ari, Tamara Ben; Vųllestad, L Asbjųrn; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils C

2008-12-16

270

Harvest-induced disruptive selection increases variance in fitness-related traits.  

PubMed

The form of Darwinian selection has important ecological and management implications. Negative effects of harvesting are often ascribed to size truncation (i.e. strictly directional selection against large individuals) and resultant decrease in trait variability, which depresses capacity to buffer environmental change, hinders evolutionary rebound and ultimately impairs population recovery. However, the exact form of harvest-induced selection is generally unknown and the effects of harvest on trait variability remain unexplored. Here we use unique data from the Windermere (UK) long-term ecological experiment to show in a top predator (pike, Esox lucius) that the fishery does not induce size truncation but disruptive (diversifying) selection, and does not decrease but rather increases variability in pike somatic growth rate and size at age. This result is supported by complementary modelling approaches removing the effects of catch selectivity, selection prior to the catch and environmental variation. Therefore, fishing most likely increased genetic variability for somatic growth in pike and presumably favoured an observed rapid evolutionary rebound after fishery relaxation. Inference about the mechanisms through which harvesting negatively affects population numbers and recovery should systematically be based on a measure of the exact form of selection. From a management perspective, disruptive harvesting necessitates combining a preservation of large individuals with moderate exploitation rates, and thus provides a comprehensive tool for sustainable exploitation of natural resources. PMID:19740875

Edeline, Eric; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vųllestad, L Asbjųrn

2009-12-01

271

Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

Nelson, William R.

1974-01-01

272

Strike feeding behavior in the muskellunge, Esox masquinongy: contributions of the lateral line and visual sensory systems.  

PubMed

The muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, is a predatory esocid fish with well-developed visual and lateral line systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of these two sensory modalities in organizing the strike behavior of the animal. Subadult muskellunge were videotaped in a test arena while feeding on fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Animals were tested under five conditions: (i) control animals in which the visual and lateral line systems were intact; (ii) animals with lateral line afference suppressed by immersion for 12-24 h in 0.1 mmol l(-1) CoCl2; (iii) animals blinded by bilateral optic nerve transection; (iv) animals that had been unilaterally blinded; and (v) animals in which the lateral line system had been unilaterally denervated. The feeding behavior of the muskellunge consists of two phases: a slow stalk of the prey with minimal body movement followed by an explosive C- or S-start lunge at the prey. Quantitative comparisons of animals in the five test groups indicate that, although vision is used in the initial acquisition of the prey, both vision and the lateral line system play important roles in determining the initiation of the rapid strike. The lateral line system may play a critical role in the final capture of the prey at the end of the strike. In addition, lateral-line-suppressed muskellunge strongly alter their approaches to more distant prey. Bilaterally blinded muskellunge do not stalk their prey, but will lunge only at prey that are at close range. Unilaterally blinded or denervated muskellunge also alter their detection of and approach to prey, attending to a wider region of the intact sensory hemisphere. Our data suggest not only that the visual and lateral line systems play complementary roles in the feeding behavior sequence but also that each system plays a more or less dominant role during consecutive phases of the behavior. PMID:11222136

New, J G; Alborg Fewkes, L; Khan, A N

2001-03-01

273

I. Fish..........................................................................................................................................2 A) Fish native to both Europe and North America (not analyzed) ........................................2  

E-print Network

autumnalis 2. Esox lucius 3. Gasterosteus aculeatus 4. Lampetra richardsoni 5. Lethenteron japonicum 6. Lota lota 7. Petromyzon marinus 8. Pungitius pungitius 9. Salmo salar 10. Salvelinus alpinus 11. Stenodus

Jeschke, Jonathan

274

Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

2007-01-01

275

Threaded structure and blue luminescence of (CuCN)20(Piperazine)7{ Robert D. Pike,* Kathryn E. deKrafft, Amanda N. Ley and Tristan A. Tronic  

E-print Network

Threaded structure and blue luminescence of (CuCN)20(Piperazine)7{ Robert D. Pike,* Kathryn E. de and highly luminescent 20 : 7 complex of CuCN with piperazine (Pip) was formed under aqueous conditions; its of luminescent metalĀ­organic networks based on CuCN,9 we herein report the formation of a copper-rich network

Pike, Robert D.

276

Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition. PMID:23280299

Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

2013-02-01

277

Cooperation under Predation Risk: Experiments on Costs and Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the predator is approached and the potential benefits of cooperation was carried out strictly experimentally. We made either singletons or pairs of dead sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, approach hungry pike, Esox lucius, by remote control according to an algorithm that mimicked natural inspection. The predation risk of both single inspectors and parallel inspecting pairs increased with closer inspection distances. A member of an inspecting pair had only about half the risk of that of a single inspector. In pairs, a companion diluted the lead fish's risk of being caught, depending on its distance behind the leader. The absolute risk difference between leader and follower was greatest for close inspection distances and decreased further away from the predator. The leader's relative risk increased with its distance ahead of the laggard. However, for a given distance between leader and laggard, the relative risks to the two fish remained similar with distance from the predator. The cost side of the inequalities that define a 'Prisoner's Dilemma' has thus been measured for this system. In a second experiment the 'attack deterrence hypothesis' of predator inspection (i.e. inspection decreases attack probability) was tested. The pike was offered a choice between two sticklebacks, one of which had carried out a predator inspection visit. There was no indication of attack deterrence through predator inspection.

Milinski, Manfred; Luthi, Jean H.; Eggler, Rolf; Parker, Geoffrey A.

1997-06-01

278

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

2005-06-01

279

Short- and long-term patterns of ¹³?Cs in fish and other aquatic organisms of small forest lakes in southern Finland since the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

We summarize the patterns of ¹³?Cs activity concentrations and transfer into fish and other biota in four small forest lakes in southern Finland during a twenty-year period following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The results from summer 1986 showed fastest accumulation of ¹³?Cs into planktivorous fishes, i.e. along the shortest food chains. Since 1987, the highest annual mean values of ¹³?Cs have been recorded in fish occupying the highest trophic levels, for perch (Perca fluviatilis) 13,600 Bq/kg (ww) and for pike (Esox lucius) 20,700 Bq/kg (ww). At the same time, activity concentrations of ¹³?Cs in crustacean zooplankton and Asellus aquaticus have ranged between 1000 and 19,500 Bq/kg (dw). In 2006, 5-28% of the 1987 ¹³?Cs activity concentration levels were still present in perch and pike. Since 1989 their ¹³?Cs activity concentrations in oligohumic seepage lakes have remained significantly higher than in polyhumic drainage lakes due to the increased transfer of ¹³?Cs into fish in the seepage lakes with lower electrolyte concentrations, longer water retention times and lower sedimentation rate. PMID:22036157

Rask, Martti; Saxén, Ritva; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Arvola, Lauri; Järvinen, Marko; Koskelainen, Ulla; Outola, Iisa; Vuorinen, Pekka J

2012-01-01

280

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

281

Behavioural syndrome in a solitary predator is independent of body size and growth rate.  

PubMed

Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted. PMID:22363687

Nyqvist, Marina J; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J Robert

2012-01-01

282

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species.  

PubMed

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. PMID:16018498

Popper, Arthur N; Smith, Michael E; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; MacGillivray, Alexander O; Austin, Melanie E; Mann, David A

2005-06-01

283

Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.  

PubMed

Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

2013-11-19

284

Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

2002-01-01

285

The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.  

PubMed

The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

2010-09-01

286

Total mercury in sediments, macrophytes, and fish from a shallow steppe lake in eastern Austria.  

PubMed

During summer 2011, samples of sediment, macrophytes, and fish tissues from the shallow, slightly alkaline Lake Neusiedl, Austria, were evaluated for their total Hg content. This is the first report of Hg levels from this lake. Sediments displayed Hg contents between 0.025 and 0.113 ?g g(-1) dw (dry weight), significantly correlating with the proportion of organic components pointing to a small anthropogenic impact on the lake's Hg content. Hg Levels in plants and fish were unexpectedly high: both investigated submerged plant species, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, showed mean values of 0.245 ± 0.152 and 0.298 ± 0.115 ?g g(-1) dw, respectively. Biomagnification was evident when comparing muscle samples of the planktivorous fish species rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (n = 10, mean = 0.084 ?g g(-1) ww (wet weight)) with the piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis (n = 21, mean = 0.184 ?g g(-1) ww) or pike-perch Sander lucioperca (n = 9, mean = 0.205 ?g g(-1) ww). Significantly lower values were found in the muscle of the piscivorous pike Esox lucius (n = 25, mean = 0.135 ?g g(-1) ww), pointing to a specific Hg metabolism of this fish, presumably under the particular physicochemical properties of the lake. Hg Concentrations in fish could pose a risk to piscivorous birds in this protected wetland system. PMID:25146770

Jirsa, Franz; Pirker, Daniel; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K

2014-08-01

287

Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype.  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and contained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate of kidney and spleen tissues from affected fish. Focal areas of cell rounding and granulation appeared as early as 24 h post-inoculation and expanded rapidly to destroy the entire cell sheet by 96 h. Electron microscopy revealed virions that were 170-180 nm in length by 60-70 nm in width having a bullet-shaped morphology typical of rhabdoviruses. The virus was confirmed as VHSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the entire nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes revealed the virus was a member of the North American genotype of VHSV; however, the isolate was sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate sublineage, suggesting its origin may have been from marine species inhabiting the eastern coastal areas of the USA or Canada. PMID:17026670

Elsayed, E; Faisal, M; Thomas, M; Whelan, G; Batts, W; Winton, J

2006-10-01

288

A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus”  

PubMed Central

Background Conserving genetic diversity and local adaptations are management priorities for wild populations of exploited species, which increasingly are subject to climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. These constitute growing concerns for the walleye Sander vitreus, an ecologically and economically valuable North American temperate fish with large Laurentian Great Lakes' fisheries. This study compares genetic diversity and divergence patterns across its widespread native range using mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences and nine nuclear DNA microsatellite (?sat) loci, examining historic and contemporary influences. We analyze the genetic and morphological characters of a putative endemic variant– “blue pike” S. v. “glaucus” –described from Lakes Erie and Ontario, which became extinct. Walleye with turquoise-colored mucus also are evaluated, since some have questioned whether these are related to the “blue pike”. Results Walleye populations are distinguished by considerable genetic divergence (mean FST mtDNA?=?0.32?±?0.01, ?sat?=?0.13?±?0.00) and substantial diversity across their range (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.53?±?0.02, ?sat?=?0.68?±?0.03). Southern populations markedly differ, possessing unique haplotypes and alleles, especially the Ohio/New River population that houses the oldest haplotype and has the most pronounced divergence. Northern formerly glaciated populations have greatest diversity in Lake Erie (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.79?±?0.00, ?sat?=?0.72?±?0.01). Genetic diversity was much less in the historic Lake Erie samples from 1923–1949 (mean heterozygosity mtDNA?=?0.05?±?0.01, ?sat?=?0.47?±?0.06) than today. The historic “blue pike” had no unique haplotypes/alleles and there is no evidence that it comprised a separate taxon from walleye. Turquoise mucus walleye also show no genetic differentiation from other sympatric walleye and no correspondence to the “blue pike”. Conclusions Contemporary walleye populations possess high levels of genetic diversity and divergence, despite habitat degradation and exploitation. Genetic and previously published tagging data indicate that natal homing and spawning site philopatry led to population structure. Population patterns were shaped by climate change and drainage connections, with northern ones tracing to post-glacial recolonization. Southerly populations possess unique alleles and may provide an important genetic reservoir. Allelic frequencies of Lake Erie walleye from ~70–90 years ago significantly differed from those today, suggesting population recovery after extensive habitat loss, pollution, and exploitation. The historic “blue pike” is indistinguishable from walleye, indicating that taxonomic designation is not warranted. PMID:24941945

2014-01-01

289

Determination of mercury in freeze-dried muscle samples of pike, cod and perch using an ASV-technique.  

