These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.  

PubMed

This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season. PMID:22471807

Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

2012-04-01

2

Prey capture of pike Esox lucius larvae in turbid water.  

PubMed

Pike Esox lucius larvae captured fewer calanoid and cyclopoid copepods in turbid than in clear water, whereas no differences were detected in feeding rates on Daphnia longispina. Decreased capture of copepods may lead to lower growth and survival of E. lucius larvae in turbid areas, in particular, if cladocerans are scarce. PMID:20557612

Salonen, M; Engström-Ost, J

2010-06-01

3

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada. In  

E-print Network

6 Northern pike (Esox lucius) are common sport fish in the northern United States and Canada Regulations in North America Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a popular sport fish in the United States, Madison, WI 53707-7921. Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a popular sport fish in the United States

4

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Á Northern pike

Bernatchez, Louis

5

Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw  

E-print Network

Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw R . A R L I N G The behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius L., released with a retained lure in the mouth was studied-and-release, fish welfare, lure, recreational fishing. Introduction Esocids such as muskellunge, Esox masquinongy

Cooke, Steven J.

6

Spatial behaviour of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded  

E-print Network

Spatial behaviour of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded nursery area Introduction Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) is a species particularly adapted to shallow of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in a temporarily flooded nursery area. Ecology

Cucherousset, Julien

7

Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.  

PubMed

The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

2014-09-10

8

Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial  

E-print Network

-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1S 4X4, Canada Keywords Conservation, environmental variation, Esox lucius, habitat. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysisLandscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox

Bernatchez, Louis

9

Habitat utilisation by pike Esox lucius L. during winter floods in a southern English chalk river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven pike Esox lucius L., implanted with radio-transmitters, were tracked throughout autumn and winter in the River Frome, a southern English chalk river. During the first flood events of the year, pike remained within the main river channel but during subsequent flood events, pike could also be found in flooded fields, in drainage ditches or in a millstream. Eighty percent

J. E. G. Masters; J. S. Welton; W. R. C. Beaumont; K. H. Hodder; A. C. Pinder; R. E. Gozlan; M. Ladle

2002-01-01

10

Individual specialization and trophic adaptability of northern pike (Esox lucius): an isotope and dietary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike (Esox lucius) are often considered to be specialist piscivores, but under some circumstances will continue to eat invertebrates as adults. To examine effects of fish assemblage composition on the trophic ecology of pike, we combined stable isotope analysis (SIA) of carbon and nitrogen and stomach content analysis (SCA) on pike from five lakes in northern Alberta, three of

Catherine P. Beaudoin; William M. Tonn; Ellie E. Prepas; Leonard I. Wassenaar

1999-01-01

11

Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations. PMID:24062552

Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Gryzi?ska, Magdalena; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

2013-09-24

12

An experimental breakage of Reissner's fibre in the central canal of the pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The spinal cords of newly hatched pike (Esox lucius) fry were divided into two pieces by transverse cuts. After periods of different lengths, the appearances of the brokenReissner's fibres were investigated anatomically. The fibre normally terminates in the caudal end as a secretory accumulation, a caudal mass. After the operation this mass gradually disappears, apparently through the spinal cord wall

Ragnar Olsson

1957-01-01

13

Analysis of sibling cannibalism among pike, Esox lucius , juveniles reared under semi-natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Sibling cannibalism in pike, Esox lucius, larvae and juveniles living in outdoor rearing ponds was studied using stomach contents analysis. For the two initial densities tested (6 and 18 larvae m?2, equivalent to 12 and 36 larvae m?3), cannibalism was non-existent during the larval period (13 to 35 mm total length) and was observed only during the juvenile stages.

Christian Bry; Edgar Basset; Xavier Rognon; François Bonamy

1992-01-01

14

New series of fatty acids in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence in Northern Pike (Esox locius) liver and testes lipids of a group of eight homologous fatty acids of as yet unknown structure is reported. They occur esterified\\u000a to cholesterol and to glycerol as triglycerides but are absent from the phospholipids. They contain three oxygens and are\\u000a characterized further by being more resistant to hydrogenation than normal unsaturated fatty

R. L. Glass; Thomas P. Krick; Allen E. Eckhardt

1974-01-01

15

General morphology and axonal ultrastructure of the olfactory nerve of the pike, Esox lucius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olfactory nerve of the European pike (Esox lucius) contains 5.1 × 106 axons with an average diameter of 0.20 ± 0,04 µm and a length of 5.5 cm in 1 meter long pike. Each axon contains an average of 4 microtubules as well as neurofilaments, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and about 500 mitochondria per centimeter. The number of neurofilaments ranges

Georg W. Kreutzberg; Guenter W. Gross

1977-01-01

16

Mercury concentrations in northern pike, Esox lucius L., in small lakes of Evo area, southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured Hg concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius) from 17 small lakes in Evo forest area, Lammi, southern Finland. The mean Hg concentration in muscle tissue of a 1 kg pike\\u000a ranged from 0.15 to 1.36 ?g g?1 (ww) in the lakes. There was a trend towards higher concentrations in acidic and humic lakes than in circumneutral and clear-water

M. Rask; T.-R. Metsälä

1991-01-01

17

Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation.  

PubMed

Young-of-the-year pike Esox lucius foraging on copepods experienced different foraging success depending on prey pigmentation in water visually degraded by brown colouration or algae. Both attack rate and prey consumption rate were higher for E. lucius foraging on transparent prey in brown water, whereas the opposite was true in algal turbid water. Pigments in copepod prey may have a cryptic function in brown water instead of a photo-protective function even if prey-size selectivity was stronger than selection based on pigmentation in juvenile E. lucius. PMID:21722125

Jönsson, M; Hylander, S; Ranåker, L; Nilsson, P A; Brönmark, C

2011-07-01

18

A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty acid composition in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty acids during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty acids (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty

Karl Schwalmel

1992-01-01

19

Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius ) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with\\u000a organochlorine pesticide (total p,p’-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic,\\u000a cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite

J. E. Hinck; V. S. Blazer; N. D. Denslow; M. S. Myers; T. S. Gross; D. E. Tillitt

2007-01-01

20

THE MECHANICAL POWER OUTPUT AND HYDROMECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF NORTHERN PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS) FAST-STARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical power output and hydrodynamic efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, during acceleration from rest (fast-start) are calculated from hydrodynamic theory for two kinematic patterns, C-starts (used in escape) and S-starts (used in prey capture). The Weihs model is employed and modified to calculate the mechanical power produced by a fish during a fast-start. A term is included for

H. RUSS FRITH; ROBERT W. BLAKE

21

Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E)

Sven Burreau; Johan Axelman; Dag Broman; Eva Jakobsson

1997-01-01

22

Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

2010-01-01

23

Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius L.).  

PubMed

The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability. PMID:21637562

Wang, Jun; Wang, Chenghui; Qian, Long; Ma, Yuqing; Yang, Xinxin; Jeney, Zsigmond; Li, Sifa

2011-01-01

24

Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day?1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

2014-01-01

25

Adrenergic neurons in the spinal cord of the pike ( Esox lucius ) and their relation to the caudal neurosecretory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower spinal cord including the caudal neurosecretory system of the pike (Esox lucius) was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy and also with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck and Hillarp for the visualization of monoamines. A system of perikarya displaying a specific green fluorescence of remarkably high intensity is disclosed in the basal part of the

H. G. Baumgarten; B. Falck; H. Wartenberg

1970-01-01

26

The photosensory function of the pineal organ of the pike ( Esox lucius L.) Correlation between structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical recordings from the exposed pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius L.) were performed in order to localize the photoreceptive structures. Extracellular recordings showed a maintained activity of nerve fibers from the pineal tract and of single neurons from the distal region of the pineal organ. At increasing levels of steady exposure to white light, the impulse frequency decreased.

Jacky Falcón; Hilmar Meissl

1981-01-01

27

The population dynamics of pike, Esox lucius , and perch, Perca fluviatilis , in a simple predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics and predator-prey relationship of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, were examined in simple fish communities in two adjacent shallow lakes, Lochs Kinord and Davan, Deeside, Scotland. Few perch survive to age 3 but Z is low for fish > 3 years and perch live up to 17 years. Population fecundity remained relatively high and constant

James W. Treasurer; Roger Owen; Eric Bowers

1992-01-01

28

Behavioral variation in pelvic phenotypes of brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans , in response to predation by northern pike, Esox lucius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations ofCulaea inconstans, from Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada exhibit phenotypic variation in expression of the pelvic skeleton and associated spines, from complete presence (with) through intermediate forms to complete absence (without). Such variation influences predation byEsox lucius which prefer the least spiny prey. Behavioral differences were investigated before and during pike predation. These differences may be associated either with the

James D. Reist

1983-01-01

29

Assessment of natal origin of pike ( Esox lucius ) in the Baltic Sea using Sr:Ca in otoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning habitat of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea include brackish water bays, brooks and rivers. Elevated salinity concentrations are one of several stressors\\u000a that might increase the use and importance of freshwater habitats for spawning. In the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish\\u000a seas in the world, freshwater species like pike, perch (Perca fluviatilis), whitefish (Coregonus sp),

Olof Engstedt; Patrik Stenroth; Per Larsson; Lars Ljunggren; Mikael Elfman

2010-01-01

30

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (<0.0005 to 0.097 mg/mL) pike were not correlated with any contaminant, but vitellogenin concentrations >0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm(2)), size (812 to 1481 microm(2)), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (< or =63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. PMID:17396212

Hinck, J E; Blazer, V S; Denslow, N D; Myers, M S; Gross, T S; Tillitt, D E

2007-05-01

31

Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.  

PubMed

The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500 MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12 °C for up to 70 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12 °C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5 °C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality. PMID:24423558

K?ížek, Martin; Mat?jková, Kate?ina; Vácha, František; Dadáková, Eva

2014-05-15

32

Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.  

PubMed

In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation. PMID:19402450

Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

2009-02-25

33

Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.  

PubMed

Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.7±6.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish. PMID:22014468

Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

2012-02-01

34

The desaturation and elongation of 14 C-labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids by pike ( Esox lucius L.) in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the ability of pike (Esox lucius L.) to modify exogenous PUFA by desaturation and elongation, 14C-labelled 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) were injected intraperitoneally and the distribution of radioactivity in tissue lipid classes and liver PUFA measured. In all tissues examined, radioactivity from all 14C-PUFA was recovered in many classes of acyl lipids and the level of recovery

R. James Henderson; Moira T. Park; John R. Sargent

1995-01-01

35

Larval deformities associated with selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to metal mining effluent.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate selenium toxicosis in larval northern pike (Esox lucius) originating from reproductively mature pike collected downstream of a uranium milling operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Eggs were obtained from female pike collected from a reference site and three sites representing an exposure gradient (approximately 2, 10, and 15 km downstream of effluent discharge). Embryos were incubated following a two-way (crossover) analysis of variance experimental design that allowed discrimination between effects due to maternal transfer to eggs and effects due to site water exposure in the developing embryos. The major finding of this study was a significant increase in the frequencies of individual deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, and fin deformities) and edema in fry originating from high and medium exposure site females (mean selenium concentrations of 48.23 and 31.28 microg/g egg dry weight and 38.27 and 16.58 microg/g muscle dry weight, respectively) compared to reference site females. Selenium concentrations resulting in a 20% increase in total deformities above background levels (EC20S) were 33.55 and 21.54 micro/g dry weight in eggs and muscle, respectively. Mathematical conversion of the egg- and muscle-derived relationships to whole body selenium levels resulted in similar EC20S of 15.56 and 17.72 microg/g dry weight, respectively. These relationships between tissue selenium levels and larval deformities suggest that northern pike are within the same range of sensitivity to selenium as the majority of warm water (e.g., centrarchids and cyprinids) and cold water (e.g., salmonids) fish species studied to date. PMID:17120587

Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Bennett, Pamela M; Himbeault, Kevin T; Belknap, Andrew M; Janz, David M

2006-10-15

36

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

2008-01-01

37

Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics.  

PubMed

Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio-temporal distributions should be directly affected and thereby more easily assessed and avoided by prey, with potential consequences for encounter rates. PMID:22551189

Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, H; Boel, M; Meier, K; Jacobsen, L; Rokkjaer, E M; Clausen, T; Skov, C

2012-05-01

38

Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., with special regard to 5-hydroxytryptamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal organ of adult pikes, Esox lucius L., maintained under normal diurnal conditions, was studied with a combination of light microscopy, fluorescence histochemistry of certain arylethylamines, and electron microscopy.1.The pineal parenchyma consists of sensory cells, supporting cells, and a third cell type which may be identical with previously described ganglion cells. The nerve fibres constituting the pineal tract were

Christer Owman; Claes Rüdeberg

1970-01-01

39

Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike ( Esox lucius) and burbot ( Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as “winter stress syndrome”) in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly,

Pamela M. Bennett; David M. Janz

2007-01-01

40

Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

2003-01-01

41

Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.  

PubMed

Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most notably arsenic and selenium, were bioaccumulating in tissue. PMID:19304330

Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

2009-05-17

42

Rhipidocotyle fennica (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from Anodonta anatina and pike Esox lucius in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Ribosomal DNA sequences of Rhipidocotyle sp. adults from Esox lucius were shown to be identical to sequences of larval Rhipidocotyle fennica, occurring in Anodonta anatina in Lake Vilkokšnis, Lithuania. Morphological features and host specificity of this adult worm correspond with that, determinate in the first description of R. fennica in Finland. These data give the first evidence that a viable population of R. fennica exists in east central Europe. Bucephalus polymorphus which was reported in unionids in all previous publications is probably R. fennica. PMID:25190013

Stunž?nas, Virmantas; Petkevi?i?t?, Romualda; Stanevi?i?t?, Gražina; Binkien?, Rasa

2014-10-01

43

Changes in mercury levels in lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) in the LG2 reservoir since flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

After flooding of the LG-2 reservoir in 1978–1979, it was noticed that Hg levels in fish rose dramatically. In this study the Hg data have been examined on the basis of fish age for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius), representing two different trophic levels. Data were fit to Von Bertalanffy functions using non-linear regression analyses. Reductions

K. A. Morrison; N. Thérien

1995-01-01

44

Side-aspect target strength of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ), and pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The side-aspect acoustic target strengths (TS) of 19 Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar), 16 brown trouts (Salmo trutta), 10 whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and 9 pikes (Esox lucius) were measured using a 200 kHz split-beam echosounder, in order to study the relationship between TS and fish size indices (length, weight and side area). The effect of side aspect angle on TS was also

Juha Lilja; Timo J Marjomäki; Raimo Riikonen; Juha Jurvelius

2000-01-01

45

The mast cell nature of granule cells in the digestive tract of the pike, Esox lucius : similarity to mammalian mucosal mast cells and globule leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on sections of intestinal tissue from the pike,Esox lucius, fixed in a solution containing 4% formaldehyde and 5% acetic acid in methanol. Four staining procedures, using May-Grünwald Giemsa combi-nation dye, hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and alcian blue in sequence with safranin, were applied. Numerous granule cells were found in the area of stratum compactum and in

OLA B. REITE

1996-01-01

46

Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.  

PubMed

Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction. PMID:23292487

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

2013-04-01

47

Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet  

SciTech Connect

The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E) were in the range 35 to 90% and differ in some respect from earlier studies. The E-values for those substances with effective cross sections (ECS) >9.5 {angstrom} were considerably higher than expected if the membrane permeation at dietary uptake was restricted as proposed previously in the literature. There was no hydrophobicity dependency of the total dietary uptake efficiency as suggested by an earlier proposed empirical model. The difference between the results presented here and earlier studies is likely to depend on cotransport with lipids and/or proteins through a mediated, possibly active uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in the gastrointestinal tract enabled by the actual exposure method. For the proposed mediated/active uptake of HOCs, the uptake efficiency varied with molecular weight and was greatest for a molecular weight of approximately 450.

Burreau, S.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Jakobsson, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

1997-12-01

48

Food of Young Pike, Esox Lucius L., and Associated Fishes in Peterson's Ditches, Houghton Lake, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach contents of 551 young pike (11–152 millimeters in length), 345 small yellow perch, and 431 other fish representing 18 species were examined. All specimens were collected from an area widely used by spawning pike from Houghton Lake, Michigan. Organisms utilized for food by young pike included Entomostraca, insects (chiefly Chironomidae), tadpoles, minnows, darters, and other pike. As pike increased

Burton P. Hunt; William F. Carbine

1951-01-01

49

Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.  

PubMed

The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities. PMID:18925789

Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

2009-06-01

50

{sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L. [Stockholm Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden)

1995-12-31

51

Induction of gene responses in St. Lawrence River northern pike (Esox lucius) environmentally exposed to perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

Municipal waste water effluents (MWWEs) are important sources of chemical contamination for aquatic environments. This study investigated the presence and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmentally exposed northern pike (Esox lucius) collected upstream and downstream a major municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Twelve PFCs, including the newly detected perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), were quantified in fish muscle, liver, and plasma. Additionally, the expression of eight genes and the activity of three biomarkers were analyzed in fish tissues at both sites. Mean ?PFC concentration in fish plasma collected upstream the WWTP was 185ng/g w.w. compared to 545ng/g w.w. downstream the point of release. PFECHS was quantified for the first time in St. Lawrence River fish (mean plasma concentration in MWWE fish: 5.07±4.72ng/g w.w.). Results of transcriptomic responses were tissue-specific and indicated significant up-regulation for metallothionein (MT) in blood and MT, glutathion-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in gill tissue of fish collected in the MWWE suggesting greater stress responses for organisms at this location. Significant relationships were found between vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in liver, Vtg activity in plasma and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA), and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) plasma concentrations. The possible endocrine effects of these PFCs should be further investigated. PMID:23453599

Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Despatie, Simon-Pierre; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine

2013-08-01

52

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) V. Etude radioautographique de l'incorporation in vivo  

E-print Network

L'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.) V. Etude radioautographique de l'incorporation in vivo Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). V. Radioautographic study

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system  

PubMed Central

A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species.

Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

2014-01-01

54

Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).  

PubMed

Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (P<0.05). In general, the greatest percentage of motile spermatozoa and highest spermatozoa velocity were observed between 125 and 235 mOsmol kg(-1). Osmolality above 375 mOsmol kg(-1) inhibited the motility of spermatozoa. After triggering of sperm motility in activation media, beating waves propagated along the full length of flagella, while waves appeared dampened during later periods in the motility phase, and were absent at the end of the motility phase. By increasing osmolality, the velocity of spermatozoa reached the highest value while wave length, amplitude, number of waves and curvatures also were at their highest values. This study showed that sperm morphology can be used for fish classification. Sperm morphology, in particular, the flagellar part showed several changes during activation in distilled water. Sperm motility of pike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters. PMID:19269024

Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

2009-07-01

55

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytologique  

E-print Network

L'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). I. Etude anatomique et cytologique J. FALCON Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Summary. The pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., I. A light ; Plecoglossus : Omura et al.,1969 ; Omura et Oguri, 1971 ; Esox : Owman et Rüdeberg, 1970; Anguilla et Lebistes

Boyer, Edmond

56

Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Clark, Clarence F.

1965-01-01

57

Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

Meldrum, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halden, N.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1997-12-31

58

Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as "winter stress syndrome") in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly, total body lipid and triglyceride, and liver triglyceride levels were greater in effluent-exposed pike and burbot in both fall and spring. However, there were no lake or season differences in growth indices of length, weight, muscle RNA/DNA ratio, or muscle protein levels in pike. In addition, total lipids and triglycerides in burbot were greater in spring compared to fall, while no seasonal differences were observed in pike, suggesting that burbot continued to feed during winter. Findings do not support the winter stress syndrome hypothesis and suggest possible direct and indirect effects of metal mining effluent on lipid dynamics of juvenile fishes. PMID:17368537

Bennett, Pamela M; Janz, David M

2007-09-01

59

Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.  

PubMed

Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years. PMID:20735553

Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

2009-07-01

60

Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting  

SciTech Connect

The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

1984-07-01

61

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction  

E-print Network

; bipolar neurons were seen in the distal and proximal pineal. At the level of the subcommissural organL'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinéales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS) POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONS TO  

E-print Network

Knowledge of the population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius), an important recreational and top t t t The northern pike (Esox lucius) is an important recreational fish in North America, including the Nebraska2008. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 31: 43-49 NORTHERN PIKE (ESDX LUCIUS

63

Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.  

PubMed

In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors. PMID:20537014

Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

2010-04-01

64

Assessment of larval deformities and selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to metal mining effluent.  