PubMed

Determination of mercury in fish muscle samples can be made by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique (ASV) using a gold disc as the working electrode. Prior to analysis deep-frozen fish were thawed and then dissected using quartz scalpels. The freeze-dried samples were homogenised by the brittle fracture technique. Two wet digestion procedures were investigated, namely the HNO3/HCIO4 and the HNO3/H2SO4 system, and both were found to be useful. In order to complete the oxidation, the sample had to be UV-irradiated. The stripping procedure can be done in either a new medium - 0.1 M HCIO4 and 2.5 mM HCl - or directly in the sample solution. Using HNO3 and H2SO4 as oxidising agents and subsequently stripping the mercury directly in the sample solution is recommended, as the analytical procedure will be simpler and more time-saving. The concentrations obtained for pike, cod and perch, caught at a near-shore Baltic Sea station off the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden, were 19.6, 0.84 and 5.1 (micrograms/g dry weight), respectively. On comparison with results obtained from neutron activation analysis, good agreement was found. PMID:6658444

Golimowski, J; Gustavsson, I

1983-10-01

290

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

Pryor, P.

1985-08-01

291

The Laurentian Great Lakes strain (MI03) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus is highly pathogenic for juvenile muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill).  

PubMed

The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolated from adult subclinical muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St. Clair, MI, USA was shown to be highly pathogenic in juvenile muskellunge through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and waterborne challenge. Mortality began as early as 3 days after exposure in waterborne challenged fish, whereas fish infected by the i.p. route experienced the first mortality by 5 days post-infection (p.i.). The median lethal intraperitoneal injection dose (IP-LD(50)) was approximately 2.21 plaque forming units (PFU) as opposed to the median lethal immersion challenge dose (IM-LD(50)) of 1.7 x 10(4) PFU mL(-1). A high, medium and low dose of infection caused acute, subacute and chronic progression of the disease, respectively, as was evident by the cumulative mortality data. Clinical signs of disease observed in dead and moribund fish were very pale gills, dermal petechial haemorrhages along the flanks, severe nuchal haemorrhages, intramuscular haemorrhages at the fin-muscle junction and focal haemorrhaging on the caudal peduncle. Internal lesions included livers that were pale, discoloured and friable, and kidneys that were either congested or degenerative in appearance, and petechial to ecchymotic haemorrhages on the swim bladder wall. Histopathologic examination demonstrated massive haemorrhages in the swimbladder wall and muscle, severe vacuolation and multifocal necrosis of the liver, multifocal necrosis of the gills and depletion of lymphoid tissues within the spleen. Kidney tissues also exhibited a mixed pattern of degeneration that included tubular necrosis, interstitial oedema and congestion. Virus was recovered from kidney and spleen tissues through tissue culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PMID:20367742

Kim, R K; Faisal, M

2010-06-01

292

Uptake and depletion of plasma 17alpha-methyltestosterone during induction of masculinization in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy: effect on plasma steroids and sex reversal.  

PubMed

Oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) was used to induce masculinization of sexually undifferentiated muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Three groups of muskellunge (mean weight, 2.5 +/- 0.6 g) were submitted to MT treatment (15 mg of MT/kg) for 60 days. An additional one group was used as a control (hormone-free diet). Food was distributed over a 10-h period by using automatic belt feeders. Blood was sampled in both control and treated fish at different intervals during and after feeding: before (0 h), at 3 h, 6 h, and cessation of feeding (10 h), and after a fast of 22 h (32 h). MT had no significant effect on growth and survival in muskellunge 6 months after the treatment. Concentrations of plasma MT increased during the feeding period and reached their maximum levels 6 or 10 h after starting feeding. This rapid increase of MT indicated a rapid absorption of this steroid. Plasma MT levels then declined and reached a radir by 22 h after cessation of feeding, suggesting that MT is rapidly metabolized and excreted. The profiles of plasma testosterone during the MT treatment did not differ significantly between control and MT-treated groups. During and after the MT treatment, the concentration of plasma testosterone did not differ significantly between control and MT-treated groups. Moreover, no sexual dimorphism of testosterone levels was observed. Six months after treatment, the sex ratio in MT-treated groups (33% males, 62% females, and 5% intersex) was opposite to control (70% and 30%, respectively) and differed significantly. This suggests that at 15 mg of MT/kg over 60 days, a paradoxical feminization took place. PMID:10493596

Rinchard, J; Dabrowski, K; Garcia-Abiado, M A; Ottobre, J

1999-08-01

293

Analysis of fin clips as a nonlethal method for monitoring mercury in fish.  

PubMed

Monitoring of mercury in fish typically involves removal of individuals from the sampled population and subsequent analysis of fillets. This study assessed whether the analysis of fins, structures routinely clipped to mark released fish in population studies, could provide a nonlethal approach for estimating mercury concentrations in axial muscle (fillets). We analyzed fillets and selected fins from 401 northern pike (Esox lucius) and 79 walleye (Sander vitreus) from 21 lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin, 19 Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and 14 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Long Island Sound, New York. On average, 83% of mercury in fins was methylmercury, and concentrations in the proximal portion were about half-those in the distal portion in pelvic fins. Mean concentrations of mercury in fins, averaged by species and fin type, ranged from 2.7 to 8.9% of those in fillets. Coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions of mercury concentrations in fillets against those in fins of individual fish ranged from 0.04 to 0.96 among species and water bodies (median r2 = 0.52). The concentration in fin clips was a better predictor of mercury in fillets for individual Arctic grayling (r2 = 0.65, n = 12 and r2 = 0.84, n = 8) and winter flounder (r2 = 0.94, n = 14) than for individual northern pike (median r2 = 0.56) or walleye (median r2 = 0.22) from a given lake. In northern pike in the 400-500 mm total-length interval, the mean concentrations of total mercury in caudal fins and fillets, averaged by lake (n = 12), were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.95). The analysis of composited samples of fin clips from fish within a restricted length interval could, therefore, be a useful screening tool for assessing the relative mercury contamination of fish among different water bodies. PMID:18323115

Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G; Bailey, Sean W; Thoreson, Kristen A; Hammerschmidt, Chad R

2008-02-01

294

Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the comparison between the two was favorable with a mean absolute difference of 0.58 feet in Area C and 0.32 feet in Area D. Results of a HEC-RAS model of the Little Missouri River watershed upstream from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Langley showed no difference in mean depth in the areas in common between the models, and a difference in mean velocity of only 0.5 foot per second. Predictions of flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent indicated that the extent of inundation of the June 11, 2010, flood exceeded that of the 1 percent flood, and that for both the 1 and 2 percent floods, all of Areas C and D, and parts of Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area were inundated. Predicted water-surface elevations for the 1 and 2 percent floods were approximately 1 foot lower than those predicted by the U.S. Forest Service using a standard-step model.

Wagner, Daniel M.

2013-01-01

295

mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species  

SciTech Connect

Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation.

Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: zdyzxb@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

2013-06-10

296

Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.  

PubMed

Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ? Northern Pike Esox lucius × ? Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

2013-12-01

297

Heterogeneity in levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVB among fish species in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

The presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) was investigated in sera of 13 fish species collected from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, a VHSV-endemic water body. We tested 297 sera collected May 2004-June of 2010, using a complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (50% PNT). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 23% (67/297) of the samples. The highest overall antibody prevalence (85%, 34/40) and mean positive antibody titer (12,113 ± 11,699 SD) were detected in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Antibodies were also detected in 50% (15/30) of sampled northern pike (E. lucius), 25% (15/61) of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), and 7% (3/41) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). All sera from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), silver redhorse (M. anisurum), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were negative. Antibodies in one or more fish species were detected in all sampling years (2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010), whereas in parallel sampling periods, VHS virus was detected only in 2006 and 2009. Our results suggest the continued presence of VHSV-IVb in the Lake St. Clair ecosystem, and underscore the importance of assessing immune responses of fish populations to determine prior virus exposure. PMID:22493115

Millard, Elena V; Faisal, Mohamed

2012-04-01

298

Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.  

PubMed

The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species. PMID:22136242

Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zi?ba, G; Wesley, K J

2011-12-01

299

A food chain model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran bioaccumulation in a northern Canadian river system  

SciTech Connect

Field data from a comprehensive study of chemical contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzofurans provided the opportunity for comparison of predicted and observed concentrations in fish and invertebrates in sediment-invertebrate-fish food chains. The field study was from the Athabasca River downstream of a bleached-kraft pulp mill in northwest Alberta, Canada. The food chain model used predator-prey relationships which resulted in distinct exposure pathways for fish inhabiting the river. The model distinguished between exposure to suspended and deposited sediments in the Athabasca River. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in two bottom feeding fish species, mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and one piscivorous fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), as well as in invertebrates were measured in the field samples. A sensitivity analysis revealed that exposure of mountain whitefish to TCDF sorbed to suspended solids through consumption of filter feeding invertebrates was the primary exposure pathway. Furthermore, failure to consider consumption of bottom sediments by longnose sucker resulted in underpredicted tissue concentrations compared to observed values.

Starodub, M.E. [CanTox Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Pastershank, G.; Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Research Inst.

1995-12-31

300

Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

Kopp, Radovan; Palķkovį, Miroslava; Adamovskż, Ond?ej; Zikovį, Andrea; Navrįtil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Ji?ķ; Mareš, Jan; Blįha, Lud?k

2013-12-01

301

Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

2011-02-15

302

Comparative ultrastructure of Langerhans-like cells in spleens of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii).  

PubMed

We studied the morphology and occurrence of splenic Langerhans-like (LL) cells in species representing 11 orders of ray-finned fishes, Actinopterygii. LL cells were frequent in spleen tissue of species among Cypriniformes, Esociformes, Salmoniformes, and Pleuronectiformes. These cells contained granules which resembled Birbeck granules known to occur in mammalian Langerhans cells. The ultrastructure of LL cells in Northern pike, Esox lucius, and in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus were similar to those reported in salmonids. LL cells found in cyprinids shared some characteristics with the LL cells in other Actinopterygii species, although unique structures distinguished them from the latter. They contained dense bodies within the Birbeck-like (BL) granules, a characteristic that was never observed in species outside the Cypriniformes. Two types of BL granules were characterized in cyprinid LL cells. The ultrastructure of BL granules across the species is discussed. LL cells in all Actinopterygii species demonstrated close contacts with nearby cells, characterized by adherens-like junctions. Additionally, multivesicular bodies were present within the cytoplasm and large aggregates of exosomes were observed closely associated with the plasma membrane suggesting their release from the cells. These structures are discussed in relation to mammalian dendritic cells. Macrophages found in European perch, Perca fluviatilis, blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus contained lysosomes and residual bodies with structures resembling Birbeck granules. These granules and cells were clearly distinct from LL cells. PMID:20623556

Lovy, Jan; Wright, Glenda M; Speare, David J; Tyml, Tomas; Dykova, Iva

2010-10-01

303

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status.  

PubMed

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

304

Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophy in Northwestern Poland.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in selected tissues of two fish species: pike (Esox lucius L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) living in lakes I?sko and Wisola, Northwestern Poland. The lakes differ in their trophic status. The effect of gender and environmental conditions on metals accumulation was also investigated. Metal analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Considering all studied fish species and tissues, the average metal concentrations (micrograms per gram wet weight) in both lakes occurred in the following ranges: Fe 0.8-240.6, Mn 0.2-8.4, Zn 3.0-185.9, and Cu 0.14-7.76. The lowest levels of the studied metals were always detected in the muscles. The spleen, kidneys, and liver were found to accumulate the highest amounts of Fe. In the case of the other metals, the highest levels were found, as follows: Mn in skin, gills, and gonads, Zn in digestive tract and gills, Cu in liver. Heavy metal content in fish gonads was observed to be sex dependent. PMID:22923375

Rajkowska, Monika; Protasowicki, Miko?aj

2013-04-01

305

Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

Ahas, Rein

306

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

307

Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.  

PubMed

Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

2010-11-01

308

Trophic ecology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in its introduced areas: a stable isotope approach in southwestern France.  

PubMed

During the last decades, non-native predatory fish species have been largely introduced in European lakes and rivers, calling for detailed information on the trophic ecology of co-existing native and non-native predators. The present study describes the trophic ecology of the introduced pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in two southwestern French rivers, using stable isotope analysis. Pikeperch could be categorized as a top-predator, and had a significantly higher trophic position (TP, mean+/-SE=4.2+/-0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP=3.7+/-0.1) and the introduced European catfish (Silurus glanis, TP=3.8+/-0.1). Most studies of resource use in freshwaters consider predatory fish as ecologically equivalent; however, this study showed that the pikeperch occupied a higher trophic niche compared to other predatory species in the Lot and Tarn rivers (Garonne River basin). This apparent specialization may thus have consequences upon interspecific relationships within the predatory guild and upon the functional organization of biological communities. PMID:19632657

Kopp, Dorothée; Cucherousset, Julien; Syväranta, Jari; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

2009-08-01

309

Differential diagnosis of Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus experimental infection in Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus (Copepoda) from the Alpine Lake Grundlsee (Austria) using PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

In 2005, an epidemic of the cestode Triaenophorus crassus in Arctic charr, Salvelinus umbla from Lake Grundlsee (Austria) was reported, resulting in the closure of the local fisheries. The parasite uses a copepod and a salmonid fish as intermediate hosts, and the European pike (Esox lucius) as definitive host. In Lake Grundlsee procercoids of T. crassus, T. nodulosus and Eubothrium salvelini use the copepod Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus as their first intermediate host. We report on the development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the specific differentiation between the procercoids of the three cestode species. Ban I restriction sites within a 207-bp 18S rRNA-amplified fragment yielded two and three species-specific products to unequivocally distinguish between T. crassus and T. nodulosus, respectively. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to characterise a single procercoid of both Triaenophorus species in their copepod host, enabling a direct measure of infection. This assay will be useful in monitoring the progress of the control methods currently in place. PMID:21424806

Boufana, Belgees; Zibrat, Uroš; Jehle, Robert; Craig, Philip S; Gassner, Hubert; Schabetsberger, Robert

2011-09-01

310

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

311

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment  

SciTech Connect

Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1998-01-01

312

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies  

SciTech Connect

An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

313

The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.  

PubMed

Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

Linlųkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

2011-08-01

314

Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

1996-01-01

315

Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community  

SciTech Connect

Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 {micro}g/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife.

Besser, J. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dawson, G. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

316

A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

1998-01-01

317

Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.  

PubMed

Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ?3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

2014-12-01

318

Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.  

SciTech Connect

Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

P.R. Fresquez

2004-10-15

319

Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

1987-01-01

320

Temporal changes in mercury bioaccumulation by predatory fishes of boreal lakes following the invasion of an exotic forage fish.  

PubMed

We evaluated the prediction that mercury concentrations of predatory fishes in boreal lakes would rise following the invasion of an exotic forage fish species (rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax) that was believed to feed at a higher trophic position than native forage fishes. We compared temporal trends (postinvasion minus preinvasion values) in fish mercury bioaccumulation between lakes experiencing recent smelt invasions and reference lakes of central Canada. Piscivore mercury concentrations in this region have remained stable or declined during approximately the last 20 years. These trends were not strongly influenced by the smelt invasion, despite the fact that smelt were a major prey item for all piscivore species examined. The effect of smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in the predator species reflected the importance of smelt in their respective diets (lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush > walleye, Stizostedion vitreum > northern pike, Esox lucius). However, these effects were not statistically significant for any piscivore species. The impact of rainbow smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in native piscivores of this region has been much less than previous food-web studies have predicted. PMID:12959531

Johnston, Thomas A; Leggett, William C; Bodaly, Richard A; Swanson, Heidi K

2003-09-01

321

Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.  

PubMed

Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

2007-09-01

322

Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.  

PubMed

Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada. PMID:24156245

Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

2013-11-19

323

Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis  

PubMed Central

Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher’s linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

2010-01-01

324

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

SciTech Connect

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01

325

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.  

PubMed

This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

Jankovi?, Saša; Cur?i?, Marijana; Radi?evi?, Tatjana; Stefanovi?, Sr?an; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijevi?, Biljana

2011-10-01

326

Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

2012-07-01

327

Fish status survey of Nordic lakes: effects of acidification, eutrophication and stocking activity on present fish species composition.  

PubMed

The status of fish populations in 3821 lakes in Norway, Sweden and Finland was assessed in 1995-1997. The survey lakes were chosen by stratified random sampling from all (126 482) Fennoscandian lakes > or = 0.04 km2. The water chemistry of the lakes was analyzed and information on fish status was obtained by a postal inquiry. Fish population losses were most frequent in the most highly acidified region of southern Norway and least common in eastern Fennoscandia. According to the inquiry results, the number of lost stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) was estimated to exceed 10000. The number of stocks of these species potentially affected by the low alkalinity of lake water was estimated to exceed 11000. About 3300 lakes showed high total phosphorus (> 25 microg L(-1)) and cyprinid dominance in eastern Fennoscandia, notably southwestern Finland. This survey did not reveal any extinction of fish species due to eutrophication. One-third of the lakes had been artificially stocked with at least one new species, most often brown trout, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.), Arctic char, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), grayling (Thymallus thymallus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). The number of artificially manipulated stocks of these species in Fennoscandian lakes was estimated to exceed 52000. Hence, the number of fish species occurring in Nordic lakes has recently been changed more by stockings than by losses of fish species through environmental changes such as acidification. PMID:12733793

Tammi, Jouni; Appelberg, Magnus; Beier, Ulrika; Hesthagen, Trygve; Lappalainen, Antti; Rask, Martti

2003-03-01

328

Comparative study of acetylcholine synthesis in organs of freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

The activity of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and the content of ACh were determined in the brain, heart, red trunk muscle and midgut of 12 freshwater teleost species belonging to eight families: carp (Cyprinus carpio), tench (Tinca tinca), silver carp (Hypophthalmichtys molitrix), bighead (Hypophthalmichtys nobilis), wels (Silurus glanis), cat fish (Ictalurus nebulosus), eel (Anguilla anguilla), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike (Esox lucius), pike-perch (Stizosteidon lucioperca), ruffe (Acerina cernua) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus). The rate of ACh degradation in the same tissues was characterized by measuring the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparisons by statistical evaluation of cholinergic parameters in the corresponding organs were made between the species or families. The highest ACh concentration was found in the brain (between 9.6 and 16.0 nmol/g), and the gut (4.6 to 17.4 nmol/g), followed by the heart (1.4 to 3.9 nmol/g) and trunk muscle (1.2 to 3.8 nmol/g). Good correlations were found between the ACh content and the ChAT activity in all the organs studied. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 and 0.72 for the brain and heart, respectively. The activity of ChAT and the amount of ACh found in the brain and trunk muscle varied considerably from one family to another, but was of comparable degree within one family. It was concluded that differences in the cholinergic parameters may reflect different feeding and swimming behavioral patterns. PMID:24214667

Szabó, A; Nemcsók, J; Kįsa, P; Budai, D

1991-04-01

329

Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

2006-01-01

330

LES CELLULES DE SERTOLI DES POISSONS TLOSTENS  

E-print Network

Salvelinus fontinalis HENDERSON (1962) qualifie Ć©galement les cellules de la paroi des lobules de Ā« lobules'espace extralobulaire). Il s'agit de : Esox lucius, Salvelinus willughbĆ¼ et Labeo (MARSH!,r, et LOFTS, ig56 ; LOFTS et

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

331

Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

2012-01-01

332

[Cytochemical characteristics of the labrocyte-like cells in the capsule of the plerocercoids of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781) and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) cestodes].  