PubMed

Uranium mining and milling operations in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) release effluents with elevated levels of certain trace metals and metalloids, including selenium. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the presence of selenium-induced deformities in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae originating from adults collected downstream of a uranium mine. Eggs were fertilized in the field and incubated in the laboratory following a two-way (crossover) analysis-of-variance experimental design to discriminate effects from maternal transfer versus those from exposure to site water in the developing embryos. Selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker eggs (8.02 and 4.89 microg/g dry wt, respectively; mean +/- standard error throughout) from the exposure site were approximately two- to threefold higher than reference (2.35 +/- 0.20 and 1.94 +/- 0.25 microg/g dry wt, respectively). Among all evaluated deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, fin deformities, and edema), only edema in white sucker fry from the exposure site was slightly elevated ( approximately 3%) compared to reference. The occurrence of edema, however, can be associated with factors other than selenium (e.g., other metals and organic compounds). Both fish species displayed strong linear relationships between the selenium concentrations in eggs and other tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and bone), suggesting that selenium concentrations in eggs could be predicted from selenium concentrations in adult tissues. The lack of a clear, toxic response in the present study is in agreement with selenium thresholds for early life-stage deformities reported in other studies, with egg selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker collected at the exposure site being less than the 10 microg/g (dry wt) threshold associated with the presence of deformities. PMID:18939891

Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

2009-03-01

65

The influence of angling-induced exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Capture by angling was used to induce burst exercise in northern pike. By 3 h after exercise blood lactate had risen to levels\\u000a of 15.2 mmol l?1 (Fig. 2), which greatly exceeded the maximum post-exercise levels (4.0 mmol l?1) previously reported for muskellunge, a close relative of pike. White muscle lactate level was high, 41.8 mmol kg?1, immediately after capture

K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay

1985-01-01

66

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (Pisces)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only

Bjørn Midttun

1980-01-01

67

Northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species and size composition of fish communities in shallow stagnant waters appear to be associated with the type, abundance and pattern of the vegetation. Man-induced impacts as eutrophication, and suppression of vegetation for reasons of water quantity management or angling pleasure may induce irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Water quality management should aim at restoring former pike habitat. Submerged

M. P. Grimm

1989-01-01

68

Four decades of opposing natural and human-induced artificial selection acting on Windermere pike (Esox lucius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of natural selection to drive local adaptation has been appreciated ever since Darwin. Whether human impacts can impede the adaptive process has received less attention. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying natural selection and harvest selection acting on a freshwater fish (pike) over four decades. Across the time series, directional natural selection tended to favour large individuals whereas

Stephanie M. Carlson; Eric Edeline; L. Asbjørn Vøllestad; Thrond. O. Haugen; Ian J. Winfield; Janice M. Fletcher; J. Ben James; Nils Chr. Stenseth

2007-01-01

69

Pineal-retinal relationships: rhythmic biosynthesis and immunocytochemical localization of melatonin in the retina of the pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of melatonin and the activities of two enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), were measured throughout the light-dark cycle in the retina of a teleost fish, the pike. HIOMT activity did not display significant variations, whereas NAT activity and melatonin content showed a daily rhythm, high levels occurring during the night. The

Jacky Falcón; Jean-Pierre Collin

1991-01-01

70

Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool 2. Effects on lower trophic levels in Lake Lyng, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study how pike stocking affects trophic structurepikefingerlings (0–3600 ha-1) were stocked during six yearsineutrophic Lake Lyng (lake area 10 ha), Denmark. Subsequently,marked changes were recorded in the abundance ofzooplanktivorousfish, catch per unit effort of roach, which was the dominantfishspecies, thus varied from 17 to 272. Simultaneously, markedchangeswere recorded in the abundance and relative composition ofzooplankton. Daphnia abundance

Martin Søndergaard; Erik Jeppesen; Søren Berg

1997-01-01

71

A toxicological examination of whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to uranium mine tailings.  

PubMed

Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in nothern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor (K) of the Langley Bay whitefish and northern pike populations with these factors measured for control populations from Lake Athabasca. No significant differences could be found, in any of the physiological parameters measured, between the contaminated and control populations. PMID:2386411

Waite, D T; Joshi, S R; Sommerstad, H; Wobeser, G; Gajadhar, A A

1990-01-01

72

Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.  

PubMed

Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries. PMID:23566175

Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

2013-05-01

73

Early Life History of the Northern Pike, Esox lucius L., with Special Reference to the Factors Influencing the Numerical Strength of Year Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early life history of northern pike was studied to determine the relationship of adult pike abundance to the strength of resulting year classes and the existence and chronology of critical survival periods, along with the nature and origin of the mortality mechanisms involved. Adult abundance and the strength of the resulting year classes were not directly related. Two critical

Donald R. Franklin; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1963-01-01

74

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples.  

PubMed

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci in samples representing the indigenous Stege Nor population prior to stocking (ie from 1956 to 1957), along with a sample of the contemporary Stege Nor population and samples from the three populations used for stocking. Despite large numbers of stocked fry, the results from both individual and population level admixture analyses demonstrated extremely poor performance and <1% introgression of stocked freshwater pike into the brackish pike population. Furthermore, pairwise F(ST) estimates between samples demonstrated close genetic relationship among temporal samples from Stege Nor, indicating temporal stability over the last 45 years. We also estimated the effective population size (N(e)) of pike in Stege Nor and applied a test for recent population bottlenecks. The harmonic mean of N(e) was relatively high (>250), but there were indications of bottlenecks in all samples and populations. We ascribe this finding to historical rather than recent bottlenecks, possibly dating back to founder events associated with postglacial recolonisation. PMID:15999144

Larsen, P F; Hansen, M M; Nielsen, E E; Jensen, L F; Loeschcke, V

2005-08-01

75

Diet and Growth of Northern Pike in the Absence of Prey Fishes: Initial Consequences for Persisting in Disturbance-Prone Lakes  

E-print Network

of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada Abstract.--The northern pike Esox lucius is a renowned to stunting. The northern pike Esox lucius is considered to be piscivorous throughout most of its circumpolar

Venturelli, Paul

76

Cytological identification of cell types in the testis of Esox lucius and E. niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes of Esox lucius and Esox niger were investigated histologically, cytochemically, and ultrastructurally in reproductive fish. Intralobular Sertoli cells possessed numerous lipid droplets in Esox lucius, but not in Esox niger. In both species, interlobular cell types included myoid cells and lipid-negative Leydig cells within the extravascular space. Evidence is presented for a contractile network of myoid cells within the

H. J. Grier; R. Hurk; R. Billard

1989-01-01

77

Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions. PMID:24933165

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

2014-07-15

78

Standard Weight Equation for Tiger Muskellunge (Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight and length data for tiger muskellunge Esox lucius x Esox masquinongy were solicited from biologists across the continent to develop a 75th-percentile standard weight (Ws) equation for the hybrid. Only 27 populations (N = 1,124 fish) from 9 states yielded adequate data sets for this process. We used a bootstrap technique to demonstrate that the limited number of populations

Kevin B. Rogers; Keith D. Koupal

1997-01-01

79

The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei  

PubMed Central

The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50?=?16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50?=?700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N?=?50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

2014-01-01

80

The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.  

PubMed

The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

2014-01-01

81

Walleye and Northern Pike: Boost or Bane to Northwest Fisheries?  

E-print Network

(Esox lucius) have created popular recreational fisheries in many Northwestern waters. Rising demand popularity of nonnative walleye (Stizostedion vit- reum) and northern pike (Esox lucius) as sport fishes has

McMahon, Thomas E.

82

A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

1995-01-01

83

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike ( Esox lucius), perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on ?15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2004-01-01

84

Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to

Per Larsson; Lennart Okla; Lars Collvin

1993-01-01

85

Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )  

SciTech Connect

Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. (Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

86

The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ?3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ?6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ?3/?6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

2015-01-01

87

Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on early life stages of the pike (Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly fertilized pike eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ppt (ng\\/liter) for 96 hours. At all concentrations examined egg development was retarded by 23%, and the growth of fry was also significantly retarded for a long period after exposure. A dose-related mortality was observed. Highest mortality rates occurred during resorption of the yolk

T. Helder

1980-01-01

88

Production, consumption and prey availability of northern pike ( Esox lucius ), pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca ) and European catfish ( Silurus glanis ): a bioenergetics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergetics models were applied for the assessment of food consumption of northern pike, pikeperch and European catfish\\u000a in drainable ponds of 0.4 ha. The ponds were stocked with known numbers of the 0+ predators. The prey fish consisted of naturally recruited 0+ cyprinids (rudd, roach and bream). The study shows that the impact of the three 0+ piscivores on the

Alexander J. P. Raat

1990-01-01

89

The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).  

PubMed

The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, P<0.024) corresponds to the gradient in repolarization times. No significant transmural difference in repolarization duration is observed in pike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopike and frogs. PMID:21281734

Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

2011-05-01

90

The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in K?z?l?rmak River (K?r?kkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ?3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ?6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ?3/?6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ?3/?6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

2014-10-01

91

Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.  

PubMed

We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

2011-01-01

92

Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in  

E-print Network

(Mieropferus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic overlap. Resume: L'Achigan it grande bouche (Mieropferus salmoides) et Ie Brochet du Nord (Esox lucills

93

Physiological ecology of larval muskellunge and norlunge: temperature tolerance and growth rates under hatchery conditions. [Esox masquinongy, E. lucius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical Thermal Maxima (CTM) and growth rates of larval muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and norlunge (E. masquinongy female x E. lucius male) were determined under hatchery conditions. Two groups of fish were maintained at ambient water temperatures with natural photoperiod. Weekly water samples were collected to monitor the troughs. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia which were within normal

Bonin

1976-01-01

94

Retention of Floy FD-94 Anchor Tags and Effect on Growth and Condition of Northern Pike and Largemouth Bass  

E-print Network

and October 1995.315 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and 170 northern pike (Esox lucius) were captured on growth and condition have been estimated for largemouth bass (Micropterus sa/moides; Wilbur and Duchrow

95

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike

Stephen C. Jewett; Xiaoming Zhang; A. Sathy Naidu; John J. Kelley; Doug Dasher; Lawrence K. Duffy

2003-01-01

96

Gill Reaction to Pollutants from the Tamiš River in Three Freshwater Fish Species, Esox lucius L. 1758, Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and Silurus glanis L. 1758: A Comparative Study.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effects of waterborne pollutants from the Tamiš River on gill histology and possible differences in gill reaction patterns between three freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius L. 1758, pike-perch Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and wels catfish Silurus glanis L. 1758 from the Tamiš River. Gills from analysed fish species showed moderate to intense histopathological alterations. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium, whereas the most frequent regressive alteration was epithelial lifting. Circulatory disturbances were most often manifested in the form of hyperaemia. During comparative analysis, differences in gill indices, reaction and alteration indices, as well as in gill and filament prevalence between analysed species, were observed. Although all analysed fish species did show both progressive and regressive alterations, there was a significant difference in the level of expression of these reaction patterns. Gill index obtained for pike clearly stands out as the lowest. Wels catfish showed the highest progressive reaction index, significantly higher in comparison with the other two species (P < 0.05), while pike-perch showed the highest regressive reaction index, also significantly higher in comparison with the other species (P < 0.001). These results may implicate species-specific gill reactions and thus present a useful tool for better understanding toxic mechanisms of various pollutants. PMID:24809962

Luji?, J; Matavulj, M; Poleksi?, V; Raškovi?, B; Marinovi?, Z; Kosti?, D; Miljanovi?, B

2014-05-01

97

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy).  

PubMed

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. PMID:21585899

Sloss, Brian L; Franckowiak, Ryan P; Murphy, Edward L

2008-07-01

98

Development of microsatellite markers for muskellunge ( Esox masquinongy ) and cross-species amplification in two other esocids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in muskellunge ( Esox masquinongy ) using an unenriched subgenomic library. Polymorphic loci exhibited 2-11 alleles with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.190 to 0.917 ( n = 24). All seven loci amplified by their respective primer pairs resulted in monomorphic products in northern pike ( E. lucius ) whereas three loci

Benjamin J. Reading; Paul S. Wills; Roy C. Heidinger; Edward J. Heist

2003-01-01

99

Genetic Divergence among Northern Pike from Spawning Locations in the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ecological consequences associated with the degradation of riparian wetlands that historically provided spawning and rearing habitat for northern pike Esox lucius, annual spawning migrations and genetic structure were used to examine this species' dependence on four specific spawning areas in the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River. Tagging and recapture over three consecutive spawning seasons

Aaron Bosworth; John M. Farrell

2006-01-01

100

Spawning-Site and Natal-Site Fidelity by Northern Pike in a Large Lake: Mark–Recapture and Genetic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We supplemented physical-tagging data with genetic data to provide evidence for spawning-site and natal-site fidelity by two spawning populations of northern pike Esox lucius in Kabetogama Lake, Minnesota. A mark–recapture study supported previous reports that individual northern pike and other esocids tend to return to the spawning grounds that they used in previous years. Of 1,900 northern pike marked at

Loren M. Miller; Larry Kallemeyn; Wansuk Senanan

2001-01-01

101

Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C. [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States)] [Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (United States); Watzin, M.C. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); and others

1996-03-01

102

Effects of Environmental Mercury on Gonadal Function in Lake Champlain Northern Pike ( Esox lucius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter

A. S. Friedmann; M. C. Watzin; J. C. Leiter; T. Brinck-Johnsen

1996-01-01

103

Application of Liquid Oxytetracycline in Formulated Feeds to Mark and Treat Tiger Muskellunge (Northern Pike X Muskellunge)  

Microsoft Academic Search

When added to pelleted diets, liquid oxytetracycline (500 mg\\/kg of fish per day) was effective in marking (after 12 d) and disease treatment (after 3 d) of tiger muskellunge (the hybrid of northern pike, Esox lucius, and muskellunge, E. masquinongy). Liquid oxytetracycline is more easily applied and costs less than traditional methods for these purposes.

David H. Wahl; Roy A. Stein

1987-01-01

104

Use of Electronarcosis to Immobilize Juvenile and Adult Northern Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1–15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13–19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages

Mary K. Walker; Elizabeth A. Yanke; William H. Gingerich

1994-01-01

105

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sloss, B.L.; Franckowiak, R.P.; Murphy, E.L.

2008-01-01

106

Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.  

PubMed

This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures. PMID:25242691

Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

2014-09-01

107

A toxicological examination of whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) exposed to uranium mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor

D. T. Waite; S. R. Joshi; H. Sommerstad; G. Wobeser; A. A. Gajadhart

1990-01-01

108

Historical analysis of genetic variation reveals low effective population size in a northern pike (Esox lucius) population.  

PubMed

Effective population size (Ne) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of Ne for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of Ne was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An Ne of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in Ne with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L M; Kapuscinski, A R

1997-11-01

109

Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population  

PubMed Central

Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

1997-01-01

110

Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

1995-01-01

111

Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

2013-01-01

112

Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

1994-01-01

113

Young northern pike, yellow perch and crayfish as bioindicators in a mercury contaminated watercourse.  

PubMed

Young-of-the-year and yearling northern pike (Esox lucius), yearling yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and adult crayfish (Orconectes virilis) were collected in the mercury-contaminated Wabigoon/English/Winnipeg River System, Ontario, and analyzed for total mercury. Analysis of mercury concentrations in these organisms produced consistent geographical trends; i.e. mercury concentrations in biota downstream of Dryden > English River system > Winnipeg River system > control sites. In the Wabigoon River system the bioavailability of mercury increases with distance downstream of the historical point source. Mercury concentrations in the biota studied were highly correlated with mercury concentrations in fish species which are of sport and commercial interest. The locations where young fish obtain their bodyburdens are known typically within 100 m. The biota studied compare favourably with the criteria proposed by Phillips (1980) as prerequisites for biological indicators. The wide distribution of young pike, perch and crayfish in North America, Europe and Asia may enhance their appeal as biomonitors. PMID:24241775

Parks, J W; Curry, C; Romani, D; Russell, D D

1991-01-01

114

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

115

ORIGINAL PAPER Assessing evolutionary consequences of size-selective  

E-print Network

on multiple life-history traits, with an application to northern pike (Esox lucius) Shuichi Matsumura · Robert- selective exploitation of northern pike (Esox lucius L.) with recreational-fishing gear. An age

Dieckmann, Ulf

116

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15 :838-844, 1995 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1995  

E-print Network

pike Esox lucius in 416 gill-net sets on 17 monthly oc- casions from July 1991 to June 1993 to examine of northern pike Esox lucius (Fisheries Techniques Standardization Committee 1992) . Seasonal variations

117

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational  

E-print Network

of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius) Robert Arlinghaus,1-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find

Dieckmann, Ulf

118

Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 9: 137147, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). We compared simulations using field data to hypothetical taken. For instance, northern pike (Esox lucius) are more strict piscivores compared to largemouth bass

119

Fisheries Research 97 (2009) 223233 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

-and-release angling on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) Robert Arlinghausa,b, , Thomas Klefotha , Steven J. Cookec stressors using a combined laboratory and field study in northern pike (Esox lucius L.). A labora- tory

Suski, Cory David

120

Trait changes in a harvested population are driven by a dynamic tug-of-war between  

E-print Network

-based data on Windermere pike (Esox lucius), we show that trait changes tracked the adaptive peak, which populations. We performed this task in pike (Esox lucius) from Windermere, U.K. This system is particu- larly

Carlson, Stephanie

121

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:186193, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000  

E-print Network

fit between predicted and observed food consumption for northern pike Esox lucius. Similarly, poor, 1999 kellunge Esox masquinongy and tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy E. lucius (Wahl and Stein 1991

122

High sensitivity of northern pike larvae to UV-B but no UV-photoinduced toxicity of retene.  

PubMed

In order to investigate whether increased UV-B radiation is a risk factor, a series of acute laboratory experiments was conducted with larval stages of the northern pike (Esox lucius L.), hatching in Nordic waters in May. Further, a comparative investigation on the acute phototoxicity of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a PAH compound recently revealed to posses UV-B-induced phototoxicity in larval coregonids, was conducted with pike larvae. In semi-static experiment, larvae were pre-exposed to retene (3, 9, 30 and 82 microg/g), with relevant controls, for 24 h and then irradiated for 3 h once a day (two consecutive days) with three UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 1.0, 1.8 or 2.7 kJ/m2 per day) or with visible light only. In 3 days, the UV-B exposure alone increased mortality by 10-20% in all applied dose rates. Retene (up to 82 microg/l) had no direct UV-B-induced toxicity in pike. However, pike larvae were very sensitive to UV-B even in low doses, indicated as severe neurobehavioral disorders. Monitoring of pike with the neurobehavioral syndrome revealed substantial late mortality. As UV-B had no influence on CYP1A content in larval pike, retene (9-82 microg/l) induced this protein substantially with and without UV-B. In pike, the applied UV-B radiation and water retene alone both decreased HSP70 concentrations. Neither UV nor retene changed SOD activity significantly. Overall, data on pike suggest that only a minor increase in ambient UV-B coming to the earth's surface may cause lethal effects to larval fish. PMID:15168947

Häkkinen, Jani; Vehniäinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

2004-03-10

123

First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

2011-06-16

124

Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

2003-01-01

125

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers.  

PubMed

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers had mean concentrations of THg in muscle of 1.506 and 0.628 mg/kg wet wt, respectively. The mean concentrations of THg in grayling muscle from these rivers were 0.264 and 0.078 mg/kg, respectfully. Whitefish had a mean THg concentration in muscle of 0.032 mg/kg. MeHg, in pike and grayling constituted nearly 100% of the THg concentrations; the proportion was less in whitefish. A significant positive correlation between Hg levels and fish length was also found. Generally, there were no changes in Hg concentrations in pike or grayling over the last several years. Only pike from theYukon River had THg concentrations that exceeded the USFDA action level for human consumption of edible fish (1 mg/kg). Human hazard index for pike was > or = 1 for both adults and children, indicating a potential for toxic concern, especially among children. Further studies are needed to determine the environmental and human health impacts associated with these Hg concentrations in western Alaska, especially in the context of potentially increased consumption of resident fishes when anadromous salmon catches are reduced. PMID:12656259

Jewett, Stephen C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Naidu, A Sathy; Kelley, John J; Dasher, Doug; Duffy, Lawrence K

2003-01-01

126

Trophic transfer of cyanobacterial toxins from zooplankton to planktivores: consequences for pike larvae and mysid shrimps.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of zooplankton preexposed to cyanobacteria on two planktivorous animals: a fish larva (pike, Esox lucius) and a mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer). The planktivores were fed zooplankton from a natural community that had been preexposed to cell-free extract or to purified toxin (nodularin) of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, and the growth, feeding, and pellet production of the planktivores, as well as the toxin content of the pellets, were measured. In addition, radiolabeled nodularin ((3)H-dihydronodularin) was used in separate experiments to measure the vector transfer of nodularin from zooplankton to their predators. During 11-day exposures, dissolved nodularin was transferred to pike larvae and N. integer via zooplankton at very low rates of accumulation. Treatment with N. spumigena extract decreased the ingestion and feces production rates of pike larvae. With purified nodularin alone, no such effect could be observed. No effect on molting cycle length, fecal pellet production, C:N ratio, or growth of N. integer was detected. The results suggest that dissolved cyanobacterial toxins released during bloom decay can have a negative impact on feeding and, hence, on the growth of fish larvae via zooplankton, even without direct contact between cyanobacteria and the fish. PMID:15892036

Karjalainen, Miina; Reinikainen, Marko; Spoof, Lisa; Meriluoto, Jussi A O; Sivonen, Kaarina; Viitasalo, Markku

2005-06-01

127

Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

2008-01-01

128

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-print Network

-tagged hatchery-reared young-of-the-year northern pike Esox lucius (mean fork length FL 51.0 mm ± 5.3 S: Passive integrated transponder; Portable detector; Esox lucius; Survival; Stocking program 1. Introduction Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a predatory keystone species that tolerates a broad range of environmental

Cucherousset, Julien

129

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

pike (Esox lucius L.) S.M. Hadi Alavi a,*, Marek Rodina a , Ana T.M. Viveiros b , Jacky Cosson c; received in revised form 23 January 2009; accepted 25 January 2009 Abstract Northern pike (Esox lucius L reserved. Keywords: Esox lucius; Sperm; SEM; Flagella; Osmolality 1. Introduction

Villefranche sur mer

130

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:488-492, 1989 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 1989  

E-print Network

) is an index used to quantify length-frequency data. The PSD of populations ofnorthern pike Esox lucius- son and Weithman (1978) suggested that walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and northern pike Esox lu- cius

131

Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.  

PubMed

Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (?XP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ?XP-HT for multiple isotopes (?13C, ?15N, ?34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ?XP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ?XP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ?XP-HT was more positive for ?13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the ?15N and ?34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ?XP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed. PMID:24451479

Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

2015-03-01

132

Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

2003-01-01

133

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

134

Time trends of chlordane, DDT, and PCB concentrations in pike ( Esox lucius ) and Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus ) in the Turku archipelago, northern Baltic sea for the period 1971–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB- and DDT-compounds in Baltic wildlife have been extensively studied during the last decade. Since the use of DDT was banned in the early 70's in many countries, including those in Baltic area, the level of DDT-compounds has decreased in the Baltic environment by PAASIVIRTA and LINKO (198o)o The use of PCBcompounds is now banned in Sweden

Raija Moilanen; Heikki Pyysalo; Kim Wickström; Reino Linko

1982-01-01

135

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01

136

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6158  

E-print Network

roach (Rutilus rutilus L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.). The two methods vegetation. It is likely microhabitat; scuba diving; lake; Rutilus rutilus; Perca fluviatilis; Esox

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Nearshore fish assemblages associated with introduced predatory fishes in lakes  

E-print Network

Micropterus salmoides, pike Esox lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu piscivores introduced outside their native ranges (e.g. largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pike Esox lucius, rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and walleye Sander vitreus

Ricciardi, Anthony

138

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

of catch-and-release angling on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) Robert Arlinghausa,b, , Thomas Klefotha, catch-and-release related stressors using a combined laboratory and field study in northern pike (Esox lucius L.). A labora- tory experiment was conducted to investigate the recovery dynamics of physiological

Cooke, Steven J.

139

Pike Parvalbumin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parvalbumins are found in the muscles, endocrine glands, skin cells, and some neurons of vertebrates, but the role they play for musculature is not yet understood. Researchers are exploring theories of a correlation between parvalbumin concentration levels and the relaxation speed of mammalian muscles after contraction. An ultra-high resolution structure was achieved from samples grown on STS-83 and in July 1997, during STS-94, PCAM produced the largest crystals of pike parvalbumin grown to date. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

1997-01-01

140

C. R. Biologies 332 (2009) 741746 Ecology / cologie  

E-print Network

± SE = 4.2 ± 0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP = 3.7 ± 0 brochet (Esox lucius, TP = 3,7 ± 0,1) ou le silure (Silurus glanis, TP = 3,8 ± 0,1). La plupart des études

Cucherousset, Julien

141

Effects of predator species, vegetation and prey assemblage on prey preferences of predators with  

E-print Network

); largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepe` de); smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepe` de; walleye, Sander vitreus (Mitchill); and northern pike, Esox lucius L.) foraging on juvenile common carp and two

142

An important facet of species interactions is communication through sensory signals, which can be mechanical, electrical,  

E-print Network

present in the damaged tissue of conspecifics cause salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, to avoid areas (northern pike, Esox lucius) or an injured conspecific cause odonate larvae, Enallagma boreale, to change

Moore, Paul A.

143

Selective Predation by Three Esocids: The Role of Prey Behavior and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented differential vulnerability of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to predation by muskel- lunge Esox masquinongy. northern pike E. lucius. and tiger muskellunge £\\

DAVID H. WAHL; ROY A. STEIN

1988-01-01

144

This article was downloaded by: [University of Wisconsin -Madison] On: 28 May 2013, At: 05:28  

E-print Network

Wisconsin. Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, black bass (i.e., Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu and Largemouth Bass M. salmoides), Northern Pike E. lucius, Walleye Sander vitreus, and panfish were released

145

DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

146

Effects of exposure to predatory cues on territorial behaviour of male fathead minnows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a laboratory study to determine if male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, altered their territorial behaviour associated with reproduction in response to combinations of visual and chemical cues from northern pike, Esox lucius. We introduced the following stimuli to a territorial male: a brick (control), fathead minnow alarm pheromone, a pike fed brook stickleback, Culea inconstans, or a pike

Hilary M. Jones; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

1997-01-01

147

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius, L.). IV. Srotonine endogne et activit monoamine oxydasique ;  

E-print Network

-hydroxytryptophan and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine), the melatonin precursor, was found in different receptor line cells envelope and the plasma membrane. The reaction product, indicative of MAO activity, was comple- tely absent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Cultural transmission of predator recognition in fishes: intraspecific and interspecific learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals that live in groups may have the opportunity to learn to recognize unfamiliar predators by observing the fright responses of experienced individuals in the group. In intraspecific trials, naive fathead minnows,Pimephales promelas, gave fright responses to chemical stimuli from predatory northern pike,Esox lucius, when paired with pike-experienced conspecifics but not when paired with pike-naive conspecifics. These pike-conditioned minnows retained

ALICIA MATHIS; DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; R. JAN F. SMITH

1996-01-01

149

Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R

Imrich Strapá?; Jozef Sokol; Daniel Žatko; Mária Baranová

2012-01-01

150

Nutritional Requirements and Feeding of Selected Coolwater Fishes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review was made of published and unpublished studies on nutritional requirements, diets, and feeding of selected coolwater species of fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), European perch (P. fluviatilis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), northern pike (Esox lucius), muskellunge (E. masquinongy), and the northern pike x muskellunge hybrid. The published information on nutritional requirements was meager, including only

H. George Ketola

1978-01-01

151

Damselfly larvae learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the predator's diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemosensory recognition of predators by naive prey may be facilitated if the predator's diet chemically ‘labels’ the predator. In a laboratory experiment, behaviour patterns were quantified in individual damselfly larvae,Enallagmaspp., that had never been exposed to pike,Esox lucius, before and after exposing the damselflies to one of three chemical stimuli: water from a tank that held pike fed a diet

DOUGLAS P. CHIVERS; BRIAN D. WISENDEN; R. JAN F. SMITH

1996-01-01

152

Pike Place Market Centennial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pike Place Market has been an integral part of Seattle's landscape since 1907 with its amazing mix of vendors and merchants, tourists, locals, and the generally curious. This remarkable exhibit brings together items from the Seattle Municipal Archives, such as photographs, handbills, documents, and other items from the past century. Visitors can learn about its founding and development through thirteen different areas, including Early Expansion, Privatization, Citizen Protests, and Plans for Change. There are even radio clips from politicians and residents talking about the market, including the mayor of Seattle. Urban historians and planners will find this site particularly noteworthy as it presents an amazing case study of preservation amidst a dense urban environment.

153

Trends in Abundance and Mean Size of Fish Captured in Gill Nets from Minnesota Lakes, 1983–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated seasonal and 15-year trends in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and mean weight of black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, ciscoes Coregonus artedi, northern pike Esox lucius, walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), white suckers Catostomus commersoni, and yellow perch Perca flavescens captured in gill nets from 433 Minnesota lakes between 1983 and 1997. Seasonal trends were modeled using least-squares

Gerold C. Grant; Yaniv Schwartz; Sanford Weisberg; Dennis H. Schupp

2004-01-01

154

Fish Community Responses to the Introduction of Muskellunge in Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We evaluated responses of seven ,fish species to muskellunge ,by comparing catch per unit effort (CPUE) before and after muskellunge ,were stocked in 41 Minnesota lakes composed of 12 lake classes. The species examined were: northern pike Esox lucius, walleye Sander vitreus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and tullibee Core-

Michael L. Knapp; Steven W. Mero; David J. Bohlander; David F. Staples; E. Hwy; Grand Rapids

155

Some Factors Influencing Seasonal Changes in Angler Catch in a Minnesota Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken in a small Minnesota lake to determine the relationship between angler success for northern pike (Esox lucius), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) and food availability and food selectivity by these species. Fishing success was determined by creel census and food selectivity by stomach analysis of angler-caught fish. Food availability was determined by bottom sampling

Fred E. Lux; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1960-01-01

156

Seasonal Variation in Catch Rate and Body Condition for Four Fish Species in a South Dakota Natural Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in catch rate (catch per unit effort, CPUE) and body condition (relative weight, Wr) for northern pike Esox lucius, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, and walleye Stizostedion vitreum sampled with trap (modified fyke) nets was evaluated in Lake Madison, a natural lake in eastern South Dakota, from March through October, 1990. Seasonal variation in CPUE

Christopher S. Guy; David W. Willis

1991-01-01

157

Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all

Glenn R. Phillips; Thomas E. Lenhart; Richard W. Gregory

1980-01-01

158

The Length-Weight Relationship, Factors for Conversions between Standard and Total Lengths, and Coefficients of Condition for Seven Michigan Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors for conversions between standard and total lengths are presented for the following Michigan fishes: bluegill (Lepomis m. macrochirus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), smallmouth black bass (Micropterus d. dolomicu), largemouth black bass (Huro salmoides), rock bass (Ambloplites r. rupestris), and the northern pike (Esox lucius). The ratio of standard to total length was found to increase

William C. Beckman

1948-01-01

159

Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm- and coolwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon

Jeff J Rach; Mark P Gaikowski; George E Howe; Theresa M Schreier

1998-01-01

160

A BroadScale Approach to Management of Ontario's Recreational Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable exploitation of Ontario's aquatic resources calls for a new management approach. This vast resource includes more than 250,000 lakes and offers angling opportunities for many popular species (e.g., walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout S. fontinalis, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and muskellunge E. masquinongy). In

Nigel P. Lester; Terry R. Marshall; Kim Armstrong; Warren I. Dunlop; Bev Ritchie

2003-01-01

161

Interactions between Walleyes and Four Fish Species with Implications for Walleye Stocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a number of different data sets and four criteria to evaluate evidence of competition and predation between walleye Sander vitreus and northern pike Esox lucius, muskellunge E. masquinongy, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass M. salmoides in northern Wisconsin lakes. The four criteria were as follows: (1) indices of population abundance were inversely related, (2) two species

Andrew H. Fayram; Michael J. Hansen; Timothy J. Ehlinger

2005-01-01

162

Biological Methylation of Mercury in Aquatic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRESHWATER fish, especially pike (Esox lucius), from Sweden sometimes contain abnormally large amounts of mercury1. It was initially concluded to be either inorganic mercury or phenyl mercury, which are known to be released as industrial wastes, but later it was shown that the mercury was present almost entirely as methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)2. A possible explanation is that living organisms have

S. Jensen; A. JERNELÖV

1969-01-01

163

Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

2010-01-01

164

Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

165

Assessing Organic Contaminants in Fish: Comparison of a Nonlethal  

E-print Network

) in flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), relative to those found in muscle fillets of the same fish. We also) attached directly to wild flathead catfish for assessing location-specific exposure of the fish lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) for the analysis of mercury (Hg

Cope, W. Gregory

166

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in

Arthur N. Popper; Michael E. Smith; Peter A. Cott; Bruce W. Hanna; Alexander O. MacGillivray; Melanie E. Austin; David A. Mann

2005-01-01

167

Largemouth Bass Predation on Stocked Tiger Muskellunge  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand why stocked esocids survive poorly, we estimated mortality rates of tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrid of female muskellunge Esox masquinongy x male northern pike E. lucius) that were placed into two Ohio reservoirs (mean fish total lengths, 171 and 179 mm; 62 fish per hectare). Because pond experiments showed that hybrids stocked at night experienced mortality rates as

Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline; Robert S. Hayward

1981-01-01

168

Predation by Pellet-Reared Tiger Muskellunge on Minnows and Bluegills in Experimental Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Wisconsin lakes have shown that stocked tiger muskellunge (F1 hybrids of female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy x male northern pike, E. lucius) reared on live food survive better than those reared entirely on dry pellet food. We evaluated the ability of pellet-reared hybrids to convert to a minnow (Notropis spp. and Pimephales promelas) or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) diet in

Alan L. Gillen; Roy A. Stein; Robert F. Carline

1981-01-01

169

Growth of Tiger Muskellunge Fed Different Amounts of Protein at Three Water Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rates of tiger muskellunge (muskellunge Esox masquinongy ? x northern pike E. lucius ?) fed diets containing 35, 45, or 55% crude protein for 5 weeks at 17, 20, or 23°C were compared. Fish fed diets containing 45 or 55% protein grew faster at all temperatures than those fed 35% protein. Growth of tiger muskellunge fed a diet containing

Carol A. Lemm; Donald V. Rottiers

1986-01-01

170

Structures to Prevent the Spread of Nuisance Fish from Lake Davis, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to contain the spread of nuisance or otherwise undesirable fish species are relatively limited. I describe an unconventional method used to help restrict the movement of northern pike Esox lucius from a mountain reservoir into downstream waters. Reservoir managers designed, installed, and monitored steel structures (“graters”) that served to increase the likelihood that fish entrained in discharge from Lake

Douglas B. C. Rischbieter

2000-01-01

171

WINTER MOVEMENTS OF FOUR FISH SPECIES NEAR A THERMAL PLUME IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a po...

172

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPERATURE SELECTION OF FISH NEAR THE THERMAL OUTFALL OF A POWER PLANT DURING FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

The movement patterns of 4 fish species: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were monitored by radio telemetry near the thermal discharge of a power plant (delta T 15C nominal). F...

173

PILOT EVALUATION OF ENHANCED E-SOX PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses pilot-plant tests with a 28 cu m/min (1000 cfm)electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to evaluate techniques that havea potential for enhancing the S02 removal of the E-SOx process forretrofit application. he techniques investigated includedmass-transfer additives, ...

174

[The forms of the population variability of the chitinoid formations in Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea: Tetraonchidae)].  

PubMed

Population variability of the adhesive apparatus and copulatory organ of Tetraonchus momenteron from young and adult pikes (Esox lucius) from Rybinsk reservoir (Volga river system) and adult pikes from lake Baikal has been studied. Comparison analysis of seven plastic and one meristic characters allowed to discover differences between the groups of monogeneans from young and adult pikes from "rybinsk" population by frequently of the variations of number of the tight coils of copulatory organ support bar. Differences between "rybinsk" and "baikal" populations of T. monenteron were found. The "baikal" monogeneans differ from the "rybinsk" ones by frequently of the copulatory organ phenes and also more large sizes of the chitinoid formations. PMID:8177612

Malashenko, A A

1994-01-01

175

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

2009-01-01

176

Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

Sprigg, R. K.

1991-01-01

177

Core Values, Education and Research: A Response to Mark Pike  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the authors' response to the article by Mark Pike, which appeared in the "Oxford Review of Education" in December 2010. Pike's article focuses on Trinity Academy, one of four academies in the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (ESF): it is not a faith school, but sponsored by a Christian faith-based and business-oriented…

Bragg, Sara; Allington, Daniel; Simmons, Katy; Jones, Ken

2011-01-01

178

Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such as the loss of lake-marginal wetlands (nutrient filters, habitat for pike, Esox lucius) and chemical pollution toxic

H. Hosper

1997-01-01

179

Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 ?g\\/mg protein, while the

Lawrence K Duffy; Erica Scofield; Tauni Rodgers; Molly Patton; R. Terry Bowyer

1999-01-01

180

Experimental Intensive Culture of Tiger Muskellunge in a Water Reuse System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger muskellunge (female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, x male northern pike, E. lucius) 14.5 cm long were reared for 45 days in a three-pass (pass I, II, and III) water reuse system. Cumulative growth rates for the fish were 0.143 cm\\/day in the first use of the water (pass I), 0.125 in the second use (pass II), and 0.108 in the

Charles H. Pecor

1979-01-01

181

Variability and loading of mercury in a small Prairie River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug\\/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug\\/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye

Wm. D. Gummer

1980-01-01

182

The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. PMID:24845618

Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

2014-01-01

183

Effects of E-SOx technology on ESP performance. Final report, Aug-Nov 90  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an evaluation of the E-SOx process at Ohio Edison's Burger Station. Adequate sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and acceptable particulate emission levels from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were the prime objectives of the investigation. The report describes limited ESP performance testing under both baseline and E-SOx conditions. The ESP data collected under E-SOx conditions, which give the required 50% SO2 removal, show evidence of ESP performance dominated by factors not represented in existing versions of ESP performance models. These analyses and other considerations indicate that the factors which dominate under the conditions tested are a combination of instantaneous reentrainment of low resistivity ash/sorbent particles and deagglomeration of slurry residues within the ESP. These observations may be important to other sorbent injection processes as well as to E-SOx. Improvement of the gas velocity and temperature distributions at the ESP inlet improved the ESP performance, but performance was still dominated by the reentrainment process and was therefore lower than mathematical model predictions.

Marchant, G.H.; Gooch, J.P.; Faulkner, M.G.

1992-10-01

184

EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

185

Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R² < 0.198) in all examined predatory fish species. There was an inverse correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content in the muscle tissues of dace, pike perch, pike, European catfish and asp. The muscle tissue of rainbow trout exhibits a linear correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content. The total mercury concentration of all examined samples did not exceed the hygienic limit for Hg for predatory fish. PMID:24779785

Strapá?, Imrich; Sokol, Jozef; Žatko, Daniel; Baranová, Mária

2012-01-01

186

Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland Rail Trail (milepost 115), C&O Canal, and Potomac River, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

187

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike  

E-print Network

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike Chestnut Run Plaza 705 Wilmington, DE 19880 with Imprelis® herbicide. First and foremost, I want to underscore DuPont's commitment to our customers support of DuPont Professional Products as we work through this together. With regards, Michael Mc

188

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike  

E-print Network

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike Chestnut Run Plaza 705 Wilmington, DE 19880-0705 August 4, 2011 Dear Turf Management Product Distributor: I'm writing to let you know that today DuPont customers and return it to DuPont. We will also be letting you know what records of the returns you

189

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike  

E-print Network

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike Chestnut Run Plaza 705 Wilmington, DE 19880-0705 September 6, 2011 Dear Lawn Care Professional, In my last letter, I notified you that DuPont would be launching a claims process related to the use of DuPontTM Imprelis® herbicide. I am writing today

190

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike  

E-print Network

DuPont Professional Products 4417 Lancaster Pike Chestnut Run Plaza 705 Wilmington, DE 19880 not already contacted us to report what you believe to be DuPontTM Imprelis® herbicide related damage on your by a DuPont representative to determine your level of participation according to the following options

191

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair  

E-print Network

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science Oscar A. Pike, Chair S-221 ESC, (801) 422-3912 College Some degree programs in the Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science carry special Programs and Degrees BS Dietetics BS Food Industry Management BS Food Science BS Nutritional Science Minors

Hart, Gus

192

Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation. PMID:24716409

Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

2014-03-01

193

Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

2009-09-01

194

Characterization of the complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), consisting of 11,097 nucleotides, was determined. The genome\\u000a contains five genes, encoding the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and RNA-dependent\\u000a RNA polymerase (L) protein in the order 3?-N-P-M-G-L-5?. 3? leader- and 5? trailer- sequences in the PFRV genome show inverse\\u000a complementarity. The PFRV proteins share the highest

Hong-Lian Chen; Hong Liu; Zong-Xiao Liu; Jun-Qiang He; Long-Ying Gao; Xiu-Jie Shi; Yu-Lin Jiang

2009-01-01

195

On Pike on “Union without Distinction” in Christian Mysticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennialists regarding the phenomenology of mysticism, like Walter Stace, feel that all Christian mystical experiences are\\u000a fundamentally similar to each other and to experiences described by mystics across religious traditions, cultures and ages.\\u000a In his seminal work, Mystic Union: An Essay in the Phenomenology of Mysticism, Nelson Pike convincingly argues that this extreme position is inadequate for capturing the breadth

Daniel Zelinski

2011-01-01

196

S PIKE : Intelligent Scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the S PIKE system, a general framework for scheduling which has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute for NASA's Hubble Space Tele-scope (HST). Efficient use of astronomical observatories is very important to the scientific community: the demand for research-grade telescopes far exceeds the supply. The need for efficient scheduling is especially keen for space-based facilities

Mark D. Johnston; Glenn E. Miller

1994-01-01

197

Uptake and depletion of plasma 17?-methyltestosterone during induction of masculinization in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of 17?-methyltestosterone (MT) was used to induce masculinization of sexually undifferentiated muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Three groups of muskellunge (mean weight, 2.5 ± 0.6 g) were submitted to MT treatment (15 mg of MT\\/kg) for 60 days. An additional one group was used as a control (hormone-free diet). Food was distributed over a 10-h period by using automatic belt

Jacques Rinchard; Konrad Dabrowski; Joseph Ottobre

1999-01-01

198

Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 ?g/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 ?g/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 ?g/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 ?g/g) than those of pike (˜30 ?g/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

2014-01-01

199

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

The results of mercury and selenium analyses conducted on northern pike (Esox lucius) muscle tissue indicate distinct and significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels of fish from two lakes in Quebec. While fish samples from Lake Dufault had very low mercury concentrations, they appeared to have elevated amounts of selenium. Conversely, fish samples originating from Lake Duparquet had elevated mercury concentrations and low selenium levels. In both cases a comparison of means by the Student t test indicated significant (P < 0.01) differences between the mercury and selenium concentrations of fish samples from the two lakes.