PubMed

Out of six fish species examined (Esox lucius, Paracottus kessleri, Perca fluviatilis, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratorius, Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) labrocyte-like cells were detected in Esox lucius, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratotius. The cells contain large metachromatic granules. Histochemical methods revealed in them sulfated and carboxylic acid mucopolysacharides. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the capsules around plerocercoids of Triaenophrus nodulosis from Esox lucits liver depends on the age of the capsule and that of the plerocercoid. It increases when the connective tissue papsule is forming and decreases again under aging and degeneration of the capsule containing plerocercoid. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the cestodes capsules of Raillietina increases sharply when they locate in an accidental organ (liver). This demonstrates the acuteness of organ reactivity to a nonspecific helminth. PMID:143258

Pronina, S V

1977-07-01

333

Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate. PMID:20470073

Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

2010-05-15

334

Predation on ruffe by native fishes of the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, an exotic Eurasian percid, recently became established in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, after accidental introduction. Management action (catch regulations and stocking) were enacted in 1989 to increase the density of top-level predators in the estuary, and thus to increase predation on ruffe. We conducted a field and laboratory study to determine if, and to what extent, native piscivores consume ruffe. Stomachs of 3,669 predators were examined in 1989-1991. Ruffe occurred in 6.7% of burbot Lota lota, 5.8% of bullheads Ictalurus spp., 4.7% of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, 2.6% of northern pike Esox lucius, 2.6% of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and 1.3% of yellow perch Perca flavescens (4.5% after 1989) captured during the 3-year study. No ruffe were found in 967 stomachs of walleyes Stizostedion vitreum examined. Ruffe were 22.7% of the diet (by weight) of bullheads (during the only year bullheads were captured) and 0.1-17.9% of the diet of northern pike. Ruffe were 0.9-24.5% of the diet of smallmouth bass that contained fish, 1.5-6.9% of yellow perch that contained fish, and 0.0-10.9% of black crappies that contained fish. Most ruffe eaten were age-0 or small age-1 fish. In the laboratory, walleyes that were first fed soft-rayed prey or that were also offered soft-rayed prey consumed very few ruffe, whereas walleyes that were first fed spiny-rayed yellow perch or were also offered yellow perch consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch. Northern pike and burbot consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch in the laboratory. It is unlikely that predation will effectively control the initial expansion of ruffe in other areas of the Great Lakes because native predators initially consume few ruffe, especially if more preferred soft-rayed prey are available.

Ogle, Derek H.; Selgeby, James H.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Newman, Raymond M.; Henry, Mary G.

1996-01-01

335

Comparative analysis of selected biomechanic characteristics between a support backward swing and support swing for the 1 1/4 straddle-piked forward salto on the parallel bars.  

PubMed

The aim of our research was to study the relationships between performance variables in a support backward swing (SBS), which was used as a progressive step in the learning procedure for a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault and the swing prior to a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault from support to bent arm support on the parallel bars (5/4S). Mitja Petkovsek, parallel bars gold medallist at the 2000 EC in Bremen, performed these elements. Kinematic analysis involved CMAS software (Praha, 1993), and the Suskana body segment model that has 17 points and 15 segments. Kinetic variables were estimated using 2D IMGIM software, which has 8 points and 6 segments (Colja and Cuk, 1994). The results indicated that some kinematic aspects of the two types of swings were similar but there were important differences in kinetic aspects of the motion. During the swing for the 5/4S, force and torque were higher than in the SBS. PMID:14658136

Kolar, Edvard; Kolar, Katarina Andlovic; Stuhec, Stanko

2002-01-01

336

Northern Pike Fertilization Using Extenders  

E-print Network

SHORTAGE OF VIABLE UNSPENT MALES LEADS TO POOR FERTILIZATION RATES CAN'T ALWAYS GET NETS 532 AND PLAIN WELL WATER MONITOR ALL pH AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES #12;SPAWNING Ā· MILT AND WELL WATER TO THE OTHER EGGS Ā· MILT WAS ADDED INTO THE PANS AND MIXED INTO THE EGGS Ā· ONE QUART OF WELL WATER WAS ADDED

337

K. S. Telang, R. W. Pike, F. C. Knopf, J. R. Hopper, J. Saleh, S. Waghchoure, S. C. Hedge and T. A. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 23, p. S727-730 (1999  

E-print Network

. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers Chemical and Refinery Processes K. S. Telang, X. Chen, R. W. Pike and F. C. Knopf Louisiana State and refineries for process improvements. The system integrates programs for on-line optimization, chemical

Pike, Ralph W.

338

Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

2005-01-01

339

Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-03-01

340

A fish bradykinin (Arg0, Trp5, Leu8-bradykinin) from the defensive skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus: structural characterization; molecular cloning of skin kininogen cDNA and pharmacological effects on mammalian smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Extensive studies on bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) generated from plasma kininogens in representative species of various vertebrate taxa, have confirmed that many amphibian skin BRPs reflect those present in putative vertebrate predators. For example, the (Val(1), Thr(6))-bradykinin, present in the defensive skin secretions of many ranids and phyllomedusines, can be generated from plasma kininogens in colubrid snakes-common predators of these frogs. Here, we report the presence of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, and have found it to be encoded in single copy by a kininogen with an open-reading frame of 68 amino acid residues. This peptide is the archetypal bony fish bradykinin that has been generated from plasma kininogens of the bowfin (Amia calva), the long-nosed gar (Lepisosteus oseus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). More recently, this peptide has been shown to be encoded within cloned kininogens of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spotted wolf-fish (Anarichas minor), zebrafish (Danio rerio), pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and Northern pike (Esox lucius). The latter species is regarded as a major predator of P. kl. esculentus. Synthetic (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin was previously reported as having multiphasic effects on arterial blood pressure in conscious trout and here we have demonstrated that it can antagonize the relaxation in rat arterial smooth muscle induced by canonical mammalian bradykinin. The discovery of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the defensive skin secretion of this amphibian completes the spectrum of vertebrate taxon-specific BRPs identified from this source. PMID:20923691

Chen, Xiaole; Wang, Lei; Wang, He; Chen, Hang; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2011-01-01

341

Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

2009-06-01

342

Rotenone formulation fate in Lake Davis following the 2007 treatment.  

PubMed

In September 2007, Lake Davis (near Portola, California) was treated by the California Department of Fish and Game with CFT Legumine, a rotenone formulation, to eradicate the invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). The objective of this report is to describe the fate of the five major formulation constituents-rotenone, rotenolone, methyl pyrrolidone (MP), diethylene glycol monethyl ether (DEGEE), and Fennedefo 99-in water, sediment, and brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus; a rotenone-resistant species) by determination of their half-lives (t(1/2)) and pseudo first-order dissipation rate constants (k). The respective t(1/2) values in water for rotenone, rotenolone, MP, DEGEE, and Fennedefo 99 were 5.6, 11.1, 4.6, 7.7, and 13.5 d; in sediments they were 31.1, 31.8, 10.0, not able to calculate, and 48.5 d; and in tissues were 6.1, 12.7, 3.7, 3.2, and 10.4 d, respectively. Components possessing low water solubility values (rotenone and rotenolone) persisted longer in sediments (not detectable after 157 d) and tissues (<212 d) compared with water, whereas the water-miscible components (MP and DEGEE) dissipated more quickly from all matrices, except for Fennedefo 99, which was the most persistent in water (83 d). None of the constituents was found to bioaccumulate in tissues as a result of treatment. In essence, the physicochemical properties of the chemical constituents effectively dictated their fate in the lake following treatment. PMID:22407799

Vasquez, Martice E; Rinderneck, Janna; Newman, Julie; McMillin, Stella; Finlayson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

2012-05-01

343

Estimating naphthenic acids concentrations in laboratory-exposed fish and in fish from the wild.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the most water-soluble organic components found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, and these acids are released into aqueous tailing waters as a result of bitumen extraction. Although the toxicity of NAs to fish is well known, there has been no method available to estimate NAs concentrations in fish. This paper describes a newly developed analytical method using single ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure NAs in fish, down to concentrations of approximately 0.1mgkg(-1) of fish flesh. This method was used to measure the uptake and depuration of commercial NAs in laboratory experiments. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 3mg NAsl(-1) for 9d gave a bioconcentration factor of approximately 2 at pH 8.2. Within 1d after the fish were transferred to NAs-free water, about 95% of the NAs were depurated. In addition, the analytical method was used to determine if NAs were present in four species of wild fish - northern pike (Esox lucius), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), walleye (Sander vitreus) - collected from near the oil sands. Flesh samples from 23 wild fish were analyzed, and 18 of these had no detectable NAs. Four fish (one of each species) contained NAs at concentrations from 0.2 to 2.8mgkg(-1). The GC-MS results from one wild fish presented a unique problem. However, with additional work it was concluded that the NAs concentration in this fish was <0.1mgkg(-1). PMID:18667226

Young, Rozlyn F; Wismer, Wendy V; Fedorak, Phillip M

2008-09-01

344

Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.  

PubMed

A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature. PMID:19185121

Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

2009-02-23

345

Mercury content in the trophic chain of the Tanew River, Poland, ecosystem.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal posing a hazard to water ecosystems. This investigation was aimed at determining Hg content in the Tanew River, Poland, and subsequent transfer to fish inhabiting this lake. The area studied included approximately a 50-km distance of the river, with 5 sampling locations selected. Samples of water and bottom sediments were collected from 10 sites along the river-bank zone for each location. At the same location, fish were caught and samples of coastal water plants were collected. Fish that were caught included the following species: chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), ide (Leuciscus idus), and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Dominanting species of water plants included reed-mace (Typha angustifolia), rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), and water knotweed (Polygonum amphibium). Mercury content in samples of water, bottom sediments, water plants, and fish tissues (muscles and gills) were determined by using a Mercury/MA-2000 system (NIC, Japan). The average Hg content in the waters of Tanew ranged between 1 and 5 microg/L, and in the bottom sediments ranged between 17 and 214 microg/kg dry weight, which are characteristic values for typical unpolluted areas. The highest Hg contamination of waters and bottom sediments was found where the Tanew estuary enters the San River. Mercury levels in fish from the Tanew delta appeared to be higher compared to other sampling sites. Data indicated that even if water environment is contaminated with Hg to a limited extent, fish accumulate this metal at higher levels, probably due to a bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factor. PMID:20706942

Wa?kuska, Grazyna; Cha?abis-Mazurek, Agnieszka; Szkoda, Józef

2010-01-01

346

Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.  

PubMed

A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. PMID:20359718

Psuty, Iwona

2010-01-01

347

Clear as mud: a meta-analysis on the effects of sedimentation on freshwater fish and the effectiveness of sediment-control measures.  