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

200

Variability and loading of Mercury in a small prairie river. [None  

SciTech Connect

Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and other game fish in the Fishing Lakes of the Qu'Appelle River Basin contain mercury in excess of the Canadian guideline of 0.5 mg/kg.

Gummer, W.D.

1980-10-01

201

Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Four fish species were studied during the winter of 1975 to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. Seventeen yellow perch (Perca flavescens), six northern pike (Esox lucius), three walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and two largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters. The spatial distributions differed among species. Only the largemouth bass confined their movements to heated water areas. The yellow perch, which was of particular interest, do not seem to be attracted to warm winter waters, and thus locate themselves in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay and fail to reproduce. This finding is contrary to those of previous studies.

Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

1981-01-01

202

Characterization of the complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), consisting of 11,097 nucleotides, was determined. The genome contains five genes, encoding the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. 3' leader- and 5' trailer-sequences in the PFRV genome show inverse complementarity. The PFRV proteins share the highest homology to the proteins of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), ranging from 55.3 to 91.4%. Phylogenetic analysis of the five proteins showed that PFRV clusters with SVCV and is closely related to the mammalian vesiculoviruses, 903/87, STRV and SCRV. PMID:19603256

Chen, Hong-Lian; Liu, Hong; Liu, Zong-Xiao; He, Jun-Qiang; Gao, Long-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Jie; Jiang, Yu-Lin

2009-01-01

203

Emulating the fast-start swimming performance of the Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) using a mechanical fish design  

E-print Network

Mean maximum start-up accelerations and velocities achieved by the fast-start specialist, northern pike, are reported at 120 ms-2 and 4 ms-1, respectively (Harper and Blake, 1990). In this thesis, a simple mechanical system ...

Watts, Matthew Nicholas

2006-01-01

204

Communiqu de presse 10 septembre 2014 Un brochet en France peut en cacher deux autres  

E-print Network

Esox lucius est un poisson emblématique en France, où il fait l'objet d'un fort intérêt pour la pêche qu'il n'existait qu'une seule espèce de brochet (Esox lucius) en Europe. Or en 2011, une nouvelle aquitanicus (a), et le brochet commun Esox lucius (b). 1 Onema : Office national de l'eau et des milieux

205

From Uplift to Glaciation: The Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Sarah, a 17 year old student from Colorado, takes a look at the geological past of Pikes Peak and its region. Her essay has a field-journal focus and covers how geologists divide Earth's history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic)and the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras.

206

Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. The mean home range sizes, in hectares, were northern pike 19.0; yellow perch 13.4; largemouth bass 3.7; walleye 2.2. Northern pike and yellow perch had mean home range sizes larger than the discharge area. Mean water depths at fish locations were as follows: largemouth bass 0.8 m; northern pike 1.2 m; yellow perch 1.6 m; walleye 3.5 m. Largemouth bass preferred the warmest locations near the discharge point. Yellow perch were most often located in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay while walleyes were most often located in the deeper center area. Northern pike moved over the entire discharge area. All species except largemouth bass moved freely between discharge-affected and unaltered waters. The average numbers of movements per individual per week between heated and unheated areas were the following: northern pike 0.8; yellow perch 1.2; walleye 1.1; largemouth bass, 0.

Ross, M.J. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Winter, J.D.

1981-01-01

207

Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

1989-01-01

208

Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.  

PubMed

Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish. PMID:22864703

Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

2012-01-01

209

Uptake of pentachlorophenol in fish of acidified and nonacidified lakes  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to examine the uptake of pentachlopophenol (PCP) in fish (northern pike, Esox lucius L.) in one acidified and two non-acidified lakes. The lakes are situated in southern Sweden within 30 km of each other and are only exposed to persistent pollutants from the atmosphere. Because the lakes are of similar size and depth and situated in the same fall-out area, atmospheric input of PCP should be similar. Concentrations of PCP were significantly higher in pike from the acidified lake than from the non-acidified lakes. The results suggest that fish in acidified lakes are subjected to higher PCP exposure and uptake than fish from non-acidified lakes. 24 refs., 1 fig.

Larsson, P.; Bremle, G.; Okla, L. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

210

[Effect of temperature on proteinase activities of enteral microbiota and intestinal mucosa of fish of different ecological group].  

PubMed

Effect of temperature on proteinases activities of enteral microbiota and of intestinal mucosa was studied in five fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus, crucian carp Carassius carassius, common perch Perca fluviatilis, pike-perch Zander lucioperca, and pike Esox lucius) belonging by the nutrition type to different ecological groups. Essential differences of temperature characteristics of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and of enteral microbiota are revealed in fish belonging by the nutrition type to different ecologic groups. The character of the t0-function of proteinases of intestinal mucosa and enteral microbiota by casein and hemoglobin as a rule is different. The highest values of relative proteinases activities for casein in the zone of low temperatures (38 and 45.3 % of the maximal activity) are found at study of proteinases of enteral microbiota in common perch and crucian carp. The latter indicates a significant adaptability of the enteral microbiota proteinases of common perch and crucial carp to functioning at low temperatures. PMID:22645973

Kuz'mina, V V; Shalygin, M V; Skvortsova, E G

2012-01-01

211

Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

2007-01-01

212

Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground- and surface-water hydrology in the vicinity of Dead Pike Lake and Powell Marsh, Vilas County, Wisconsin. The model was used to simulate the effect of removing Powell Marsh control structures (ditches and Vista Pond) on the hydrology of Dead Pike Lake. Measurements and model simulation results show that ground water in the vicinity of Powell Marsh moves to the northwest and west. If Powell Marsh structures are removed from the simulation, it does not affect the general direction of ground-water flow nor the total flow to Dead Pike Lake. Without the simulated structures, slightly more ground-water flow enters Dead Pike Lake and slightly less surface-water flows at the Dead Pike Lake inlet than with the simulated structures. Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

2002-01-01

213

From Uplift to Glaciation: Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 'Young Naturalist' award-winning essay reviews the geologic history of Pikes Peak and the southern Rocky Mountains, from Precambrian foundation to roughly contoured summits. The essay, in the form of a field journal, focuses on how geologists divide Earth's 4.6-billion-year history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic). It also discusses the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras, and the inevitable geologic changes the future will bring. References are included.

214

Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,  

E-print Network

Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect* Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

215

Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,  

E-print Network

Titanium: A High-Performance Java Dialect Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high-performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing us to focus

Aiken, Alex

216

Titanium: A HighPerformance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike, Carleton Miyamoto,  

E-print Network

Titanium: A High­Performance Java Dialect \\Lambda Kathy Yelick, Luigi Semenzato, Geoff Pike National Laboratory Abstract Titanium is a language and system for high­performance parallel scientific computing. Titanium uses Java as its base, thereby leveraging the advantages of that language and allowing

Krishnamurthy, Arvind

217

HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. ATTACHED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT OF VIEW IS ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

218

Ecological Modelling 149 (2002) 297311 Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population of  

E-print Network

resulting from different harvesting strategies (i.e. combinations of harvesting efforts on yearlingsEcological Modelling 149 (2002) 297­311 Risk assessment of the harvested pike-perch population by the consideration of optimal harvesting. The problem is therefore multicriteria. A stochastic simulation model

Jost, Christian

219

Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?  

PubMed Central

We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ?5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

2014-01-01

220

78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands...Leasing Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

2013-05-20

221

1 Datorhjalp 1. Logga in pa pike (130.237.25.115) , perch (116) , eel (117) eller sprat  

E-print Network

1 Datorhj¨alp 1. Logga in p°a pike (130.237.25.115) , perch (116) , eel (117) eller sprat (118) 2 in "passwd", f¨olj instruktioner 4. Vid behov kan er katalog kopieras fr°an tex. eel till pike genom kom- mandot "cd" f¨oljt av "scp kexarbx@eel:/home/kexarbx/* ." 5. Mathematica startas genom "source /pkg

Haviland, David

222

Prey capture in the pike-perch, Stizostedion lucioperca (teleostei, percidae): A structural and functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The pike-perch,Stizostedion lucioperca, uses both suction and grasping during feeding. Type, size, and position of prey and predator determine the movement of catching.\\u000a This is concluded from simultaneous motion analysis, electromyography, and the record of pressures inside the buccopharyngeal\\u000a cavity during feeding. The EMG incorporates 24 muscles of the head, including the branchial basket and the anterior body musculature.\\u000a \\u000a When

Mariette J. W. Elshoud-Oldenhave

1979-01-01

223

PERCHLORATE TROPHIC TRANSFER INCREASES TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE AMBIENT WATER EXPOSURE ALONE IN A PREDATORY FISH  

PubMed Central

This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 days and/or through feeding one stickleback per day over 14 days that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:24188192

Furin, Christoff G.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Hagedorn, Birgit; O’Hara, Todd M.

2013-01-01

224

Perchlorate trophic transfer increases tissue concentrations above ambient water exposure alone in a predatory fish.  

PubMed

This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 d and/or through feeding, 1 per day over 14 d, sticklebacks that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:24188192

Furin, Christoff G; von Hippel, Frank A; Hagedorn, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd M

2013-01-01

225

Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?  

PubMed

Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients. PMID:19609567

Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

2009-10-01

226

Life History of the Colorado Squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado Chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, 1964–1966  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the ecology and life history of the Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, and the Colorado chub, Gila robusta, in the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado-Utah, were conducted from May 1964, to October 1966. A total of 1,469 squawfish and 2,393 chubs was collected with gill nets, seines, fry gear, and an electric shocker. The operation of Flaming

C. David Vanicek; Robert H. Kramer

1969-01-01

227

An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. PMID:23597093

2013-01-01

228

Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.  

PubMed

The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4?h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

2014-06-01

229

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

230

Predicting change in fish mercury concentrations following reservoir impoundment.  

PubMed

Fish mercury concentrations frequently increase after impoundment of a reservoir. Soil flooding releases organic matter and nutrients, providing food to bacterial communities that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylation and bioaccumulation are the primary pathways for mercury accumulation in fish. We investigated if changes in fish mercury concentrations could be predicted from the change in reservoir size. Data for three fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from reservoirs in northern Manitoba and northern Quebec were used to evaluate four simple models of change in mercury with change in flooded area. For three additional fish species, all primary carnivores, the preferred model consisted of a single exponential enrichment term. This model successfully predicted two cases not used in model development-one with a large change in area and one with a small change in area. Models with good predictive skill can be developed when the underlying dynamics are known. PMID:15093096

Therriault, T W; Schneider, D C

1998-01-01

231

Induced histopathologic alterations in early life stages (ELS) of medaka (Oryzias latipes)  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural and industrial pollutants cause extensive alterations in fish embryos, and the cardiovascular system is often targeted. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds produce lesions in lake and rainbow trout (Salvelinus namaycush and Oncorhynchus mykiss), and northern pike (Esox lucius), ultimately compromising ELS survival, and possibly stock recruitment. Pericardial edema was produced by exposure of medaka embryos to thiobencarb, molinate, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, dioxin, and products of incomplete combustion from trichloroethylene incineration. These lesions closely resembled those observed in birds, Xenopus, and other fish species. This work focuses on gross morphologic and histologic alterations of heart, major blood vessels, pericardial cavity, skeletal muscle, and brain. Endothelium, perivascular connective tissue, and other tissues of embryos and larvae were examined in semithin (4 {mu}m) glycolmethacrylate-embedded serial sections. Structural defects and their microscopic features will be presented.

Villalobos, S.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Hinton, D.E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

232

Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.  

PubMed

In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated. PMID:10622434

Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

1999-10-01

233

Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes  

SciTech Connect

Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels in fish from the two lakes were reported. Fish samples from Lake Dufault had low mercury concentrations but elevated levels of selenium. Fish samples from Lake Duparquet, however, had elevated mercury levels and low selenium levels. Elevated mercury levels were present in sediment samples from both lakes. Mercury and selenium levels in water samples from both lakes were at or below analytical detection limits. (15 references, 3 tables)

Speyer, M.R.

1980-03-01

234

A new leech species (Clitellata: Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) from the ?yna River near Olsztyn, Poland.  

PubMed

A new species of fish leech from Poland, Piscicola burresoni n. sp. (Piscicolidae), is described. The leech was found in 2007 on stones and on pike ( Esox lucius L.) and chub ( Leuciscus cephalus L.) in the ?yna River, Poland. The leech is small, relatively flattened, with a prominent coarctation between the trachelosome and urosome. The pigmentation is unique to the new species and it has 14 annuli with gonopores separated by 4 annuli. The receptaculum seminis consists of an elliptical aperture located at a distance of 3 annuli behind the female gonopore. The copulatory area on the clitellum is characteristic in the shape of a parallel ellipse. The vector tissue is in the form of a transverse plate below the oviduct outlet. For a complete description of the external morphology, a geometric-mathematical model of the leech body form was used. PMID:23276262

Bielecki, Aleksander; Cichocka, Joanna M; ?wi?tek, Piotr; Gorzel, Ma?gorzata

2013-06-01

235

Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

Holland, L.E.

1987-01-01

236

Noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and tryptophan concentrations in the brains of four cohabiting species of fish.  

PubMed

1. The concentrations of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and the amino acid tryptophan were determined in the telencephalon, optic lobes and rest of the brains of four species of fish collected from a stream in central Saskatchewan. 2. The species investigated were white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), longnosed dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) and northern pike (Esox lucius). 3. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of amines in different regions of the brain within species and within the same brain region between species. 4. These results may be related to the phylogenetic differences or to patterns in brain development evolved by fish species to adapt to particular lifestyles. PMID:2898995

Sloley, B D; Rehnberg, B G

1988-01-01

237

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT JANUARY 2004 Biology and Foraging Demands of Northern Pike in  

E-print Network

the University of Arizona and Mark Brouder from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided friendly, and the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Research Units Program. #12;1 Executive Summary Northern pike lakes and in the Humboldt River in Nevada, the Green, and Colorado Rivers and two reservoirs in Utah

Bonar, Scott A.

238

Antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens alters food-web structure.  

PubMed

Selection can alter predator-prey interactions. However, whether and how complex food-webs respond to selection remain largely unknown. We show in the field that antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens on prey body-size can be a primary driver of food-web functioning. In Windermere, U.K., pike (Esox lucius, the predator) selected against small perch (Perca fluviatilis, the prey), while a perch-specific pathogen selected against large perch. The strongest selective force drove perch trait change and ultimately determined the structure of trophic interactions. Before 1976, the strength of pike-induced selection overrode the strength of pathogen-induced selection and drove a change to larger, faster growing perch. Predation-driven increase in the proportion of large, infection-vulnerable perch presumably favored the pathogen since a peak in the predation pressure in 1976 coincided with pathogen expansion and a massive perch kill. After 1976, the strength of pathogen-induced selection overrode the strength of predator-induced selection and drove a rapid change to smaller, slower growing perch. These changes made perch easier prey for pike and weaker competitors against juvenile pike, ultimately increasing juvenile pike survival and total pike numbers. Therefore, although predators and pathogens exploited the same prey in Windermere, they did not operate competitively but synergistically by driving rapid prey trait change in opposite directions. Our study empirically demonstrates that a consideration of the relative strengths and directions of multiple selective pressures is needed to fully understand community functioning in nature. PMID:19064927

Edeline, Eric; Ari, Tamara Ben; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils C

2008-12-16

239

Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

Parsons, John W.

1967-01-01

240

Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

Nelson, William R.

1974-01-01

241

Harvest-induced disruptive selection increases variance in fitness-related traits.  

PubMed

The form of Darwinian selection has important ecological and management implications. Negative effects of harvesting are often ascribed to size truncation (i.e. strictly directional selection against large individuals) and resultant decrease in trait variability, which depresses capacity to buffer environmental change, hinders evolutionary rebound and ultimately impairs population recovery. However, the exact form of harvest-induced selection is generally unknown and the effects of harvest on trait variability remain unexplored. Here we use unique data from the Windermere (UK) long-term ecological experiment to show in a top predator (pike, Esox lucius) that the fishery does not induce size truncation but disruptive (diversifying) selection, and does not decrease but rather increases variability in pike somatic growth rate and size at age. This result is supported by complementary modelling approaches removing the effects of catch selectivity, selection prior to the catch and environmental variation. Therefore, fishing most likely increased genetic variability for somatic growth in pike and presumably favoured an observed rapid evolutionary rebound after fishery relaxation. Inference about the mechanisms through which harvesting negatively affects population numbers and recovery should systematically be based on a measure of the exact form of selection. From a management perspective, disruptive harvesting necessitates combining a preservation of large individuals with moderate exploitation rates, and thus provides a comprehensive tool for sustainable exploitation of natural resources. PMID:19740875

Edeline, Eric; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

2009-12-01

242

Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

2014-12-01

243

Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.  

PubMed

The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming. PMID:25473013

Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

2015-01-22

244

I. Fish..........................................................................................................................................2 A) Fish native to both Europe and North America (not analyzed) ........................................2  

E-print Network

autumnalis 2. Esox lucius 3. Gasterosteus aculeatus 4. Lampetra richardsoni 5. Lethenteron japonicum 6. Lota lota 7. Petromyzon marinus 8. Pungitius pungitius 9. Salmo salar 10. Salvelinus alpinus 11. Stenodus

Jeschke, Jonathan

245

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

2009-01-01

246

Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.  

PubMed

The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovi?ová, Danka; Tur?eková, L'udmila

2012-11-01

247

Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

2007-01-01

248

Subsurface study of lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Olive Field, Pike and Amite Counties, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Olive field is located on the Amite-Pike county line in southwestern Mississippi. The field was discovered by Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc., and produces from a stratigraphically trapped sandstone within the lower Tuscaloosa Stringer Member. The Stringer Member consists of alternating sandstones, siltstones, and shales, and averages 76 m thick at Olive field. The Stringer Member represents a transgressive sequence deposited on eroded Washita Fredericksburg sediments and is overlain by middle Tuscaloosa marine shales. The Stringer Member was subdivided into five zones in this study, based on lithology and electric-log responses. The lower three zones were deposited in a fluvial environment. The sandstones were deposited as point bars and channel sands in a meandering system. Siltstones and shales represent overbank deposits, flood-basin deposits, and channel-fill deposits. The upper two zones consist of sediments deposited at or near sea level. Finely laminated shales and siltstones represent marsh and bay deposits. The top zone is a thin continuous sand body that represents a remnant beach deposited before major marine transgression occurred.

Wiygul, G.J.; Young, L.M.

1987-09-01

249

Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition. PMID:23280299

Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

2013-02-01

250

Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

2002-01-01

251

Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.  

PubMed

Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

2013-11-19

252

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

2005-06-01

253

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species.  