PubMed

Increase in fine sediments in freshwater resulting from anthropogenic development is a potential stressor for fish and thus may cause population declines. Though a large body of literature exists on the topic, there have been few attempts to synthesize this information in a quantitative manner. Through meta-analysis we investigated the effects of sediment in lotic environments on resident ichthyofauna using ecologically-relevant endpoints for tolerant (e.g., northern pike Esox lucius) and intolerant (e.g., brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis) species. Further, the efficiency of sediment-control devices was explored to inform mitigation measures. An increase in suspended and deposited sediments was demonstrated to have a negative effect on all parameters and tolerances tested (feeding behavior [feeding rate, reaction distance to food item]; spawning success [survival of fry to eyed stage, fry emergence]; species richness; P < 0.001) except fish abundance (P = 0.058). Heterogeneity between studies was a factor in all analyses. Although there were insufficient studies to conduct meta-analysis on sediment-control devices, weighted percent efficiency estimates revealed that properly installed sediment-control fences tended to have a higher percent efficiency (73-80%) than sediment traps and basins (40-52%). These results highlight the negative impact that increases in suspended and deposited sediments can have on resident fishes from the individual to the population, and the need for more transparent and thorough statistical reporting. The analysis also identifies a clear need for rigorous experimental studies contrasting different sediment-control devices and strategies given that little such work has been published. That alone is remarkable given that sediment-control devices are often a requirement of regulators for riparian development activities, yet the evidence to support the effectiveness of the primary mitigative strategies is weak. PMID:24681235

Chapman, Jacqueline M; Proulx, Catherine L; Veilleux, Maxime A N; Levert, Caroline; Bliss, Shireen; André, Marie-Čve; Lapointe, Nicolas W R; Cooke, Steven J

2014-06-01

348

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

349

Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

350

Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)  

SciTech Connect

The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

McCarthy, L.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C. [Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada); Whittle, D.M. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Harbicht, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada)

1995-12-31

351

Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA.  

PubMed

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great Slave Lake, near the city of Yellowknife, NT, Canada. The total concentration (dry weight) of arsenic in muscle ranged from 0.57 to 1.15 mg/kg, in the liver from 0.42 to 2.52 mg/kg and in the GIT from 1.48 to 8.92 mg/kg. Among fish species, C. commersoni had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations in the GIT than S. vitreum, E. lucius and C. clupeaformis, and higher total arsenic concentrations in the liver than C. clupeaformis. The mean concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the muscle of all fish ranged from < or =0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg and < or =0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and together comprised < or =7.5% of the total arsenic measured in muscle. The concentrations of MMA were below detection in the muscle of all five fish species. However, AsB and DMA were measured in all fish species and nearly all fish tissues. The concentrations of AsB ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg and the concentrations of DMA ranged from <0.02 to 0.45 mg/kg. The majority (>50%) of organic arsenic in almost all of the tissues from fish caught in Back Bay was not directly identified. Evidence from the literature suggests that most of these other organic arsenic species were likely trimethylated arsenic compounds, however, further analytical work would need to be performed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:18214701

de Rosemond, Simone; Xie, Qianli; Liber, Karsten

2008-12-01

352

Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS) policy stipulates that natural coastal processes be maintained to the greatest extent possible and not be impeded so as to conserve landforms, habitats and natural ecosystem resources that reply on the landforms and processes for long-term sustainability of the national park. Storms and associated processes such as waves, tides, currents and relative sea-level change are critical elements for the formation and evolution of these barrier islands, sand dunes, back-barrier sand flats and lagoons and vegetated wetlands. Processes such as wave run-up, overwash and barrier beaching, which occur during elevated storm surge are all necessary processes in enabling the efficient transfer of sediments, nutrients and marine water from the Atlantic Ocean across barriers and into Great South Bay. A large body of scientific data and information published over the past 50 years shows that such transfers of sediment and water from the ocean to the bays are essential for the long-term maintenance of the barrier island and back-bay systems and their biologically diverse habitats an d ecosystems. Current relative sea-level rise (~12 in/century) is chronic and pervasive in driving Long Island coastal change and with the likelihood of accelerating sea level rise in the near future, coastal hazards such as erosion, inundation, and storm surge flooding will increase, with corresponding increased risk to life and property on both Fire Island and on the mainland. In addition, the cumulative effects over the past century and more, both direct and indirect, of human impacts on the Long Island coast have altered the barrier beach and dunes and sediment transport processes. These impacts have likely increased the potential for breaching and increased risk to life and property on the coast and the mainland. Examples of direct impacts are: the stone jetties at Moriches, Shinnecock, and Fire Island tidal inlets and groin field structures at Westhampton that alter littoral processes, armoring and erosion-control stabilization of the headlandds such as the Montauk Point headlands, and deepening of n

Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

2007-01-01

353

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran.  

PubMed

The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium, 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while the lowest (cadmium,0.21; copper,7.2; zinc,19.4; lead,0.9; chromium,0.6 ?g/g) found in the muscle of Carassius gibelio. Results showed that the metal concentrations were in fishes in descending order of zinc > copper > lead > chromium > cadmium, similarly in the tissue liver > kidney > gill ~ intestine > muscle. PMID:21858708

Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Babaei, Hadi; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

2011-10-01

354

Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?  

PubMed

The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints, and 10 lethal yellow perch effect endpoints resulted in the observation of several statistically significant differences at the future exposure area relative to the reference area and/or areas. When the data from 2 reference areas assessed for the benthic invertebrate community survey were pooled, no significant differences in effect endpoints were observed. These results demonstrate weaknesses in the definition of an "effect" used by the MMER EEM program and in the use of a single reference area. Determination of the ecological significance of statistical differences identified as part of EEM programs conducted during the operational period should consider preexisting (background) natural variability between reference and exposure areas. PMID:22888037

Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

2013-01-01

355

Postimpoundment time course of increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in boreal reservoirs have been shown to be increased for up to 3 decades after impoundment. However, the time course of increased concentrations is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of Hg concentrations in fish in the boreal reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, and its relationship with severity of flooding. We determined total Hg concentrations in three species of fish for up to 35 years after impoundment in 14 lakes and lake basins. Postimpoundment trends depended on fish species and reservoir. In the benthivorous lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), Hg concentrations increased after flooding to between 0.2 and 0.4 microg g(-1) wet weight compared with preimpoundment concentrations between 0.06 and 0.14 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes between 0.03 and 0.06 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in lake whitefish were usually highest within 6 years after lake impoundment and took 10 to 20 years after impoundment to decrease to background concentrations in most reservoirs. Hg concentrations in predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) were highest 2 to 8 years after flooding at 0.7 to 2.6 microg g(-1) compared with preimpoundment concentrations of 0.19 to 0.47 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes of 0.35 to 0.47 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in these predatory species decreased consistently in subsequent years and required 10 to 23 years to return to background levels. Thus, results demonstrate the effect of trophic level on Hg concentrations (biomagnification). Peak Hg concentrations depended on the amount of flooding (relative increase in lake surface area). Asymptotic concentrations of approximately 0.25 microg g(-1) for lake whitefish and 1.6 microg g(-1) for both walleye and northern pike were reached at approximately 100% flooding. Downstream effects were apparent because many reservoirs downstream of other impoundments had higher Hg concentrations in fish than would be expected on the basis of flooding amount. PMID:17728990

Bodaly, R A Drew; Jansen, W A; Majewski, A R; Fudge, R J P; Strange, N E; Derksen, A J; Green, D J

2007-10-01

356

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

357

Special Publication No. 6, Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases, Part 2: Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: C-E.  

E-print Network

, M. C., 1929 b, 36, 59, 62 Perca fluviatilis Lucioperca Sandra Acerina cemua Aspro zingel Camallanus lacustris.? Continued. Hall, M. ?., 1929 b, 36, 59, 62 Leuciscus rutilus Aspius rapax Barbus fluviatilis Tinea vulgaris Esox lucius Lota... vulgaris Salmo salar Trutta trutta Salvelinus fontinalis Coregonus oxyrrhynchus Osmerus eperlanus Silurus gianis Anguillula vulgaris Cyclops sp. Agri?n sp. Camallanus lacustris Harant, H.j and Verni?res, P., 1933 ?, 263 Camallanus lacustris...

Doss, Mildred A.; Hanfman, Deborah T.

358

Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91?±?7?mm total length, L(T), mean?±?s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84?±?8?mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85?±?5?mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2?weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4?weeks. PMID:24689672

Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

2014-04-01

359

Nobelists Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems  

E-print Network

1903, radiation 90. Figure of speech 92. Play guitar well 93. Salicylic acid, e.g. 94. Chemistry 1936, synthesis 20. Carboxylic acid derivative 21. Prepared for microscopy 23. Apple pesticide 25. Trig. function. Lakefront Canadian city 62. Honks 65. A dicarboxylic acid, abbrev. 67. Gather leftovers 68. Chemistry 1954

Pike, Robert D.

360

Glassware Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems  

E-print Network

____ (War is Over)" 1971 song 69. Crystal flaw 71. Roman mom 73. With 1 across, glassware 77. With 81 across. Secondhand 91. Popular 90's TV place 92. Pressure unit 93. Othello heavy 94. With 1 across, glassware DOWN 1

Swaddle, John

361

Lycoming Pike Warren McKean  

E-print Network

Prepared by: The Pennsylvania State Data Center Source: U.S. Department of Commerce United States Census Northampton Delaware Montour Philadelphia Age Dependency Ratio, 2011 Estimates Pennsylvania Counties 2011

Yener, Aylin

362

Lycoming Pike Warren McKean  

E-print Network

by: The Pennsylvania State Data Center Source: U.S. Department of Commerce United States Census Northampton Delaware Montour Philadelphia Labor Force Participation Pennsylvania Counties: 2007-2011 Prepared

Maroncelli, Mark

363

Lycoming Pike Warren McKean  

E-print Network

-2012 Prepared by: The Pennsylvania State Data Center Source: U.S. Department of Commerce United States Census Northampton Delaware Montour Philadelphia Four or More Persons Per Household Pennsylvania Counties: 2008

Maroncelli, Mark

364

Lycoming Pike Warren McKean  

E-print Network

Prepared by: The Pennsylvania State Data Center Source: U.S. Department of Commerce United States Census Northampton Delaware Montour Philadelphia Percent Single-Parent Households Pennsylvania Counties: 2010

Yener, Aylin

365

Lycoming Pike Warren McKean  

E-print Network

-2011 Prepared by: The Pennsylvania State Data Center Source: U.S. Department of Commerce United States Census Northampton Delaware Montour Philadelphia Housing Units Built in 2005 or Later Pennsylvania Counties: 2007

Maroncelli, Mark

366

Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or decreasing-head conditions resulted in dye being trapped in hydraulically dead zones in water- depleted fractures. Residual dye was remobilized from storage and transported (over periods ranging from several months to about 2 years) by increased recharge to the hydrologic system. Subsequent fluctuations in hydraulic gradients, resulting from increases or decreases in recharge to the hydrologic system, acted to speed or slow the transport of dye along the fracture-controlled flow paths. The dye-tracer tests also demonstrated that mining-related disturbances significantly altered the natural fracture-controlled flow paths of the hydrologic system over time. An abandoned underground mine and subsidence-related surface cracks extend to within 250 ft of the principal dye- injection core hole. Results from two of the dye-tracer tests at the site indicate that the annular seal in the core hole was breached by subsurface propagation of the mining-induced fractures. This propagation of fractures resulted in hydraulic short-circuiting between the dye-injection zone in the core hole and two lower piezometer zones, and a partial disruption of the hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and downgradient piezometers on the ridge crest and valley wall. In addition, injected dye was detected in piezometers monitoring a flooded part of the abandoned underground mine. Dye was apparently transported into the mine through a hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and subsidence-related fractures.