PubMed

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. PMID:16018498

Popper, Arthur N; Smith, Michael E; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; MacGillivray, Alexander O; Austin, Melanie E; Mann, David A

2005-06-01

254

Cooperation under Predation Risk: Experiments on Costs and Benefits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the predator is approached and the potential benefits of cooperation was carried out strictly experimentally. We made either singletons or pairs of dead sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, approach hungry pike, Esox lucius, by remote control according to an algorithm that mimicked natural inspection. The predation risk of both single inspectors and parallel inspecting pairs increased with closer inspection distances. A member of an inspecting pair had only about half the risk of that of a single inspector. In pairs, a companion diluted the lead fish's risk of being caught, depending on its distance behind the leader. The absolute risk difference between leader and follower was greatest for close inspection distances and decreased further away from the predator. The leader's relative risk increased with its distance ahead of the laggard. However, for a given distance between leader and laggard, the relative risks to the two fish remained similar with distance from the predator. The cost side of the inequalities that define a 'Prisoner's Dilemma' has thus been measured for this system. In a second experiment the 'attack deterrence hypothesis' of predator inspection (i.e. inspection decreases attack probability) was tested. The pike was offered a choice between two sticklebacks, one of which had carried out a predator inspection visit. There was no indication of attack deterrence through predator inspection.

Milinski, Manfred; Luthi, Jean H.; Eggler, Rolf; Parker, Geoffrey A.

1997-06-01

255

Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on a standard curve was developed for detection and quantitation of ranaviruses. The target gene for the qPCR was viral DNA polymerase (DNApol). All ten ranavirus isolates studied (Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus, EHNV; European catfish virus, ECV; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines - epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and bluegill fry (BF-2) - were infected with four of the isolates (EHNV, ECV, FV3 and DFV), and the viral quantity was determined from seven time points during the first three days after infection. The qPCR was also used to determine the viral load in tissue samples from pike (Esox lucius) fry challenged experimentally with EHNV. PMID:21087639

Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang; Ariel, Ellen; Tapiovaara, Hannele

2011-01-01

256

Behavioural syndrome in a solitary predator is independent of body size and growth rate.  

PubMed

Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted. PMID:22363687

Nyqvist, Marina J; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J Robert

2012-01-01

257

The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.  

PubMed

The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D. PMID:19731060

Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

2010-09-01

258

Short- and long-term patterns of ¹³?Cs in fish and other aquatic organisms of small forest lakes in southern Finland since the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

We summarize the patterns of ¹³?Cs activity concentrations and transfer into fish and other biota in four small forest lakes in southern Finland during a twenty-year period following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The results from summer 1986 showed fastest accumulation of ¹³?Cs into planktivorous fishes, i.e. along the shortest food chains. Since 1987, the highest annual mean values of ¹³?Cs have been recorded in fish occupying the highest trophic levels, for perch (Perca fluviatilis) 13,600 Bq/kg (ww) and for pike (Esox lucius) 20,700 Bq/kg (ww). At the same time, activity concentrations of ¹³?Cs in crustacean zooplankton and Asellus aquaticus have ranged between 1000 and 19,500 Bq/kg (dw). In 2006, 5-28% of the 1987 ¹³?Cs activity concentration levels were still present in perch and pike. Since 1989 their ¹³?Cs activity concentrations in oligohumic seepage lakes have remained significantly higher than in polyhumic drainage lakes due to the increased transfer of ¹³?Cs into fish in the seepage lakes with lower electrolyte concentrations, longer water retention times and lower sedimentation rate. PMID:22036157

Rask, Martti; Saxén, Ritva; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Arvola, Lauri; Järvinen, Marko; Koskelainen, Ulla; Outola, Iisa; Vuorinen, Pekka J

2012-01-01

259

Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not correlate with color zoning, whereas Zn variations (up to 1.1 wt. %) are entirely independent. The dark color zones probably reflect Fe-Ti charge transfer. The mica composition sequence described here is typical of the extreme fractionation observed in pegmatites of the NYF family, associated with anorogenec granites. Elevated Fe, Zn, and enhanced Sc contents are characteristic of this family. Strong enrichment in Li, Rb, and F is present, particularly in the micas of the miarolitic cavities. Sharp color zonation and compositional variation in cavity-grown zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite crystals suggest rapid changes in the intensive parameters, particularly the f(O2), of the parent fluid during the final stages of pegmatite consolidation ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, D.M.; Eby, R.K.

1995-01-01

260

Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting the detrital influences at the time of deposition of a low-vitrinite durain; a high CaO zone with elevated B/Be, both suggesting marine influence, in a lithotype in the middle of the coal bed; and the postdepositional emplacement of pyrite in the uppermost lithotype. Individual lithotypes, each representing distinct depositional environments, all complicated to some degree by diagentic overprints, comprise the complex history of the coal bed. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.; Clark, W.L.

2005-01-01

261

Analysis of fin clips as a nonlethal method for monitoring mercury in fish.  

PubMed

Monitoring of mercury in fish typically involves removal of individuals from the sampled population and subsequent analysis of fillets. This study assessed whether the analysis of fins, structures routinely clipped to mark released fish in population studies, could provide a nonlethal approach for estimating mercury concentrations in axial muscle (fillets). We analyzed fillets and selected fins from 401 northern pike (Esox lucius) and 79 walleye (Sander vitreus) from 21 lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin, 19 Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and 14 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) from Long Island Sound, New York. On average, 83% of mercury in fins was methylmercury, and concentrations in the proximal portion were about half-those in the distal portion in pelvic fins. Mean concentrations of mercury in fins, averaged by species and fin type, ranged from 2.7 to 8.9% of those in fillets. Coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions of mercury concentrations in fillets against those in fins of individual fish ranged from 0.04 to 0.96 among species and water bodies (median r2 = 0.52). The concentration in fin clips was a better predictor of mercury in fillets for individual Arctic grayling (r2 = 0.65, n = 12 and r2 = 0.84, n = 8) and winter flounder (r2 = 0.94, n = 14) than for individual northern pike (median r2 = 0.56) or walleye (median r2 = 0.22) from a given lake. In northern pike in the 400-500 mm total-length interval, the mean concentrations of total mercury in caudal fins and fillets, averaged by lake (n = 12), were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.95). The analysis of composited samples of fin clips from fish within a restricted length interval could, therefore, be a useful screening tool for assessing the relative mercury contamination of fish among different water bodies. PMID:18323115

Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G; Bailey, Sean W; Thoreson, Kristen A; Hammerschmidt, Chad R

2008-02-01

262

mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species  

SciTech Connect

Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation.

Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhao, Qingwei [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Danyan, E-mail: zdyzxb@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, No. 866, Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

2013-06-10

263

Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.  

PubMed

Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ? Northern Pike Esox lucius × ? Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

2013-12-01

264

Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.  

PubMed

The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

2011-02-15

265

Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.  

PubMed

Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada. PMID:24156245

Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

2013-11-19

266

Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting  

PubMed Central

Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance. PMID:19114002

Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

2008-01-01

267

Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis  

PubMed Central

Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher’s linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

Willacker, James J.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Wilton, Peter R.; Walton, Kelly M.

2010-01-01

268

Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 ?g g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 ?g g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations. PMID:21691859

Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

2011-10-01

269

Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.  

PubMed

Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ?3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

2014-12-01

270

A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

1998-01-01

271

Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

Ahas, Rein

272

Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

1987-01-01

273

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

274

System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

Chilton, E.W., II

1991-01-01

275

Temporal changes in mercury bioaccumulation by predatory fishes of boreal lakes following the invasion of an exotic forage fish.  

PubMed

We evaluated the prediction that mercury concentrations of predatory fishes in boreal lakes would rise following the invasion of an exotic forage fish species (rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax) that was believed to feed at a higher trophic position than native forage fishes. We compared temporal trends (postinvasion minus preinvasion values) in fish mercury bioaccumulation between lakes experiencing recent smelt invasions and reference lakes of central Canada. Piscivore mercury concentrations in this region have remained stable or declined during approximately the last 20 years. These trends were not strongly influenced by the smelt invasion, despite the fact that smelt were a major prey item for all piscivore species examined. The effect of smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in the predator species reflected the importance of smelt in their respective diets (lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush > walleye, Stizostedion vitreum > northern pike, Esox lucius). However, these effects were not statistically significant for any piscivore species. The impact of rainbow smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in native piscivores of this region has been much less than previous food-web studies have predicted. PMID:12959531

Johnston, Thomas A; Leggett, William C; Bodaly, Richard A; Swanson, Heidi K

2003-09-01

276

Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.  

PubMed

The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species. PMID:22136242

Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zi?ba, G; Wesley, K J

2011-12-01

277

A food chain model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran bioaccumulation in a northern Canadian river system  

SciTech Connect

Field data from a comprehensive study of chemical contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzofurans provided the opportunity for comparison of predicted and observed concentrations in fish and invertebrates in sediment-invertebrate-fish food chains. The field study was from the Athabasca River downstream of a bleached-kraft pulp mill in northwest Alberta, Canada. The food chain model used predator-prey relationships which resulted in distinct exposure pathways for fish inhabiting the river. The model distinguished between exposure to suspended and deposited sediments in the Athabasca River. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in two bottom feeding fish species, mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and one piscivorous fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), as well as in invertebrates were measured in the field samples. A sensitivity analysis revealed that exposure of mountain whitefish to TCDF sorbed to suspended solids through consumption of filter feeding invertebrates was the primary exposure pathway. Furthermore, failure to consider consumption of bottom sediments by longnose sucker resulted in underpredicted tissue concentrations compared to observed values.

Starodub, M.E. [CanTox Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Pastershank, G.; Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Research Inst.

1995-12-31

278

The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.  

PubMed

Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors. PMID:21781101

Linløkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

2011-08-01

279

Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.  

PubMed

Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

2010-11-01

280

[Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].  

PubMed

By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians). PMID:23789398

Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Va?shnora?te, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

2013-01-01

281

Concentrations of microcystins in tissues of several fish species from freshwater reservoirs and ponds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to summarise the determination of concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in muscle and liver of freshwater fish species caught in stagnant waters of the Czech Republic. Within the years 2007-2009, 351 muscle samples and 291 liver samples of 16 freshwater fish species derived from four fishponds, and four water reservoirs were analysed. MCs were detected in 53 liver samples. The highest concentrations of microcystins were determined in liver samples of carnivorous fish species; 50.3 ng/g of fresh weight (FW) in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and 22.7 ng/g FW in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). MCs in liver were detected in other five fish species; asp (Aspius aspius), pike (Esox lucius), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Concentrations of MCs in liver of nine fish species (European bream, whitefish, tench, silver carp, European catfish, roach, chub, crucian carp and rudd) were below the detection limit of 1.2-5.4 ng/g FW for different MC congeners. However, the concentrations of MCs in all muscle samples were below the detection limit. The assessment of MCs concentrations might be influenced by the detection method used. Due to the concentrations of MCs being below the detection limit in muscle samples of all fish species analysed, it seems that there might be a low potential threat for human health in case of fish muscle consumption. PMID:23756815

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Adamovský, Ond?ej; Ziková, Andrea; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kohoutek, Ji?í; Mareš, Jan; Bláha, Lud?k

2013-12-01

282

Differential diagnosis of Triaenophorus crassus and T. nodulosus experimental infection in Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus (Copepoda) from the Alpine Lake Grundlsee (Austria) using PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

In 2005, an epidemic of the cestode Triaenophorus crassus in Arctic charr, Salvelinus umbla from Lake Grundlsee (Austria) was reported, resulting in the closure of the local fisheries. The parasite uses a copepod and a salmonid fish as intermediate hosts, and the European pike (Esox lucius) as definitive host. In Lake Grundlsee procercoids of T. crassus, T. nodulosus and Eubothrium salvelini use the copepod Cyclops abyssorum praealpinus as their first intermediate host. We report on the development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the specific differentiation between the procercoids of the three cestode species. Ban I restriction sites within a 207-bp 18S rRNA-amplified fragment yielded two and three species-specific products to unequivocally distinguish between T. crassus and T. nodulosus, respectively. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to characterise a single procercoid of both Triaenophorus species in their copepod host, enabling a direct measure of infection. This assay will be useful in monitoring the progress of the control methods currently in place. PMID:21424806

Boufana, Belgees; Zibrat, Uroš; Jehle, Robert; Craig, Philip S; Gassner, Hubert; Schabetsberger, Robert

2011-09-01

283

Trophic ecology of the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in its introduced areas: a stable isotope approach in southwestern France.  

PubMed

During the last decades, non-native predatory fish species have been largely introduced in European lakes and rivers, calling for detailed information on the trophic ecology of co-existing native and non-native predators. The present study describes the trophic ecology of the introduced pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in two southwestern French rivers, using stable isotope analysis. Pikeperch could be categorized as a top-predator, and had a significantly higher trophic position (TP, mean+/-SE=4.2+/-0.1) compared to other predatory fish such as the native pike (Esox lucius, TP=3.7+/-0.1) and the introduced European catfish (Silurus glanis, TP=3.8+/-0.1). Most studies of resource use in freshwaters consider predatory fish as ecologically equivalent; however, this study showed that the pikeperch occupied a higher trophic niche compared to other predatory species in the Lot and Tarn rivers (Garonne River basin). This apparent specialization may thus have consequences upon interspecific relationships within the predatory guild and upon the functional organization of biological communities. PMID:19632657

Kopp, Dorothée; Cucherousset, Julien; Syväranta, Jari; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

2009-08-01

284

Effects of climate change on trait-based dynamics of a top predator in freshwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

Predicted universal responses of ectotherms to climate warming include increased maximum population growth rate and changes in body size through the temperature-size rule. However, the mechanisms that would underlie these predicted responses are not clear. Many studies have focused on proximate mechanisms of physiological processes affecting individual growth. One can also consider ultimate mechanisms involving adaptive explanations by evaluating temperature effects on different vital rates across the life history and using the information in a population dynamical model. Here, we combine long-term data for a top predator in freshwater ecosystems (pike; Esox lucius) with a stochastic integral projection model to analyze concurrent effects of temperature on vital rates, body size, and population dynamics. As predicted, the net effect of warming on population growth rate (fitness) is positive, but the thermal sensitivity of this rate is highly size- and vital rate-dependent. These results are not sensitive to increasing variability in temperature. Somatic growth follows the temperature-size rule, and our results support an adaptive explanation for this response. The stable length structure of the population shifts with warming toward an increased proportion of medium-sized but a reduced proportion of small and large individuals. This study highlights how demographic approaches can help reveal complex underlying mechanisms for population responses to warming. PMID:24464198

Vindenes, Yngvild; Edeline, Eric; Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

2014-02-01

285

Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophy in Northwestern Poland.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in selected tissues of two fish species: pike (Esox lucius L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) living in lakes I?sko and Wisola, Northwestern Poland. The lakes differ in their trophic status. The effect of gender and environmental conditions on metals accumulation was also investigated. Metal analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Considering all studied fish species and tissues, the average metal concentrations (micrograms per gram wet weight) in both lakes occurred in the following ranges: Fe 0.8-240.6, Mn 0.2-8.4, Zn 3.0-185.9, and Cu 0.14-7.76. The lowest levels of the studied metals were always detected in the muscles. The spleen, kidneys, and liver were found to accumulate the highest amounts of Fe. In the case of the other metals, the highest levels were found, as follows: Mn in skin, gills, and gonads, Zn in digestive tract and gills, Cu in liver. Heavy metal content in fish gonads was observed to be sex dependent. PMID:22923375

Rajkowska, Monika; Protasowicki, Miko?aj

2013-04-01

286

Comparative ultrastructure of Langerhans-like cells in spleens of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii).  

PubMed

We studied the morphology and occurrence of splenic Langerhans-like (LL) cells in species representing 11 orders of ray-finned fishes, Actinopterygii. LL cells were frequent in spleen tissue of species among Cypriniformes, Esociformes, Salmoniformes, and Pleuronectiformes. These cells contained granules which resembled Birbeck granules known to occur in mammalian Langerhans cells. The ultrastructure of LL cells in Northern pike, Esox lucius, and in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus were similar to those reported in salmonids. LL cells found in cyprinids shared some characteristics with the LL cells in other Actinopterygii species, although unique structures distinguished them from the latter. They contained dense bodies within the Birbeck-like (BL) granules, a characteristic that was never observed in species outside the Cypriniformes. Two types of BL granules were characterized in cyprinid LL cells. The ultrastructure of BL granules across the species is discussed. LL cells in all Actinopterygii species demonstrated close contacts with nearby cells, characterized by adherens-like junctions. Additionally, multivesicular bodies were present within the cytoplasm and large aggregates of exosomes were observed closely associated with the plasma membrane suggesting their release from the cells. These structures are discussed in relation to mammalian dendritic cells. Macrophages found in European perch, Perca fluviatilis, blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus contained lysosomes and residual bodies with structures resembling Birbeck granules. These granules and cells were clearly distinct from LL cells. PMID:20623556

Lovy, Jan; Wright, Glenda M; Speare, David J; Tyml, Tomas; Dykova, Iva

2010-10-01

287

Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status.  

PubMed

Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species. PMID:23812603

Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

2013-08-01

288

Comparison of chloroform-methanol-extracted and solvent-free triglyceride determinations in four fish species.  

PubMed

Lipids, including triglycerides, are important variables in fish bioenergetics and can be used to estimate overall fish condition. Triglycerides are the major energy storage form in fish and therefore are a more ecologically and physiologically relevant measure of bioenergetics than total lipids. Chloroform-methanol-extracted total body lipids (Bligh and Dyer) and total body triglycerides determined in chloroform-methanol extracts and unextracted whole-body fractions were measured in four fish species: northern pike Esox lucius, burbot Lota lota, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and spottail shiners Notropis hudsonius. Determinations of total body lipids were consistently greater than those of total body triglycerides when measured in the same solvent-extracted fraction, although both measures followed similar trends. In an effort to eliminate the need for extraction with organic solvents, we compared the performance of an enzyme-based triglyceride assay in both the solvent-extracted fraction and a whole-body unextracted homogenate for each fish. The chloroform-methanol-extracted triglyceride values were consistently lower than triglycerides measured in the unextracted whole-body homogenate. In addition, comparison of triglyceride measurements revealed limitations to the solvent extraction and subsequent triglyceride determinations in lean fish. Thus, in addition to being simple, rapid, and not requiring organic solvents, determination of triglycerides in an unextracted whole-fish homogenate may be a useful alternative to chloroform-methanol-based methods of lipid extraction and subsequent triglyceride measurement. PMID:18201059

Bennett, Pamela M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

2007-09-01

289

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment  

SciTech Connect

Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1998-01-01

290

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies  

SciTech Connect

An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

291

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

SciTech Connect

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01

292

Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

2012-07-01

293

Comparative study of acetylcholine synthesis in organs of freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

The activity of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and the content of ACh were determined in the brain, heart, red trunk muscle and midgut of 12 freshwater teleost species belonging to eight families: carp (Cyprinus carpio), tench (Tinca tinca), silver carp (Hypophthalmichtys molitrix), bighead (Hypophthalmichtys nobilis), wels (Silurus glanis), cat fish (Ictalurus nebulosus), eel (Anguilla anguilla), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike (Esox lucius), pike-perch (Stizosteidon lucioperca), ruffe (Acerina cernua) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus). The rate of ACh degradation in the same tissues was characterized by measuring the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparisons by statistical evaluation of cholinergic parameters in the corresponding organs were made between the species or families. The highest ACh concentration was found in the brain (between 9.6 and 16.0 nmol/g), and the gut (4.6 to 17.4 nmol/g), followed by the heart (1.4 to 3.9 nmol/g) and trunk muscle (1.2 to 3.8 nmol/g). Good correlations were found between the ACh content and the ChAT activity in all the organs studied. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 and 0.72 for the brain and heart, respectively. The activity of ChAT and the amount of ACh found in the brain and trunk muscle varied considerably from one family to another, but was of comparable degree within one family. It was concluded that differences in the cholinergic parameters may reflect different feeding and swimming behavioral patterns. PMID:24214667

Szabó, A; Nemcsók, J; Kása, P; Budai, D

1991-04-01

294

Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.  

PubMed

This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

Jankovi?, Saša; Cur?i?, Marijana; Radi?evi?, Tatjana; Stefanovi?, Sr?an; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijevi?, Biljana

2011-10-01

295

Differential habitat use and antipredator response of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to olfactory and visual cues from multiple predators.  

PubMed

The indirect, behavioral effects of predation and predator-predator interactions can significantly alter the trophic ecology of many communities. In numerous instances, the strength of these effects may be determined by the ability of prey to identify predation risk through predator-specific cues and respond accordingly to avoid capture. We exposed juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common forage fish in many brackish and freshwater environments, to vision and/or olfactory cues from two predators with different hunting methods: northern pike (Esox lucius, an ambush predator) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis, a roving predator). Our results demonstrated that responses of roach to perceived risk (as evidenced by their selection of structured or open-water habitats) were highly dependent on cue type and predator identity. For instance, roach responded to olfactory cues of pike by entering open-water habitat, but entered structured habitat when presented with a vision cue of this predator. Opposite responses were elicited from roach for both olfactory and visual cues of perch. Interestingly, roach defaulted to selection of structured habitat when presented with vision + olfaction cues of either predator. Moreover, when presented individual cues of both predators together, roach responded by choosing open-water habitat. Upon being presented with vision + olfaction cues of both predators, however, roach strongly favored structured habitat. Differences in habitat selection of roach were likely in response to the alternative foraging strategies of the two predators, and suggest that prey species may not always use structured habitats as protection. This appears particularly true when a threat is perceived, but cannot immediately be located. These results provide insight to the complex and variable nature by which prey respond to various cues and predators, and offer a mechanistic guide for how behaviorally mediated and predator-predator interactions act as structuring processes in aquatic systems. PMID:20127367

Martin, Charles W; Fodrie, F Joel; Heck, Kenneth L; Mattila, Johanna

2010-04-01

296

Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff. Observed concentrations of nitrate, which was the most abundant nitrogen species in ground water in t he glacial aquifer, ranged from less than 0.05 to 5.1 mg/L as nitrogen, with a median of 1.1 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrogen measured in ground water were lower than estimated concentrations for recharge suggesting that dissolved nitrogen species may not be conservative in ground water. Nitrate is unstable in anoxic ground water and can be removed by denitrification. Ammonium can be sorbed onto the aquifer materials. Evidence for reducing conditions included a positive correlation between low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and low concentrations of nitrate. The estimated concentration of chloride in recharge ranged from 6.7 to 21 mg/L, and total annual load of chloride to ground water ranged from 19.4 to 50.6 x 10(3) lb/mi2. Chloride is considered to be a chemically conservative ion in ground water. Contributions of chloride to ground water from road salting were greater than contributions from septic tanks. Observed concentrations of chloride in 18 ground-water samples from the glacial aquifer ranged from 2.1 to 32 mg/L, with a median of 17.5 mg/L. Local contamination is indicated by the elevated concentrations of chloride (up to 680 mg/L) detected in four wells located downgradient of an abandoned industry that may have released salts in processing waste. Chloride concentrations in ground water appeared to be greater near major roads and in areas of relatively greater septic-system density than in areas upgradient of roads, farther downgradient from roads, or with less densely spaced septic systems.

Senior, L.A.

1994-01-01

297

Pike and salmon as sister taxa: detailed intraclade resolution and divergence time estimation of Esociformes + Salmoniformes based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.  

PubMed

The increasing number of taxa and loci in molecular phylogenetic studies of basal euteleosts has brought stability in a controversial area. A key emerging aspect to these studies is a sister Esociformes (pike) and Salmoniformes (salmon) relationship. We evaluate mitochondrial genome support for a sister Esociformes and Salmoniformes hypothesis by surveying many potential outgroups for these taxa, employing multiple phylogenetic approaches, and utilizing a thorough sampling scheme. Secondly, we conduct a simultaneous divergence time estimation and phylogenetic inference in a Bayesian framework with fossil calibrations focusing on relationships within Esociformes+Salmoniformes. Our dataset supports a sister relationship between Esociformes and Salmoniformes; however the nearest relatives of Esociformes+Salmoniformes are inconsistent among analyses. Within the order Esociformes, we advocate for a single family, Esocidae. Subfamily relationships within Salmonidae are poorly supported as Salmoninae sister to Thymallinae+Coregoninae. PMID:23954876

Campbell, Matthew A; López, J Andrés; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

2013-11-01

298

mGluR5 stimulating Homer-PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with ?-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 ?M. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer-PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-?B activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. PMID:23524143

Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying; Zhao, Qingwei; Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia; Zhu, Danyan

2013-06-10

299

INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTUS 20152016 STUDY AT SLU  

E-print Network

, such as global warming, the food crisis, and our dependence on non- renewable energy. Students are encouragedEsox lucius (x - x1)² + (y - y CONTENT 2 WELCOME TO SLU AND SWEDEN! 4 SLU in brief 6 Why study in Sweden? 8

300

Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

2006-01-01

301

[Cytochemical characteristics of the labrocyte-like cells in the capsule of the plerocercoids of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781) and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) cestodes].  

PubMed

Out of six fish species examined (Esox lucius, Paracottus kessleri, Perca fluviatilis, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratorius, Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) labrocyte-like cells were detected in Esox lucius, Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Coregonus autumnalis migratotius. The cells contain large metachromatic granules. Histochemical methods revealed in them sulfated and carboxylic acid mucopolysacharides. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the capsules around plerocercoids of Triaenophrus nodulosis from Esox lucits liver depends on the age of the capsule and that of the plerocercoid. It increases when the connective tissue papsule is forming and decreases again under aging and degeneration of the capsule containing plerocercoid. The amount of labrocyte-like cells in the cestodes capsules of Raillietina increases sharply when they locate in an accidental organ (liver). This demonstrates the acuteness of organ reactivity to a nonspecific helminth. PMID:143258

Pronina, S V

1977-07-01

302

Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pike Lake is a 459-acre, mesotrophic to eutrophic dimictic lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over degrading water quality in the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify sources of phosphorus including the effects of short-circuiting of inflows, and determine how changes in phosphorus loading should affect the water quality of the lake. Measuring all significant water and phosphorus sources and estimating lesser sources was the method used to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets. The Rubicon River, ungaged near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water provide 55, 20, 17, and 7 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake through the Rubicon River outlet (87 percent) or by evaporation (13 percent). Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,500 pounds in 1999 and 2,400 pounds in 2000. About 80 percent of the phosphorus was from the Rubicon River, about half of which came from the watershed and half from a waste-water treatment plant in Slinger, Wisconsin. Inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting of phosphorus is facilitated by a meandering segment of the Rubicon River channel through a marsh at the north end of the lake. It is estimated that 77 percent of phosphorus from the Rubicon River in monitoring year 1999 and 65 percent in monitoring year 2000 was short-circuited to the outlet without entering the main body of the lake. Simulations using water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lake Model Suite (WiLMS) indicated Pike Lake's response to 13 different phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included a base 'normal' year (2000) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six different percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable sources, and six different loading scenarios corresponding to specific management actions. Model simulations indicate that a 50-percent reduction in controllable loading sources would be needed to achieve a mesotrophic classification with respect to phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth (an index of water clarity). Model simulations indicated that short-circuiting of phosphorus from the inlet to the outlet was the main reason the water quality of the lake is good relative to the amount of loading from the Rubicon River and that changes in the percentage of inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting have a significant influence on the water quality of the lake.

Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

2004-01-01

303

Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

2012-01-01

304

The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite, Mass., and syenite of Kungnat, Greenland, among others - allowing for different levels of erosion. A suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. ?? 1975.

Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

1975-01-01

305

Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate. PMID:20470073

Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

2010-05-15

306

Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration, made at a depth of 6.6 feet upstream and downstream of New Cumberland Dam. Continuous monitors were operated from May through October 1993.

Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

1996-01-01

307

Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

2008-01-01

308

Estimating naphthenic acids concentrations in laboratory-exposed fish and in fish from the wild.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the most water-soluble organic components found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada, and these acids are released into aqueous tailing waters as a result of bitumen extraction. Although the toxicity of NAs to fish is well known, there has been no method available to estimate NAs concentrations in fish. This paper describes a newly developed analytical method using single ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure NAs in fish, down to concentrations of approximately 0.1mgkg(-1) of fish flesh. This method was used to measure the uptake and depuration of commercial NAs in laboratory experiments. Exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 3mg NAsl(-1) for 9d gave a bioconcentration factor of approximately 2 at pH 8.2. Within 1d after the fish were transferred to NAs-free water, about 95% of the NAs were depurated. In addition, the analytical method was used to determine if NAs were present in four species of wild fish - northern pike (Esox lucius), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), walleye (Sander vitreus) - collected from near the oil sands. Flesh samples from 23 wild fish were analyzed, and 18 of these had no detectable NAs. Four fish (one of each species) contained NAs at concentrations from 0.2 to 2.8mgkg(-1). The GC-MS results from one wild fish presented a unique problem. However, with additional work it was concluded that the NAs concentration in this fish was <0.1mgkg(-1). PMID:18667226

Young, Rozlyn F; Wismer, Wendy V; Fedorak, Phillip M

2008-09-01

309

Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking intensity from year to year, and attempting to match stocking intensity with the abundance of prey species other than walleye may improve the walleye fishery in Spirit Lake.

Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

2004-01-01

310

Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

2009-06-01

311

Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnovi?, Aleksandra; Vasi?, Nebojša; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

2014-05-01

312

Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.  

PubMed

A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature. PMID:19185121

Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

2009-02-23

313

Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.  

PubMed

A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. PMID:20359718

Psuty, Iwona

2010-01-01

314

Rotenone formulation fate in Lake Davis following the 2007 treatment.  

PubMed

In September 2007, Lake Davis (near Portola, California) was treated by the California Department of Fish and Game with CFT Legumine, a rotenone formulation, to eradicate the invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). The objective of this report is to describe the fate of the five major formulation constituents-rotenone, rotenolone, methyl pyrrolidone (MP), diethylene glycol monethyl ether (DEGEE), and Fennedefo 99-in water, sediment, and brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus; a rotenone-resistant species) by determination of their half-lives (t(1/2)) and pseudo first-order dissipation rate constants (k). The respective t(1/2) values in water for rotenone, rotenolone, MP, DEGEE, and Fennedefo 99 were 5.6, 11.1, 4.6, 7.7, and 13.5 d; in sediments they were 31.1, 31.8, 10.0, not able to calculate, and 48.5 d; and in tissues were 6.1, 12.7, 3.7, 3.2, and 10.4 d, respectively. Components possessing low water solubility values (rotenone and rotenolone) persisted longer in sediments (not detectable after 157 d) and tissues (<212 d) compared with water, whereas the water-miscible components (MP and DEGEE) dissipated more quickly from all matrices, except for Fennedefo 99, which was the most persistent in water (83 d). None of the constituents was found to bioaccumulate in tissues as a result of treatment. In essence, the physicochemical properties of the chemical constituents effectively dictated their fate in the lake following treatment. PMID:22407799

Vasquez, Martice E; Rinderneck, Janna; Newman, Julie; McMillin, Stella; Finlayson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

2012-05-01

315

A fish bradykinin (Arg0, Trp5, Leu8-bradykinin) from the defensive skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus: structural characterization; molecular cloning of skin kininogen cDNA and pharmacological effects on mammalian smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Extensive studies on bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) generated from plasma kininogens in representative species of various vertebrate taxa, have confirmed that many amphibian skin BRPs reflect those present in putative vertebrate predators. For example, the (Val(1), Thr(6))-bradykinin, present in the defensive skin secretions of many ranids and phyllomedusines, can be generated from plasma kininogens in colubrid snakes-common predators of these frogs. Here, we report the presence of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, and have found it to be encoded in single copy by a kininogen with an open-reading frame of 68 amino acid residues. This peptide is the archetypal bony fish bradykinin that has been generated from plasma kininogens of the bowfin (Amia calva), the long-nosed gar (Lepisosteus oseus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). More recently, this peptide has been shown to be encoded within cloned kininogens of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spotted wolf-fish (Anarichas minor), zebrafish (Danio rerio), pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and Northern pike (Esox lucius). The latter species is regarded as a major predator of P. kl. esculentus. Synthetic (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin was previously reported as having multiphasic effects on arterial blood pressure in conscious trout and here we have demonstrated that it can antagonize the relaxation in rat arterial smooth muscle induced by canonical mammalian bradykinin. The discovery of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the defensive skin secretion of this amphibian completes the spectrum of vertebrate taxon-specific BRPs identified from this source. PMID:20923691

Chen, Xiaole; Wang, Lei; Wang, He; Chen, Hang; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2011-01-01

316

A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania is underlain by the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and other shales, formations that have potential for natural gas development. During 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District conducted a reconnaissance study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers prior to possible shale-gas development in the county. For the spatial component of the assessment, 20 wells were sampled in summer 2012 to provide data on the occurrence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines. For the temporal component of the assessment, 4 of the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 were sampled monthly from July 2012 through June 2013 to provide data on seasonal variability in groundwater quality. All water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), stable isotopes of water, radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and ethene), and, if possible, isotopic composition of methane. Additional analyses for boron and strontium isotopes, age-dating of water, and radium-226 were done on water samples collected from six wells in June 2013. Results of the summer 2012 sampling show that water from 16 (80 percent) of 20 wells had detectable concentrations of methane, but concentrations were less than 0.1 milligram per liter (mg/L) in most well-water samples; only two well-water samples had concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The groundwater with elevated methane also had a chemical composition that differed in some respects (pH, selected major ions, and inorganic trace constituents) from groundwater with low methane concentrations. The two well-water samples with the highest methane concentrations (about 3.7 and 5.8 mg/L) also had the highest pH values (8.7 and 8.3, respectively) and the highest concentrations of sodium, lithium, boron, fluoride, and bromide. Elevated concentrations of some other constituents, such as barium, strontium, and chloride, were not limited to well-water samples with elevated methane, although the two samples with elevated methane also had among the highest concentrations of these constituents. One sample with elevated methane concentrations also had elevated arsenic concentrations, with the arsenic concentration of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L) exceeding the drinking-water standard of 10 µg/L for arsenic. No other sample from the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 had concentrations of constituents that exceeded any established primary drinking-water standards. However, radon-222 activities ranging up to 4,500 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) exceeded the proposed drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L in 85 percent of the 20 well-water samples. The isotopic composition methane in the two high-methane samples (?CCH4 values of -64.55 and -64.41 per mil and ?DCH4 values of -216.9 and -201.8 per mil, respectively) indicates a predominantly microbial source for the methane formed by a carbon dioxide reduction process. The stable isotopic composition of water (?DH20 and ?18OH20) in samples from all 20 wells falls on the local meteoric line, indicating water in the wells was of relatively recent meteoric origin (modern precipitation), including samples with elevated methane concentrations. Analytical results for 4 of the 20 wells sampled monthly for 1 year ending June 2013 in order to assess temporal variability in groundwater quality show that concentrations of major ions generally varied by less than 20 percent, with most differences less than 4 mg/L. Concentrations of methane varied by less than 1 ?g/L (0.001 mg/L) in samples from three wells with low methane and by as much as 1 mg/L (1,000 ?g/L) in samples from one well with relatively high methane. The isotopic composition of methane in the one well with relatively high

Senior, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

317

Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

2005-01-01

318

Arsenic concentration and speciation in five freshwater fish species from Back Bay near Yellowknife, NT, CANADA.  

PubMed

The concentration of total arsenic and five different arsenic species [As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], were measured in the muscle, liver and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five different fish species [lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)] from Back Bay, Great Slave Lake, near the city of Yellowknife, NT, Canada. The total concentration (dry weight) of arsenic in muscle ranged from 0.57 to 1.15 mg/kg, in the liver from 0.42 to 2.52 mg/kg and in the GIT from 1.48 to 8.92 mg/kg. Among fish species, C. commersoni had significantly higher total arsenic concentrations in the GIT than S. vitreum, E. lucius and C. clupeaformis, and higher total arsenic concentrations in the liver than C. clupeaformis. The mean concentration of As(III) and As(V) in the muscle of all fish ranged from < or =0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg and < or =0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and together comprised < or =7.5% of the total arsenic measured in muscle. The concentrations of MMA were below detection in the muscle of all five fish species. However, AsB and DMA were measured in all fish species and nearly all fish tissues. The concentrations of AsB ranged from 0.01 to 0.13 mg/kg and the concentrations of DMA ranged from <0.02 to 0.45 mg/kg. The majority (>50%) of organic arsenic in almost all of the tissues from fish caught in Back Bay was not directly identified. Evidence from the literature suggests that most of these other organic arsenic species were likely trimethylated arsenic compounds, however, further analytical work would need to be performed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:18214701

de Rosemond, Simone; Xie, Qianli; Liber, Karsten

2008-12-01

319

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran.  

PubMed

The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium, 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while the lowest (cadmium,0.21; copper,7.2; zinc,19.4; lead,0.9; chromium,0.6 ?g/g) found in the muscle of Carassius gibelio. Results showed that the metal concentrations were in fishes in descending order of zinc > copper > lead > chromium > cadmium, similarly in the tissue liver > kidney > gill ~ intestine > muscle. PMID:21858708

Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Babaei, Hadi; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

2011-10-01

320

Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?  

PubMed

The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints, and 10 lethal yellow perch effect endpoints resulted in the observation of several statistically significant differences at the future exposure area relative to the reference area and/or areas. When the data from 2 reference areas assessed for the benthic invertebrate community survey were pooled, no significant differences in effect endpoints were observed. These results demonstrate weaknesses in the definition of an "effect" used by the MMER EEM program and in the use of a single reference area. Determination of the ecological significance of statistical differences identified as part of EEM programs conducted during the operational period should consider preexisting (background) natural variability between reference and exposure areas. PMID:22888037

Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

2013-01-01

321

Postimpoundment time course of increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish in boreal reservoirs have been shown to be increased for up to 3 decades after impoundment. However, the time course of increased concentrations is not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of Hg concentrations in fish in the boreal reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, and its relationship with severity of flooding. We determined total Hg concentrations in three species of fish for up to 35 years after impoundment in 14 lakes and lake basins. Postimpoundment trends depended on fish species and reservoir. In the benthivorous lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), Hg concentrations increased after flooding to between 0.2 and 0.4 microg g(-1) wet weight compared with preimpoundment concentrations between 0.06 and 0.14 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes between 0.03 and 0.06 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in lake whitefish were usually highest within 6 years after lake impoundment and took 10 to 20 years after impoundment to decrease to background concentrations in most reservoirs. Hg concentrations in predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) were highest 2 to 8 years after flooding at 0.7 to 2.6 microg g(-1) compared with preimpoundment concentrations of 0.19 to 0.47 microg g(-1) and concentrations in natural lakes of 0.35 to 0.47 microg g(-1). Hg concentrations in these predatory species decreased consistently in subsequent years and required 10 to 23 years to return to background levels. Thus, results demonstrate the effect of trophic level on Hg concentrations (biomagnification). Peak Hg concentrations depended on the amount of flooding (relative increase in lake surface area). Asymptotic concentrations of approximately 0.25 microg g(-1) for lake whitefish and 1.6 microg g(-1) for both walleye and northern pike were reached at approximately 100% flooding. Downstream effects were apparent because many reservoirs downstream of other impoundments had higher Hg concentrations in fish than would be expected on the basis of flooding amount. PMID:17728990

Bodaly, R A Drew; Jansen, W A; Majewski, A R; Fudge, R J P; Strange, N E; Derksen, A J; Green, D J

2007-10-01

322

Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91?±?7?mm total length, L(T), mean?±?s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84?±?8?mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85?±?5?mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2?weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4?weeks. PMID:24689672

Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

2014-04-01

323

Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.  

PubMed

There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-? estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity. Male and female white sucker showed greatest sensitivity to forskolin, while male and female walleye showed greatest sensitivity to prochloraz. Also, gonad explants from these species were found to have greater sensitivity than responses previously reported for in vitro explants of other fish species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and stable cell lines currently used as screening applications to detect chemicals that might disrupt the endocrine system. Therefore, current approaches that use stable cell lines or tissue explants from standardized small bodied laboratory species might not be protective of some wild fish species. Future research is required that investigates whether this in vitro gonadal explant assay is predictive of in vivo effects in wild species of fishes. PMID:24800870

Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

2014-07-01

324

Various aspects of piscine toxicology.  

PubMed

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

2010-09-01

325

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Echols, Kathy R; May, Tom W; Orazio, Carl E; Tillitt, Donald E

2006-11-01

326

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

327

Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.  

PubMed

Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected with lower contribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the contamination of inland water fish. PMID:23336927

Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

2013-04-01

328

Traditional Assignment Considered Harmful Scott M. Pike  

E-print Network

, data movement, parameter passing, swapping 1. The Data Movement Question The issue of how to achieve the value of some variable (say, x) -- denoting some important quantity at the beginning of the loop body -- get the value of a corresponding variable (say, y) at the end of the prior iteration of the loop body

Weide, Bruce W.

329

Biological Survey of the Pikes Peak Area  

E-print Network

of the project. Lee Grunau, CNHP conservation planner, made great efforts to organize and manage the logistics. The information management staff was responsible for integrating the data resulting from the inventory............................................................................................ 5 THE NATURAL HERITAGE RANKING SYSTEM

330

Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or decreasing-head conditions resulted in dye being trapped in hydraulically dead zones in water- depleted fractures. Residual dye was remobilized from storage and transported (over periods ranging from several months to about 2 years) by increased recharge to the hydrologic system. Subsequent fluctuations in hydraulic gradients, resulting from increases or decreases in recharge to the hydrologic system, acted to speed or slow the transport of dye along the fracture-controlled flow paths. The dye-tracer tests also demonstrated that mining-related disturbances significantly altered the natural fracture-controlled flow paths of the hydrologic system over time. An abandoned underground mine and subsidence-related surface cracks extend to within 250 ft of the principal dye- injection core hole. Results from two of the dye-tracer tests at the site indicate that the annular seal in the core hole was breached by subsurface propagation of the mining-induced fractures. This propagation of fractures resulted in hydraulic short-circuiting between the dye-injection zone in the core hole and two lower piezometer zones, and a partial disruption of the hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and downgradient piezometers on the ridge crest and valley wall. In addition, injected dye was detected in piezometers monitoring a flooded part of the abandoned underground mine. Dye was apparently transported into the mine through a hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and subsidence-related fractures.