Taylor, C.J.

1994-01-01

367

Various aspects of piscine toxicology.  

PubMed

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

2010-09-01

368

Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.  

PubMed

Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected with lower contribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the contamination of inland water fish. PMID:23336927

Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

2013-04-01

369

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

370

Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.  

PubMed

There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-? estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity. Male and female white sucker showed greatest sensitivity to forskolin, while male and female walleye showed greatest sensitivity to prochloraz. Also, gonad explants from these species were found to have greater sensitivity than responses previously reported for in vitro explants of other fish species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and stable cell lines currently used as screening applications to detect chemicals that might disrupt the endocrine system. Therefore, current approaches that use stable cell lines or tissue explants from standardized small bodied laboratory species might not be protective of some wild fish species. Future research is required that investigates whether this in vitro gonadal explant assay is predictive of in vivo effects in wild species of fishes. PMID:24800870

Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

2014-07-01

371

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Echols, Kathy R; May, Tom W; Orazio, Carl E; Tillitt, Donald E

2006-11-01

372

Tissue alkaline phosphatase activity in selected freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

1. Kinetic studies of tissue alkaline phosphatase activity were carried out on eight species of teleost fishes taken from the Mississippi River. 2. Liver alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in mumoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute per gram of protein were as follows: Micropterus salmoides, 20.31; Stizostedion vitreum, 19.22; Pomoxis nigromaculatus, 18.76; Lepisosteus platostomus, 16.26; Esox lucius, 16.14; Hiodon tergisus, 13.83; Ictalurus punctatus, 10.87; Aplodinotus grunniens, 7.94. 3. Specific activity of the kidney alkaline phosphatase was about ten times the level of liver alkaline phosphatase for the species examined. PMID:318337

Cvancara, V A; Huang, W M

1978-01-01

373

Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest disturbance, especially the historic forest fire pattern (Woodruff and Cannon, 2002). Forest fire has an essential role in the forest ecosystems of VNP (Heinselman, 1996). Because resource and land managers need to integrate both natural wildfire and prescribed fire in management plans, the potential influence of fire on an element as sensitive to the environment as mercury becomes a critical part of their decisionmaking. A number of recent studies have shown that while fire does have a significant impact on mercury at the landscape level, the observed effects of fire on aquatic environments are highly variable and unpredictable (Caldwell and others, 2000; Garcia and Carrigan, 2000; Kelly and others, 2006; Nelson and others, 2007). Caldwell and others (2000) described an increase in methylmercury in reservoir sediments resulting from mobilization and transport of charred vegetative matter following a fire in New Mexico. Krabbenhoft and Fink (2000) attributed increases in total mercury concentrations in young-of-the-year fish in the Florida Everglades to release of mercury resulting from peat oxidation following fires. A fivefold increase in whole-body mercury accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a fire in Alberta, Canada, apparently resulted from increased nutrient concentrations that enhanced productivity and restructured the food web of a lake within the fire's burn footprint (Kelly and others, 2006). For this study, we determined the short-term effects of forest fire on mercury concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments in VNP by comparing and contrasting mercury concentrations in forest soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch for a burned watershed and an adjacent lake, with similar samples from watersheds and lakes with no fire activity (control watersheds and lakes). The concentration of total mercury in whole, 1-year-old yellow perch serves as a good biological indicator for monitoring trends in methylmercury conce

Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

2009-01-01

374

Ambient Obscurance Baking on the GPU Peter-Pike Sloan  

E-print Network

the following constraints/concerns that led to our solution: Ā· Ease of authoring levels is paramount parameterizations led us away from them due to more complicated workflows. Ā· Since outdoor lighting uses a dynamic concern. Storing an extra set of UV coordinates and pre-computed textures was impractical. For instanced

Plotkin, Joshua B.

375

Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development of…

Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

2009-01-01

376

Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America--a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases.  

PubMed

As part of an initiative to assemble and synthesize mercury (Hg) data from environmental matrices across northeastern North America, we analyzed a large dataset comprised of 15,305 records of fish tissue Hg data from 24 studies from New York State to Newfoundland. These data were summarized to provide mean Hg concentrations for 40 fish species and associated families. Detailed analyses were carried out using data for 13 species. Hg in fishes varied by geographic area, waterbody type, and waterbody. The four species with the highest mean Hg concentrations were muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and northern pike (Esox luscius). Several species displayed elevated Hg concentrations in reservoirs, relative to lakes and rivers. Normalized deviations from mean tissue levels for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were mapped, illustrating how Hg concentrations in these species varied across northeastern North America. Certain geographic regions showed generally below or above-average Hg concentrations in fish, while significant heterogeneity was evident across the landscape. The proportion of waterbodies exhibiting exceedances of USEPA's criterion for fish methylmercury ranged from 14% for standard-length brook trout fillets to 42% for standard-length yellow perch fillets. A preliminary correlation analysis showed that fish Hg concentrations were related to waterbody acidity and watershed size. PMID:15931965

Kamman, Neil C; Burgess, Neil M; Driscoll, Charles T; Simonin, Howard A; Goodale, Wing; Linehan, Janice; Estabrook, Robert; Hutcheson, Michael; Major, Andrew; Scheuhammer, Anton M; Scruton, David A

2005-03-01

377

Eurographics Symposium on Rendering (2009), pp. 110 Hendrik Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan (Guest Editors)  

E-print Network

Editors) Soft Textured Shadow Volume Vincent Forest1 , LoĆÆc Barthe1 , GaĆ«l Guennebaud2 and Mathias Paulin1 of the light-surface visibility interaction. Such information is par- ticularly difficult to compute in real to generate. They require only the vis- ibility information between a point p in the scene and the light

Barthe, LoĆÆc

378

Characteristics of a Crappie Population in an Unfished Small Impoundment Containing Northern Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable black trappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and white trappie (Pomoxis annularis) pop- ulations were documented in a small impoundment in Colorado. Individnals 250 mm long and longer comprised 21% of the black trappies and 44% of the white trappies 130 mm long and longer. Mean relative weight (Wr) information indicated that trappie were in good condition and growth rates were average.

DAVID W. WILLIS; JOHN F. SMELTZER; STEPHEN A. FLICKINGER

1984-01-01

379

A swan, a pike, and a crawfish walk into a bar Shimon Edelman  

E-print Network

on the target article, On the Nature of Minds, or: Truth and Consequences, this issue. 1 A concise and highly that a method should be found by which our beliefs may be determined by nothing human, but by some external

Edelman, Shimon

380

Max Baumhefner & Ed Pike, Co-Authors Andreas Klugescheid, Contributing Author  

E-print Network

is to safeguard the Earth: its people, its plants and animals and the natural systems on which all life depends. 3 in California are already clean vehicles Source: EPA "Beyond Tailpipe Emissions" calculator #12;The Plug: BMW #12;Conclusions 19 Thinking Beyond the Roof Co-promotion Co-education Coordination Market

California at Davis, University of

381

Iterators Reconsidered Jason O. Hallstrom, Scott M. Pike, and Nigamanth Sridhar  

E-print Network

of the pattern are explored. 1. GOD'S LAW In March 2001, Silicon Valley hosted the flagship con- ference "ACM1 Wein- burg: you can't make a baby in one month by putting nine women on the job. The complexity and compositional reasoning reuse about system behavior and correctness. In principle, well-designed software

Weide, Bruce W.

382

Successful conversion of the Pikes Peak viscous-oil cyclic steam project to steamdrive  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes conversion from steam stimulation to steamdrive in a high-viscosity oil reservoir. Field testing of operating strategies helped to develop conversion and operating criteria. The successful steamdrive performance was attributed to reservoir preheating and injector/producer interwell communication that were established during cyclic operations. Steam drag and gravity drainage are the main recovery mechanisms.

Miller, K.A.; Stevens, L.G.; Watt, B.J. (Husky Oil Operations Ltd. (GB))

1991-12-01

383

Successful Conversion of the Pikes Peak Viscous-Oil Cyclic Steam Project to Steamdrive  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes conversion from steam stimulation to steamdrive in a high-viscosity oil reservoir. Field testing of operating strategies helped to develop conversion and operating criteria. The successful steamdrive performance was attributed to reservoir preheating and injector\\/producer interwell communication that were established during cyclic operations. Steam drag and gravity drainage are the main recovery mechanisms.

K. A. Miller; L. G. Stevens; B. J. Watts

1991-01-01

384

The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long  

E-print Network

of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN, USA D . D . G R A H A M Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) (Anderson & Schupp 1986; Findlay, Kasian, Hendzel, Regehr, Schindler

385

Interactive Technical Illustration Bruce Gooch Peter-Pike J. Sloan Amy Gooch Peter Shirley Richard Riesenfeld  

E-print Network

, but art and appearance are still essential instruments toward this end. Work that has been done based on accepted tech- niques used by artists and studies carried out in human perception. This paper skills that an artist needs to have in order to produce quality drawings: the perception of edges

Gooch, Bruce

386

Interactive Technical Illustration Bruce Gooch PeterPike J. Sloan Amy Gooch Peter Shirley Richard Riesenfeld  

E-print Network

, but art and appearance are still essential instruments toward this end. Work that has been done based on accepted techĀ­ niques used by artists and studies carried out in human perception. This paper quality drawings: the perception of edges, the perception of spaces, the perception of relationships

Utah, University of

387

Interactive Technical Illustration Bruce Gooch Peter-Pike J. Sloan Amy Gooch Peter Shirley  

E-print Network

, but art and appearance are still essential instruments toward this end. Work that has been done based on accepted tech- niques used by artists and studies carried out in human perception. This paper quality drawings: the perception of edges, the perception of spaces, the perception of relationships

Gooch, Amy

388

What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

Reay, Diane

2012-01-01

389

Office of Public Affairs 9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20814 The National Institutes of Health  

E-print Network

to Wisconsin companies,2 and venture capital firms technology of TomoTherapy [which integrates medical imaging with cancer radiation therapy for precise tumor funding of technology is both economically and scientifically sound." Rock Mackie, Co-Founder, Tomo

390

A Booklet for Elementary Students by Robert D. Pike, Ph.D. and Robin M. Carey  

E-print Network

(potassium sodium tartrate) and water. Supersaturated solution Ā­ a solution where more than the maximum of crystals using X- rays. Chrome Alum Copper(II) sulfate Fluorite Mica #12;Vocabulary Word Search c r y

Pike, Robert D.

391

Interstate use of water - Sporhase v. El Paso, Pike and Vermejo  

SciTech Connect

A review of court rulings over water allocation examines the tests of a valid or permissible state restriction on interstate commerce. The cases differ in that the Sporhase Court ruled that water could move across the state line in a regulated market transaction, while the El Paso Court regulates state officials in the performance of resource allocation in the public domain. The author reviews the implications of these and other decisions which address the protection of local citizens and property holders by requiring exporters to replace the resource either capitalization or some other contribution of equal value.

Trelease, F.J.

1987-01-01

392

Detergent-Free Caveolae Prep (from: Liu, Casey and Pike, BBRC 245: 684-690 (1998)  

E-print Network

in SW41 rotor for 3 hr at 39,000 rpm (175,000 x g). 8. Remove gradients and fractionate into 10: Chill ultracentrifuge to 4Ā° C with vacuum on 1. Wash cells in ice cold PBS. Be sure to remove as much mixture in the bottom of a 13 ml centrifuge tube for the SW41 rotor. Add 6 ml 35% sucrose in MBS

Pike, Linda J.

393

Chemical Alarm Signals Enhance Survival of Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) During Encounters with Predatory Chain Pickerel (Esox niger)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversity of aquatic organisms release chemical alarm signals when attacked or captured by a predator. These alarm signals are thought to warn other conspecifics of danger and, consequently, may benefit receivers by increasing their survival. Here we experimentally investigated the diÄerences in behaviour and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis that had been exposed to either brook

Reehan S. Mirza; Douglas P. Chivers

2001-01-01

394

Growth, morphology and division of flagellates of the genus Trypanoplasma (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida) in vitro.  

PubMed

Nine strains of trypanoplasms were grown in axenic culture. Cultures of Trypanoplasma borreli Laveran and Mesnil, 1901 from fish hosts Blicca bjoerkna, Cyprinus carpio, Scardinius erythrophthalmus and Tinca tinca and of T. guerneyorum Minchin, 1909 from Esox lucius and Trypanoplasma spp. from the leech Piscicola geometra were maintained in biphasic blood-agar medium SNB-9 supplemented with vitamins and antibiotics. In culture, the flagellates transformed into smaller, elongated stages with a little-developed undulating membrane and into short flagella that were morphologically similar to stages in the leech vector. The cultures were passaged weekly at 17-20 degrees C, but they also grew at 4 degrees C. The flagellates divided by binary fission, which was initiated by the formation of two new anterior flagella. The original anterior flagellum of the mother individual was gradually apposed to the cell surface and became the recurrent flagellum of one of the daughter individuals. In the meantime, nuclear division took place, followed by transverse cleavage of the kinetoplast. The division was completed by longitudinal fission of the mother individual into two offspring. Multiple fission that resulted in rosettes, which then cleaved into several daughter cells, was also observed, as well as some dyskinetoplastic and other anomalous forms. In cultures isolated from tenches with high parasitaemia, non-dividing, long filiform stages were observed. Culture stages were not infective for susceptible fishes. PMID:2217113

Peckovį, H; Lom, J

1990-01-01

395

Estimates of long-term suspended-sediment loads in Bay Creek at Nebo, Pike County, Illinois, 1940-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five years of daily suspended-sediment discharges (1968, 1969, 1975, 1976, and 1980) for Bay Creek at Nebo, Illinois, computed from once- or twice-weekly samples (more often during storm events), were used to develop transport equations that can be used to estimate long-term suspended-sediment discharges from long-term water-discharge records. Discharge was divided into three groups based on changes in slope on a graph of logarithms of water discharge versus suspended-sediment discharge. Two subgroups were formed within each of the three groups by determining whether the flow was steady or increasing, or was decreasing. Seasonality was accounted for by introducing day of the year in sine and cosine functions. The suspended-sediment load estimated from the equations for the 5 years was 77.3 percent of that computed from daily sediment- and water-discharge records for those years. The mean annual suspended-sediment load for 41 years of estimated loads was 359 ,500 tons, which represents a yield of about 3.5 tons per acre from the Bay Creek drainage basin. (USGS)

Lazaro, Timothy R.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Frost, Leonard R., Jr.

1984-01-01

396

Life Cycle Analysis for Biofuel Pellet Production on Reclaimed Mountain Top Coal Mining Sites in Pike County, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaintop coal mining and valley filling drastically disturbs soils and removes essentially all soil organic carbon (SOC) from sites. Growing crops for biofuels on these marginal lands could be a practical way to sequester and offset carbon emissions from coal production and consumption. A life cycle model was developed to quantify the initial carbon density of the site and to

Alice Jones; Katie Young; James F. Fox; J. Campbell

2010-01-01

397

Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Harper, D. [Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States). Environmental Geology Section

1998-12-31

398

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT JANUARY 2004 Biology and Foraging Demands of Northern Pike in  

E-print Network

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT JANUARY 2004 Biology and Foraging Demands the University of Arizona and Mark Brouder from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided friendly and Status in the Southwestern United States by Jon M. Flinders and Scott A. Bonar Arizona Cooperative Fish

Bonar, Scott A.

399

VALIDATION AND REGULARIZATION IN DIFFUSION MRI TRACTOGRAPHY J. S. W. Campbell, P. Savadjiev, K. Siddiqi, and G. B. Pike  

E-print Network

]. The first work on 3D fibre reconstruction using diffusion MRI used diffusion tensor (DT) data, so named because it is obtained by modeling the diffusion probability density function (pdf) as an anisotropic 3DVALIDATION AND REGULARIZATION IN DIFFUSION MRI TRACTOGRAPHY J. S. W. CampbellĀ§, P. Savadjiev, K

Siddiqi, Kaleem

400

“Why don't they come to Pike street and ask us”?: Black American women's health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and

Tovia G. Freedman

1998-01-01

401

Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

2008-11-01

402

Origins and functional diversification of salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in salmonids.  

PubMed

The Salmoniform whole-genome duplication is hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of anadromy, but little is known about the contribution of paralogs from this event to the physiological performance traits required for anadromy, such as salinity tolerance. Here, we determined when two candidate, salinity-responsive paralogs of the Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ? subunit (?1a and ?1b) evolved and studied their evolutionary trajectories and tissue-specific expression patterns. We found that these paralogs arose during a small-scale duplication event prior to the Salmoniform, but after the teleost, whole-genome duplication. The 'freshwater paralog' (?1a) is primarily expressed in the gills of Salmoniformes and an unduplicated freshwater sister species (Esox lucius) and experienced positive selection in the freshwater ancestor of Salmoniformes and Esociformes. Contrary to our predictions, the 'saltwater paralog' (?1b), which is more widely expressed than ?1a, did not experience positive selection during the evolution of anadromy in the Coregoninae and Salmonine. To determine whether parallel mutations in Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 may contribute to salinity tolerance in other fishes, we studied independently evolved salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in Anabas testudineus and Oreochromis mossambicus. We found that a quarter of the mutations occurring between salmonid ?1a and ?1b in functionally important sites also evolved in parallel in at least one of these species. Together, these data argue that paralogs contributing to salinity tolerance evolved prior to the Salmoniform whole-genome duplication and that strong selection and/or functional constraints have led to parallel evolution in salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in fishes. PMID:24917532

Dalziel, Anne C; Bittman, Jesse; Mandic, Milica; Ou, Michelle; Schulte, Patricia M

2014-07-01

403

[Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

Rusinek, O T

2006-01-01

404

75 FR 3741 - National Center for Research Resources; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville...evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville...evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

2010-01-22

405

Length-weight relationship, condition factor and fecundity of the African Pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch, 1974) in Eleiyele Reservoir, Ibadan, south-west Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of growth and reproductive biology of Hepsetus odoe, a commercial fish species from Lake Eleiyele, were investigated from October 2010 to April 2011 to enhance effective management and sustainable exploitation. The pattern of growth was determined from the length-weight relationship (LWR) and the condition factor (K). The reproductive features studied included fecundity, the gonadosomatic index (IG) and egg

Juliet Akponine; Abeke Adedolapo Ayoade

2012-01-01

406

APPENDIX E: Vegetative species list of the Forest Lake Club, Pike Co., PA. Species are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name  

E-print Network

Tree Nyssaceae Nyssa sylvatica Black gum Lake margin/swamps Tree Betulaceae Ostrya virginiana Ironwood aspen Woods Tree Rosaceae Prunus americana* Wild plum* Drainages Tree Rosaceae Prunus serotina Black Black huckleberry Woods Shrub Hamamelidaceae Hammamelis virginiana Witch-hazel Woods Shrub Aquifoliaceae

Syring, John

407

In 2006 hIstory buffs celebrated the 200th anniversary of the moment when explorer Zebulon Pike first saw the mountain that would later bear his name.  

E-print Network

encounters o n e Bonnie J. Clark and Laura L. Scheiber A Sloping Land: An Introduction to Archaeological that will be discussed in the pages to come. Landscape perspectives in archaeology focus on the relationships and inter it their home. It is cattle country, cowboy country, Indian country. It is also an area rich in ethnographic

Scheiber, Laura L.

408

Karyotypes and DNA values for members of the suborder Esocoidei (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyotypes prepared from tissues of gills, gonads, fins, liver, and spleen, yielded the following diploid numbers: all Esox spp. 50, all Umbra spp. (excluding U. krameri) 22, Novumbra hubbsi 48, Dallia pectoralis 78. DNA measurements from Feulgen stain content of erythrocytes, indicated that the species could be divided into two categories: 30–39% of human-Esox spp., Dallia pectoralis, Novumbra hubbsi: 70%

R. J. Beamish; M. J. Merrilees; E. J. Crossman

1971-01-01

409

Detecting Fake Conferences and Cleaning  

E-print Network

Committee Characteristics", JCDL 07 "Group Linkage", ICDE 07 Slides for this talk are available at: http://pike Incremental computation Unifying metrics? Testing o in CiteSeer o Human subject http://pike

Lee, Dongwon

410

78 FR 56680 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting...following Federal Advisory Committee meeting of the Reserve...Room, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Skyline Four, Suite...Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite 601, Falls Church...the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972...

2013-09-13

411

76 FR 69769 - Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental...Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental...Auditorium, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...participants. The steering committee will hold an open business...located at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD,...