Taylor, C.J.

1994-01-01

331

Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest disturbance, especially the historic forest fire pattern (Woodruff and Cannon, 2002). Forest fire has an essential role in the forest ecosystems of VNP (Heinselman, 1996). Because resource and land managers need to integrate both natural wildfire and prescribed fire in management plans, the potential influence of fire on an element as sensitive to the environment as mercury becomes a critical part of their decisionmaking. A number of recent studies have shown that while fire does have a significant impact on mercury at the landscape level, the observed effects of fire on aquatic environments are highly variable and unpredictable (Caldwell and others, 2000; Garcia and Carrigan, 2000; Kelly and others, 2006; Nelson and others, 2007). Caldwell and others (2000) described an increase in methylmercury in reservoir sediments resulting from mobilization and transport of charred vegetative matter following a fire in New Mexico. Krabbenhoft and Fink (2000) attributed increases in total mercury concentrations in young-of-the-year fish in the Florida Everglades to release of mercury resulting from peat oxidation following fires. A fivefold increase in whole-body mercury accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a fire in Alberta, Canada, apparently resulted from increased nutrient concentrations that enhanced productivity and restructured the food web of a lake within the fire's burn footprint (Kelly and others, 2006). For this study, we determined the short-term effects of forest fire on mercury concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments in VNP by comparing and contrasting mercury concentrations in forest soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch for a burned watershed and an adjacent lake, with similar samples from watersheds and lakes with no fire activity (control watersheds and lakes). The concentration of total mercury in whole, 1-year-old yellow perch serves as a good biological indicator for monitoring trends in methylmercury conce

Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

2009-01-01

332

Scrambled Elements Robert D. Pike Literate Software Systems  

E-print Network

's sometimes represented as X 18. Auricular 19. Superior serve 20. Scrambled element #87 22. Response to danger. Eastern European 2. Tempo 3. Home of Iowa State 4. Salt water-dwelling 5. Paper-folding art 6. Music born. 26. Scrambled element #8 29. Golf need 30. Gibbon, e.g. 31. Pretty much nothing 32. Soothing plant 34

Pike, Robert D.

333

Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.  

PubMed

Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength ? = 254 nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation. PMID:24985207

Sionkowska, Alina; Koz?owska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

2014-06-01

334

Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America--a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases.  

PubMed

As part of an initiative to assemble and synthesize mercury (Hg) data from environmental matrices across northeastern North America, we analyzed a large dataset comprised of 15,305 records of fish tissue Hg data from 24 studies from New York State to Newfoundland. These data were summarized to provide mean Hg concentrations for 40 fish species and associated families. Detailed analyses were carried out using data for 13 species. Hg in fishes varied by geographic area, waterbody type, and waterbody. The four species with the highest mean Hg concentrations were muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and northern pike (Esox luscius). Several species displayed elevated Hg concentrations in reservoirs, relative to lakes and rivers. Normalized deviations from mean tissue levels for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were mapped, illustrating how Hg concentrations in these species varied across northeastern North America. Certain geographic regions showed generally below or above-average Hg concentrations in fish, while significant heterogeneity was evident across the landscape. The proportion of waterbodies exhibiting exceedances of USEPA's criterion for fish methylmercury ranged from 14% for standard-length brook trout fillets to 42% for standard-length yellow perch fillets. A preliminary correlation analysis showed that fish Hg concentrations were related to waterbody acidity and watershed size. PMID:15931965

Kamman, Neil C; Burgess, Neil M; Driscoll, Charles T; Simonin, Howard A; Goodale, Wing; Linehan, Janice; Estabrook, Robert; Hutcheson, Michael; Major, Andrew; Scheuhammer, Anton M; Scruton, David A

2005-03-01

335

Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2009 Hendrik Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan  

E-print Network

-like be- havior. For example, the dimples on an orange, the arrange- ment of pores or hairs on skin] was the first to suggest the use of Poisson disk sampling patterns in computer graph- ics. Noting the exorbitant

336

What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

Reay, Diane

2012-01-01

337

Vertical seismic profile at Pike's Peak, Saskatchewan, Canada: turning rays and velocity anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-arrival traveltimes from a multi-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) were used to estimate velocity anisotropy in the presence of a vertical velocity gradient. A numerical model consisting of two layers with vertical velocity gradients of 3.1 and 1.2 s-1, respectively, and global anisotropy parameters of ?=0.12±0.02 and ?=0.30±0.06 yielded first-arrival traveltimes that matched the observed traveltimes well. Shallow receivers were found to be crucial for constraining the vertical velocity field and for determining the parameters of anisotropy at depth.

Newrick, Rachel T.; Lawton, Don C.

2003-12-01

338

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

2007-01-01

339

Detergent-Free Caveolae Prep (from: Liu, Casey and Pike, BBRC 245: 684-690 (1998)  

E-print Network

mixture in the bottom of a 13 ml centrifuge tube for the SW41 rotor. Add 6 ml 35% sucrose in MBS.) 6. Balance tubes by weighing them and adding or subtracting 5% sucrose as necessary 7. Centrifuge in SW41 rotor for 3 hr at 39,000 rpm (175,000 x g). 8. Remove gradients and fractionate into 10

Pike, Linda J.

340

Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

Harper, D. [Indiana Geologic Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States); Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1996-12-31

341

BIOTIC INTEGRITY AND NORTHERN PIKE ECOLOGY IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA JACOB R. KRAUSE  

E-print Network

on the project, Arjun Kafle. Thank you for your wisdom, punctuality, and hard-work ethic. I also need to thank my for making me laugh and slowing me down enough to enjoy the road hunting. A special thanks goes to my

342

A Booklet for Elementary Students by Robert D. Pike, Ph.D. and Robin M. Carey  

E-print Network

is a Crystal? 7 Atoms, Ions, Molecules and the Unit Cell 13 Crystal Shapes 15 X-Ray Crystallography 17 Recipes of the bonds. When mineralogists study rocks and minerals, they often test for the hardness of these mate

Pike, Robert D.

343

The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long  

E-print Network

, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Bluegill and yellow perch size structure increased probably because perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) (Anderson & Schupp 1986; Findlay, Kasian, Hendzel, Regehr, Schindler & Shearer 1994; Paukert & Willis 2003, Paukert, Stancill, DeBates & Willis 2003), and Eurasian perch, Perca

344

Eurographics Symposium on Rendering 2009 Hendrik P. A. Lensch and Peter-Pike Sloan  

E-print Network

of dispersive refraction use approximative formulas taken from optics, which implicitly assume that the index In coloured media, the index of refraction does not decrease monotonically with increasing wavelength, but be the fact that the absorption of a material influences its index of refraction. So far, this interesting

345

Skeletal elements within teleost eyes and a discussion of their homology.  

PubMed

Scleral ossicles and scleral cartilages form part of the craniofacial skeleton of many vertebrates. Some vertebrates, including all birds and most reptiles, but excluding most mammals, have scleral cartilages as well as scleral ossicles supporting their eyes. The teleost equivalent of these elements has received little attention in the literature. From radiographic and whole-mount analyses of over 400 individuals from 376 teleost species, we conclude that the teleost scleral skeletal elements (ossicles and cartilage) differ significantly from those of reptiles (including birds). Scleral ossicles in teleosts have different developmental origins, different positions within the eyeball, and different relationships with the scleral cartilaginous element than those in reptiles. From whole-mount staining of a growth series of four species of teleost (Danio rerio, Salmo salar, Esox lucius, and Alosa pseudoharengus), we interpret the development of these elements and show that they arise from within an Alcian blue-staining cartilaginous ring that develops around the eye earlier in development. We present possible scenarios on the evolution of these scleral skeletal elements from a common gnathostome ancestor, and consider that teleost scleral skeletal elements may not be homologous to those in reptiles. Our study indicates that homology cannot be assumed for these elements, despite the fact that they share the same name, scleral ossicles. PMID:17051547

Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hall, Brian K

2006-11-01

346

Vector specificity of Trypanosoma catostomi and its infectivity to freshwater fishes.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma catostomi was found in 36.2% of 558 white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) from Ontario, Canada. The abundance of Actinobdella inequiannulata was 35% (68 leeches/197 suckers examined for leeches). The susceptibility of 3 species of leeches (Hemiclepsis marginata, Desserobdella phalera, and A. inequiannulata) and 7 species of fishes (C. commersoni, Amia calva, Anguilla rostrata, Ictalurus nebulosus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Perca flavescens, and Esox lucius) to infection with T. catostomi was examined. Metatrypanosomes were found in the crop and proboscis sheath of 13 of 21 A. inequiannulata and in the crop of 10 of 12 H. marginata and 1 of 21 D. phalera. Only flagellates from A. inequiannulata were infective to C. commersoni. Cultured T. catostomi infected C. commersoni and A. calva but not any other fish species. Laboratory-reared C. commersoni were more susceptible than wild-caught specimens. Cultured Trypanosoma phaleri did not infect its natural host, A. calva. Host specificity should be established experimentally before a specific diagnosis is made. Cultures may be useful in simulating factors that affect development in the vector. PMID:1738075

Jones, S R; Woo, P T

1992-02-01

347

An introduction to New York State Fisheries, part 1  

E-print Network

Sturgeon Pike Sturgeon Pike Eel Pike Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp Salmon Sucker Trout Eel Catfish Salmon Carp Shad Elft Twalift Bass, 1644 van der Donck, 1656 Sturgeon Pike Sturgeon Pike Eel Pike Perch Perch Bass Roach Lamprey Carp

Limburg, Karin E.

348

Estimates of long-term suspended-sediment loads in Bay Creek at Nebo, Pike County, Illinois, 1940-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five years of daily suspended-sediment discharges (1968, 1969, 1975, 1976, and 1980) for Bay Creek at Nebo, Illinois, computed from once- or twice-weekly samples (more often during storm events), were used to develop transport equations that can be used to estimate long-term suspended-sediment discharges from long-term water-discharge records. Discharge was divided into three groups based on changes in slope on a graph of logarithms of water discharge versus suspended-sediment discharge. Two subgroups were formed within each of the three groups by determining whether the flow was steady or increasing, or was decreasing. Seasonality was accounted for by introducing day of the year in sine and cosine functions. The suspended-sediment load estimated from the equations for the 5 years was 77.3 percent of that computed from daily sediment- and water-discharge records for those years. The mean annual suspended-sediment load for 41 years of estimated loads was 359 ,500 tons, which represents a yield of about 3.5 tons per acre from the Bay Creek drainage basin. (USGS)

Lazaro, Timothy R.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Frost, Leonard R., Jr.

1984-01-01

349

Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Harper, D. [Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States). Environmental Geology Section

1998-12-31

350

“Why don't they come to Pike street and ask us”?: Black American women's health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and

Tovia G. Freedman

1998-01-01

351

Amylolytic activity in fish intestinal mucosa: temperature effects.  

PubMed

The activity, temperature characteristics and energy of activation of amylolytic enzymes in the intestinal mucosa were studied in six species of fish living in a boreal zone [burbot (Lota lota L.), northern pike (Exos lucius L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilis rutilis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)] and in three species from tropical and subtropical areas [pilchard (Sardina pilchardus W.), jack mackerel (Trachurus trecae C.) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita V.)]. The amylolytic activity correlated with the feeding habits: it was essentially lower in predators. The enzyme activity at low temperature, relative to the maximal activity, was correlated with the natural environmental temperature where the species lived. At low temperature the relative activity was higher in boreal fish than in tropical and subtropical fish. We found a breakpoint in the Arrhenius plots in all fish species, except for jack mackerel. The energy of activation in predators decreased below the breakpoint in the low-temperature region. The energy of activation in benthophages of the Aral-Ponto-Caspian area was lower at higher temperatures above the breakpoint. A reduction in activation energy in the range of physiological temperatures might indicate adaptation to the environmental temperature. PMID:12628384

Kuz'mina, V; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

2003-03-01

352

Anim. Behav., 1996, 52, 315320 Damselfly larvae learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the  

E-print Network

pike fed a diet of (1) damselflies, (2) fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or (3) mealworms to stimuli from pike fed damselflies and pike fed fathead minnows, but not to stimuli from pike fed mealworms or mealworm) were tested for a response to stimuli from pike fed mealworms. Damselflies that had been exposed

Wisenden, Brian D.

353

[Analysis of parasitic communities in fishes from Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

Analysis of infracommunities and component communities of fish parasites in Lake Baikal has been conducted for the first time. It has been revealed that parasite infracommunities for the majority of Baikal fishes are weakly balanced and impoverished (the Berger-Parker Index is > 0.5; Evension is < 0.5; the Brillouin Index is < 1). The highest diversity and balance of the communities are characteristic for carnivorous fishes (Brachymystax lenok, Hucho taimen, Thymallus arcticus, Esox lucius, and Percafluviatilis). The component parasitic communities of Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis, Rutilus rutilus, and Leocottus kesslerii are the most diverse in Lake Baikal since the Shennon index for L. leuciscus baicalensis, R. rutilus, and L. kesslerii is 2.4, for Paracotlus knerii--2.2, Limnocoitus godlewskii--2.3, Phoxinus phoxinus--2.1, Lota lota and Limnocuttus pallidus--1.9, P. fluviatilis--1.8, Leuciscus idus--1.8. The component parasitic communities of other fishes in Lake Baikal have low indices of biological diversity (H = 0.5-1.05, Smp is close to 1). A classification of mature and immature components of parasitic communities based on the ratio of specialist species and generalist species has been proposed. It is established that the component parasitic communities in sublitoral, profundal, and pseudoabyssal zones are mature, while in the littoral zone they are immature (impoverished and weakly balanced). The component parasitic communities in benthophagous fishes and predators are mature, in planktivorous fishes they are immature. The component parasitic communities are mature in the family Cyprinidae and immature in the families Coregonidae and Cottidae. The component parasitic communities of the Boreal Plain and Boreal Submountain faunal complexes are mature, but they are immature in Lake Baikal and Arctic freshwater complexes. PMID:16755724

Rusinek, O T

2006-01-01

354

Origins and functional diversification of salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in salmonids.  

PubMed

The Salmoniform whole-genome duplication is hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of anadromy, but little is known about the contribution of paralogs from this event to the physiological performance traits required for anadromy, such as salinity tolerance. Here, we determined when two candidate, salinity-responsive paralogs of the Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ? subunit (?1a and ?1b) evolved and studied their evolutionary trajectories and tissue-specific expression patterns. We found that these paralogs arose during a small-scale duplication event prior to the Salmoniform, but after the teleost, whole-genome duplication. The 'freshwater paralog' (?1a) is primarily expressed in the gills of Salmoniformes and an unduplicated freshwater sister species (Esox lucius) and experienced positive selection in the freshwater ancestor of Salmoniformes and Esociformes. Contrary to our predictions, the 'saltwater paralog' (?1b), which is more widely expressed than ?1a, did not experience positive selection during the evolution of anadromy in the Coregoninae and Salmonine. To determine whether parallel mutations in Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 may contribute to salinity tolerance in other fishes, we studied independently evolved salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in Anabas testudineus and Oreochromis mossambicus. We found that a quarter of the mutations occurring between salmonid ?1a and ?1b in functionally important sites also evolved in parallel in at least one of these species. Together, these data argue that paralogs contributing to salinity tolerance evolved prior to the Salmoniform whole-genome duplication and that strong selection and/or functional constraints have led to parallel evolution in salinity-responsive Na(+) , K(+) ATPase ?1 paralogs in fishes. PMID:24917532

Dalziel, Anne C; Bittman, Jesse; Mandic, Milica; Ou, Michelle; Schulte, Patricia M

2014-07-01

355

Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

Not Available

1983-03-01

356

Total and partial length–length, mass–mass and mass–length relationships for the piked spurdog ( Squalus megalops) in south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common commercial fishing practices of eviscerating, beheading and finning sharks create the need for using conversion factors from partial lengths to total length and from partial masses to total mass. In the present paper, these conversion factors were calculated for Squalus megalops. In addition, total and partial length–length and mass–length relationships of male and female S. megalops were compared using

J. Matías Braccini; Bronwyn M. Gillanders; Terence I. Walker

2006-01-01

357

Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread Lisa A. Stevenson, Elizabeth A. Roznik, Ross A. Alford & David A. Pike  

E-print Network

, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, body temperature, Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, Litoria serrata, thermal by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

358

Morphological and genetic characteristics of the anisakid nematode Raphidascaris acus from the southwest Caspian Sea: evidence for the existence of sibling species within a species complex.  

PubMed

Recently, it has been shown that many nematode species are in fact species complex, using exact morphological and genetic studies. In this case, there are no such studies related to the genus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915. Herein, the morphological and genetic variations among the Iranian population of the species Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) Railliet & Henry, 1915 and the other allopatric populations with morphological and genetic information were compared to show whether this species can be considered as a species complex. R. acus is an anisakid species and has been frequently reported from different host species from the Caspian Sea. Nonetheless, there are no morphological and genetic information for this species from the region. In the present study, a total of 20 specimens of R. acus were collected from Esox lucius Linnaeus, and the morphology of the Caspian population of this species was surveyed for the first time using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Meanwhile, some parts of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) including internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8 s, and ITS2 were sequenced and presented as the genetic marker for this species. To understand whether R. acus can be considered as a species complex, the Caspian population of this species was compared morphologically with the allopatric populations of Czech and Canada and genetically with the allopatric population of Poland (Vistula lagoon). Morphologically, there was no difference between the Caspian and Czech populations, but the Caspian and Canadian populations differed in the length of ejaculatory duct and the presence of small triangular elevation between the bases of subventral lips. The nucleotide difference between the Caspian and Polish populations was 4.48%. In comparison with the interspecific genetic distances in the genus Raphidascaris, this value is notable. In conclusion, based on morphological and genetic differences among the allopatric populations of R. acus, this species is probably a species complex. Nonetheless, the definitive taxonomic decision in recognizing R. acus as a species complex and the description of its sibling species depend on surveying other allopatric populations morphologically and genetically accompanied by an evaluation of reproductive isolation among them. PMID:24980652

Jahantab, Mikhak; Haseli, Mohammad; Salehi, Zivar

2014-09-01

359

77 FR 42329 - Notice of Intent To Initiate Public Scoping and Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychochelius Lucius), and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus); Air quality and climate change; Surface and ground water quality; Environmental Justice...

2012-07-18

360

10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

2010-01-01

361

10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

2013-01-01

362

10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

2012-01-01

363

10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

2011-01-01

364

10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.  

...offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland...

2014-01-01

365

Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: Molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.  

PubMed

Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56?, W85°31'28.15?; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100?m) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra. PMID:25240698

Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

2015-02-01

366

Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike\\u000a on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a\\u000a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair

Bernhard Graimann; Brendan Allison; Gert Pfurtscheller

2010-01-01

367

40 CFR 52.2027 - Approval status of Pennsylvania's Generic NOX and VOC RACT Rules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indiana, Jefferson, Juniata, Lackawanna, Lancaster, Lawrence, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montour, Northampton, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan,...

2010-07-01

368

75 FR 34711 - Suspension of Nationwide Permit 21  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fulton, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Juniata, Lackawanna, Lawrence, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin, Monroe, Montour, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna,...

2010-06-18

369

Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

Sweeney, Kevin Z.

2005-01-01

370

FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

371

78 FR 66910 - Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing...existing Pike Island dam structure and consist of: (1...existing Pike Island dam structure and consist of: (1...50-foot-long water intake structure; (2) a 160-foot-wide...for filing comments, motions to intervene,...

2013-11-07

372

Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

2011-01-01

373

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

2011-01-01

374

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

2014-01-01

375

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

2013-01-01

376

10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23, Rockville...other than the NRC Public Document Room located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

2012-01-01

377

The Segments and Tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…

Beal, Heather D.

2011-01-01

378

218 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 115.-NOTES ON `InE G R E A T X.APCE FPMIKEKIEB, D E P L E T I O N OP  

E-print Network

, there is some excitement in pulling in two or three 10 or 16.pound pike, especially if you`wishto see great ex- panse of glass eyes, extended gills, shark-like teeth, and a rnaw largo enough to take in thefish, goggle-eyed, wall-eyed, or white pike (all the same fish, Lucioperca, only variations of the same species

379

T. A. Hertwig, A. Xu, A.Nagy, R. W. Pike, J. R. Hopper, and C. L. Yaws, "A Prototype System for Economic, Environmental and Sustainable Optimization of a Chemical Complex," Proceedings of the European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering  

E-print Network

for the best configuration of plants. It was applied to expanding production of sulfuric and phosphoric acid to the company's case study. The system selected the best site for required new phosphoric and sulfuric acids production capacities and selected, sited, and sized the optional heat-recovery and power

Pike, Ralph W.