2011-11-09

412

77 FR 29667 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...121, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892...Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852...301-827-0314, or FDA Advisory Committee Information...

2012-05-18

413

75 FR 12768 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 29, conference...Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852...301-827-0314, or FDA Advisory Committee Information...

2010-03-17

414

40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.  

...Marion County Montgomery CountyNewton County Pike CountyPolk County Scott...Marion County Montgomery CountyNewton County Pike CountyPolk County Scott...County Unclassifiable/Attainment.Newton County...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott... Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott...County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Newton County...

2012-07-01

416

2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

417

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

418

6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

419

1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

420

9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

421

12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

422

3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

423

4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

424

77 FR 59934 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville, 1750 Rockville...evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville...evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

2012-10-01

425

Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

426

An introduction to New York State Fisheries, part 1  

E-print Network

Yellow perch Roach Golden shiner Trout Brook trout Bass White perch Elft Alosa, 3-4 spp. Twalift Striped Sturgeon Pike Sturgeon Pike Eel Pike Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Salmon Carp Shad Elft Twalift Bass

Limburg, Karin E.

427

76 FR 38119 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206.'' Categories of...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206.'' Notification procedure...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206. Requests should...

2011-06-29

428

Pike, Steven D. (2007) Repertory Grid Analysis in group settings to elicit salient destination image attributes. Current Issues in Tourism 10(4):pp. 378-392. Copyright 2007 Multilingual Matters & Channel View Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Repertory Grid Analysis (RGA) was originally developed in clinical psychology, the technique has been adapted for use in a diverse range of fields. However, the technique is rarely addressed in marketing research texts and has not been fully utilised in the tourism literature. Also, RGA applications have predominantly been reported in the form of personal interviews. The article reports

Steven Pike

429

Colorado Pikeminnow Habitat Use in the San Juan River, New Mexico and Utah. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, the Colorado pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus lucius, occurred in the mainstem Colorado River and its tributaries from Wyoming to the Gulf of California. The San Juan River in New Mexico and Utah contains a small population of Colorado pikeminnow. ...

2000-01-01

430

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey  

E-print Network

isolated from 25 fish species (for example, muskellunge, Esox masuqinongy, and freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens) from the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, Lake St. Clair, Lake Huron, and Lake Michigan (near

Torgersen, Christian

431

Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service West Lafayette, Indiana Specialty Corn and Soybeans  

E-print Network

Committee and the Purdue University Departments of Agricultural Economics and Agri- cultural Statistics, Pike, Posey, Spencer, Sullivan, Vanderburgh, and Warrick), while 4,846 were randomly selected from

432

housingreportAn e-publication of UMass Lowell and the Middlesex North Registry of Deeds Merrimack Valley  

E-print Network

Care, Housing and Personnel Administration committees. He authored legislation to increase funding Valley Housing Report By Sarah Pike Deeds, Mortgages, Foreclosures and Orders of Notice Recorded January

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

433

Guidance for Industry E6 Good Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

, and Manufacturers Assistance (HFM-40) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) 1401 Rockville Pike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD/INDEPENDENT ETHICS COMMITTEE (IRB

Biederman, Irving

434

6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, 1940. BRICKWORK DETAIL - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

435

40 CFR 52.2027 - Approval status of Pennsylvania's Generic NOX and VOC RACT Rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montour, Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna, Tioga, Union, Venango, Warren, Wayne,...

2012-07-01

436

40 CFR 52.2027 - Approval status of Pennsylvania's Generic NOX and VOC RACT Rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montour, Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna, Tioga, Union, Venango, Warren, Wayne,...

2013-07-01

437

40 CFR 52.2027 - Approval status of Pennsylvania's Generic NOX and VOC RACT Rules.  

...Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montour, Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna, Tioga, Union, Venango, Warren, Wayne,...

2014-07-01

438

Rachel J. Beane Earth and Oceanographic Science  

E-print Network

, Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado." ACADEMIC POSITIONS Associate Professor, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME-1996 RESEARCH APPOINTMENTS External Graduate Faculty, The University of Maine 2008-13 Ph.D. Committee Member, Kokchetav Massif 1994 Russia Dissertation research on Maksyutov Complex 1993-1996 Colorado Pikes Peak

Beane, Rachel J.

439

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville...compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, a requester may purchase...of testimony in NRC Advisory Committee proceedings, which...

2012-01-01

440

DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org  

E-print Network

6 ranavirus species recognised by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV 2009), 3), guppy virus 6 (GV6), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV) and short-finned eel ranavirus (SERV) from fish hosts frog Ā· Frog virus 3 Ā· Pike-perch iridovirus Ā· Disease transmission Ā· Metamorphosis Ā· Temperature Resale

Gray, Matthew

441

CURRICULUM VITAE for JASON FULMAN (Oct. 5 2013), 10 pages CONTACT INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Nam Hong 2012-2013 Ph.D. Thesis Committee Chair for John Pike 2012-2013 Ph.D. Thesis Committee Chair Current student Umit Islak Current student Gene Kim Current student John Pike Former student, graduated Council 2013-2014 Consultative Committee for Chairman Selection, Member 2012-2013 Hiring Committee, Chair

Fulman, Jason

442

Rachel J. Beane Earth and Oceanographic Science  

E-print Network

, Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado." ACADEMIC POSITIONS Professor, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 2011-13 Ph.D. Committee Member for Department of Earth Sciences Visiting Scholar, Department of Geological research on Maksyutov Complex 1993-1996 Colorado Pikes Peak Batholith, Keck Geology Consortium Project 1992

Beane, Rachel J.

443

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-print Network

W. Pike. His continuous suggestions and feedback will always be remembered. Needless to say, his for being a part of my examination committee. I would like to specially thank Dr. Armando B. Corripio, love and support throughout my life. I would like to thank Dr. Ralph W. Pike, and The Department

Pike, Ralph W.

444

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville...compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, a requester may purchase...of testimony in NRC Advisory Committee proceedings, which...

2011-01-01

445

77 FR 31590 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S...following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Reserve...Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite 601, Falls Church...Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite 601, Falls Church...the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law...

2012-05-29

446

Hello World Ken Thompson  

E-print Network

Hello World or KĀµĀ“ Ā“Āµ or Rob Pike Ken Thompson AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 [Pike90], a new distributed operating system from Bell Laboratories, seemed a good occasion to correct by allocating 16-bit subspaces to national committees to partition individually. The sug- gested mode of use

Kuhn, Markus

447

Rachel J. Beane Earth and Oceanographic Science  

E-print Network

, Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado." ACADEMIC POSITIONS Professor, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 2011.D. Committee Member for Department of Earth Sciences Visiting Scholar, Department of Geological Sciences Complex 1993-1996 Colorado Pikes Peak Batholith, Keck Geology Consortium Project 1992 Wyoming Iowa State

Beane, Rachel J.

448

Anniversary Symposium of The Protein Society " Where we've been, where we are, and where we're going with protein science"  

E-print Network

Marriott Copley Place PRELIMINARY PROGRAM as of February 7, 2011 The Protein Society 9650 Rockville Pike registration and ticket purchase required ) Education and Mentoring Committee Meeting & Mixer Sunday, July 24 PRELIMINARY PROGRAM as of February 7, 2011 The Protein Society 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814

Barbar, Elisar

449

LONGITUDINAL PATTERNS IN STREAM CHANNEL GEOMORPHOLOGY AND AQUATIC HABITAT IN THE LUQUILLO MOUNTAINS OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

OF PUERTO RICO Andrew Stephen Pike A DISSERTATION in Earth and Environmental Science Presented Fred. Second, I would like to thank each member of my graduate committee. I extend special thanks RICO Andrew S. Pike Frederick N. Scatena The hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological dynamics

450

Human Services Transportation Plan "INCREASING INTERCONNECTIVITY THROUGH MOBILITY AND ACCESS"  

E-print Network

" REGION 4 Adams, Brown, Hancock, Henderson, McDonough, Pike, Schuyler and Warren Counties Endorsed January). **** This Plan was produced for the counties of Adams, Brown, Hancock, Henderson, McDonough, Pike, Schuyler Regional Profile Regional Transportation Committee (RTC) Make-Up Key RTC Milestones Other Public

Illinois at Chicago, University of

451

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville...compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, a requester may purchase...of testimony in NRC Advisory Committee proceedings, which...

2014-01-01

452

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville...compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, a requester may purchase...of testimony in NRC Advisory Committee proceedings, which...

2013-01-01

453

The Segments and Tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…

Beal, Heather D.

2011-01-01

454

5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

455

8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

456

NC State Chemical Engineering Degrees -MS Graduation Name NicknameGrad Date Hometown StateUndergrad Chair Initial Employer Employer City State  

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Monsanto Frank Jeremiah Connelly Jr Frank 6/10/1951 Staten Island NY Pike Henry Cheng Hsing Pan Henry 6 Raleigh NC David Kelsey Whittington David 6/8/1952 Natural Bridge VA Pike Charles Ellis Winslow Jr Sonny 6 Eugene Stanley Hertel Sr Gene 6/7/1953 Providence RI U Rhode Island Beatty Allied Chemical Hopewell VA

Velev, Orlin D.

457

Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

Sweeney, Kevin Z.

2005-01-01

458

T. A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.Nagy, R. W. Pike, J. R. Hopper, and C. L. Yaws, "A Prototype System for Economic, Environmental and Sustainable Optimization of a Chemical Complex," Proceedings of the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering  

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reduction, recycling and reuse. Pollution prevention was an environmental issue and is now a critical there is no standard, agreed-upon methods to estimate them, and they can include consumer response and employee relations, among others (Kohlbrand, 1998). The Center for Waste Reduction Technology (CWRT) of the American

Pike, Ralph W.

459

Distribution and food habits of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and the northern brook silverside, Labidesthes sicculus, in Lake Conroe, Texas  

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catch data for March during 1980 and 1981. ? August from Lake Conroe, Texas, Species M tdt ~hill. Labidesthes si. cculus 174 713 Total number 1980 1981 2093 1715 Percent 1980 1981 42. 55 51. 70 3. 54 21. 50 D ~*dt D. Esox americanus N.... 00 0. 00 Table 2. Seine catch data for Conroe, Texas. September ? December 1980 from Lake S 'ecies M tdt ~htlt Labidesthes sicculus Total number 1058 691 Percent 28. 88 18. 86 D ~*dt D. Esox americanus Ntit ~L ~ND t ~tt N. texanus N...

Morris, Joseph Eugene

2012-06-07

460

2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a  

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settings and physical context is described by Lucius et al. [1]. The main components of this device can is forced into rotating motion by the blade of the impeller (see section 2.3). Finally, we take a general contains one complete circulation of the rotor sampled in 80 time steps taken from a longer simulation run