380

An Overview of Fisheries Management for Lake Simcoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication, increased fishing pressure, habitat destruction and invasion of non-native plants and animals have transformed Lake Simcoe and its assemblage of fishes over the past 150 years. Notable changes include die extirpation of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), decline of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), and failure of recruitment of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Many species, including lake

McMurtry M. J; C. C. Willox; T. C. Smith

1997-01-01

381

Fish Community Responses to the Introduction of Muskellunge into Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of sportfishing for muskellunge Esox masquinongy in Minnesota has increased substantially during the last 20 years and has resulted in a call for creating more fishing opportunities. As new waters are considered for muskellunge management, some anglers have expressed concern over the effects on other popular game fish species of adding a top-level predator. We evaluated the responses

Michael L. Knapp; Steven W. Mero; David J. Bohlander; David F. Staples; Jerry A. Younk

2012-01-01

382

TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF PARTICULATES AND SULFUR OXIDES BY ELECTROSTATIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes research performed by Southern Research Institute on several aspects of the E-SOx Process, invented by EPA to jointly control particulate matter and SO2 in coal-fired boiler emissions by retrofitting an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP), formerly use...

383

The Influence of Spawning Habitat on Natural Reproduction of Muskellunge in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of Wisconsin's native populations of muskellunge Esox masquinongy exhibit declining reproductive success and failing natural recruitment. As a result, self-sustaining populations of muskellunge are diminishing. This study focused on spawning habitat factors that influence egg development and survival and, consequently, the reproductive success of muskellunge. Muskellunge spawning habitat characteristics in lakes with self-sustaining populations were compared with spawning habitat

Sarah A. Zorn; Terry L. Margenau; James S. Diana; Clayton J. Edwards

1998-01-01

384

AMER. ZOOL., 22:275-285 (1982) Patterns of Evolution in the Feeding Mechanism of  

E-print Network

muscle, loss of the primitive suborbital adductor component, and a mobile premaxilla. Structural elements, the occurrence of a pharyngeal retractor muscle, and a shift in the origin as demonstrated by an electromyographic study of pharyngeal muscle activity in Esox and Ambloplites. The major

Lauder, George V.

385

An Ecological Context for Evaluating the Factors Influencing Muskellunge Stocking Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an ecological perspective, predation, competition or resource partitioning, and abiotic factors interact to affect species distribution and abundance. To make management recommendations, I review research dealing with the relative influence of these factors in determining stocking success of muskellunge Esox masquinongy. Survival of stocked muskellunge is affected by losses to resident predators. Prey preference and composition are also important,

David H. Wahl

1999-01-01

386

Internal Conversion and Intersystem Crossing  

E-print Network

, 1980; Lin, 1980) erom one potential energy surface to another, the Schrodinger equation for combined the equations (D~ + Eso)X~ = f~X~ (6.3) and (D~ + Ex)X~, = f~'X~" (6.4) in which D~ is the kinetic energy difference for the So -X excitation; e~ and e~ are simply the vibration/rotation energies (labeled

Simons, Jack

387

Interaction of slow growth and increased early-life mortality: an hypothesis on the decline of Colorado squawfish in the upstream regions of its historic range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, the principal native piscivore of the Colorado River basin, was once widespread and abundant in large rivers and their major tributaries. It occurs today only in the upstream regions of its historic range and is threatened with extinction. Growth rate of the species there is much slower than its potential rate and the rate that

Lynn R. Kaeding; Douglas B. Osmundson

1988-01-01

388

Movements of Adult Colorado Squawfish during the Spawning Season in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius spawned in widely separated areas through- out the 350-km section of the upper Colorado River upstream from Lake Powell, Utah, as evi- denced by the movement of radio-tagged adults during the spawning season and the later capture of larvae. With one exception, tagged fish remained separated from each other during the spawning season. Distances moved by

CHARLES W. MCADA; LYNN R. KAEDING

1991-01-01

389

Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump Mathias Otto  

E-print Network

Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump Mathias Otto University of Magdeburg. The given data represents a high resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump used to transport liquids settings and physical context is described by Lucius et al. [1]. The main components of this device can

390

[Changes in the argyrophil stroma of the liver of fishes infested with the pleurocercoids, Triaenophorus nodulosus and Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoidea, Pseudophyllidae)].  

PubMed

The argentaffine stroma of the liver of some fishes (Perca fluviatilis, Exos lucius, Paracottus kessleri, Coregonus autumnalis migratorius, Thymallus arcticus) is described. The nature and depth of pathological changes in the argentaffine stroma of the liver at its infection with pleurocercoids of pseudophyllids depend on the infection intensity, host's specificity and on the biocoenotic relationships of hydrobionts in a waterbody. PMID:896280

Pronina, S V

1977-01-01

391

AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING  

E-print Network

AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING, without finding it. ­ Lucius Annaeus Seneca #12;v ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS An Integrated Lung for detection. In this research, we replicate the Lung-on- a-Chip platform with a cystic fibrosis cell line

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

392

revised February 25, 2003  

Cancer.gov

revised February 25, 2003 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 23rd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, 3 March 2003 -

393

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda - 3-4 March 2008 _2_.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised February 29, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 39th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 3-4, 2008 Monday, 3 March 2008

394

DISTRIBUTION AND MOVEMENTS OF RISSO'S DOLPHIN, GRAMPUS GRISEUS, IN THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC  

E-print Network

11, Valparaiso-Puntarenas, Chile, 11 p. Coastal Marine Laboratory, University ofCalifornia, Santa) and British Columbia (Guiguet and Pike 1965) south to Valparaiso, Chile (Aguayo 1975), and Cape Horn (Norris

395

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda March 2009.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised February 27, 2009 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 42nd Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland March 2-3, 2009 Monday, 2 March 2009

396

revised November 11, 2003  

Cancer.gov

revised November 11, 2003 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 25th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 13-14, 2003 Thursday, 13 November

397

40 CFR 81.61 - Evansville (Indiana)-Owensboro-Henderson (Kentucky) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...In the State of Kentucky: Daviess County, Hancock County, Henderson County, McLean County, Ohio County, Union County, Webster County. In the State of Indiana: Dubois County, Gibson County, Perry County, Pike County, Posey County, Spencer...

2010-07-01

398

Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda Final June 2004.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 23, 2004 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 27th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 24 - 25, 2004 Thursday, 24 June 2004 – 8:30

399

Microsoft Word - BSA Tentative Agenda - 15-16 Nov 2007.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised November 9, 2007 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 38th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland November 15-16, 2007 Thursday, 15 November 2007

400

38099Federal Register / Vol. 61, No. 142 / Tuesday, July 23, 1996 / Rules and Regulations Source of Flooding and Location  

E-print Network

), Kenosha County (FEMA Docket No. 7172) Pike River: At confluence with Lake Michi- gan) (FEMA Docket No. 7172) Lake Michigan: Entire shoreline within commu- nity (FEMA Dock- et 7172) Lake Michigan: Entire shoreline within commu- nity

401

AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography  

E-print Network

AMAT/PMAT 4282 { Winter 2001 Cryptography Instructor #15; Name: Dr. David Pike #15; OÃ?ce: Henrietta Number Theory) and a computing course (AMAT 2120 or CS 2710 or CS 2602). #15; Textbook: \\Cryptography

deYoung, Brad

402

75 FR 52944 - Sunshine Act Notices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approval of Minutes. Draft Advisory Opinion 2010-14: Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee by its counsel, Marc E. Elias, Esq., and Jonathan S. Berkon, Esq., of Perkins Coie, LLP. Draft Advisory Opinion 2010-15: Pike for Congress...

2010-08-30

403

Binge-Watching TV May Be Sign of Depression, Loneliness  

MedlinePLUS

... THURSDAY, Jan. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Binge-watching television is linked with feeling lonely and depressed, a ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

404

78 FR 35309 - Illinois; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effective Date: June 6, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dean Webster, Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency...Livingston, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, Pike, Rock Island, Stark, and Woodford Counties for Public Assistance (already...

2013-06-12

405

76 FR 33310 - Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of 70 New Drug Applications and 97...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bretylium Tosylate Hospira, Inc. Injection USP, 50 mg/mL. NDA 019058.................. Tenormin (atenolol) AstraZeneca Injection, 5 mg/10 Pharmaceuticals LP, mL. 1800 Concord Pike, P.O. Box 8355, Wilmington, DE...

2011-06-08

406

North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23:313322, 2003 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2003  

E-print Network

in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides larger prey, such as largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Gurtin et al. 1996; Soupir et al. 2000

407

78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

2013-05-10

408

77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-29

409

78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-19

410

77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-12-17

411

77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-09-28

412

77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-01

413

77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-16

414

77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-11-15

415

78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-21

416

77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-10-18

417

78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-10-30

418

77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-15

419

77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-29

420

77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Michele C. Hindi-Alexander, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National...

2012-06-06

421

Source code that talks: an exploration of Eclipse task comments and their implication to repository mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmer performing a change task to a system can benefit from accurate comments on the source code. As part of good programming practice described by Kernighan and Pike in the book , comments should \\

Annie T. T. Ying; James L. Wright; Steven Abrams

2005-01-01

422

76 FR 42718 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Washington/DC Rockville, Hotel and Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20582. Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room...

2011-07-19

423

75 FR 16868 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1 F21, Rockville, MD 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC World Wide Web site: http://www.nrc.gov/public-involve/doc-comment/omb/index.html. The document will be...

2010-04-02

424

Fish Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Always read ingredient labels to identify fish ingredients. Salmon, tuna and halibut are the most common kinds ... Hake Halibut Herring Mahi Mahi Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Scrod Swordfish Sole Snapper Tilapia Trout Tuna Some ...

425

10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

2012-01-01

426

10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

2013-01-01

427

10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

2011-01-01

428

10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

2011-01-01

429

10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

2013-01-01

430

10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

2010-01-01

431

77 FR 70191 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...available documents, including the final supporting statement, at the NRC's Public Document Room, Room O-1F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. The OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web...

2012-11-23

432

10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.  

...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

2014-01-01

433

10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.  

...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

2014-01-01

434

10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

2012-01-01

435

10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

2011-01-01

436

78 FR 66076 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...available documents, including the draft supporting statement, at the NRC's Public Document Room, Room O-1F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. The OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web...

2013-11-04

437

10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

2010-01-01

438

10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.  

...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

2014-01-01

439

10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...this chapter. Communications, reports, and applications may be delivered in person at the Commission's offices at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. [67 FR 67098, Nov. 4,...

2012-01-01

440

10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

2013-01-01

441

10 CFR 15.3 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...20555-0001, ATTN: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff; by hand delivery to the NRC's offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, One White Flint North, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic...

2010-01-01

442

10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...delegations of authority are available for public inspection and copying for a fee at the NRC Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, and at each of NRC's Regional...

2013-01-01

443

10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

2011-01-01

444

10 CFR 2.302 - Filing of documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or (2) Courier, express mail, and expedited delivery services: Office of the Secretary, Sixteenth Floor, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and Adjudications Staff. (c) All...

2012-01-01

445

40 CFR 81.191 - Appalachian Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...County, Clay County, Floyd County, Harlan County, Jackson County, Johnson County, Knott County, Knox County, Laurel County, Lee County, Leslie County, Letcher County, Magoffin County, Martin County, Owsley County, Perry County, Pike County,...

2010-07-01

446

Annual Cancer Statistics  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... men, and 11% between 2002 and 2011 among women. Death rates from breast cancer are down by ... Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

447

78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

2013-05-23

448

78 FR 70064 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the...days for public comment. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Policy and Compliance (OMPC), National Cancer Institute, 11400 Rockville Pike,...

2013-11-22

449

76 FR 9054 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the AREVA Enrichment Services...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...geology and soils, water resources, ecological resources, noise, transportation, public and occupational health, waste management...to the EREF project at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor),...

2011-02-16

450

75 FR 44271 - Office of the Director; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health, Building 31, Conference Room 6, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Lawrence A. Tabak, PhD, DDS, Acting Director, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director,...

2010-07-28

451

78 FR 48173 - Guidance for Industry on Oversight of Clinical Investigations-A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, 301-827-6210; or Linda Godfrey, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 66,...

2013-08-07

452

76 FR 44028 - Indiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency...a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency...Pike, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, Scott, Spencer, Starke, Sullivan, Switzerland,...

2011-07-22

453

Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

454

Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

455

Microsoft Word - M&E_Archive_2002_SEPT5-6_Speakers.doc  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Genomics and Proteomics in Cancer Prevention Conference Speakers List Confirmed Speakers as of July 9, 2002 Richard G. Allison, Ph.D. Executive Officer American Society for Nutritional Sciences 9650 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20814 Phone:

456

Mapping the physiography of Michigan with GIS Randall J. Schaetzl*, Helen Enander, Michael D. Luehmann, David P. Lusch, Carolyn Fish,  

E-print Network

nature of the online version of the map is a unique enhancement to physiographic maps and mapping. Our of hills and valleys, lowlands and uplands (Fenneman, 1917; Hammond, 1963, Pike & Thelin 1990). Genetic

Schaetzl, Randall

457

76 FR 51002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pike, Suite 901, Falls Church, VA 22041-3204. Secondary locations: Department of Defense (DoD)/Department...AHLTA, Theater Medical Data Store, Joint Theater Trauma Registry Combat Trauma Registry, and VA Eye Data Store. Exemptions...

2011-08-17

458

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

459

View of the main stairway in the highlift pumping station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main stairway in the high-lift pumping station, looking from the second floor landing to the ground floor. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

460

Copper (I) and (II) complexes of melamine Austin B. Wiles a  

E-print Network

. Cahill b , Robert D. Pike a,* a Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795]. As part of our ongoing studies of copper com- plexes as fire retardant/smoke suppression additives

Pike, Robert D.

461

40 CFR 81.58 - Columbus (Georgia)-Phenix City (Alabama) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...located within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Alabama: Autauga County, Bullock County, Butler County, Crenshaw County, Elmore County, Lee County, Lowndes County, Macon County, Montgomery County, Pike County,...

2010-07-01

462

78 FR 37651 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket number FHWA-2013-0033. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shane D. Boone, business phone: 202- 493-3064, Nondestructive Evaluation Research Program, Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike,...

2013-06-21

463

78 FR 17747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shane D. Boone, business phone: 202- 493-3064, Nondestructive Evaluation Research Program, Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike,...

2013-03-22

464

About Maggie's Place.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

Emmens, Carol E.

1982-01-01

465

77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International, Inc.; Mike The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources...operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is a Delaware corporation based in California....

2012-09-19

466

Area Restaurants  

Cancer.gov

Area Restaurants Restaurants within Walking Distance $-Inexpensive $$-Moderate $$$-Mid-Expensive $$$$-Expensive American Meritage $$ Hotel Lobby Casual, Breakfast, Dinner Daily, Lunch Mon-Fri Ext. 6240 Addies $$ 11120 Rockville Pike Casual,

467

An internship at Blue Dog Lake State Fish Hatchery, Waubay, South Dakota  

E-print Network

Introduction and Hatchery Background Hatchery Design Production Methods Production Capabilities 1983 Production (Totals and Methods). Coolwater Species Walleye Northern Pike Muskellunge and Tiger Musky Warmwater Species Largemouth and Smallmouth Bass... and tiger musky. Extensive fish culture strives to dupIicate the natural environment under which fry would mature to fingerlings, and subsequently, adult fish. The newly-hatched fry of walleye, northern pike, muskellunge (coolwater species), as well...

LaBomascus, David C

1985-01-01

468

Temperature Preferences of Four Fish Species in an Electronic Thermoregulatory Shuttlebox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature preferences of four fish species were studied in an electronic thermoregulatory shuttlebox. The modal temperature preferences (final preferenda) of the four species were: black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), 24°C; carp (Cyprinus carpio), 29°C; chain pickerel (Esox niger), 24°C; and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), 26°C. The species differed in thermoregulatory precision as well as in final preferred temperature, indicating the species-specific nature

W. W. Reynolds; M. E. Casterlin

1977-01-01

469

Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Mercury in Two Warmwater Fish Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in two Connecticut lakes for six fish species representing a range of trophic levels—largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), chain pickerel (Esox niger), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury concentrations in all fishes increased with length and age. Slopes of log10 mercury concentration-age regressions, which

Robert M. Neumann; Scott M. Ward

1999-01-01

470

Walleye and Muskellunge Movement in the Manitowish Chain of Lakes, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified within-year and between-year movement of walleyes Sander vitreus and muskellunge Esox masquinongy in the Manitowish Chain of 10 interconnected lakes in Vilas County, Wisconsin. Beginning in May 2004, we marked 7,427 walleyes (55–2,720 fish\\/lake) and 491 muskellunge (24–99 fish\\/lake) with T-bar anchor tags and marked 33 walleyes and 36 muskellunge with radio tags. Tags were recaptured and recovered

Michael J. Hansen

2009-01-01

471

The Genetic Legacy of Stocking Muskellunge in a Northern Minnesota Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of stocked fish on native populations of the same species are poorly understood. During the 1960s-1980s, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MNDNR) stocked muskellunge Esox masquinongy derived from Shoepack Lake in the Hudson Bay drainage of northern Minnesota into Moose Lake in the Upper Mississippi River drainage. In the mid-1980s, the MNDNR recognized that stocked Shoepack Lake-strain

Loren M. Miller; Steven W. Mero; Jerry A. Younk

2009-01-01

472

Predator-recognition training enhances survival of brook trout: evidence from laboratory and field-enclosure studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we tested whether brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) can learn to recognise predators through releaser-induced recognition learning and whether this learning enhances survival of trout during encounters with a predator. In our initial experiment, we exposed hatchery-reared predator-naïve brook trout to chemical stimuli from predatory chain pickerel (Esox niger) paired with alarm signals released by damaged trout, disturbance

Reehan S. Mirza; Douglas P. Chivers

2000-01-01

473

Food Habits of Bald Eagles in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Food remains,were,collected at 78 different bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) breeding and wintering areas in Maine during 1976-80. Nearly 1,400 prey individuals were identified. Fish com- prised 79% of the food items collected in interior Maine. Three species, brown bullhead (Ictalurus neb- ulosus),white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and chain pickerel (Esox niger), were favored foods in freshwater habitats. Birds, primarily gulls

C. S. Todd; L. S. Young; R. B. Owen; F. J. Gramlich

2008-01-01

474

Avoidance responses of fathead minnow to strikes by four teleost predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Predator avoidance behavior of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) attacked by four teleosts (tiger musky,Esox sp; rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri; smallmouth bass,Micropterus dolomieu; rock bass,Ambloplites rupestris) was analyzed using stop-action video-tape recordings of predator-prey interactions. The predators represented a range of body forms.2.75 to 90% of minnows responded to strikes by trout, bass and rock bass, but only 28% responded to strikes

P. W. Webb

1982-01-01

475

Seneca's contribution to astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper is shown the work of Lucius Anaeus Seneca "Natural Questiones", Book 7th relating to comets from 1st to 14th as well as 24th chapter. Although Seneca was not an astronomer he reached some very interesting conclusions. Besides that he introduces us in his work to the knowledge which had been gained before him as well as to the then obtained fallacies.

Pljaki?, Branislava

2002-04-01

476

Evaluation of Marking Techniques to Estimate Population Size and First-Year Survival of Colorado Squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three marking methods-tattoo ink injected with a dental inoculator, an elastic polymer injected by syringe, and fin clipping—were tested to determine a suitable technique for estimating population size, survival, and movement of age-0 Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius. Laboratory tests indicated that all three marks were retained at sufficient rates (>97%) to make population estimates over a 21-d period. However, fish

G. Bruce Haines; Timothy Modde

1996-01-01

477

Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda June 2007 F.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 26, 2007 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 37th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Thursday, 28 June 2007 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment -

478

United States Department of the Interior, Fred A. Seaton, Sec retary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner  

E-print Network

Canada. This disease should not be confused with "red sore" disease of pike which is apparently caused. The small pimples or tufts develop into small circular shallow ulcers, usually red, which increase in sizeUJut se:e:ms to dec rease with ';go..:. RANGE r\\ c.; c.; (J rding to L. E . Wolf, thi s disease .': 1.. il

479

Microsoft Word - 4 Feb 08 CTAC Agenda-AM_012508.doc  

Cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute 4th Meeting of the CLINICAL TRIALS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Monday, February 4, 2008 – 8:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. – Open to the Public 8:00

480

Contact the Office of Budget & Finance  

Cancer.gov

Posted: December 21, 2014 Posted: December 21, 2014 Contact the Office of Budget & Finance We welcome your budget questions or comments. Office of Budget & FinanceNational Cancer InstituteBuilding 31/ Room 11A-169000 Rockville PikeBethesda, MD 20892Phone: