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1

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

2

Pike Hybrids (Esox lucius x E. vermiculatus) in a Sandhill Lake, Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sandhill region of Nebraska both northern pike, Esox lucius, and grass pickerel, Esox vermiculatus, are abundant in several shallow natural lakes. Both species are known to utilize the same vegetative habitat for spawning during March and April. The pike is an important game species but the smaller pickerel is of little value to fishermen although in winter is

D. B. McCarraher

1960-01-01

3

Age and Growth of Pike ( Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In

Randall W. Owens; Nikolai M. Pronin

2000-01-01

4

Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations. PMID:24062552

Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Gryzi?ska, Magdalena; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

2013-09-24

5

MERCURY LEVELS IN NORTHERN PIKE, ESOX LUCIUS, RELATIVE TO WATER CHEMISTRY IN NORTHERN MINNEOSTA LAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on lakes in northern Minnesota revealed elevated fish mercury concentrations. These results prompted fish consumption advisories on several lakes. As a followup to that work, fish fillet samples were collected for mercury analysis from 98 lakes in northern Minnesota from 1981 through 1983. Northern pike (Esox lucius) was picked as an indicator species because of its distribution throughout

Steven A. Heiskary; Daniel D. Helwig

1986-01-01

6

Behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius, with a retained lure in the lower jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour and survival of pike, Esox lucius L., released with a retained lure in the mouth was studied relative to control fish, which simulated line breakage prior to landing. Behaviour was monitored during the first hour post-release with the aid of visual floats attached to the fish, and longer-term for 3 weeks, by means of externally attached radio transmitters.

R. A RLINGHAUS; A. J. G INGERICH; M. R. DONALDSON; K. C. H ANSON; S. J. C OOKE

2008-01-01

7

Standard metabolic rate of pike, Esox lucius : variation among studies and implications for energy flow modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, is a predatory fish that supports important fisheries and could substantially impact prey populations around the\\u000a temperate northern hemisphere. Consumption of prey by pike is most readily estimated using the energy budget to calculate\\u000a food intake indirectly using estimates of growth rate and metabolism. Resting metabolic rate, R\\u000a s, is a particularly important component of

John D. Armstrong; Lorraine A. Hawkins

2008-01-01

8

A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty acid composition in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty acids during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty acids (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty

Karl Schwalmel

1992-01-01

9

Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Northern Pike ( Esox lucius ) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with\\u000a organochlorine pesticide (total p,p’-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic,\\u000a cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite

J. E. Hinck; V. S. Blazer; N. D. Denslow; M. S. Myers; T. S. Gross; D. E. Tillitt

2007-01-01

10

Spatial genetic structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships among 337 northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the coastal zone of the central Baltic region and the Finnish islands of Aland were analysed using five microsatellite loci. Spatial structure was delineated using both traditional F-statistics and individually based approaches including spatial autocorrelation analysis. Our results indicate that the observed genotypic distribution is incompatible with that of a single, panmictic population. Isolation by distance appears important for shaping the genetic structure of pike in this region resulting in a largely continuous genetic change over the study area. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) of individual pairwise genotypic data show significant positive genetic correlation among pike collected within geographical distances of less than c. 100-150 km (genetic patch size). We suggest that the genetic patch size may be used as a preliminary basis for identifying management units for pike in the Baltic Sea. PMID:15910318

Laikre, Linda; Miller, Loren M; Palmé, Anna; Palm, Stefan; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Thoresson, Gunnar; Ryman, Nils

2005-06-01

11

Mercury pollution and macrophage centres in pike ( Esox lucius ) tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

From June 1993 to October 1994, studies have been carried out on the effects of mercury in the Oder River and pike tissue\\u000a contamination (muscle, kidney, liver). The mean mercury contents in the sediment range from 0.03 to 1.1 mg\\/kg dry weight.\\u000a In the pike muscle, between 0.22 and 0.85 mg\\/kg, on a wet weight basis, were found. The measured

Thomas Meinelt; Ralf Kriiger; Michael Pietrock; Reiner Osten; Christian Steinberg

1997-01-01

12

ENDOCRINE (SEXUAL) DISRUPTION IS NOT A PROMINENT FEATURE IN THE PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS), A TOP PREDATOR, LIVING IN ENGLISH WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high incidence of intersex roach ( Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius)

Emma Vine; Jan Shears; Ronny van Aerle; Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

2005-01-01

13

Pike (Esox lucius L.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool 1. Effects on the fish population in Lake Lyng, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1990–1993 juvenile pike (Esox lucius) were stockedeach spring in the eutrophic Lake Lyng (9.9 ha, max. depth 7.6 m,mean depth 2.4 m) in densities between 515 and 3616 pikeha-1. In 1989–90 the fish population consisted mainly ofroach (Rutilus rutilus), rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus), perch (Percafluviatilis) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), andtotal fish biomass was estimated at 477 kg ha-1. Prior tostocking pike

Søren Berg; Erik Jeppesen; Martin Søndergaard

1997-01-01

14

Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (<0.0005 to 0.097 mg/mL) pike were not correlated with any contaminant, but vitellogenin concentrations >0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm(2)), size (812 to 1481 microm(2)), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (< or =63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. PMID:17396212

Hinck, J E; Blazer, V S; Denslow, N D; Myers, M S; Gross, T S; Tillitt, D E

2007-03-29

15

Endocrine (sexual) disruption is not a prominent feature in the pike (Esox lucius), a top predator, living in English waters.  

PubMed

The high incidence of intersex roach (Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius) were sampled both upstream and downstream of STWs and then examined for total estrogenic activity of their bile, as measured using a yeast-based estrogen assay to determine the degree of recent exposure of the pike to estrogens and vitellogenin induction, and for possible disruption of sexual development, as measured using histological analysis of the gonads. No evidence of severe disruption was found in the sampled fish, which came from 16 sampling sites that were representative of English rivers. However, 14% of pike were intersex, of which 15 of 16 showed patches of male germ cells among predominantly female gonadal tissue. The incidence of masculinization was independent of whether the pike had been sampled upstream or downstream of STWs. Although pike are gonochoristic, it is not known if this masculinization of presumptive female pike is normal or, instead, indicative of endocrine disruption. Vitellogenin concentrations were not elevated in male pike at sites either upstream or downstream of STWs. The results suggest that sexual disruption is not common in pike, a fish at the top of the food chain in the freshwaters of England. PMID:16117120

Vine, Emma; Shears, Jan; van Aerle, Ronny; Tyler, Charles R; Sumpter, John P

2005-06-01

16

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

17

Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic studies on the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius L., with special regard to 5-hydroxytryptamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pineal organ of adult pikes, Esox lucius L., maintained under normal diurnal conditions, was studied with a combination of light microscopy, fluorescence histochemistry of certain arylethylamines, and electron microscopy.1.The pineal parenchyma consists of sensory cells, supporting cells, and a third cell type which may be identical with previously described ganglion cells. The nerve fibres constituting the pineal tract were

Christer Owman; Claes Rüdeberg

1970-01-01

18

The state of reproductive glands of the pike Esox lucius from water bodies of the Chernobyl trail in 1999–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the reproductive system of the pike Esox lucius, descendants of individuals exposed to X-ray irradiation due to the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986,\\u000a was studied. The material was collected in water bodies of Ukraine contaminated with radionuclides—Kiev Reservoir, the Teterev\\u000a River, and Lake Glubokoe in the postcatastrophe period 1999–2004. It was shown that

N. V. Belova; N. G. Eme’lynova; A. P. Makeeva; I. N. Ryabov

2006-01-01

19

Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.  

PubMed

Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction. PMID:23292487

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

2013-01-05

20

Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet  

SciTech Connect

The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E) were in the range 35 to 90% and differ in some respect from earlier studies. The E-values for those substances with effective cross sections (ECS) >9.5 {angstrom} were considerably higher than expected if the membrane permeation at dietary uptake was restricted as proposed previously in the literature. There was no hydrophobicity dependency of the total dietary uptake efficiency as suggested by an earlier proposed empirical model. The difference between the results presented here and earlier studies is likely to depend on cotransport with lipids and/or proteins through a mediated, possibly active uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in the gastrointestinal tract enabled by the actual exposure method. For the proposed mediated/active uptake of HOCs, the uptake efficiency varied with molecular weight and was greatest for a molecular weight of approximately 450.

Burreau, S.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Jakobsson, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

1997-12-01

21

Food of Young Pike, Esox Lucius L., and Associated Fishes in Peterson's Ditches, Houghton Lake, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach contents of 551 young pike (11–152 millimeters in length), 345 small yellow perch, and 431 other fish representing 18 species were examined. All specimens were collected from an area widely used by spawning pike from Houghton Lake, Michigan. Organisms utilized for food by young pike included Entomostraca, insects (chiefly Chironomidae), tadpoles, minnows, darters, and other pike. As pike increased

Burton P. Hunt; William F. Carbine

1951-01-01

22

Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius)  

PubMed Central

Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting.

Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

2009-01-01

23

The influence of angling-induced exercise on the carbohydrate metabolism of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Capture by angling was used to induce burst exercise in northern pike. By 3 h after exercise blood lactate had risen to levels\\u000a of 15.2 mmol l?1 (Fig. 2), which greatly exceeded the maximum post-exercise levels (4.0 mmol l?1) previously reported for muskellunge, a close relative of pike. White muscle lactate level was high, 41.8 mmol kg?1, immediately after capture

K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay

1985-01-01

24

Northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species and size composition of fish communities in shallow stagnant waters appear to be associated with the type, abundance and pattern of the vegetation. Man-induced impacts as eutrophication, and suppression of vegetation for reasons of water quantity management or angling pleasure may induce irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Water quality management should aim at restoring former pike habitat. Submerged

M. P. Grimm

1989-01-01

25

Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (pisces).  

PubMed

Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only occur in the longitudinal parts of the intercalated discs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a regular hexagonal network on the myofibrillar surface. Subsarcolemmal cisternae form peripheral couplings at the I--A level. Junctional processes are usually inconspicuous, but an electron dense substance is present between the sarcolemma and the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. Specific heart granules are common in atrial cells of both species and in ventricular cells of the pike, but are very scarce in mackerel ventricular muscle. PMID:7407886

Midttun, B

1980-01-01

26

A toxicological examination of whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to uranium mine tailings.  

PubMed

Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in nothern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor (K) of the Langley Bay whitefish and northern pike populations with these factors measured for control populations from Lake Athabasca. No significant differences could be found, in any of the physiological parameters measured, between the contaminated and control populations. PMID:2386411

Waite, D T; Joshi, S R; Sommerstad, H; Wobeser, G; Gajadhar, A A

27

DNA adduct formation and persistence in liver and extrahepatic tissues of northern pike (Esox lucius) following oral exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole.  

PubMed

The formation and persistence of DNA adducts in liver, intestinal mucosa, gills and brain of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) following oral exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazol (DBC) were analysed by 32P-postlabelling. The dosage was 25 micromol/kg body weight of each substance, administered on 5 occasions with an interval of 12-14 days. Sampling was carried out 9 days after the second treatment, and 9, 16, 33 and 78 days after the fifth treatment. Pikes were also fed with the substances singly for comparison of adduct patterns. A complex pattern of adducts was detected in all examined tissues from fish treated with the mixture. Total adduct levels were highest in intestine (347+/-17.4 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides, mean+/-SE), followed by liver (110+/-9.3), gills (69+/-6) and brain (14+/-4.2). In pike treated with BaP alone, one major adduct was detected in all examined tissues. This BaP-adduct made up approximately 50% of the total amount of adducts in the brain. Corresponding values in liver, intestine and gills were 23, 31 and 34%, respectively. One relatively weak BkF-adduct and at least 10 different DBC-adducts were detected in all analysed tissues. Total adduct level in the intestine declined to 29.4% of the maximum value 78 days after the last exposure, while there was no significant decline in adduct levels in liver, gills or brain. The results suggest that intestine is more susceptible to adduct formation than liver after oral exposure, and that adduct levels in the intestine represent ongoing or relatively recent exposure. DNA adducts in the other investigated tissues were much more persistent and may therefore accumulate during long-term exposure. PMID:10393267

Ericson, G; Noaksson, E; Balk, L

1999-06-30

28

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci

P F Larsen; M M Hansen; E E Nielsen; L F Jensen; V Loeschcke

2005-01-01

29

Cytological identification of cell types in the testis of Esox lucius and E. niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testes of Esox lucius and Esox niger were investigated histologically, cytochemically, and ultrastructurally in reproductive fish. Intralobular Sertoli cells possessed numerous lipid droplets in Esox lucius, but not in Esox niger. In both species, interlobular cell types included myoid cells and lipid-negative Leydig cells within the extravascular space. Evidence is presented for a contractile network of myoid cells within the

H. J. Grier; R. Hurk; R. Billard

1989-01-01

30

A survey of the spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius), and roach (Rutilus rutilus), using artificial spawning substrates in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of spawning in perch, pike and roach in Lake Geneva has been studied by means of artificial spawning substrates, laid at different depths, from 1984 to 1993. In Lake Geneva, perch spawned in May. A rise of surface water temperature up to 14 °C stimulated spawning activity while bad weather (surface temperature at 10 °C) induced a spread

C. Gillet; J. P. Dubois

1995-01-01

31

Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) studied in pike ( Esox lucius), perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus) from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pike, perch and roach from rural waters of the Baltic Sea were investigated for possible biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this we used data on ?15N, weight and sex of the fish. We were able to separate body size effects from trophic position effects on biomagnification. Both these parameters lead to biomagnification of PCBs

Sven Burreau; Yngve Zebühr; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq

2004-01-01

32

What do the empty stomachs of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) reveal? Insights from carbon (? 13 C) and nitrogen (? 15 N) stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of individuals with empty stomachs (FES) can vary greatly among northern pike populations. However, the FES\\u000a has only seldom been analyzed in this species and its meaning is still not fully understood. It has been suggested that a\\u000a high FES may reflect a strongly piscivorous behaviour while low FES could reflect a higher utilization of invertebrates. We\\u000a compared

Yves Paradis; Andrea Bertolo; Pierre Magnan

2008-01-01

33

Production, consumption and prey availability of northern pike ( Esox lucius ), pikeperch ( Stizostedion lucioperca ) and European catfish ( Silurus glanis ): a bioenergetics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergetics models were applied for the assessment of food consumption of northern pike, pikeperch and European catfish\\u000a in drainable ponds of 0.4 ha. The ponds were stocked with known numbers of the 0+ predators. The prey fish consisted of naturally recruited 0+ cyprinids (rudd, roach and bream). The study shows that the impact of the three 0+ piscivores on the

Alexander J. P. Raat

1990-01-01

34

Metabolic rate and cost of growth in juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.): the use of energy budgets as indicators of environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Energy budgets of juvenile pike and perch (weighing approximately 3 g) were determined in experiments lasting up to 4 days,\\u000a by simultaneously measuring oxygen consumption, food consumption, and growth of individual fish. Although the basic pattern\\u000a of energy allocation was identical in the two species, perch subjected to constant light (PEL) showed faster growth, higher\\u000a assimilation and conversion efficiency, and

W. Wieser; N. Medgyesy

1991-01-01

35

Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae  

PubMed Central

We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation.

Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilo, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

2011-01-01

36

Localized defecation by pike: a response to labelling by cyprinid alarm pheromone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) that have never encountered a predatory pike (Esox lucius), are able to detect conspecific alarm pheromone in a pike's diet if the pike has recently consumed minnows. It remains unclear how this minnow alarm pheromone is secreted by pike and if a pike is able to avoid being labelled as a potential predator by localizing these

Grant E. Brown; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1995-01-01

37

Light Trap Sampling of Juvenile Northern Pike in Wetlands Affected by Water Level Regulation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches are needed for sampling northern pike Esox lucius in the complex habitats they use as nursery areas. We examined spatial and temporal variation in light trap catches of northern pike in potential pike nursery areas affected by water level regulation in Rainy and Na- makan Reservoirs. Light trap catches varied greatly among eight sampling locations and between years

Rodney B. Pierce; Larry W. Kallemeyn; Philip J. Talmage

38

Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Three Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and

Jon M. Flinders; Scott A. Bonar

2008-01-01

39

Management Evaluation of Stocked Northern Pike in Colorado's Small Plains Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northern pike (Esox lucius) of two size groups were stocked into several small plains reservoirs in Colorado. Small northern pike approximately 50-mm total length were stocked at an approximate rate of 62/ha, whereas large northern pike averaging 377-mm t...

J. H. Clark

1975-01-01

40

Sperm Motility of Northern Pike and Chain Pickerel at Various pH Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of sperm from northern pike Esox lucius and chain pickerel Esox niger was observed at pH 3.9, 4.5, 5.4, 6.0, 6.4, 6.9, 7.4, and 7.9. The sperm of the northern pike remained motile for shorter periods of time than that of the chain pickerel (P = 0.01). Northern pike sperm was not observed swimming actively at pH values

Paul D. Duplinsky

1982-01-01

41

Northern Pike Removal Smallmouth Bass Monitoring and Native Fish Monitoring in the Yampa River, Hayden to Craig Reach, 2004-2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northern pike (Esox lucius) is a large aggressive, esocid native to many North American drainages that has been widely stocked outside of its natural range. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is an exotic predatory fish present in the Yampa River. The...

G. B. Haines S. T. Finney

2008-01-01

42

Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST) resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius) ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate.

2010-01-01

43

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike

Stephen C. Jewett; Xiaoming Zhang; A. Sathy Naidu; John J. Kelley; Doug Dasher; Lawrence K. Duffy

2003-01-01

44

Population Characteristics and Ecological Role of Northern Pike in Shallow Natural Lakes in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern pike Esox lucius were sampled in Nebraska's Sandhill lakes during 1998 and 1999 to determine population characteristics and their influence on the fish community in these shallow, warm lakes at the southwestern edge of this species' natural range. Density-de- pendent growth, size structure, and condition were not evident in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass

Craig P. Paukert; David W. Willis

2003-01-01

45

Catchability of Larval and Juvenile Northern Pike in Quatrefoil Light Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches are needed for sampling northern pike Esox lucius in the complex habitats they use as nursery areas. We evaluated the potential of Quatrefoil light traps to measure differences in density of larval and juvenile northern pike, and we monitored changes in capture probability as the fish grew in size and their swimming capabilities improved. In hatchery raceways, light

Rodney B. Pierce; Steve Shroyer; Bruce Pittman; Dale E. Logsdon; Todd D. Kolander

2006-01-01

46

Factors Affecting Growth of Northern Pike in Small Northern Wisconsin Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish assemblages that include northern pike Esox lucius as a dominant predator were sampled in 19 small (<120 ha) northern Wisconsin lakes. The purpose of this sampling was to describe northern pike population characteristics and identify factors affecting growth rates. Fish assemblages in these lakes were dominated by centrarchids, primarily bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and small fusiform species such as yellow

Terry L. Margenau; Paul W. Rasmussen; Jeffrey M. Kampa

1998-01-01

47

Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largemouth bass (Mieropferus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited infonnation exists on species interactions in the north­ ern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assem­ blages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior

Craig A. Soupir; Michael L. Brown; Larry W. Kallemeyn

2000-01-01

48

Walleye and Northern Pike:: Boost or Bane to Northwest Fisheries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductions of nonnative walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and northern pike (Esox lucius) have created popular recreational fisheries in many Northwestern waters. Rising demand for expanded angling opportunities for these species, especially walleye, has been met with growing concern about long- term risks associated with the introduction of a top predator. Proposed introductions are often con- troversial because of potential prey depletions,

Thomas E. McMahon; David H. Bennett

1996-01-01

49

Diet and Growth of Northern Pike in the Absence of Prey Fishes: Initial Consequences for Persisting in Disturbance-Prone Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern pike Esox lucius is a renowned piscivore, but will prey opportunistically on invertebrates (e.g., in small lakes of boreal Alberta, where winterkill can unexpectedly reduce or eliminate prey fishes). We emulated such a disturbance by stocking a fishless lake with northern pike and then monitored their diet and growth over two summers. Stomach content analysis revealed that stocked

Paul A. Venturelli; William M. Tonn

2006-01-01

50

Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific

Livia Lucentini; Maria Elena Puletti; Claudia Ricciolini; Lilia Gigliarelli; Diego Fontaneto; Luisa Lanfaloni; Fabiana Bilò; Mauro Natali; Fausto Panara

2011-01-01

51

Simplified Method Based on Bioenergetics Modeling to Estimate Food Consumption by Largemouth Bass and Northern Pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

I used results derived from a bioenergetics model to develop a simplified method of estimating food consumption by largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and northern pike Esox lucius. Growth data for each of three populations of each species from lakes covering a wide latitudinal portion of their ranges were used together with temperature data to estimate cumulative consumption rates with the

Robert F. Carline

1987-01-01

52

Utility of Synthetic Structures for Concentrating Adult Northern Pike and Largemouth Bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five synthetic structure designs were compared to determine their relative value as management tools to improve sport fishing in two 25-ha warmwater impoundments on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado. Sonic telemetry and systematic angling were used to evaluate attraction of adult northern pike Esox lucius and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides to artificial structures popularized by Arizona Game and

Kevin B. Rogers; Eric P. Bergersen

1999-01-01

53

Genetic Divergence among Northern Pike from Spawning Locations in the Upper St. Lawrence River  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the ecological consequences associated with the degradation of riparian wetlands that historically provided spawning and rearing habitat for northern pike Esox lucius, annual spawning migrations and genetic structure were used to examine this species' dependence on four specific spawning areas in the Thousand Islands region of the Saint Lawrence River. Tagging and recapture over three consecutive spawning seasons

Aaron Bosworth; John M. Farrell

2006-01-01

54

Relationship between Mercury Concentration and Growth Rates for Walleyes, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from Quebec Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish muscle and fish growth rates was assessed for 54 walleye Sander vitreus, 52 northern pike Esox lucius, and 35 lake trout Salvelinus namaycush populations throughout the Province of Quebec, Canada. We used the von Bertalanffy growth model to estimate the ages of fish specimens for a given length, and Hg concentrations in

Mélyssa Lavigne; Marc Lucotte; Serge Paquet

2010-01-01

55

Comparison of dietary mercury exposure in two sympatric top predator fishes, largemouth bass and northern pike: a bioenergetics modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and ecological factors, including lake temperature, fish physiology, and diet, influence methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in fish. We employed bioenergetics modeling to compare dietary MeHg exposure in sympatric top predators, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). We compared simulations using field data to hypothetical simulations with (1) ± 25% change in mean daily lake temperature for juvenile

Nicole K. MacRury; Brian D. S. Graeb; Brett M. Johnson; William H. Clements

2002-01-01

56

The effects of mechanically reducing northern pike density on the sport fish community of West Long Lake, Nebraska, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of piscivores may affect population size structure, abundance and growth rates of the remaining fish community. A total of 572 northern pike, Esox lucius L., was removed from 25-ha West Long Lake, Nebraska from 2003 to 2006. The northern pike population was reduced from 36 fish ha)1 and 22 kg ha)1 in 2002 to 20 fish ha)1 and 9k

J. C. J OLLEY; D. W. WILLIS; D. D. G RAHAM

57

Masculinization of Gynogenetic Northern Pike Juveniles Using 17 ?-Methyltestosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynogenetic juveniles of northern pike Esox lucius were fed a dry diet supplemented with 17 ?-methyltestosterone (MT) to reverse their phenotypic sex (i.e., masculinization). Successful sex reversal required that the fish (total length, 26–30 mm; wet weight, 0.14–0.19 g) be reared for 2 weeks at 22.0°C while being fed a diet supplemented with 20 or 30 mg MT\\/kg. The procedure

Marek J. Luczynski; Krystyna Demska-Zakes; Konrad Dabrowski; Miroslaw Luczynski

2003-01-01

58

Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sloss, B. L.; Franckowiak, R. P.; Murphy, E. L.

2008-01-01

59

Behavior and Passage Performance of Northern Pike, Walleyes, and White Suckers in an Experimental Raceway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The willingness and ability of wild adult northern pike Esox lucius, walleyes Sander vitreus, and white suckers Catostomus commersonii to ascend a 25- or 50-m experimental raceway against various water velocities (35–120 cm\\/s at 8 cm from the bottom) was measured. The probability that a fish of any given species would enter the raceway from its holding tank was significantly

Stephan J. Peake

2008-01-01

60

Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Northern Pike Eggs and Sac Fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of bioassays were conducted to test the effect of H2S at two concentrations of oxygen on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) eggs and sac fry. At an oxygen concentration of approximately 2 ppm mean median tolerance limits (TLm) for eggs were 0.411, 0.076, 0.038, 0.034, and 0.030 ppm H2S for 24, 48, 72, 96 hours, and for the

Ira R. Adelman; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1970-01-01

61

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on northern pike eggs and sac fry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of bioassays were conducted to test the effect of HâS at two concentrations of oxygen on northern pike (Esox lucius L.) eggs and sac fry. At an oxygen concentration of approximately 2 ppm mean median tolerance limits (TL\\/sub m\\/) for eggs were 0.411, 0.076, 0.038, 0.034, and 0.030 ppm HâS for 24, 48, 72, 96 hours, and for

IRA R. ADELMAN; LLOYD L. SMITH

1970-01-01

62

Comparison of dietary mercury exposure in two sympatric top predator fishes, largemouth bass and northern pike: a bioenergetics modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and ecologicalfactors, including lake temperature, fishphysiology, and diet, influence methylmercury(MeHg) exposure in fish. We employedbioenergetics modeling to compare dietary MeHgexposure in sympatric top predators, largemouthbass (Micropterus salmoides) and northernpike (Esox lucius). We comparedsimulations using field data to hypotheticalsimulations with (1) ± 25% change in meandaily lake temperature for juvenile and adultbass and pike; (2) ± 25% change inlong-term growth

Nicole K. MacRury; Brian D. S. Graeb; Brett M. Johnson; William H. Clements

2002-01-01

63

Historical analysis of genetic variation reveals low effective population size in a northern pike (Esox lucius) population.  

PubMed

Effective population size (Ne) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of Ne for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of Ne was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An Ne of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in Ne with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L M; Kapuscinski, A R

1997-11-01

64

Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population  

PubMed Central

Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations.

Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

1997-01-01

65

A toxicological examination of whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) and northern pike ( Esox lucius ) exposed to uranium mine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor

D. T. Waite; S. R. Joshi; H. Sommerstad; G. Wobeser; A. A. Gajadhart

1990-01-01

66

Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

Walker, M. K.; Yanke, E. A.; Gingerich, W. H.

1994-01-01

67

Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

Flinders, J. M.; Bonar, S. A.

2008-01-01

68

Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

2010-01-01

69

Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers.  

PubMed

In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers had mean concentrations of THg in muscle of 1.506 and 0.628 mg/kg wet wt, respectively. The mean concentrations of THg in grayling muscle from these rivers were 0.264 and 0.078 mg/kg, respectfully. Whitefish had a mean THg concentration in muscle of 0.032 mg/kg. MeHg, in pike and grayling constituted nearly 100% of the THg concentrations; the proportion was less in whitefish. A significant positive correlation between Hg levels and fish length was also found. Generally, there were no changes in Hg concentrations in pike or grayling over the last several years. Only pike from theYukon River had THg concentrations that exceeded the USFDA action level for human consumption of edible fish (1 mg/kg). Human hazard index for pike was > or = 1 for both adults and children, indicating a potential for toxic concern, especially among children. Further studies are needed to determine the environmental and human health impacts associated with these Hg concentrations in western Alaska, especially in the context of potentially increased consumption of resident fishes when anadromous salmon catches are reduced. PMID:12656259

Jewett, Stephen C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Naidu, A Sathy; Kelley, John J; Dasher, Doug; Duffy, Lawrence K

2003-01-01

70

Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Bernardy, J. A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M. P.; Stehly, G. R.; Gingerich, W. H.; Moore, A.

2003-01-01

71

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01

72

Selective Predation by Three Esocids: The Role of Prey Behavior and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented differential vulnerability of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum. and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to predation by muskel- lunge Esox masquinongy. northern pike E. lucius. and tiger muskellunge £\\

DAVID H. WAHL; ROY A. STEIN

1988-01-01

73

Factors Related to Fish Growth in Northwestern Wisconsin Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Average fish growth was compared with physical, limnological, and fish abundance data from 115 northwestern Wisconsin lakes. The target species was bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), but data were also collected on northern pike (Esox lucius), rock bass (Amb...

H. E. Snow M. D. Staggs

1994-01-01

74

Food Consumption and Growth of Three Esocids: Field Tests of a Bioenergetic Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified diet and compared field estimates of growth and daily ration with predictions from a bioenergetic model for young-of-year muskellunge Esox masquinongy, northern pike E. lucius, and tiger muskellunge E. masquinongy × E. lucius introduced into five Ohio reservoirs. Gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum dominated esocid diets (77–97% by weight) through autumn but were absent by spring. Diets in late

David H. Wahl; Roy A. Stein

1991-01-01

75

The role of olfaction in chemosensory-based predator recognition in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were rendered anosmic and exposed to chemical stimuli from a predatory northern pike (Esox lucius) to determine the role of olfaction in the minnow's ability to recognize predators on the basis of chemical stimuli. Anosmic fish did not respond to the pike stimuli with a typical fright reaction, while control fish, with intact olfactory receptors,

Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

76

High levels of mercury in biota of a new Prairie irrigation reservoir with a simplified food web in Southern Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined mercury levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Twin Valley Reservoir in southern Alberta, 2 years after construction in 2003. The hypothesis was tested that mercury\\u000a concentrations in pike from the reservoir are significantly higher than in pike from the nearby Oldman River. Mercury concentrations\\u000a in muscle tissue (0.37–1.54 ppm) generally exceeded the consumption guideline of 0.5 ppm total

Lars BrinkmannJoseph; Joseph B. Rasmussen

2010-01-01

77

Effect of Feeding Experience on Growth, Vulnerability to Predation, and Survival of Esocids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated direct and indirect effects of feeding experience on growth, food consumption, susceptibility to predation, and survival of esocids. We conducted five experimental stockings of equal numbers and similar sizes (200 mm) of experienced (minnow-fed) and naive (pellet-fed) muskellunge Esox masquinongy (two stockings) and tiger muskellunge (muskellunge × northern pike E. lucius ; three stockings) in reservoirs. Feeding experience

Thomas A. Szendrey; David H. Wahl

1995-01-01

78

Interactions between Walleyes and Four Fish Species with Implications for Walleye Stocking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a number of different data sets and four criteria to evaluate evidence of competition and predation between walleye Sander vitreus and northern pike Esox lucius, muskellunge E. masquinongy, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass M. salmoides in northern Wisconsin lakes. The four criteria were as follows: (1) indices of population abundance were inversely related, (2) two species

Andrew H. Fayram; Michael J. Hansen; Timothy J. Ehlinger

2005-01-01

79

Evaluation of Nonlethal Methods for the Analysis of Mercury in Fish Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of fish are sacrificed each year to determine potential human exposure to mercury (Hg) from fish consumption. In this paper, we use lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and northern pike Esox lucius to demonstrate that accurate and reliable measures of fish muscle Hg concentrations can be determined from small samples (<100 mg) harvested with biopsy tools. Reliability of results primarily

R. F. Baker; P. J. Blanchfield; M. J. Paterson; R. J. Flett; L. Wesson

2004-01-01

80

Response of the residential piscivorous fish community to introduction of a new predator type in a mesotrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effects of introduced predators on prey populations in aquatic ecosystems have been studied frequently, less is known about the interactions between predators. We performed a whole-lake experiment by stocking a non-native top predator (pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)) to two residential piscivores (Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)). By analyzing spatial distribution, diet composition, growth, and consump-

Torsten Schulze; Ulrich Baade; Hendrik Dörner; Reiner Eckmann; Susanne S. Haertel-Borer; Franz Hölker; Thomas Mehner

2006-01-01

81

Development of fish mercury concentrations in Finnish reservoirs from 1979 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in burbot (Lota lota), perch (Perca fluviatilis), northern pike (Esox lucius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and peled (C. peled) were monitored in 18 reservoirs situated in western and northern Finland over a period of 16 years (1979–1994). The reservoirs were impounded from 1964 to 1980. The surface areas ranged between 1 and 417 km2. Data

P Porvari

1998-01-01

82

Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm- and coolwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon

Jeff J Rach; Mark P Gaikowski; George E Howe; Theresa M Schreier

1998-01-01

83

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPERATURE SELECTION OF FISH NEAR THE THERMAL OUTFALL OF A POWER PLANT DURING FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING  

EPA Science Inventory

The movement patterns of 4 fish species: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were monitored by radio telemetry near the thermal discharge of a power plant (delta T 15C nominal). F...

84

Qualitative indices of edible and inedible products obtained from fish in the lower Yenisei River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of biochemical investigations of samples of products obtained from burbot (Lota lota L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting the lower reaches of the Yenisei River basin are given. Biologically active substances—macro- and microelements,\\u000a fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins—are analyzed.

A. A. Gnedov; A. A. Kaizer

2010-01-01

85

The Diel Activity of Crucian Carp, Carassius Carassius, in Relation to Chemical Cues from Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical cues from piscivorous fish and prey alarm substances often cause rapid fright responses in prey. However little is known of how piscivore-related chemical cues affect prey behaviour over periods longer than a few hours. Here we have investigated how chemical cues from piscivorous northern pike, Esox lucius, affect habitat choice and diel activity of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, over

Lars B. Pettersson; Kent Andersson; Kristian Nilsson

2001-01-01

86

Biological Methylation of Mercury in Aquatic Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRESHWATER fish, especially pike (Esox lucius), from Sweden sometimes contain abnormally large amounts of mercury1. It was initially concluded to be either inorganic mercury or phenyl mercury, which are known to be released as industrial wastes, but later it was shown that the mercury was present almost entirely as methyl mercury (CH3Hg+)2. A possible explanation is that living organisms have

S. Jensen; A. JERNELÖV

1969-01-01

87

Ontogenetic niche shifts and resource partitioning in a subarctic piscivore fish guild  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of three piscivorous fish species (perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota)), was studied in the subarctic Pasvik watercourse (69 °?N), northern Norway and Russia. All three species primarily occupied the benthic habitats in the watercourse. Perch and burbot exhibited distinct ontogenetic niche shifts in food resource use, perch changing from a dominance of

Per-Arne Amundsen; Thomas Bøhn; Olga A. Popova; Frode J. Staldvik; Yuri S. Reshetnikov; Nikolay A. Kashulin; Anatoly A. Lukin

2003-01-01

88

Structures to Prevent the Spread of Nuisance Fish from Lake Davis, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to contain the spread of nuisance or otherwise undesirable fish species are relatively limited. I describe an unconventional method used to help restrict the movement of northern pike Esox lucius from a mountain reservoir into downstream waters. Reservoir managers designed, installed, and monitored steel structures (“graters”) that served to increase the likelihood that fish entrained in discharge from Lake

Douglas B. C. Rischbieter

2000-01-01

89

FISHING IN THE BYZANTINE FORTRESS OF OLTINA: ARCHAEOZOOLOGICAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to assess the importance of fishing in a Byzantine fortress located in southwestern Dobrodja on a bank of the Danube, near the lakeside of Oltina. The site was located in a rich environment with various fishing resources. A number of 11 taxa was identified: Acipenseridae (sturgeons ), Esox lucius (pike), Abramis brama (bream), Aspius

SIMINA STANC; VALENTIN RADU; LUMINITA BEJENARU

90

Mercury evolution (1978–1988) in fishes of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1978 to 1988, the evolution of the Hg content of fish has been monitored in the areas affected by the La Grande hydroelectric\\u000a complex. Four fish species were considered: two non piscivorous, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and two piscivorous, northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). The evolution of Hg concentrations in time

R. Verdon; D. Brouard; C. Demers; R. Lalumiere; M. Laperle; R. Schetagne

1991-01-01

91

Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species ( Esox lucius and Carassius auratus ) in Anzali Wetland, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar\\u000a site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients\\u000a and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent

Mohammad Sakizadeh; Abas Esmaeili Sari; Asghar Abdoli; Nader Bahramifar; Seyed Hossein Hashemi

92

Retinal projections in the chain pickerel ( Esox niger Lesueur)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The retinal projections inEsox niger, as determined with the aid of a modified cobalt-lysine method, are considerably more extensive in the diencephalon and pretectum than in other teleost fishes so far examined. Although most retinal axons terminate contralaterally, rare fibers can be traced to the same aggregates ipsilaterally. The retinohypothalamic projection appears larger than hitherto reported in teleosts, and

G. T. Bazer; S. O. E. Ebbesson

1987-01-01

93

Occurrence of 'Esox niger' in Santa Rosa Sound, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds...

L. R. Goodman

1977-01-01

94

Gyrodactylus neili n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), a parasite of chain pickerel Esox niger Lesueur (Esocidae) from freshwaters of New Brunswick, Canada.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus neili n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the fins and body surface of Esox niger Lesueur (chain pickerel) (Esocidae) from the St. Croix River drainage, New Brunswick, Canada. G. neili n. sp. resembles most closely G. fryi Cone & Dechtiar, 1984, a parasite of E. masquinongy in North America, in having relatively large thin hamuli, well-developed marginal hook sickles with a relatively long, wide blade and short handle, a ventral bar with small antero-lateral processes and tongue-shaped membrane, and a cirrus with many small spines in two rows. The new species is easily separated from G. fryi by the length of the hamuli (70-76 microm versus 92 microm, respectively), by the distal width of the sickle (7-9 versus 14-16 microm, respectively) and by subtle differences in the shape of the toe and heel of the marginal hook sickle. Sequence data (922 bp) of rDNA (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and 5.8S) of G. neili n. sp. returned no identical matches in GenBank. The 5.8 sequence alone, however, was identical to morphologically similar gyrodactylids of the subgenus Gyrodactylus from cyprinid fishes in Eurasia. The discovery of G. neili n. sp. and features of its genetic makeup support the idea that this lineage parasitised ancestral cyprinids and that it radiated, possibly through predator/prey interactions, to an ancestor of contemporary Esox. It is concluded that DNA comparison of monogeneans on Holarctic freshwater hosts, such as E. lucius, may shed light on the nature of speciation of these parasites. PMID:16773231

LeBlanc, Jaclyn; Hansen, Haakon; Burt, Michael; Cone, David

2006-05-05

95

Experimental Intensive Culture of Tiger Muskellunge in a Water Reuse System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger muskellunge (female muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, x male northern pike, E. lucius) 14.5 cm long were reared for 45 days in a three-pass (pass I, II, and III) water reuse system. Cumulative growth rates for the fish were 0.143 cm\\/day in the first use of the water (pass I), 0.125 in the second use (pass II), and 0.108 in the

Charles H. Pecor

1979-01-01

96

Chloride uptake in freshwater teleosts and its relationship to nitrite uptake and toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The relationship between rate of chloride uptake and external chloride concentration was investigated in Rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri, and Perch,Perca fluviatilis. The relationship between nitrite uptake and external nitrite and the inhibition of chloride uptake by nitrite was also investigated. Nitrite tolerance tests were performed on a variety of freshwater animals, including Carp,Cyprinus carpio, Tench,Tinca tinca, Pike,Esox lucius, Eel,Anguilla anguilla, and

E. M. Williams; F. B. Eddy

1986-01-01

97

Environmental Contaminants in Fish and Their Associated Risk to Piscivorous Wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data\\u000a and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted\\u000a to screen

Jo Ellen Hinck; Christopher J. Schmitt; Kathy R. Echols; Tom W. May; Carl E. Orazio; Donald E. Tillitt

2006-01-01

98

Movement of Tiger Muskellunge in Mayfield Reservoir, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen 67–100-cm tiger muskellunge (hybrids of northern pike Esox lucius and muskellunge E. masquinongy) were implanted with ultrasonic tags and tracked in Mayfield Reservoir for 7–34 months to determine seasonal movements. Year-to-year site fidelity was observed, and the area occupied in summer and fall was about one-third of that occupied in winter and spring. The distance traveled by fish in

Jack M. Tipping

2001-01-01

99

PIKE mediates EGFR proliferative signaling in squamous cell carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

One of the key drivers for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) proliferation is activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known proto-oncogene. However, the mechanism of EGFR-dependent SCC proliferation remains unclear. Our previous studies indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced SCC cell proliferation requires the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-?1 (PLC-?1), but not its catalytic activity. The SH3 domain of PLC-?1 is known to activate the short form of nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) that enhances the activity of nuclear class Ia phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) required for proliferation. However, PIKE has been described for more than a decade to be present exclusively in neuronal cells. In the present study, we found that PIKE was highly expressed in malignant human keratinocytes (SCC4 and SCC12B2) but had low expression in normal human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong nuclear staining of PIKE in human epidermal and tongue SCC specimens but little staining in the adjacent non-cancerous epithelium. Treatment of SCC4 cells with EGF-induced translocation of PLC-?1 to the nucleus and binding of PLC-?1 to the nuclear PIKE. Knockdown of PLC-?1 or PIKE blocked EGF-induced activation of class Ia PI3K and protein kinase C-? and phosphorylation of nucleolin in the nucleus as well as EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation. However, inhibition of the catalytic activity of PLC-?1 had little effect. These data suggest that PIKE has a critical role in EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation and may function as a proto-oncogene in SCC. PMID:22349826

Xie, Z; Jiang, Y; Liao, E-Y; Chen, Y; Pennypacker, S D; Peng, J; Chang, S M

2012-02-20

100

Reproduction and Early Life History of the Redfin Pickerel, (Esox americanus americanus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reproductive strategy of the redf in pickerel (Esox americanus americanus) in a blackwater system in Sumter County, South Carolina was studied using daily aging techniques derived from otolith analysis. The presence of biannual spawning, a significant...

M. S. Ballek

1994-01-01

101

Arrays of Lucius microprisms for directional allocation of light and autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays.  

PubMed

Directional and asymmetric properties are attractive features in nature that have proven useful for directional wetting, directional flow of liquids and artificial dry adhesion. Here we demonstrate that an optically asymmetric structure can be exploited to guide light with directionality. The Lucius prism array presented here has two distinct properties: the directional transmission of light and the disproportionation of light intensity. These allow the illumination of objects only in desired directions. Set up as an array, the Lucius prism can function as an autostereoscopic three-dimensional display. PMID:21878909

Yoon, Hyunsik; Oh, Sang-Guen; Kang, Dae Shik; Park, Jong Myoung; Choi, Se Jin; Suh, Kahp Y; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Hong H

2011-08-30

102

Tanks at Checkpoint Charlie: Lucius Clay and the Berlin Crisis, 1961–62  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stand-off of Soviet and American tanks in the heart of Berlin in October 1961 constituted the most dangerous moment of the Cold War in Europe. It has been attributed to unnecessarily confrontational policies of General Lucius D. Clay, who served as President Kennedy's Special Representative in Berlin. This article assesses how the crisis evolved from the Berlin Wall to

Ingo Wolfgang Trauschweizer

2006-01-01

103

METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

104

A radiation briefer's guide to the PIKE Model  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-radiation-exposure estimates to populations living immediately downwind from the Nevada Test Site have been required for many years by the US Department of Energy (DOE) before each containment-designed nuclear detonation. A highly unlikely worst-case'' scenario is utilized which assumes that there will be an accidental massive venting of radioactive debris into the atmosphere shortly after detonation. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) has supplied DOE with such estimates for the last 25 years using the WSNSO Fallout Scaling Technique (FOST), which employs a worst-case analog event that actually occurred in the past. The PIKE Model'' is the application of the FOST using the PIKE nuclear event as the analog. This report, which is primarily intended for WSNSO meteorologists who derive radiation estimates, gives a brief history of the model,'' presents the mathematical, radiological, and meteorological concepts upon which it is based, states its limitations, explains it apparent advantages over more sophisticated models, and details how it is used operationally. 10 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

Steadman, C.R. Jr.

1990-03-01

105

Existing Land Use Inventory and Analysis, Newton, Pike and Upson Counties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the generalized existing land use within Newton, Pike and Upson Counties. Every parcel of land was addressed in a general schematic presentation. The acreage devoted to each use, dominant land use, general development patterns, major l...

B. D. Greenhouse

1973-01-01

106

Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or constituents introduced by human activities that pose a health risk or otherwise were of concern in groundwater in the county. The analyses included major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), selected organic wastewater compounds, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activity, uranium, and radon-222. Analyses of the 20 samples were primarily for dissolved constituents, but six samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total metals. Results of the 2007 sampling indicated few water-quality problems, although concentrations of some constituents indicated influence of human activities on groundwater. No constituent analyzed exceeded any primary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Radon-222 levels were greater than, or equal to, the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in water from 15 (75 percent) of the 20 wells. Radon-222 levels did not exceed the alternative MCL of 4,000 pCi/L in any groundwater sample. Radon-222 is naturally occurring, and the greatest concentrations (up to 2,650 pCi/L) were in water samples from wells in members of the Catskill Formation, a fractured-rock aquifer. The dissolved arsenic concentration of 3.9 micrograms per liter (ug/L) in one sample was greater than the health-advisory (HA) level of 2 ug/L but less than the MCL of 10 ug/L. Recommended or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for pH, dissolved iron, and dissolved manganese. In six samples analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations of selected metals, total concentrations commonly were much greater than dissolved concentrations of iron, and to a lesser degree, for arsenic, lead, copper, and manganese. Concentrations of iron above the SMCL of 300 ug/L may be more widespread in the county for particulate iron than for dissolved iron. The total arsenic concentration in one of the six samples was greater than the HA level of

Senior, Lisa A.

2009-01-01

107

Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate  

PubMed Central

Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (?) by 37–56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of ? to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics.

Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O.; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn

2010-01-01

108

Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground- and surface-water hydrology in the vicinity of Dead Pike Lake and Powell Marsh, Vilas County, Wisconsin. The model was used to simulate the effect of removing Powell Marsh control structures (ditches and Vista Pond) on the hydrology of Dead Pike Lake. Measurements and model simulation results show that ground water in the vicinity of Powell Marsh moves to the northwest and west. If Powell Marsh structures are removed from the simulation, it does not affect the general direction of ground-water flow nor the total flow to Dead Pike Lake. Without the simulated structures, slightly more ground-water flow enters Dead Pike Lake and slightly less surface-water flows at the Dead Pike Lake inlet than with the simulated structures. Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

2002-01-01

109

From Uplift to Glaciation: Geological History of the Pikes Peak Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 'Young Naturalist' award-winning essay reviews the geologic history of Pikes Peak and the southern Rocky Mountains, from Precambrian foundation to roughly contoured summits. The essay, in the form of a field journal, focuses on how geologists divide Earth's 4.6-billion-year history into four major chronological eras (Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic). It also discusses the evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains and Pikes Peak during these eras, and the inevitable geologic changes the future will bring. References are included.

110

Uptake of pentachlorophenol in fish of acidified and nonacidified lakes  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to examine the uptake of pentachlopophenol (PCP) in fish (northern pike, Esox lucius L.) in one acidified and two non-acidified lakes. The lakes are situated in southern Sweden within 30 km of each other and are only exposed to persistent pollutants from the atmosphere. Because the lakes are of similar size and depth and situated in the same fall-out area, atmospheric input of PCP should be similar. Concentrations of PCP were significantly higher in pike from the acidified lake than from the non-acidified lakes. The results suggest that fish in acidified lakes are subjected to higher PCP exposure and uptake than fish from non-acidified lakes. 24 refs., 1 fig.

Larsson, P.; Bremle, G.; Okla, L. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1993-05-01

111

Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

1980-06-01

112

HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. ATTACHED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT OF VIEW IS ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

113

Young, Becker, and Pike's "Rogerian" Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that the Rogerian rhetoric of Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike (as presented in their book "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change") shows its age by not being quite the epistemic rhetoric contemporary rhetoricians have come to require. Argues that the Rogerian insights can still provide a focus for a reformed rhetoric of…

Brent, Doug

1991-01-01

114

P13-S Database Protein Information Searching Engine via Internet: PIKE  

PubMed Central

One of the main goals in proteomics is to extract and collect all the functional information available in existing databases in relation to a defined set of identified proteins. Due to the huge amount of data available, it is not possible to gather up this information by hand; we need to have automatic methods for addressing this task. Protein information and knowledge extractor (PIKE) solves this problem by accessing several public information systems and databases automatically through the Internet and retrieving all functional information available on the different repositories, and then clustering this information according to the pre-selected criteria. The PIKE bioinformatics tool, accessible through http://proteo.cnb.uam.es:8080/pike, uses the Java and XML languages. Starting with a selected group of identified proteins, listed as NCBI nr, uniprot, and/or ipi (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/IPI/IPIhelp.html) accession codes, PIKE retrieves all relevant information stored in databases by choosing the correct pathway and/or the best information source. Once the search is done, a typical PIKE output shows a report table with an entry for each protein containing all extracted information. The report contains a large amount of meaningful protein features, such as (1) function information, (2) sub-cellular location, (3) tissue specificity, (4) links with other repositories, such as Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) or Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and (5) gene ontology tree classification. The table is exportable in CSV and text file formats, and, more important, it is possible to export it in PRIDE XML (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/) format for results integration into the information stored in other applications such as ProteinScape.

Medina-Aunon, J.; Macht, M.; Quinn, A.; Albar, J.; Glandorf, J.; Thiele, H.

2007-01-01

115

Emulating the Fast-Start Swimming Performance of the Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) Using a Mechanical Fish Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mean maximum start-up accelerations and velocities achieved by the fast-start specialist, northern pike, are reported at 120 m/s sq and 4 m/s, respectively (Harper and Blake, 1990). In this thesis, a simple mechanical system was created to closely mimic t...

M. N. Watts

2006-01-01

116

Characterization of a heavy-oil reservoir at Pikes Peak, SK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Coincident vertical array and multi-component 2D seismic lines are interpreted and integrated with geological data to further understand the geology of the Pikes Peak heavy-oil field in Saskatchewan. Using vertical array seismic data, a salt interval traveltime method predicts the reservoir trap configuration and identifies the risk of bottom water in the Waseca reservoir. An interpretation of multi-component data

Ian A. Watson; Laurence R. Lines

117

Growth performance and body composition of pike perch ( Sander lucioperca ) fed varying formulated and natural diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of dietary composition on growth performance and body composition of pike perch (Sander lucioperca), fingerlings with an initial body weight of 1.36 g (just trained to accept formulated feed) were fed three experimental diets in triplicate for 90 days. Two feeding groups were fed with formulated diets (CD, CD+7) containing varying levels of crude lipid (CL) of 14.65%

Carsten Schulz; Steffen Günther; Manfred Wirth; Bernhard Rennert

2006-01-01

118

Technique and timing in the womens forward two and one half somersault pike and mens three and one half somersault pike 3m springboard dives.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the forward two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (105B) performed by females (n=25) and the forward three and one half somersault dive in a pike position (107B) performed by males (n=25) to determine changes required by females to successfully perform 107B. Video data of the dives performed at the 1999 FINA World Diving Cup were captured and digitised to obtain times and postures of the divers at specific events including hurdle landing, takeoff, and entry. Estimates of hurdle flight height and mass-normalised work done on the springboard were obtained from hurdle and flight times. Females performing 105B had significantly less hip and knee flexion at landing from the hurdle than males performing 107B. It is known from simulations that the ability to land in a very flexed position without absorbing energy depends on the ability to generate large extension torques at landing. Therefore, it is likely that females need to increase strength to successfully complete 107B. PMID:11235008

Sanders, R H; Gibson, B J

2000-12-01

119

Gyrodactylus neili n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), a parasite of chain pickerel Esox niger Lesueur (Esocidae) from freshwaters of New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gyrodactylus neili n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the fins and body surface of Esox niger Lesueur (chain pickerel) (Esocidae) from the St. Croix River drainage, New Brunswick, Canada. G.?neili n. sp. resembles most closely G. fryi Cone & Dechtiar, 1984, a parasite of E. masquinongy in North America, in having relatively large thin hamuli, well-developed marginal hook sickles

Jaclyn LeBlanc; Haakon Hansen; Michael Burt; David Cone

2006-01-01

120

An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters.

2013-01-01

121

Neuroprotective actions of PIKE-L by inhibition of SET proteolytic degradation by asparagine endopeptidase.  

PubMed

Ischemia and seizure cause excessive neuronal excitation that is associated with brain acidosis and neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanism of acidification-triggered neuronal injury is incompletely understood. Here, we show that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is activated under acidic condition, cuts SET, an inhibitor of DNase, and triggers DNA damage in brain, which is inhibited by PIKE-L. SET, a substrate of caspases, was cleaved by acidic cytosolic extract independent of caspase activation. Fractionation of the acidic cellular extract yielded AEP that is required for SET cleavage. We found that kainate provoked AEP activation and SET cleavage at N175, triggering DNA nicking in wild-type, but not AEP null, mice. PIKE-L strongly bound SET and prevented its degradation by AEP, leading to resistance of neuronal cell death. Moreover, AEP also mediated stroke-provoked SET cleavage and cell death in brain. Thus, AEP might be one of the proteinases activated by acidosis triggering neuronal injury during neuroexcitotoxicity or ischemia. PMID:18374643

Liu, Zhixue; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Liu, Xia; Cheng, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin; Yepes, Manuel; Li, Xiao-jiang; Matthews, Steve; Watts, Colin; Asano, Masahide; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Luo, Hongbo R; Ye, Keqiang

2008-03-28

122

Baseline environmental characterization of Pike County Coal-Gasification Facility site. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1858  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperational monitoring at the proposed site of the Pike County (Kentucky) Coal Gasification Facility consisted of two tasks: analysis of surface water quality and characterization of site meteorology. Analysis of surface water in Shelby Creek and a small tributary confirmed earlier reports of marginal water quality in the area. Values of alkalinity, ammonia, copper, zinc, and iron were outside recommended

R. M. Cushman; G. W. II Suter; M. E. Bailey; R. P. Hosker; C. Jordan; C. J. Nappo; L. C. Satterfield; H. F. Snodgrass

1982-01-01

123

76 FR 71125 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. AB 1076X] Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F--Exempt...

2011-11-16

124

Route 61, Pike County, Missouri. Job No. 3-P-61-65, South of Bowling Green to South of Cyrene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed to improve approximately 6.0 miles of Route 61 from south of Bowling Green to south of Cyrene in Pike County, Missouri. The proposed project will consist of initially providing a 4-lane limited access facility with provisions for ultimately...

1973-01-01

125

Pikes Peak Library District, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This final performance report for the Pikes Peak Library District literacy project begins with a section that provides quantitative data. The next section compares actual accomplishments to the project goal and related objectives for 1993: to reduce obstacles to success of students enrolled in the Right To Read program through student…

Hammond, Susan; Maio, Jean

126

Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

Parsons, John W.

1967-01-01

127

Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

Zou, Ying

128

Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

Holland, L. E.

1987-01-01

129

Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

2004-01-01

130

Analyzing the fast-start performance of northern pike using a mechanical fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern pike is able to achieve an instantaneous acceleration of 245 m/s^2 through a two-stage motion. In the first stage the fish curls its body into either a C-shaped or an S-shaped curve (preparatory stage), and in the second stage uncurls it very quickly (propulsive stage) generating high accelerations due to the vortices shed from its tail. We have built a mechanical fish, based on the body profile of a pike, which is capable of performing this two-stage fast-start motion. Movement is governed by servo motors, which pull on cables attached to certain ribs, bending the fish into a C- or an S-shape. The degree of bending and timing of strokes can be controlled, and the fish can perform either a propulsive stroke only or a full stroke consisting of both the preparatory stage and the propulsive stage. The mechanical fish is capable of achieving peak accelerations of around 4 m/s^2. We use this fish in order to study the influence of various variables on the observed acceleration. Although the maximum accelerations observed in our mechanical fish are smaller than those of a live fish, the form of the measured acceleration signal as function of time is quite similar to that of a live fish. The hydrodynamic efficiencies are observed to be around 12%, and it is shown that the majority of the thrust is produced at the rear part of the mechanical fish -- similarly to the live fish.

Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Feng, Chengcheng; Bonafilia, Brian; Costain, Andrew

2011-11-01

131

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

2009-01-01

132

Development of fish mercury concentrations in Finnish reservoirs from 1979 to 1994.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in burbot (Lota lota), perch (Perca fluviatilis), northern pike (Esox lucius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and peled (C. peled) were monitored in 18 reservoirs situated in western and northern Finland over a period of 16 years (1979-1994). The reservoirs were impounded from 1964 to 1980. The surface areas ranged between 1 and 417 km2. Data from downstream sites and reference lakes were compared to reservoir mercury data. Generally, fish Hg concentrations in reservoirs exceeded those in natural lakes. Shortly after inundation, fish mercury concentrations clearly increased and remain 15-25 years above background concentrations. The mean Hg concentrations in standardized 1 kg pike from 1989 to 1993 was 0.45 mg/kg in natural lakes and 0.58 mg/kg in reservoirs. The 1 mg/kg fish Hg level recommended by health authorities as the upper limit for human consumption was still exceeded in two reservoirs 20 years old or more. The two largest reservoirs (24 and 27 years old in 1994) with significant commercial fishing had Hg levels below 0.5 mg/kg in all fish species studied. Statistical models for predicting the Hg concentrations in the weight standardized pike were verified with the observed data. For most of the reservoirs, predictions from models based on pH, organic matter (COD) in water, the extent of water level regulation and reservoir age agreed well with observed data. In the most southern, new (under 20 years old) and heavily regulated reservoirs, pike Hg concentration followed a logarithmic function of reservoir age. Model predictions of mercury in pike in the planned Vuotos reservoir (in northern Finland) predicted that Hg would exceed 1 mg/kg Hg for the first 12 years after the flooding. PMID:9652133

Porvari, P

1998-06-10

133

Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.  

PubMed

The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovi?ová, Danka; Tur?eková, L'udmila

2011-12-17

134

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fish Species, Anzali, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium,\\u000a 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while

Mohammad Ebrahimpour; Alireza Pourkhabbaz; Rahimeh Baramaki; Hadi Babaei; Mohammadreza Rezaei

135

The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.  

PubMed

1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization. PMID:1236946

Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

1975-07-01

136

Acute and chronic nitrite toxicity in juvenile pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and its compensation by chloride.  

PubMed

Pike-perch Sander lucioperca is currently considered as one of the most promising candidates for production in freshwater recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Here, due to the lack of studies on nitrite (NO(2)(-)) toxicity in pike-perch, a flow-through exposure at 0, 0.44, 0.88, 1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N was carried out to determine the acute and chronic toxicity over a period of 32 days. In juvenile pike-perch, 120 h LC(50) was 6.1mg/L NO(2)(-)-N and at ?14 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N all fish had died within 24 h. Chronic exposure revealed a significant build up of NO(2)(-) in the plasma as well as in the muscles at ?0.44 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N peaking in fish exposed to the highest concentration of 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N after 32 days. Still, due to high individual variation methemoglobin (MetHb) was only significantly increased (p<0.01) at 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N. No adverse effects on red blood cells (RBC) and hematocrit were observed in any of the treatments. In a second experiment, compensation of NO(2)(-) toxicity at increasing chloride concentrations (40 (freshwater), 65, 90, 140, 240, 440 mg/L Cl(-)) was observed at a constant exposure of 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N for 42 days. At ?240 mg/L Cl(-), NO(2)(-) build-up in blood plasma and muscle was completely inhibited. At lower Cl(-) concentrations (?140 mg/L), NO(2)(-) was significantly increased in plasma, but only insignificantly elevated in muscle due to high individual variation. MetHb was increased significantly difference only at 40 mg/L Cl(-) (freshwater control) compared to the control. Again, high individual variations were observed. As a conclusion, S. lucioperca is moderately sensitive towards NO(2)(-) and acceptable levels in RAS should hence not exceed 1.75 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N to avoid MetHb formation. However, based on the 120 h LC(50) and a factor of 0.01 according to Sprague (1971), a NO(2)(-) concentration of ?0.061 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N is considered as "safe." Thereby, no NO(2)(-) should accumulate in the plasma or muscle tissue during chronic exposure. For 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N, ?240 mg/L chloride compensates for NO(2)(-) uptake in plasma and muscle. PMID:23318298

Wuertz, S; Schulze, S G E; Eberhardt, U; Schulz, C; Schroeder, J P

2013-01-12

137

Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not correlate with color zoning, whereas Zn variations (up to 1.1 wt. %) are entirely independent. The dark color zones probably reflect Fe-Ti charge transfer. The mica composition sequence described here is typical of the extreme fractionation observed in pegmatites of the NYF family, associated with anorogenec granites. Elevated Fe, Zn, and enhanced Sc contents are characteristic of this family. Strong enrichment in Li, Rb, and F is present, particularly in the micas of the miarolitic cavities. Sharp color zonation and compositional variation in cavity-grown zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite crystals suggest rapid changes in the intensive parameters, particularly the f(O2), of the parent fluid during the final stages of pegmatite consolidation ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

Foord, E. E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L. L.; Sherman, D. M.; Eby, R. K.

1995-01-01

138

Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species.  

PubMed

Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. PMID:16018498

Popper, Arthur N; Smith, Michael E; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; MacGillivray, Alexander O; Austin, Melanie E; Mann, David A

2005-06-01

139

Behavioural Syndrome in a Solitary Predator Is Independent of Body Size and Growth Rate  

PubMed Central

Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted.

Nyqvist, Marina J.; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J. Robert

2012-01-01

140

Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

Kile, D. E.; Foord, E. E.

1998-01-01

141

Supplemental Freeway Federal Aid Primary Route 408, Jacksonville to Barry in Morgan, Scott, and Pike Counties. Supplemental Freeway Federal Aid Primary Route 413, West of Jacksonville in Morgan County, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed freeway is a 52 mile four-lane, fully access controlled facility in Morgan, Scott, and Pike Counties, Illinois. Adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided are the relocation of several farms residences, the loss of highly productive...

1972-01-01

142

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

Pryor, P.

1985-08-01

143

Baseline environmental characterization of Pike County Coal-Gasification Facility site. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1858  

SciTech Connect

Preoperational monitoring at the proposed site of the Pike County (Kentucky) Coal Gasification Facility consisted of two tasks: analysis of surface water quality and characterization of site meteorology. Analysis of surface water in Shelby Creek and a small tributary confirmed earlier reports of marginal water quality in the area. Values of alkalinity, ammonia, copper, zinc, and iron were outside recommended ranges. Meteorological studies showed that the complex terrain of the site could have a major effect on pollutant dispersion. The surface air, which is decoupled from regional air flow, usually extends to ridge height, approximately 300 m above the site. At night, the air is typically calm with frequent fog and ground-based or elevated inversions. During the day, frequent convective air flow interacts with the terrain, producing mechanical turbulence. Mechanical turbulence was verified by the helical pattern and irregular direction of experimental smoke releases. The potential for ground-level air pollution appears to be high. Plume impactions with the surrounding terrain could occur during daytime, causing damage to vegetation. Also, plume material that contacts the terrain may lose its bouyancy and sink to lower elevations or be carried down by drainage currents. Although the anticipated effective plume height (approximately 100 m) of the proposed facility is well below ridge height, the high frequency of weak winds may often allow the plume to extend above the ridge top. The combination of elevated inversions and fog (which cools the plume) suggests that at night the plume may often be contained within the site. Chemical interaction of plume materials with nighttime moisture could be an additional problem. These tentative results suggest that any pollutants released at this site should be carefully monitored.

Cushman, R.M.; Suter, G.W. II; Bailey, M.E.; Hosker, R.P.; Jordan, C.; Nappo, C.J.; Satterfield, L.C.; Snodgrass, H.F.

1982-08-01

144

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated derivatives in pike from Swedish waters with emphasis on temporal trends, 1967–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal trends of five tetra- to hexabromodiphenyl ethers [BDE47, BDE99, BDE100, BDE153 and BDE154) and two methoxy-tetraBDEs [6-methoxy-2,2?,4,4?- tetraBDE (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2?-methoxy-2,3?,4,5?- tetraBDE (2?-MeO-BDE68)] in pike from Lake Bolmen for the years 1967–2000, are presented. All BDE congeners show increasing trends up to the mid-1980s (?5PBDE from 60 to 1600 pg\\/g wet weight in 1989, i.e. a more than 25-fold

A. Kierkegaard; A. Bignert; U. Sellström; M. Olsson; L. Asplund; B. Jansson; C. A. de Wit

2004-01-01

145

Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.  

SciTech Connect

Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

P.R. Fresquez

2004-10-15

146

Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Rach, J. J.; Gaikowski, M. P.; Howe, G. E.; Schreier, T. M.

1998-01-01

147

Microwave heated vapor-phase digestion method for biological sample materials.  

PubMed

A microwave heated, vapor-phase nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide digestion method for pulverized, biological sample materials was developed. Sample masses up to 200 mg were digested using calibrated quartz inserts inside first generation type, low-pressure, Teflon-PFA microwave vessels. In the first step, samples were digested in the vapor-phase for 80 min using a progressive heating pattern. Three mL of 70% nitric acid and 0.5 mL of 30% hydrogen peroxide were used as digestion reagents. In the second step, the small residue left after first step digestion was dissolved in 1.4% nitric acid or additionally with 0.5% hydrofluoric acid by heating for 15 min. The digestion method was optimized using pike (Esox lucius) muscle as a test material. The method was further optimized using three certified reference materials. Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn were determined from NIST-SRM 1577a bovine liver by ICP-AES. Cr and Ni were determined from NIST-SRM 8433 corn bran and NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver by GFAAS. For all elements the values obtained were close or within certified limits. Spike recoveries were between 96 to 107%. Digestion efficiency ranged from 91 to 99%. PMID:11210223

Eilola, K; Perämäki, P

2001-01-01

148

Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

Ahas, Rein

149

Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

1996-01-01

150

Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment  

SciTech Connect

Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

Hontela, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1998-01-01

151

Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophy in Northwestern Poland.  

PubMed

This study presents concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in selected tissues of two fish species: pike (Esox lucius L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) living in lakes I?sko and Wisola, Northwestern Poland. The lakes differ in their trophic status. The effect of gender and environmental conditions on metals accumulation was also investigated. Metal analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Considering all studied fish species and tissues, the average metal concentrations (micrograms per gram wet weight) in both lakes occurred in the following ranges: Fe 0.8-240.6, Mn 0.2-8.4, Zn 3.0-185.9, and Cu 0.14-7.76. The lowest levels of the studied metals were always detected in the muscles. The spleen, kidneys, and liver were found to accumulate the highest amounts of Fe. In the case of the other metals, the highest levels were found, as follows: Mn in skin, gills, and gonads, Zn in digestive tract and gills, Cu in liver. Heavy metal content in fish gonads was observed to be sex dependent. PMID:22923375

Rajkowska, Monika; Protasowicki, Miko?aj

2012-08-25

152

Heterogeneity in levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVB among fish species in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA.  

PubMed

The presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) was investigated in sera of 13 fish species collected from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, a VHSV-endemic water body. We tested 297 sera collected May 2004-June of 2010, using a complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (50% PNT). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 23% (67/297) of the samples. The highest overall antibody prevalence (85%, 34/40) and mean positive antibody titer (12,113 ± 11,699 SD) were detected in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Antibodies were also detected in 50% (15/30) of sampled northern pike (E. lucius), 25% (15/61) of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), and 7% (3/41) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). All sera from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), silver redhorse (M. anisurum), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were negative. Antibodies in one or more fish species were detected in all sampling years (2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010), whereas in parallel sampling periods, VHS virus was detected only in 2006 and 2009. Our results suggest the continued presence of VHSV-IVb in the Lake St. Clair ecosystem, and underscore the importance of assessing immune responses of fish populations to determine prior virus exposure. PMID:22493115

Millard, Elena V; Faisal, Mohamed

2012-04-01

153

History of muskellunge management in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, were first introduced to Nebraska waters in 1958. By 1967 anglers had caught the first muskellunge from Nebraska waters.\\u000a Hybrid muskellunge, Esox masquinongy × E. lucius, culture and stocking started in 1976. Harvest regulations for muskellunge and hybrid muskellunge were first established\\u000a in 1977 with a daily bag limit of one muskellunge or hybrid muskellunge of at least 762 mm (30 inches) in

Daryl L. Bauer

154

History of muskellunge management in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, were first introduced to Nebraska waters in 1958. By 1967 anglers had caught the first muskellunge from Nebraska waters.\\u000a Hybrid muskellunge, Esox masquinongy × E. lucius, culture and stocking started in 1976. Harvest regulations for muskellunge and hybrid muskellunge were first established\\u000a in 1977 with a daily bag limit of one muskellunge or hybrid muskellunge of at least 762 mm (30 inches) in length.

Daryl L. Bauer

2007-01-01

155

Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff. Observed concentrations of nitrate, which was the most abundant nitrogen species in ground water in t he glacial aquifer, ranged from less than 0.05 to 5.1 mg/L as nitrogen, with a median of 1.1 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrogen measured in ground water were lower than estimated concentrations for recharge suggesting that dissolved nitrogen species may not be conservative in ground water. Nitrate is unstable in anoxic ground water and can be removed by denitrification. Ammonium can be sorbed onto the aquifer materials. Evidence for reducing conditions included a positive correlation between low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and low concentrations of nitrate. The estimated concentration of chloride in recharge ranged from 6.7 to 21 mg/L, and total annual load of chloride to ground water ranged from 19.4 to 50.6 x 10(3) lb/mi2. Chloride is considered to be a chemically conservative ion in ground water. Contributions of chloride to ground water from road salting were greater than contributions from septic tanks. Observed concentrations of chloride in 18 ground-water samples from the glacial aquifer ranged from 2.1 to 32 mg/L, with a median of 17.5 mg/L. Local contamination is indicated by the elevated concentrations of chloride (up to 680 mg/L) detected in four wells located downgradient of an abandoned industry that may have released salts in processing waste. Chloride concentrations in ground water appeared to be greater near major roads and in areas of relatively greater septic-system density than in areas upgradient of roads, farther downgradient from roads, or with less densely spaced septic systems.

Senior, L. A.

1994-01-01

156

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

SciTech Connect

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01

157

Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

2012-05-31

158

Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pike Lake is a 459-acre, mesotrophic to eutrophic dimictic lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over degrading water quality in the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify sources of phosphorus including the effects of short-circuiting of inflows, and determine how changes in phosphorus loading should affect the water quality of the lake. Measuring all significant water and phosphorus sources and estimating lesser sources was the method used to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets. The Rubicon River, ungaged near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water provide 55, 20, 17, and 7 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake through the Rubicon River outlet (87 percent) or by evaporation (13 percent). Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,500 pounds in 1999 and 2,400 pounds in 2000. About 80 percent of the phosphorus was from the Rubicon River, about half of which came from the watershed and half from a waste-water treatment plant in Slinger, Wisconsin. Inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting of phosphorus is facilitated by a meandering segment of the Rubicon River channel through a marsh at the north end of the lake. It is estimated that 77 percent of phosphorus from the Rubicon River in monitoring year 1999 and 65 percent in monitoring year 2000 was short-circuited to the outlet without entering the main body of the lake. Simulations using water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lake Model Suite (WiLMS) indicated Pike Lake's response to 13 different phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included a base 'normal' year (2000) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six different percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable sources, and six different loading scenarios corresponding to specific management actions. Model simulations indicate that a 50-percent reduction in controllable loading sources would be needed to achieve a mesotrophic classification with respect to phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth (an index of water clarity). Model simulations indicated that short-circuiting of phosphorus from the inlet to the outlet was the main reason the water quality of the lake is good relative to the amount of loading from the Rubicon River and that changes in the percentage of inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting have a significant influence on the water quality of the lake.

Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

2004-01-01

159

Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate. PMID:20470073

Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

2010-05-15

160

Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

161

Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

Gaikowski, M. P.; Larson, W. J.; Gingerich, W. H.

2008-01-01

162

Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development  

SciTech Connect

The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-03-01

163

Mercury content in the trophic chain of the Tanew River, Poland, ecosystem.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal posing a hazard to water ecosystems. This investigation was aimed at determining Hg content in the Tanew River, Poland, and subsequent transfer to fish inhabiting this lake. The area studied included approximately a 50-km distance of the river, with 5 sampling locations selected. Samples of water and bottom sediments were collected from 10 sites along the river-bank zone for each location. At the same location, fish were caught and samples of coastal water plants were collected. Fish that were caught included the following species: chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), ide (Leuciscus idus), and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Dominanting species of water plants included reed-mace (Typha angustifolia), rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), and water knotweed (Polygonum amphibium). Mercury content in samples of water, bottom sediments, water plants, and fish tissues (muscles and gills) were determined by using a Mercury/MA-2000 system (NIC, Japan). The average Hg content in the waters of Tanew ranged between 1 and 5 microg/L, and in the bottom sediments ranged between 17 and 214 microg/kg dry weight, which are characteristic values for typical unpolluted areas. The highest Hg contamination of waters and bottom sediments was found where the Tanew estuary enters the San River. Mercury levels in fish from the Tanew delta appeared to be higher compared to other sampling sites. Data indicated that even if water environment is contaminated with Hg to a limited extent, fish accumulate this metal at higher levels, probably due to a bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factor. PMID:20706942

Wa?kuska, Grazyna; Cha?abis-Mazurek, Agnieszka; Szkoda, Józef

2010-01-01

164

Amylolytic activity in fish intestinal mucosa: temperature effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity, temperature characteristics and energy of activation of amylolytic enzymes in the intestinal mucosa were studied in six species of fish living in a boreal zone [burbot (Lota lota L.), northern pike (Exos lucius L.), perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), bream (Abramis brama L.), roach (Rutilis rutilis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)] and in three species from tropical and

V Kuz'mina; L Glatman; V Drabkin; A Gelman

2003-01-01

165

Tapeworms of the Genus 'Triaenophorus', Parasites of Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents studies on tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, which in the adult phase parasitize primarily species of the genus Esox (pike), and in the plerocercoid phase parasitize many species of different fish groups. All the species of the genus...

B. I. Kuperman

1981-01-01

166

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran.  

PubMed

The main objectives of study were to monitor the metals concentrations, in freshwater fish species, Carassius gibelio and Esox lucius; and to identify any relationships between species and bioaccumulation of metals. The highest concentration of metals (cadmium, 1.96; copper, 24.2; zinc, 49.6; lead, 5.4; chromium, 4.4) between the fish species and tissues was in the liver of Esox lucius, while the lowest (cadmium,0.21; copper,7.2; zinc,19.4; lead,0.9; chromium,0.6 ?g/g) found in the muscle of Carassius gibelio. Results showed that the metal concentrations were in fishes in descending order of zinc > copper > lead > chromium > cadmium, similarly in the tissue liver > kidney > gill ~ intestine > muscle. PMID:21858708

Ebrahimpour, Mohammad; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Baramaki, Rahimeh; Babaei, Hadi; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

2011-08-21

167

Various aspects of piscine toxicology.  

PubMed

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

2010-09-01

168

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p???-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (???1.7 pg/g), arsenic (0.03-1.95 ??g/g), cadmium (<0.02-0.12 ??g/g), copper (0.41-1.49 ??g/g), and lead (<0.21-0.27 ??g/g) did not exceed toxicity thresholds for growth and reproduction in YRB fish. Concentrations of mercury (0.08-0.65 ??g/g), selenium (0.23-0.85 ??g/g), and zinc (11-56 ??g/g) exceeded toxicity thresholds in one or more samples and were included in the risk analysis for piscivorous wildlife. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHCs) and low effect hazard concentrations (LEHCs), derived from literature-based toxicity reference values and avian and mammalian life history parameters, were calculated for mercury, selenium, and zinc. Mercury concentrations in YRB fish exceeded the NEHCs for all bird and small mammal models, which indicated that mercury concentrations in fish may represent a risk to piscivorous wildlife throughout the YRB. Low risk to piscivorous wildlife was associated with selenium and zinc concentrations in YRB fish. Selenium and zinc concentrations exceeded the NEHCs and LEHCs for only the small bird model. These results indicate that mercury should continue to be monitored and assessed in Alaskan fish and wildlife. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Echols, K. R.; May, T. W.; Orazio, C. E.; Tillitt, D. E.

2006-01-01

169

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.  

PubMed

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Echols, Kathy R; May, Tom W; Orazio, Carl E; Tillitt, Donald E

2006-09-23

170

Various aspects of piscine toxicology  

PubMed Central

In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes. In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these “biomimetics of estrogen” can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath. Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic.

Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

2010-01-01

171

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2007-11-24

172

Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development…

Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

2009-01-01

173

77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition for rulemaking filed by Alatron...Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief, Audio Division, Media Bureau. [FR Doc. 2012-15990 Filed...

2012-06-29

174

Movements, homing, and home range of muskellunge, Esox masquinongy , in West Okoboji Lake, Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic telemetry was used to study the movement and behavior of nine adult muskellunge, 69 to 101 cm in total length. Intensive fish tracking conducted from June to August 1978 produced 1178 contacts, the basis for summer home range determinations. Eight fish established summer home ranges by the time surface water temperatures rose above 17°C in mid-June, and by early

Marlyn L. Miller; Bruce W. Menzel

1986-01-01

175

Interstate use of water - Sporhase v. El Paso, Pike and Vermejo  

SciTech Connect

A review of court rulings over water allocation examines the tests of a valid or permissible state restriction on interstate commerce. The cases differ in that the Sporhase Court ruled that water could move across the state line in a regulated market transaction, while the El Paso Court regulates state officials in the performance of resource allocation in the public domain. The author reviews the implications of these and other decisions which address the protection of local citizens and property holders by requiring exporters to replace the resource either capitalization or some other contribution of equal value.

Trelease, F.J.

1987-01-01

176

What would a socially just education system look like?: saving the minnows from the pike  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental neoliberal sense but in terms of more

Diane Reay

2012-01-01

177

Summer food and growth of chain pickerel, Esox niger , in brackish waters of the Severn River, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits and time of feeding were determined for 220 chain pickerel collected from a tributary of Chesapeake Bay in five\\u000a 24-hour sampling periods during June, July and August, 1958. Of the fish collected, only eight specimens were older than age\\u000a group 0. Even within young-of-the-year chain pickerel, differences in the stomach contents were noted between fish less than\\u000a 80

C. D. Meyers; R. J. Muncy

1962-01-01

178

Chemical Alarm Signals Enhance Survival of Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) During Encounters with Predatory Chain Pickerel (Esox niger)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversity of aquatic organisms release chemical alarm signals when attacked or captured by a predator. These alarm signals are thought to warn other conspecifics of danger and, consequently, may benefit receivers by increasing their survival. Here we experimentally investigated the diÄerences in behaviour and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis that had been exposed to either brook

Reehan S. Mirza; Douglas P. Chivers

2001-01-01

179

Creel Survey and Mail Survey Evaluation of Experimental Northern Pike Regulations on Three Lakes in Becker County, Minnesota. Completion Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Creel surveys was conducted on lakes Detroit, Sallie, and Melissa. Randomly selected individual interviewed in the creel surveys were asked to participate in a follow up mail survey. 'Experimental regulation' is a fisheries management tool that is being u...

D. O. Barsness

1995-01-01

180

Life Cycle Analysis for Biofuel Pellet Production on Reclaimed Mountain Top Coal Mining Sites in Pike County, Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaintop coal mining and valley filling drastically disturbs soils and removes essentially all soil organic carbon (SOC) from sites. Growing crops for biofuels on these marginal lands could be a practical way to sequester and offset carbon emissions from coal production and consumption. A life cycle model was developed to quantify the initial carbon density of the site and to

Alice Jones; Katie Young; James F. Fox; J. Campbell

2010-01-01

181

Estimates of the minimum size-limit for maximum yieldand production of chain pickerel, Esox niger LeSueur, in Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality rates for chain pickerel were deduced from weighted geometric means of age frequencies in an unexploited and an exploited population. Fishing mortality was con- sidered to be the difference between the two total mortality rates. Calculated growth in length and weight was detcrminod for a composite sample from 32 ponds. Relative yields were computed for six different size-limits and

SAUL B. SAILA

1956-01-01

182

Using movements and diet analyses to assess effects of introduced muskellunge ( Esox masquinongy ) on Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) in the Saint John River, New Brunswick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The muskellunge was introduced in the Saint John River system from stockings in a headwater lake in the 1970s. They have migrated\\u000a down the system as far as the river’s first dam, Mactaquac Hydroelectric Facility, at Fredericton and appear to have established\\u000a several reproducing populations along the river. This exotic invader represents a potential threat to the severely depleted\\u000a Atlantic

R. Allen Curry; Chad A. Doherty; Timothy D. Jardine; Steven L. Currie

183

Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

1983-06-01

184

78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...handle, release) pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhyncus albus), white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus Lucius), humpback chub (Gila cypha), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen...

2013-03-12

185

75 FR 67765 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis), masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Gila chub (Gila intermedia), humpback chub (Gila cypha), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius),...

2010-11-03

186

3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

187

12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

188

9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

189

1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

190

4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

191

2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

192

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

193

6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

194

10 CFR 2.4 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facility at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first...photograph, brochure, punch card, magnetic tape, paper tape, sound recording...the place at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike...

2013-01-01

195

Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pennsylvania\\/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern

J. C. Hower; J. D. Pollock; J. G. Klapheke

1986-01-01

196

76 FR 38119 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206.'' Categories of...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206.'' Notification procedure...Suite 901, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3206. Requests should...

2011-06-29

197

Pike, Steven D. (2007) Repertory Grid Analysis in group settings to elicit salient destination image attributes. Current Issues in Tourism 10(4):pp. 378-392. Copyright 2007 Multilingual Matters & Channel View Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Repertory Grid Analysis (RGA) was originally developed in clinical psychology, the technique has been adapted for use in a diverse range of fields. However, the technique is rarely addressed in marketing research texts and has not been fully utilised in the tourism literature. Also, RGA applications have predominantly been reported in the form of personal interviews. The article reports

Steven Pike

198

Coal Mine Safety and Health Report of Investigation: Underground Coal Mine. Fatal Fall of Roof Accident, April 20, 2006, No. 1, Tri Star Coal LLC, Phelps, Pike County, Kentucky, ID No. 15-18102.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 20, 2006, David Bolen, a 28-year-old shuttle car operator, was fatally injured in a roof fall accident on the 002-0 MMU Section. Bolen had 2 years of total mining experience and had worked nine weeks at this mine. The accident occurred as Bolen w...

2006-01-01

199

National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Greeley Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00752, PennDER I.D. Number 52-20), Delaware River Basin, Taylortown Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on a visual inspection, operational history, and hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, the dam is considered to be in fair condition. The size classification of the facility is small and its hazard classification is considered to be high. In accordance...

B. M. Mihalcin

1981-01-01

200

National Dam Inspection Program. Maple Lake Dam. Delaware River Basin, Stoffle-Denmark Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania (NDI ID Number PA-00766, DER ID Number 52-170). Pine Ridge Community Association. Phase I Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maple Lake Dam is a homogeneous, earthfill embankment. It is 35 feet high at its maximum section and 685 feet long. The main spillway is located at the maximum section of the dam. It consists of a reinforced concrete riser structure near the upstream toe ...

F. Futchko

1980-01-01

201

Colorado Pikeminnow Habitat Use in the San Juan River, New Mexico and Utah. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, the Colorado pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus lucius, occurred in the mainstem Colorado River and its tributaries from Wyoming to the Gulf of California. The San Juan River in New Mexico and Utah contains a small population of Colorado pikeminnow. ...

2000-01-01

202

77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Logan, Utah. The applicant requests renewal of an existing permit to take (capture, survey, and tag) bonytail (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in conjunction with surveys...

2012-03-20

203

Studies of Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River. Report A. Growth and Survival of Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River, Report B. Non-Spawning Movements of Subadult and Adult Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River. Report C. Status and Trends of the Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume binds together three separate reports on life history and population studies of the Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius) in the upper Colorado River. Principal topics covered are, (1) growth and adult survival rates, (2) dispersal pattern...

D. B. Osmundson R. J. Ryel T. E. Mourning M. E. Tucker B. D. Burdick W. R. Elmblad T. E. Chart K. P. Burnham

1997-01-01

204

76 FR 18576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), and green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi) for public display and propagation in conjunction with recovery activities for the...

2011-04-04

205

Evaluation of Population Estimates for Colorado Pikeminnow and Humpback Chub in the Upper Colorado River Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (UCRRP) coordinates population estimates for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and humpback chub (Gila cypha) in the Colorado River Basin. Reliable and precise estimates are...

2006-01-01

206

Brain–Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike\\u000a on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a\\u000a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair

Bernhard Graimann; Brendan Allison; Gert Pfurtscheller

2010-01-01

207

Arnold gesell and the maturation controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research\\u000a in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists\\u000a and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental\\u000a psychology

Thomas C. Dalton

2005-01-01

208

December 9, 2003 Correction letter for October 23, 2003 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration 1401 Rockville Pike Rockville MD ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

209

78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mobile; Pike. Contiguous Counties: Alabama: Baldwin; Barbour; Bullock; Coffee; Crenshaw; Dale; Montgomery; Washington. Mississippi: George; Greene; Jackson. The Interest Rates...

2013-01-23

210

Environmental Assessment  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Inc. 3. Address: Chestnut Run Plaza, Building 713 4417 Lancaster Pike Wilmington, Delaware 19805 All communications ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

211

77 FR 52379 - Disaster Declaration #13239 and #13240; OHIO Disaster # H-00030  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Harrison, Highland, Hocking, Jackson, Knox, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Meigs, Miami, Monroe, Morgan, Morrow, Muskingum, Noble, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, Washington. The Interest Rates...

2012-08-29

212

77 FR 54600 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Harrison, Highland, Hocking, Jackson, Knox, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Meigs, Miami, Monroe, Morgan, Morrow, Muskingum, Noble, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, and Washington Counties for Public...

2012-09-05

213

Predator-induced respiratory responses in juveniles of vendace Coregonus albula, whitefish C. lavaretus, perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-induced respiratory responses of juvenile vendace, whitefish, perch and roach were studied in an intermittent-flow respirometer by creating visual contact between test fishes and predators (juvenile northern pike). Vendace and whitefish always responded to the presence of pike with increased oxygen consumption. The response of perch was the opposite: oxygen consumption decreased to near the standard respiratory level. Roach responded

Hannu Huuskonen; Juha Karjalainen

1997-01-01

214

The Reports of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated: Tagmemics and the Politics of Indifference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1965, Richard Young and Alton Becker announced the task of founding a "modern theory of rhetoric," building on the insights of tagmemic linguist, Kenneth Pike. Five years later, their collaboration with Pike resulted in a textbook, "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," whose broad purpose was to restore invention to its proper place at the heart of…

Edwards, Bruce L.

215

5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

216

8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

217

Feeding and Refuge Use by Small Fish in the Presence of Cyanobacteria Blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of cyanobacteria on foraging and refuge use in small fish. We measured pike larval feeding in the presence of cyanobacteria by counting leftover prey. Our results showed that feeding by pike larvae on zooplankton prey decreased significantly in the presence of non-toxic cyanobacteria. The behaviour can be due to lowered vision caused by turbidity or clogging

Jonna Engström-Öst; Miina Karjalainen; Markku Viitasalo

2006-01-01

218

FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

219

50 CFR 32.64 - Utah.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bottom. 8. We prohibit possession or consumption of any alcoholic beverage while hunting...within Leota, Johnson, Brennan, and the northern portion of Wyasket Bottom (the southern...caught (razorback sucker, Colorado pike minnow, humpbacked chub, or...

2010-10-01

220

50 CFR 32.64 - Utah.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bottom. 8. We prohibit possession or consumption of any alcoholic beverage while hunting...within Leota, Johnson, Brennan, and the northern portion of Wyasket Bottom (the southern...caught (razorback sucker, Colorado pike minnow, humpbacked chub, or...

2009-10-01

221

Influenza Virus Vaccine for the 2008-2009 Season  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... is identical to that recommended by the World Health Organization on February 14, 2008, for the Northern Hemisphere's 2008 ... 1401 Rockville Pike. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/post-marketactivities

222

Recall of Additional Lot of Leukocyte Reduction BPF4 High ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... MANUFACTURER: Pall Medical Corporation 2200 Northern Blvd East Hills, NY 11548. REASON: ... 1401 Rockville Pike. Suite 200N/HFM-47. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

223

Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

224

78 FR 15055 - License Renewal Application for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequoyah Nuclear Plant is located in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. The current operating license for...necessary. Both sessions will be held at the Soddy Daisy City Hall, 9835 Dayton Pike, Soddy Daisy, TN 37379. Both meetings will be...

2013-03-08

225

March 25, 1999 Approval Letter - NovoSeven  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), HFM-210, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-1448. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

226

BP010009 Cambridge Biotech HIV-1 Urint Wetern Blot ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... HFM-99) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Food and Drug Administration 1401 Rockville Pike RockvilIe, Maryland 20852-1448 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

227

Notice of Intent to Revoke (NOIR) Letter: Allermed ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, Maryland 20852-1448. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

228

BRCA1 Mutation Not Linked to Worse Cancer Survival  

MedlinePLUS

... and his colleagues tested more than 3,300 Polish women younger than 50 years old with recently ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

229

Health Information in Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... kajin Majöl) Nepali (??????) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Punjabi (??????) Romanian (Român?) ... Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

230

Product Review and Approval Memo for BLA 125363/0 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Food & Drug Administration 1401 Rockville Pike ... b)(4)---- and Table 4 displays the ----(b)(4 ... 3 are different from those displayed in Table 4 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

231

75 FR 19328 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kentucky River. Scotch Fork (Backwater effects from From the confluence None +570...Unincorporated Areas of Kentucky River). with Sugar Creek to Garrard County. approximately...Ridge Pike. Sugar Creek (Backwater effects from From the confluence None...

2010-04-14

232

Record of Telephone Conversation, August 16, 2011 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Project Manager CBER/OVRR/DVRPA/CMC3 1451 Rockville Pike (WOC2) Room 2241 HFM-481 Rockville, MD 20857 Phone: (301) 796-2640. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

233

CO(sub 2)/sand fracturing in Devonian shales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO2)/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for ...

A. B. Yost R. L. Mazza J. B. Gehr

1993-01-01

234

28 CFR 16.2 - Public reading rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in Suite 2400, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia; (6) Federal Bureau of Investigation--at the J. Edgar Hoover Building, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC; (7) Foreign Claims Settlement Commission--in...

2009-07-01

235

28 CFR 16.2 - Public reading rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in Suite 2400, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia; (6) Federal Bureau of Investigationâat the J. Edgar Hoover Building, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC; (7) Foreign Claims Settlement Commissionâin...

2010-07-01

236

77 FR 25225 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00027  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the State of West Virginia (FEMA--4061...declaration for the State of West Virginia, dated 03/22/2012...Economic Injury Loans): Lincoln, Mingo. Contiguous...Kentucky: Martin, Pike. Virginia: Buchanan. West Virginia:...

2012-04-27

237

Refinement of the Crystal Structure of Nacrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of nacrite from Pike's Peak district, Colorado, has been refined by least squares and electron density difference maps utilizing ten levels of data. Complete refinement was inhibited by thick domains involving a\\/3 interlayer shifts in the \\

Alice M. Blount; I. M. THREADGOLD; S. W. BAILEY

1969-01-01

238

November 17, 2011: Cellular, Tissue and Gene Therapies ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Gail Dapolito or Sheryl Clark 1401 Rockville Pike, HFM-71, Rockville, MD 20852 301-827-0314 FAX: 301-827-0294 e-mail: gail.dapolito@fda.hhs ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/calendar

239

75 FR 63493 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Bratin K. Saha, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Program Coordination and Referral Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2010-10-15

240

76 FR 5597 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Bratin K. Saha, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Program Coordination and Referral Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2011-02-01

241

76 FR 29770 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Bratin K. Saha, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Program Coordination and Referral Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2011-05-23

242

75 FR 14172 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Washington DC/Rockville Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Bratin K. Saha, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Program Coordination and Referral Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2010-03-24

243

Effects of Altitude Acclimatization on Pulmonary Function in Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forced vital capacity, timed vital capacity (FEV1), maximum breathing capacity, maximum midexpiratory flow, and voluntary apnea were determined in eight college women first at low altitude and then during and after a summer's residence (65 days) at Pikes ...

J. L. Shields J. P. Hannon C. W. Harris W. S. Platner

1968-01-01

244

Information Request Letter, November 28, 2012 - BAT  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Sincerely,. Nannette Cagungun, MS, PD, RAC Regulatory Project Manager OBRR/CBER/FDA, HFM-380 1401 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD 20852 ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

245

Biologics License Application Filing Letter - BAT  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Public Health ... Food and Drug Administration. 1401 Rockville Pike. Rockville ... 351 of the Public Health Service Act. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

246

The Technological Setting of the Public Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses future possibilities for information technology in public libraries, particularly in view of decreasing computer costs and developmental trends in data processing. The technological developments of the Pikes Peak Regional Library are outlined as an example of feasibility. (CWM)|

Dowlin, Kenneth E.

1978-01-01

247

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SOUTH WEST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

248

19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SECOND FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

249

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

250

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'FIRST FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

251

23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. SHEET OF SECTIONS AND ROOM ELEVATIONS - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

252

78 FR 34701 - Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Champaign, Coles, Cumberland, Edgar, Greene, Jersey, Morgan, Moultrie, Piatt, Scott, Stephenson, Vermilion. Indiana: Vigo. Missouri: Lincoln, Marion, Pike, Ralls, Saint Charles. Wisconsin: Green, Rock. All other information in the...

2013-06-10

253

FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION RECORD - GLASSIA, June 11 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionFACSIMILE TRANSMISSION RECORD Division of Blood Applications 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 400N, HFM-380 Rockville, Maryland 20852-1448 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

254

'Prolonged Exposure' Therapy May Help Vets with PTSD  

MedlinePLUS

... version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

255

More U.S. Women Having Kids in Their 30s and 40s  

MedlinePLUS

... version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us on Twitter Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

256

9. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April 27, 1936 11:25 A.M. VIEW FROM EAST (front) - The Cottage, 11904 Old Marlboro Pike, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

257

2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer April 3, 1936 3:00 P. M. VIEW OF CHAPEL FROM NORTH - Compton Bassett Chapel, Marlboro Pike (State Route 408), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

258

2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer July 23, 1936 10:05 A. M. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST (front) - Compton Bassett, 16508 Old Marlboro Pike, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

259

7. INTERIOR SIDE OF SPLAYED WINDOW OF SOUTH FRONT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR SIDE OF SPLAYED WINDOW OF SOUTH FRONT OF WEST STONE WING. NOTE PANELED JAMBS AND HEAD. (see also KY-204-4 for exterior view). - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

260

5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

261

75 FR 20589 - City of Oberlin, OH; Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oberlin) and Free Flow Power Missouri 1, LLC (Free Flow Power) filed preliminary...f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to...of the Pike Island Hydroelectric Project, to be located...powerhouse containing three turbine generating units...

2010-04-20

262

21 CFR 314.440 - Addresses for applications and abbreviated applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drug products listed below to the Document Control Center (HFM-99), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 1401 Rockville Pike...an application to the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-1), at...

2013-04-01

263

76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2011-03-02

264

78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-10-30

265

Interdisciplinary Approach to Predictive Modeling of Structural Adhesive Bonding. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Oxides and the Adhesive/Oxide Interphase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hydrothermal durability of adhesive bonds is currently an active area of research. This work focuses on titanium/epoxy bonding using metal alkoxide primers as adhesive promoters. Pike showed that sec-butyl aluminum alkoxide enhances the durability of ...

J. A. Filbey J. P. Wightman

1986-01-01

266

78 FR 35309 - Illinois; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fulton, Grundy, Henderson, Kendall, Knox, Lake, LaSalle, Livingston, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, Pike, Rock Island, Stark, and Woodford Counties for Public Assistance (already designated for Individual Assistance). Adams, Mercer, Ogle,...

2013-06-12

267

76 FR 19116 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Putnam, Richland, Rock Island, Schuyler, Scott, Shelby, Stark, Tazewell, Warren, Washington, Whiteside, Will, Winnebago...Morgan, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Putnam, Rock Island, Schuyler, Stark, Tazewell, Warren, Whiteside, Will, Winnebago, and...

2011-04-06

268

77 FR 64813 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Delia Tang, MD, Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer...

2012-10-23

269

Microsoft Word - Agenda 09 24 2003 DCLG Meeting - Final2.doc  

Cancer.gov

1 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE 24th Meeting DIRECTOR’S CONSUMER LIAISON GROUP (DCLG) Wednesday, September 24, 2003 Doubletree Hotel 1750 Rockville Pike Rockville, Maryland 20852

270

Source code that talks: an exploration of Eclipse task comments and their implication to repository mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmer performing a change task to a system can benefit from accurate comments on the source code. As part of good programming practice described by Kernighan and Pike in the book , comments should \\

Annie T. T. Ying; James L. Wright; Steven Abrams

2005-01-01

271

77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-29

272

77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-16

273

78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-21

274

78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2013-08-19

275

77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-10-18

276

77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-11-15

277

77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-12-17

278

78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

2013-05-10

279

77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-15

280

77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-05-29

281

77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-08-01

282

77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-09-28

283

Review of Pertussis Assays - July 21, 2009 - Prevnar 13  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Study 6096A1-008 (France). Pertussis-containing vaccine used: (Pentavac). ... 1401 Rockville Pike. Suite 200N/HFM-47. Rockville, MD 20852-1448. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

284

77 FR 22580 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Executive Meeting, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Shakeel Ahmad, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2012-04-16

285

76 FR 80375 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive M, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Shakeel Ahmad, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2011-12-23

286

78 FR 27410 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20892. Contact Person: Shakeel Ahmad, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National...

2013-05-10

287

28 CFR 16.2 - Public reading rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in Suite 2400, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia; (6) Federal Bureau of Investigationâat the J. Edgar Hoover Building, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC; (7) Foreign Claims Settlement Commissionâin...

2013-07-01

288

75 FR 45096 - Foreign-Trade Zone 138 - Columbus, Ohio Area, Application for Reorganization under Alternative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Crawford, Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Guernsey, Highland, Hocking, Knox, Licking, Logan, Madison, Marion, Morrow, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Ross, Union, Vinton and Wyandot Counties, Ohio, as described in the application. If...

2010-08-02

289

77 FR 41447 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12000446 Fayette County Spindletop Farm, 3414 Ironworks Pike, Lexington, 12000447 Springview Farm, 3076 Royster Rd., Lexington...MASSACHUSETTS Essex County Towne Farm, 55 Towne Rd., Boxford...J.J. and Son, Carriage Factory, 117 West St.,...

2012-07-13

290

Liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 2.0 times more gas than nitrogen gas treated wells and produce 21.9 MMcf additional gas per well. After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 4.4 times more gas than nitrogen foam treated wells and produce 33.1 MMcf additional gas per well. For the Pike County, Kentucky, study area, payout times for the incremental cost of stimulation is estimated conservatively at less than 9 months. Both groups of wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area show consistent relative Production improvements compared to the overall study area results.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1995-06-01

291

25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

2010-04-01

292

25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

2009-04-01

293

CO(sub 2)/sand fracturing in Devonian shale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approa...

A. B. Yost R. L. Mazza J. B. Gehr

1993-01-01

294

Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration 1401 Rockville Pike Rockville, MD 20852-1448. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/bloodsafety

295

77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International, Inc.; Mike The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources...operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is a Delaware corporation based in California....

2012-09-19

296

Pelagic C:N:P Stoichiometry in a Eutrophied Lake: Responses to a Whole-Lake Food-Web Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the ecological stoichiometry of C, N, and P in the pelagic zone are reported from a whole-lake manipulation of\\u000a the food web of Lake 227, an experimentally eutrophied lake at the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada. Addition of northern pike\\u000a eliminated populations of planktivorous minnows by the third year (1995) after pike introduction, and in the fourth year after

James J. Elser; Robert W. Sterner; Amy E. Galford; Thomas H. Chrzanowski; David L. Findlay; Kenneth H. Mills; Michael J. Paterson; Michael P. Stainton; David W. Schindler

2000-01-01

297

The Integration of Learning into Models of Human Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since memory was first distinguished as a separate phenomenon from learning(Melton, 1963), researchers in the area have concentrated on the memory component.Mathematical models, such as SAM (Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981; Gillund& Shiffrin, 1984), TODAM (Murdock, 1982), CHARM (Eich, 1982), Minerva II(Hintzman, 1984) and the matrix model (Pike, 1984; Humphreys, Bain, & Pike,1989), have focussed on the mechanisms of encoding, storage

Simon John Dennis

1994-01-01

298

Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources.

Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Soderlund, Tony

2005-01-01

299

From Dr. Moreau to Dr. Mengele: The Biological Sublime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the cultural genealogy of the image of Dr. Death: the godlike surgeon with power over life and death, who uses this power to torture and mutilate. First appearing in H. G. Wells's The Island of Doctor Moreau (????), this image has become firmly associated with Nazi medicine, as demonstrated by Lucius Shep- ard's short story ''Mengele'' (????).This

Elana Gomel

2000-01-01

300

Polyphyly of the Pikeminnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Inferred Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius, northern pikeminnow P. oregonensis, Sacramento pikeminnow P. grandis, Umpqua pikeminnow P. umpquae, and hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus were examined by using molecular data to investigate monophyly of the genus Ptychocheilus. Phylogenies generated using DNA sequence data from the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal DNA genes of the mitochondrial genome reveal that Ptychocheilus

Derek D. Houston; T. Heath Ogden; Michael F. Whiting; Dennis K. Shiozawa

2010-01-01

301

Status and Trends of the Endangered Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status of the Colorado River population of the endangered Colorado squawfishPtych- ocheilus lucius (recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) was investigated by (1) estimating adult numbers, (2) evaluating frequency of reproduction and recruitment, (3) identifying trends via changes in size structure over time, and (4) examining historical accounts for clues to former abundance. Adults and subadults were systematically captured from 278

D. B. Osmundson; K. P. Burnham

1998-01-01

302

Flow regime affects availability of native and nonnative prey of an endangered predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how altered flow regimes mediate interactions among native and nonnative species is necessary for the conservation of aquatic systems. Anthropogenic alteration of natural flows and establishment of nonnative fishes coincided with near extirpation of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) from the San Juan River, NM, USA. Despite major efforts to re-establish this species, recruitment of young individuals into the adult

Nathan R. Franssen; Keith B. Gido; David L. Propst

2007-01-01

303

Fish Associations and Environmental Variables in Age0 Colorado Squawfish Habitats, Green River, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-0 Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius were sympatric with seven native and 15 introduced fishes in the Green River, Utah, 1979–88. Larval Colorado squawfish was the most abundant fish captured in summer drift (38%), which included suckers Catostomus spp. (33%), speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (14%), and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (3%). However, ephemeral shoreline embayments (backwaters) used by Colorado squawfish as

G. Bruce Haines; Harold M. Tyus

1990-01-01

304

Movements of Adult Colorado Squawfish during the Spawning Season in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius spawned in widely separated areas through- out the 350-km section of the upper Colorado River upstream from Lake Powell, Utah, as evi- denced by the movement of radio-tagged adults during the spawning season and the later capture of larvae. With one exception, tagged fish remained separated from each other during the spawning season. Distances moved by

CHARLES W. MCADA; LYNN R. KAEDING

1991-01-01

305

Interaction of slow growth and increased early-life mortality: an hypothesis on the decline of Colorado squawfish in the upstream regions of its historic range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado squawfish, Ptychocheilus lucius, the principal native piscivore of the Colorado River basin, was once widespread and abundant in large rivers and their major tributaries. It occurs today only in the upstream regions of its historic range and is threatened with extinction. Growth rate of the species there is much slower than its potential rate and the rate that

Lynn R. Kaeding; Douglas B. Osmundson

1988-01-01

306

The systematics and ecology of snakeheads (Pisces: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of snakeheads (Channidae) are known from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, viz. Channa bankanensis, C. gachua, C. lucius, C. marulioides, C. melasoma, C. micropeltes and C. striata. Up-to-date distribution maps of each species are presented, including new records. Their systematics is reviewed and partially revised. The taxonomic status of C. marulioides and C. melanoptera is clarified. Specimens from Peninsular

P. G. Lee; Peter K. L. Ng

1994-01-01

307

Seneca in Cuba: Gender, Race, and the Revolution in José Triana's Medea en el espejo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article places renewed emphasis on the gender and racial dynamics in José Triana's Medea en el espejo (Medea in the Mirror; Havana, 1960) by examining its relationship to Lucius Annaeus Seneca's Medea, a major source of inspiration for the Cuban dramatist that has been overlooked in contemporary scholarship. It demonstrates that Triana appropriates the image of Medea as a

Konstantinos P. Nikoloutsos

2012-01-01

308

Fish Community Responses to the Introduction of Muskellunge into Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of sportfishing for muskellunge Esox masquinongy in Minnesota has increased substantially during the last 20 years and has resulted in a call for creating more fishing opportunities. As new waters are considered for muskellunge management, some anglers have expressed concern over the effects on other popular game fish species of adding a top-level predator. We evaluated the responses

Michael L. Knapp; Steven W. Mero; David J. Bohlander; David F. Staples; Jerry A. Younk

2012-01-01

309

Characteristics of Muskellunge Spermatozoa II: Effects of Ions and Osmolality on Sperm Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of potassium, sodium, glucose, and calcium concentra- tions, alone or in combinations, on sperm motility in muskellunge Esox masquinongy. Sperm motility was evaluated by the duration of sperm movement and the initial percentage of motile sperm. The osmolality of diluents rather than the specific ions or nonelectrolyt e played a major role in the regulation of

FENG LIN; KONRAD DABROWSKI

1996-01-01

310

An Ecological Context for Evaluating the Factors Influencing Muskellunge Stocking Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an ecological perspective, predation, competition or resource partitioning, and abiotic factors interact to affect species distribution and abundance. To make management recommendations, I review research dealing with the relative influence of these factors in determining stocking success of muskellunge Esox masquinongy. Survival of stocked muskellunge is affected by losses to resident predators. Prey preference and composition are also important,

David H. Wahl

1999-01-01

311

Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor: Discovering biological information from proteomics data.  

PubMed

One of the main goals in proteomics is to solve biological and molecular questions regarding a set of identified proteins. In order to achieve this goal, one has to extract and collect the existing biological data from public repositories for every protein and afterward, analyze and organize the collected data. Due to the complexity of this task and the huge amount of data available, it is not possible to gather this information by hand, making it necessary to find automatic methods of data collection. Within a proteomic context, we have developed Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor (PIKE) which solves this problem by automatically accessing several public information systems and databases across the Internet. PIKE bioinformatics tool starts with a set of identified proteins, listed as the most common protein databases accession codes, and retrieves all relevant and updated information from the most relevant databases. Once the search is complete, PIKE summarizes the information for every single protein using several file formats that share and exchange the information with other software tools. It is our opinion that PIKE represents a great step forward for information procurement and drastically reduces manual database validation for large proteomic studies. It is available at http://proteo.cnb.csic.es/pike. PMID:20707001

Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Paradela, Alberto; Macht, Marcus; Thiele, Herbert; Corthals, Garry; Albar, Juan Pablo

2010-09-01

312

Factors Affecting Recruitment of Young Colorado Pikeminnow: Synthesis of Predation Experiments, Field Studies, and Individual-Based Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation experiments, field studies, and individual-based-model (IBM) simulations revealed factors that affected the survival and recruitment of early life stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius in the Green River basin, Utah and Colorado. Small-bodied, nonnative red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis attacked Colorado pikeminnow larvae an average of once per minute, and predation success approached 30% in laboratory aquaria. Attack rate

K. R. Bestgen; D. W. Beyers; J. A. Rice; G. B. Haines

2006-01-01

313

Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow: A Comparison among Hatchery Stocks and Historic Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius is a federally endangered species restricted to the Colorado River. Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center, Dexter, New Mexico, maintains three separate captive stocks of the Colorado pikeminnow: 1974YC (Yampa River), 1981YC (Green–Colorado rivers), and 1991YC (Colorado River). We surveyed mitochondrial DNA diversity in these three stocks (879 base pairs [bp]; ND-4L and ND-4

Kimberly Borley; Matthew M. White

2006-01-01

314

Dispersal Patterns of Subadult and Adult Colorado Squawfish in the Upper Colorado River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated distribution and dispersal patterns of subadult and adult Colorado squawfish Ptychocheilus lucius (recently renamed the Colorado pikeminnow) throughout their range in the upper Colorado River. Annual, river-wide, capture–recapture data were used to document movements during a 5-year period (1991–1995). Average total length of Colorado squawfish progressively increased upstream: juveniles and subadults occurred almost exclusively in the lowermost 105

D. B. Osmundson; R. J. Ryel; M. E. Tucker; B. D. Burdick; W. R. Elmblad; T. E. Chart

1998-01-01

315

Temperature Preferences of Four Fish Species in an Electronic Thermoregulatory Shuttlebox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature preferences of four fish species were studied in an electronic thermoregulatory shuttlebox. The modal temperature preferences (final preferenda) of the four species were: black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), 24°C; carp (Cyprinus carpio), 29°C; chain pickerel (Esox niger), 24°C; and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), 26°C. The species differed in thermoregulatory precision as well as in final preferred temperature, indicating the species-specific nature

W. W. Reynolds; M. E. Casterlin

1977-01-01

316

Frequency Distributions of Trace Metal Concentrations in Five Freshwater Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn were determined for samples of chain pickerel (Esox niger), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), brook silverside (Labidesthes sicculus), and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) from a 1,120-hectare impoundment near Aiken, South Carolina. Species differences in mean concentrations were found for all five elements. Frequency distributions of 23 species-element groupings

John P. Giesy Jr; James G. Wiener

1977-01-01

317

Weak trophic interactions between large predatory fishes and herpetofauna in the channelized Kissimmee River, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that large predatory fishes are major predators of amphibians and reptiles along littoral ecotones\\u000a by examining the diets of 70 bowfin (Amia calva), 22 chain pickerel (Esox niger), 235 Florida gar (Lepisosteus platyrinchus), 258 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 46 warmouth (Lepomis gulosus) collected from enhanced and non-enhanced portions of the channelized Kissimmee River, Florida, USA.

Frank Jordan; D. Albrey Arrington

2001-01-01

318

Relative Weight as a Body Condition Index for Chain Pickerel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight-length data from 115 chain pickerel Esox niger populations from 13 states and one Canadian province were used to develop a standard weight (Ws) equation that would allow calculation of relative weight (Wr) values. We developed the 75th-percentile Ws equation using the regression-line-percentile (RLP) method. The proposed Ws equation is log10Ws(g) = ?5.824 + 3.243 log10total length (TL; mm). The

Robert M. Neumann; Mark K. Flammang

1997-01-01

319

Direct and indirect effects of predation on mosquitofish behavior and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation can have strong direct and indirect effects on the behavior of prey. We investigated whether predation by chain\\u000a pickerel (Esox niger) caused adult eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) to alter their habitat use and whether pickerel predation influenced survival of adult and neonate mosquitofish. The number\\u000a of adult mosquitofish using the riskier of three habitats was lowest when two predators

Dana L. Winkelman; John M. Aho

1993-01-01

320

Frequency distributions of trace metal concentrations in five freshwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole body concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn were determined for samples of chain pickerel (Esox niger), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), brook silverside (Labidesthes sicculus), and golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) from a 1,120-hectare impoundment near Aiken, South Carolina. Species differences in mean concentrations were found for all five elements. Frequency distributions of 23 species-element groupings

JOHN P. GIESY; JAMES G. WIENER

1977-01-01

321

Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Mercury in Two Warmwater Fish Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in two Connecticut lakes for six fish species representing a range of trophic levels—largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), chain pickerel (Esox niger), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury concentrations in all fishes increased with length and age. Slopes of log10 mercury concentration-age regressions, which

Robert M. Neumann; Scott M. Ward

1999-01-01

322

Walleye and Muskellunge Movement in the Manitowish Chain of Lakes, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified within-year and between-year movement of walleyes Sander vitreus and muskellunge Esox masquinongy in the Manitowish Chain of 10 interconnected lakes in Vilas County, Wisconsin. Beginning in May 2004, we marked 7,427 walleyes (55–2,720 fish\\/lake) and 491 muskellunge (24–99 fish\\/lake) with T-bar anchor tags and marked 33 walleyes and 36 muskellunge with radio tags. Tags were recaptured and recovered

Michael J. Hansen

2009-01-01

323

Distribution and possible sources of total mercury in sediments from the Newark Bay Estuary, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening survey conducted by investigators of total mercury (Hg) concentrations in freshwater fishes from New Jersey rivers and lakes revealed elevated concentrations (>0.5 mg\\/kg wet weight) in the edible tissues of several species. The highest Hg concentrations were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and chain pickerel(Esox niger) from waterbodies in the northeastern portion of the state that are

T. J. Iannuzzi; R. J. Wenning

1995-01-01

324

Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo…

Bucklin, L. Brice

325

The Method of Culture Contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we suggest that research is a practical activity building on local category systems belonging specifically to research (etic categories) as well as categories belonging specifically to the national culture of the researcher (emic categories) (Pike 1967). Much cross-cultural research can be argued to rest on what has been called implicit comparisons (Nader 1994) of such categorisations. We

Cathrine Hasse; Stine Trentemøller

2009-01-01

326

Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English–Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass,

April Kinghorn; Patricia Solomon; Hing Man Chan

2007-01-01

327

Stocking piscivores to improve fishing and water clarity: a synthesis of the Lake Mendota biomanipulation project  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. A total of 2.7 · 106 walleye fingerlings and 1.7 · 105 northern pike fingerlings were stocked during 1987-99 in eutrophic Lake Mendota. The objectives of the biomanipulation were to improve sport fishing and to increase piscivory to levels that would reduce planktivore biomass, increase Daphnia grazing and ultimately reduce algal densities in the lake. The combined biomass

R. C. L ATHROP; B. M. J OHNSON; T. B. J OHNSON; M. T. V OGELSANG; S. R. C ARPENTER

328

The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

2006-09-01

329

A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated…

Jacobs, Peter J.

330

Using Citizen Science beyond Teaching Science Content: A Strategy for Making Science Relevant to Students' Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel…

Jenkins, Lynda L.

2011-01-01

331

EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS ON SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH. (TOXICITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM AND LEAD TO EGGS AND FRY OF SEVEN FISH SPECIES.)  

EPA Science Inventory

Embryo and larvae of rainbow trout, lake trout, channel catfish, bluegill, white sucker, northern pike, and walleye were exposed for 60 days after hatch to lead and chromium in soft water. Brook trout, channel catfish, and walleyes were also exposed for 60 days after hatch to cop...

332

Learning about Life and Death Issues: Even Young Children Can Understand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher of an inclusive K-3 class in Pike County, Kentucky, chose coal as a topic because it had meaning to her students and they could use the community as a learning laboratory. Although a democratic classroom fostered student ownership of the material, older and younger students had different motivational requirements. (TD)

Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

2000-01-01

333

Sexual Conflict as a Consequence of Ecology: Evidence from Guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Populations in Trinidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the behaviour of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, in the wild reveals that sexual conflict varies markedly in different habitats. Males from high-predation sites in Trinidad (where the pike cichlid Crenicichla alta occurs) engage in less antipredator behaviour than females, have lower foraging rates than males from low-risk sites and are able to devote a greater proportion of their

Anne E. Magurran; Benoni H. Seghers

1994-01-01

334

Anthropometric Changes Associated with High Altitude Acclimatization in Females.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anthropometric effects of prolonged high altitude exposure were studied in eight college women who lived on the summit of Pikes Peak (14,100 ft.) for 2.5 months. Acclimatization to altitude was associated with a decrease of skinfold thickness and a re...

J. P. Hannon J. L. Shields C. W. Harris

1969-01-01

335

Intelligent Language Comprehension System for Automatic Data Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 911 attacking, London and India explosion, South Asia tsunami, Pakistan earthquake and North Korea missile launching incidences all brought terrible disaster or big threat. It is quite important for government agencies to acquire significant information and have good preparation before the disaster occurs. However, there are huge pike of information. How to extract and display the significant information in

Chang-Lung Tsai; Thomas Chiang Chuang

2006-01-01

336

History of Street Gangs in the United States. National Gang Center Bulletin No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first active gangs in Western civilization were reported by Pike, a widely respected chronicler of British crime. He documented the existence of gangs of highway robbers in England during the 17th century, and he speculates that similar gangs might we...

J. C. Howell J. P. Moore

2010-01-01

337

Heavy metal contamination in freshwater fish from the border region between Norway and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni and Zn in muscle, liver and gills were studied in whitefish, perch, pike, brown trout, burbot and vendace from three lake localities in a watercourse in the border region between Norway and Russia, in the vicinity of mining activity and several metallurgic smelters. The contents of Cd and Ni in fish tissue

Per-Arne Amundsen; Frode J. Staldvik; Anatolij A. Lukin; Nikolai A. Kashulin; Olga A. Popova; Yuri S. Reshetnikov

1997-01-01

338

Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional…

Knight, Bob G.

2011-01-01

339

77 FR 56240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on September 20, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

2012-09-12

340

Things That Go Bump in the Night: Recent Developments in Horror Fiction for Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether teachers are horror fans or not, part of a teacher's service to student readers is to recommend recent and good horror novels. Unlike the almost idiosyncratic horror market of years past, today a series of recognizable horror writer such as Christopher Pike, D. E. Atkins, R. L. Stine and others are turning out numerous titles specifically…

Christenbury, Leila

341

Executive Summary October 24-25, 2005: Workshop home page  

Cancer.gov

Frontiers in Metabolomics for Cancer Research Meeting Date: October 24-25, 2005 Meeting Location: DoubleTree Hotel and Executive Meeting Center1750 Rockville PikeRockville, MD 20852Telephone: (301) 468-1100Fax: (301) 468-0308Web site:

342

METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

343

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite,

Steele

1982-01-01

344

FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 fro...

345

Videotape Recording of Narcotic Addicts in Group Therapy: The Analysis of Communicational and Interactive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An approach to the study of drug sub-culture groups and a model for predictive research in the identification and isolation of heroin addicts are developed in this thesis. The basic methodologies employed are the linguistic methods of Kenneth Pike and Claude Levi-Strauss for use in the analysis of social phenomena. Communicative mechanisms by…

Soloway, Irv

346

Laboratory-Acquired Mycoses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most widely quoted of studies that summarize cases of laboratory-acquired infections are by Sulkin and Pike, who included laboratory-acquired infections in the U.S. from 1930 to 1950 and worldwide infections from 1950 to 1963. Because these studies do...

E. Hanel R. H. Kruse

1967-01-01

347

Some petrological aspects of the Prairie Creek diamond-bearing kimberlite diatreme, Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on modal and chemical composition, the rocks of the Prairie Creek diatreme situated 4 km SSE of Murfreesboro, Pike County, Arkansas, are classified as micaceous kimberlite. The K-Ar isotopic analysis of phlogopite from this diatreme yielded an age of 106 ± 3 m.y. (Albian) which is in agreement with stratigraphic relations. Electron beam probe data on minerals from kimberlite

Subbarayudu V. Gogineni; Charles E. Melton; A. A. Giardini

1978-01-01

348

A stochastic model of radiation carcinogenesis: Latent time distributions and their properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model of radiation carcinogenesis is proposed that has much in common with the ideas suggested by M. Pike as early as 1966. The model allows one to obtain a parametric family of substochastic-type distributions for the time of tumor latency that provides a description of the rate of tumor development and the number of affected individuals. With this

L. V. Klebanov; A. Yu. Yakovlev; S. T. Rachev

1993-01-01

349

Microsoft Word - BSA Agenda June 2007 F.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 26, 2007 AGENDA National Cancer Institute 37th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Building 31, C Wing, Conference Room 10 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland Thursday, 28 June 2007 - 8:00 a.m. - Adjournment -

350

25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

2013-04-01

351

The Tagmemic Discovery Procedure: An Evaluation of Its Uses in the Teaching of Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to determine whether instruction in the tagmemic discovery procedure significantly improves the student's ability to inquire into ill-defined problems and to communicate the results clearly and persuasively, an experimental course based on the first half of Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike's "Rhetoric: Discovery and…

Young, Richard E.; Koen, Frank M.

352

40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...north along the Forest boundary to Old Stage Road; southwest on Old Stage Road to Gold Camp Road; north on Gold Camp Road to High Drive; north on High Drive to Lower Gold Camp Road; north on Lower Gold Camp Road to the Pike National Forest...

2013-07-01

353

Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands. Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to b...

2005-01-01

354

Development of the fish stock and its manageability in the deep, stratifying Wupper Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's fish fauna of Wupper Reservoir is the result of natural development in combination with management. Manageability of the fish stock, a prerequisite for continuing biomanipulation, was limited. Despite protection and stocking, the abundance of the stocked predatory fishes (pike, pikeperch) did never exceed 10% of the total fish biomass since filling in 1988. Contrary to predictions, the “juvenile” cyclical

Wilfried Scharf

2008-01-01

355

21. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH-WEST ELEVATION' AND 'SOUTH-EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

356

Alterations in Body Composition in Man after Acute Exposure to High Altitude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Body composition was measured in five young males, residents of Denver, Colorado (5,280 ft altitude) before, during, and after 8 days on the summit of Pikes Peak, Colorado (14,100 ft altitude). Body weight progressively decreased during the altitude perio...

M. I. Surks K. S. K. Chinn L. R. O. Matoush

1966-01-01

357

Anthropometric Changes at High Altitude.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight men (18-25 yr) were evaluated before, during and after 18-days residence on the summit of Pikes Pake, CO (4300 m; HA) to describe the anthropometric changes associated with weight loss and to test the accuracy of a number of previously published pre...

C. S. Fulco A. Cymerman N. A. Pimental A. J. Young J. T. Maher

1984-01-01

358

77 FR 24723 - AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for IRESSA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0370] AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for...for IRESSA (gefitinib) Tablets held by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP (AstraZeneca), 1800 Concord Pike, P.O. Box...

2012-04-25

359

Identification of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine in Canadian fish and shellfish by high-performance liquid chromatography with atomic absorption detection and confirmation by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major organic forms of arsenic in fresh marine fish such as haddock, halibut, cod, herring, mackeral, sole, lobster, scallops, and shrimp obtained throughout Canada were identified as arsenobetaine and, in shrimp only, arsenocholine. Freshwater fish including pike, bass, carp, pickerel, white fish, yellow perch, and striped perch contained no arsenobetaine or arsenocholine but did contain methanol-extractable arsenic, which has

J. F. Lawrence; P. Michalik; G. Tam; H. B. S. Conacher

2009-01-01

360

78 FR 14561 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific...Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-435-6973, David.Weinberg@nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2013-03-06

361

77 FR 69638 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific...Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-435-6973, David.Weinberg@nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

2012-11-20

362

1. SOUTH FRONT OF ORIGINAL SECTION (ca. 1815). NOTE THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SOUTH FRONT OF ORIGINAL SECTION (ca. 1815). NOTE THE FOLLOWING: 1) TRACES OF OLD PORCH AROUND DOOR 2) TWO KINDS OF CORNICES 3) BASEMENT VENTS 4) HORIZONTAL BEADED WEATHERBOARDS (see also KY-204-2 and KY-204-3) 5) STONE CHIMNEY ON EAST SIDE 6) WEST STONE WING AT LEFT. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

363

Learning about Life and Death Issues: Even Young Children Can Understand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teacher of an inclusive K-3 class in Pike County, Kentucky, chose coal as a topic because it had meaning to her students and they could use the community as a learning laboratory. Although a democratic classroom fostered student ownership of the material, older and younger students had different motivational requirements. (TD)|

Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

2000-01-01

364

Verifying the Microsoft Hyper-V Hypervisor with VCC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VCC is an industrial-strength verification suite for the formal verification of concurrent, low-level C code. It is being developed by Microsoft Research, Redmond, and the European Microsoft Innovation Center, Aachen. The development is driven by two applications from the Verisoft XT project: the Microsoft Hyper-V Hypervisor and SYSGO’s PikeOS micro kernel.

Leinenbach, Dirk; Santen, Thomas

365

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer According to Family History of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Family history of breast cancer is an established risk factor for this disease and is used to identify women at higher risk, although the im- pact of risk factors for breast cancer among women with a family history is not well defined. Purpose: Using a modified extended log-incidence Pike model, we prospectively examined the impact of risk factors for

Graham A. Colditz; Bernard A. Rosner; Frank E. Speizer

1996-01-01

366

A Typology of Fisheries in Large Reservoirs of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recreational fishery harvests were classified in 349 reservoirs larger than 200 ha distributed throughout the contiguous United States. Harvest occurred in all reservoirs and averaged 13.4 kg\\/ha each year; average harvest was highest for trouts and centrarchids, and lowest for pikes. Centrarchids and ictalurids were harvested in 80% or more of the study reservoirs, temperate basses and percids in about

L. E. Miranda

1999-01-01

367

Mortality among Uranium Enrichment Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility (SIC-1094) in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on ...

D. P. Brown T. Bloom

1987-01-01

368

25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians...INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel...shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation...

2011-04-01

369

1. AERIAL VIEW OF LOCK AND DAM, LOOKING EAST Photocopy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW OF LOCK AND DAM, LOOKING EAST Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1980, courtesy of the U.S. Engineer Office, St. Louis, Missouri. Original print on file at Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Missouri - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Pike County, MO

370

76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Brunswick Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and...Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland 20852. Publicly available records will...resource@nrc.gov. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 20th day of December...

2011-01-03

371

76 FR 37173 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...two-year period. They are: Carl W. Adams, Michael W. Anderson, William E. Beckley...Bradford, Richard A. Brown, Jr., John J. Caricola, Jr., William P. Caufield...Earl R. Neugebauer, Willie E. Nichols, John P. Perez, Jeffrey W. Pike, Jr.,...

2011-06-24

372

Microsoft Word - Final BSA Agenda 23-24 June 2008 Meeting.doc  

Cancer.gov

revised June 20, 2008 NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AGENDA 40th Regular Meeting of the BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC ADVISORS Conference Room 10, Building 31C 9000 Rockville Pike Bethesda, Maryland June 23-24, 2008 Monday, 23 June 2008 - 8:00

373

Root and Shoot Responses to Bird Cherry-Oat Aphids and Barley yellow dwarf virus in Spring Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

on the extent of the insect infestation (Kieckhefer et al., 1995), the timing of the infestation during the growing There is little information available that describes the effects of season (Kieckhefer and Gellner, 1988), the growth stage bird cherry-oat aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and Barley yellow of the plant at infestation (Pike and Schaffner, 1985), dwarf virus (BYDV) on cereal

Walter E. Riedell; Robert W. Kieckhefer; Marie A. C. Langham; Louis S. Hesler

374

25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and from Upper and Lower Red Lakes by gill net or entrapment gear for noncommercial...the Association shall be limited to eight gill nets of 300 feet in length and six feet...and other synthetic material. (c) Gill nets for taking pike shall have a...

2009-04-01

375

25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and from Upper and Lower Red Lakes by gill net or entrapment gear for noncommercial...the Association shall be limited to eight gill nets of 300 feet in length and six feet...and other synthetic material. (c) Gill nets for taking pike shall have a...

2010-04-01

376

Is Rogerian Rhetoric Really Rogerian?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Rogerian argument, as described by Young, Baker, and Pike in "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," misrepresents Carl Rogers's own principles. Addressing the need for improved interpersonal communication both within and outside of therapy, Rogers describes three conditions for "listening with understanding": congruence, or nondirective listening;…

Ede, Lisa

377

Field Trial of Caffeine on Physical Performance at Altitude: An Attempt to Overcome the Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to determine if caffeine would enhance the physical performance of soldiers at altitude (Pikes Peak, Colo.). Eight male soldiers from Special Forces (ages 22 to 35 years old) completed two ascents of a 22 km, mountain trail (hiking...

N. King C. S. Fulco C. J. Baker-Fulco S. Muza T. Lyons

1993-01-01

378

Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated

C. J. O. Childress; R. A. Sheets; E. S. Bair

1991-01-01

379

Unusual kinematics and jaw morphology associated with piscivory in the poeciliid, Belonesox belizanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piscivory in fishes is often associated with the evolution of highly elongate jaws that achieve a large mouth opening, or gape. Belonesox belizanus, the pike killifish, has independently evolved this morphology, which is derived from short-jawed poeciliids within the Cyprinodontiformes. Using kinematic analysis of high-speed video footage, we observed a novel aspect of the elongate jaws of Belonesox; the premaxilla

Lara A. Ferry-Graham; L. Patricia Hernandez; Alice C. Gibb; Cinnamon Pace

2010-01-01

380

Petrographic investigation of River Gem Coal, Whitley County, eastern Kentucky Coal Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Gem coal of the Breathitt Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) was studied at three sites in a surface mine in the Holly Hill quadrangle, Whitley County, Kentucky. The River Gem coal is correlative with the Lily and Manchester coals in neighboring Knox, Laurel, and Clay Counties, Kentucky, and the Clintwood coal in Pike County, Kentucky. At the northern site, a

J. D. Pollock; J. C. Hower

1987-01-01

381

Pilum pilum gen. et sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from freshwater fishes of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Pilum pilum gen. et sp. n. is described from the warmouth, Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier); brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur); yellow bullhead, I. natalis (Lesueur); redbreast sunfish, L. auritus (Linnaeus); bluegill, L. macrochirus Rafinesque; spotted sunfish, L. punctatus (Valenciennes); and redfin pickerel, Esox americanus (Gmelin), from the Alabama River Drainage, brown bullhead from the Mobile Bay Drainage in Alabama, and pirate perch, Aphredoderus sayanus Gilliams, from an Atlantic Coast drainage in Georgia. The new genus most closely resembles the genus Acanthocephalus; it differs from this genus in having a distinctive pear-shaped proboscis, a long neck, and hooks which abruptly differ in size. PMID:1255353

Williams, E H

1976-02-01

382

Mammographic density, lobular involution, and risk of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

In this review, we propose that age-related changes in mammographic density and breast tissue involution are closely related phenomena, and consider their potential relevance to the aetiology of breast cancer. We propose that the reduction in mammographic density that occurs with increasing age, parity and menopause reflects the involution of breast tissue. We further propose that age-related changes in both mammographic density and breast tissue composition are observable and measurable phenomena that resemble Pike's theoretical construct of ‘breast tissue ageing'. Extensive mammographic density and delayed breast involution are both associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and are consistent with the hypothesis of the Pike model that cumulative exposure of breast tissue to hormones and growth factors that stimulate cell division, as well as the accumulation of genetic damage in breast cells, are major determinants of breast cancer incidence.

Ginsburg, O M; Martin, L J; Boyd, N F

2008-01-01

383

Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1985 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Existing aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries was assessed for its relationship to the present size, distribution, and maintenance of all salmonid species, northern pike, and largemouth bass populations. The objectives were to assess how and to what extent hydroelectric development and operation affects the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries and life stages of existing trout, pike, and largemouth bass populations, evaluate the potential for increasing quality habitat, and thus game fish production, through mitigation, and develop an array of fisheries management options to mitigate the impacts of present hydroelectric operations, demonstrating under each management option how fish populations would benefit and hydroelectric generation capabilities would be modified.

Pajak, Paul; Bradshaw, William H.; DeSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.

1986-01-01

384

Emic Perspectives on Risk in African Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines issues related to risk and culture, with particular emphasis on how risk impinges on children growing up in Africa. The article treats risk as an emic (cultural-insider and culture-specific) rather than an etic (science-driven and generalizable) concept (Pike, 1957). It argues that emic considerations are essential to the selection and measurement of variables that should be classified

Christine Liddell

2002-01-01

385

Factors affecting enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, USA.  

PubMed

We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level (>500 ng/g) in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 from one advisory lake, Sargent Lake, for analysis of total mercury (Hg(T)) and methylmercury (MeHg). For comparison, samples were also collected from a non-advisory lake, Lake Richie. Concentrations of Hg(T) in northern pike were significantly higher in Sargent Lake (P<0.01). Counter to expectations, mean concentrations of both Hg(T) and MeHg in open water samples were slightly higher in Lake Richie. However, zooplankton in Sargent Lake contained higher average concentrations of Hg(T) and MeHg than in Lake Richie. Mercury concentrations in macro invertebrates were similar between lakes, but different between taxa. The two lakes exhibited similar Hg(T) concentrations in age-1 yellow perch and adult perch but concentrations in large adult perch (>160 mm) in Sargent Lake were twice the concentrations in Lake Richie. Analysis of stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) in biota showed that pike from the two lakes are positioned at the same trophic level (4.2 and 4.3), but that the food web is more pelagic-based in Sargent and benthic-based in Richie. Factors causing concentrations in large pike to be higher in Sargent Lake may include higher bioavailability of methylmercury and a food web that enhances bioaccumulation. PMID:12663194

Gorski, Patrick R; Cleckner, Lisa B; Hurley, James P; Sierszen, Michael E; Armstrong, David E

2003-03-20

386

Factors affecting enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level (>500 ng\\/g) in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 from one advisory lake, Sargent Lake, for analysis of total mercury (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg). For comparison, samples

Patrick R Gorski; Lisa B Cleckner; James P Hurley; Michael E Sierszen; David E Armstrong

2003-01-01

387

Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students’ lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that\\u000a students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science\\u000a education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to\\u000a their lives or

Lynda L. Jenkins

2011-01-01

388

Antiviral T cell responses  

PubMed Central

Around 700 BCE, a new military formation called the phalanx was established in ancient Greece: a tight column of heavy infantry carrying long spears, or pikes, used in a single prong of attack. Later, in the battle of Marathon described by Herodotus, the Greeks learned the advantages of multipronged attacks, a strategy still used in modern warfare. Is the immune system similar in its approach to combating pathogens or tumors?

Posnett, David N.; Engelhorn, Manuel E.; Houghton, Alan N.

2005-01-01

389

Antiviral T cell responses: phalanx or multipronged attack?  

PubMed

Around 700 BCE, a new military formation called the phalanx was established in ancient Greece: a tight column of heavy infantry carrying long spears, or pikes, used in a single prong of attack. Later, in the battle of Marathon described by Herodotus, the Greeks learned the advantages of multipronged attacks, a strategy still used in modern warfare. Is the immune system similar in its approach to combatting pathogens or tumors? PMID:15967819

Posnett, David N; Engelhorn, Manuel E; Houghton, Alan N

2005-06-20

390

The Anorexic Effect of High Altitude on Weight Gain, Nitrogen Retention and Body Composition of Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of translocation to high altitude on growth rate, nitro gen retention and body composition were studied in meal-eating albino rats. Ad libi turn-fed, meal-eating rats were rapidly (2.25 hours) translocated from Denver (1,600 meters) to Pikes Peak (4,300 meters), Colorado, and were killed 2, 6 or 14 days later. Identical ad libitum and pair-fed, meal-eating control groups were

D. D. SCHNAKENBERG; L. F. KRABILL; ANDP. C. WEISER

2009-01-01

391

Geographic Distribution Records for Scolopendromorph Centipedes (Arthropoda:Chilopoda) from Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001-2003,we collected eight species of scolopendromorph centipedes from 17counties of Arkansas (AR), seven counties of Oklahoma(OK), and 17 counties of Texas(TX). The followingtaxa were collected: Cryptops leucopodus (Rafinesque) from Bowie and Cass counties, TX, and Pulaski County,AR; Hemiscolopendra marginata (Say)from Columbia, Garland, Hempstead, Little River, Pike, Polk, and Yellcounties, AR, and Cass, Cherokee, Coryell, Houston, Johnson, Kimble, Marion, Nacogdoches,

Chris T. McAllister

392

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1999–2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 ?g\\/g, the

Marlene S. Evans; Derek Muir; W. Lyle Lockhart; Gary Stern; M. Ryan; Pat Roach

2005-01-01

393

222Rn transport in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer: results from numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved 222Rn concentrations in ground water from a small wellfield underlain by fractured Middle Proterozoic Pikes Peak Granite southwest of Denver, Colorado range from 124 to 840 kBq m?3 (3360-22700 pCi L?1). Numerical simulations of flow and transport between two wells show that differences in equivalent hydraulic aperture of transmissive fractures, assuming a simplified two-fracture system and the parallel-plate model,

Peter F. Folger; Eileen Poeter; Richard B. Wantye; Warren Day; David Frishman

1997-01-01

394

Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7mg\\/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these

Cecilia Johnsson; Gerd Sallsten; Andrejs Schutz; Anna Sjors; Lars Barregarda

395

Nutritional aspects of high-altitude exposure in women1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient intake and urinary excretion characteristics of eight young university women were studied over a 4-day period at low altitude (140 m) and subsequently over a 7-day sojourn on Pikes Peak (4,300 m). High-altitude exposure was associated with a transient decrease in the consumption of protein, carbohydrate, fat, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin and a

John P. Hannon; George J. Klain; Dorothea M. Sudman; Francis J. Sullivan

396

Werken met de Richtlijn Terugvalpreventie bij jeugdige patiënten met anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting   Pike KM (1998) Long-term course of anorexia nervosa: response, relapse, remission, and recovery. Clinical psychological review 18: 447-475\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Strober M ea (1997) The long-term course of severe anorexia nervosa in adolescents: survival analysis of recovery, relapse,\\u000a and outcome predictors over 10-15 years in a prospective study. International journal of eating disorders 22: 339-360; Carter JC ea (2004) Relapse in

Tamara Berends; Berno van Meijel; Annemarie van Elburg

2010-01-01

397

Does risk of intraspecific interactions induce shifts in prey-size preference in aquatic predators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between foragers may seriously affect individual foraging efficiency. In a laboratory study of handling time,\\u000a prey value and prey-size preference in northern pike and signal crayfish, we show that risk of intraspecific interactions\\u000a between predators does not affect handling time or value of prey. However, the presence of agonistic intraspecific interactors\\u000a shifts prey-size preference in these predators. Neither northern

P. Anders Nilsson; Kristian Nilsson; Per Nyström

2000-01-01

398

Description of the adult female and male of Naobranchia kabatana n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) from Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton) (Muraenesocidae) caught in the Indian Ocean off South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naobranchia Hesse, 1863 is a genus of the family Lernaeopodidae. This report presents an illustrated description of the adult female\\u000a and male of a new species of this genus collected from the gill filaments of Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton) (pike conger) caught off the coast of Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its morphological features were\\u000a examined using light and scanning electron

Susan M. Dippenaar; Bea P. Jordaan

2008-01-01

399

Computer study of the percolation threshold in a two-dimensional anisotropic system of conducting sticks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here a Monte Carlo study of the percolation threshold in two-dimensional systems of conducting sticks. This is an extension of the work of Pike and Seager, who have considered only the isotropic sample of randomly-oriented-, equal-length-sticks system. Our study is concerned with the dependence of the percolation threshold on the macroscopic anisotropy of systems in which there is

I. Balberg; N. Binenbaum

1983-01-01

400

Transfer of 90Sr into fish in Finnish lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term behavior of 90Sr was investigated from 1987 to 1997 in fifteen lakes in southern and central Finland following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Both water and fish samples (perch, pike, vendace) were analyzed. 90Sr stays long in the freshwater ecosystem; the observed half-lives during the study period were generally around 10 years in water and even longer in fish.

Iisa Outola; Ritva L. Saxén; Sirpa Heinävaara

2009-01-01

401

Johnston triumphs at PUHCA markup, as opponents quail and regulators ponder. [Revisions to the Senate energy bill, S. 341  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses a markup of the Senate energy Bill S.341 that would create an exemption from the Public Utility Holding Company Act for a new category of resource sellers known as exempt wholesale generators (EWGs). It also includes the Pike County doctrine that permits state regulators to disallow utility costs of purchased power if a purchase is imprudent, even if rates for the sale were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

Dozier, K.; Marritz, R.O.

1991-06-01

402

The pine needle as a monitor of atmospheric pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE concentrations of toxic chemicals in the atmosphere and their deposition and long-range transport are becoming one of the more prominent issues in environmental chemistry. In 1986, a report1 was published documenting the levels of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane) and other organochlorine contaminants in the muscle tissue of pike and herring from areas in and around Sweden. There has previously been a

G. Eriksson; S. Jensen; H. Kylin; W. Strachan

1989-01-01

403

Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7?g\\/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these

Cecilia Johnsson; Gerd Sällsten; Andrejs Schütz; Anna Sjörs; Lars Barregård

2004-01-01

404

Oxygen consumption of Limnomysis benedeni Czerniavsky, 1882 (Crustacea: Mysidacea), a Pontocaspian species in Lake Balaton, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnomysis benedeni Czern. was artificially introduced into Lake Balaton in 1950 in order to increase the food source of young (1+, 2+) pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca L.). L. benedeni successfully adapted to the alkaline water of the lake (pH = 8.4–8.8) and recently is a frequent crustacean of the littoral zone. We determined the relationship between body size and dry

K. Szalontai; L. G.-Tóth; I. B. Muskó

2003-01-01

405

Human impact on the fish diversity in the four largest lakes of Sweden.  

PubMed

The four largest Swedish lakes, Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren, Hjälmaren, host important commercial fisheries for char, salmon, trout, whitefish, vendace (cisco), perch, pike-perch, pike and eel, i.e. highly diverse biological resources. Case studies illustrate physical, chemical and biological impacts on some of these commercial species caused by constructions of dams and ship canals, eutrophication, and overexploitation. Although some original species have been lost and a few new species have been added, the recent human interference has basically caused major shifts in dominance of the fish community structures because of eutrophication, alterations in the abundance of eel or crayfish, and due to overfishing. The latter is in some cases caused by the Great Lake Fishery Paradox--in an environment with several predators and competitors, but with ample food resources, especially salmonid fish but also species like pike-perch may adapt a life history favoring growth over sexual maturation. If harvested at a conventional size these populations will decline rapidly due to too small spawning stocks. PMID:11878026

Degerman, E; Hammar, J; Nyberg, P; Svärdson, G

2001-12-01

406

Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.  

PubMed

This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time. PMID:17549936

Dalton, Thomas C

407

Double labeling of neural circuits using horseradish peroxidase and cobalt.  

PubMed

This describes for the first time a non-fluorescent method for studying the connectional interrelationship of two neuronal systems in the same histological sections in which the systems are stained in two different colors (blue and brown). Since HRP and cobaltous-lysine are transported in both anterograde and retrograde directions, it is possible to manipulate the experiments to determine, for example, how the terminal fields of two systems overlap in a given neuropil, or cell aggregate, or how the projections of one system relate to retrogradely stained neurons of another system. The simple staining of HRP and cobalt is accomplished on cryostat sections and involves the combined technology of two previously published methods. The results described here are limited to a comparison of the overlap or lack of overlap of inputs to the thalamus from the two eyes in Xenopus, but the method has also proven useful in similar studies on Ambystoma tigrinum and Esox niger. PMID:2438518

Ebbesson, S O; Bazer, G T

1987-05-01

408

Distribution and possible sources of total mercury in sediments from the Newark Bay Estuary, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

A screening survey conducted by investigators of total mercury (Hg) concentrations in freshwater fishes from New Jersey rivers and lakes revealed elevated concentrations (>0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in the edible tissues of several species. The highest Hg concentrations were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and chain pickerel(Esox niger) from waterbodies in the northeastern portion of the state that are heavily affected by agriculture, industry, and urbanization, and in waterbodies throughout the state with low pH(>5.0). Similar results have been reported in saltwater fishes collected from the Raritan River, Passaic River, and Newark Bay. Mercury is among the most toxic of metals and one of the most persistent in sediments and organisms. This paper reports the results of total Hg analysis conducted on samples of surface and buried sediments from 72 cores collected from Newark Bay and its major tributaries between 1991 and 1993. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

Iannuzzi, T.J. [Hart Environmental Engineering Corp., Portland, ME (United States); Wenning, R.J. [Hart Environmental Engineering Corp., North Ryde (Australia)

1995-12-01

409

Genetic diversity of perch rhabdoviruses isolates based on the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing impact of rhabdoviruses in European percid farming, the diversity of the viral populations is still poorly investigated. To address this issue, we sequenced the partial nucleoprotein (N) and complete glycoprotein (G) genes of nine rhabdoviruses isolated from perch (Perca fluviatilis) between 1999 and 2010, mostly from France, and analyzed six of them by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Using two rabbit antisera raised against either the reference perch rhabdovirus (PRhV) isolated in 1980 or the perch isolate R6146, two serogroups were distinguished. Meanwhile, based on partial N and complete G gene analysis, perch rhabdoviruses were divided into four genogroups, A-B-D and E, with a maximum of 32.9% divergence (G gene) between isolates. A comparison of the G amino acid sequences of isolates from the two identified serogroups revealed several variable regions that might account for antigenic differences. Comparative analysis of perch isolates with other rhabdoviruses isolated from black bass, pike-perch and pike showed some strong phylogenetic relationships, suggesting cross-host transmission. Similarly, striking genetic similarities were shown between perch rhabdoviruses and isolates from other European countries and various ecological niches, most likely reflecting the circulation of viruses through fish trade as well as putative transfers from marine to freshwater fish. Phylogenetic relationships of the newly characterized viruses were also determined within the family Rhabdoviridae. The analysis revealed a genetic cluster containing only fish viruses, including all rhabdoviruses from perch, as well as siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) and eel virus X (EVEX). This cluster was distinct from the one represented by spring viraemia of carp vesiculovirus (SVCV), pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) and mammalian vesiculoviruses. The new genetic data provided in the present study shed light on the diversity of rhabdoviruses infecting perch in France and support the hypothesis of circulation of these viruses between other hosts and regions within Europe. PMID:21927897

Talbi, Chiraz; Cabon, Joelle; Baud, Marine; Bourjaily, Maya; de Boisséson, Claire; Castric, Jeannette; Bigarré, Laurent

2011-09-17

410

Global Trends and Factors Associated with the Illegal Killing of Elephants: A Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of Carcass Encounter Data  

PubMed Central

Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10th Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002–2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

Burn, Robert W.; Underwood, Fiona M.; Blanc, Julian

2011-01-01

411

Diphyllobothriasis: update on human cases, foci, patterns and sources of human infections and future considerations.  

PubMed

Diphylobothriasis is a well documented disease of humans. On a world scale new infections are reported regularly, especially from Russia and parts of Japan. Globally, new species have been discovered and the etiology of the disease may be changing. Human infections appear to be in decline but it is not clear if the sources of infection are also in decline or if public health awareness has improved. In North America there has been a decline in human cases while in South America an increase in reports from fish, especially salmonids suggests high levels in these fish species. The history of human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum is primarily associated with the consumption of the northern circumpolar distributed pike and percids and is often considered a parasite of humans only. Indeed some researchers believe that D. latum was introduced to North America by northern European immigrants. The more benign human infections of D. dendriticum appears to be primarily associated with salmonids and coregonid fishes and fish eating birds. Although the early cases of diphyllobothriasis in the 1930s in North America came from fish originating in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, there was general belief that it was declining in fish populations and therefore of little significance to humans in the area. However, high levels of a plerocercoid in the flesh of walleyes and pike led to rejection of commercially harvested walleye and pike in Manitoba and northern Ontario, Canada, and a financial loss to Aboriginal fishers. D. latum is widely distributed in fishes of Manitoba and is infective to humans where it is not pathogenic and has a life span up to 4.5 years. The distribution and potential infection routes has not changed in a century and is still well established in natural hosts in the boreal regions of North America. Evidence is building for an old pre-European presence in North America, involving the Beringian land bridge and later involvement of susceptible hosts (northern European immigrants). PMID:12041607

Dick, T A; Nelson, P A; Choudhury, A

2001-01-01

412

Media Training  

ScienceCinema

With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

413

Preliminary results of sequential extraction experiments for selenium on mine waste and stream sediments from Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the preliminary results of sequential partial dissolutions used to characterize the geochemical distribution of selenium in stream sediments, mine wastes, and flotation-mill tailings. In general, extraction schemes are designed to extract metals associated with operationally defined solid phases. Total Se concentrations and the mineralogy of the samples are also presented. Samples were obtained from the Elizabeth, Ely, and Pike Hill mines in Vermont, the Callahan mine in Maine, and the Martha mine in New Zealand. These data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion. Further analysis of the data will be presented elsewhere.

Piatak, N. M.; Seal, R. R., II; Sanzolone, R. F.; Lamothe, P. J.; Brown, Z. A.

2006-01-01

414

Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in the Isle of Man--2: Evidence for space-time clustering.  

PubMed Central

The case-control test for space-time clustering developed by Pike and Smith was applied to 96 cases of sarcoidosis diagnosed in the Isle of Man from 1962 to 1983. There were significantly more links between cases separated by time intervals of less than 10 years and distances of less than 100 metres than between the others. Analysis of the type of links indicated that clusters consisted of pairs whose contact was by place of residence or work. More linked cases were diagnosed less than three years apart than would be expected by chance. These findings lend support to the idea that sarcoidosis is a communicable disease. Images

Hills, S E; Parkes, S A; Baker, S B

1987-01-01

415

Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

{\\\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar

A. Csillaghy

2003-01-01

416

Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.  

PubMed

The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed. PMID:23719670

Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C

2013-05-30

417

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2005-06-22

418

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

419

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report  

SciTech Connect

An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

Not Available

1992-03-01

420

Influence of longswing technique on the kinematics and key release parameters of the straddle Tkachev on uneven bars.  

PubMed

Tkachev on uneven bars is a release and re-grasp skill performed using variations of preparatory longswing techniques; the reasons why different techniques are chosen remains unclear. This study examined kinematic and key release parameters specific to three distinct techniques with the aim of understanding the relative benefits of each. During two international artistic gymnastics competitions six arch, straddle and pike longswings preceding the straddle Tkachev were recorded using twin video cameras. Calibration and movement images were digitised and reconstructed using 3D DLT. Shoulder and hip angular kinematics, angular momentum and key release parameters were compared between techniques. In the arch longswing, the first and second hip functional phases began significantly earlier than the straddle or pike. No significant differences were established for release parameters although large effect sizes for horizontal release velocity and angular momenta about the mass centre and bar were reported between the arch and other two variants. Therefore, the arch variant may provide the opportunity to develop more complex combinations following the Tkachev. Providing insight into mechanical advantages of specific longswing techniques, and highlighting those that elicit desirable characteristics offers the potential to provide coaches with objective data on technique selection and ultimately skill development. PMID:21936286

Manning, Michelle L; Irwin, Gareth; Gittoes, Marianne J R; Kerwin, David G

2011-09-01

421

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

422

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

Not Available

1991-10-01

423

Radon hazards associated with outcrops of Ohio Shale in Ohio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indoor (basement) radon concentrations and the uranium, organic carbon, and radon contents of samples from the underlying Ohio Shale (Upper Devonian) were investigated in six approximately 100 square kilometer areas of Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie-Huron, Franklin, Pike, and Logan counties. The thickness and lithology of the sediment overburden above the Ohio Shale in these areas also was investigated. Results show that the amount of radon gas emanating from the Ohio Shale is a direct function of the uranium concentration in this geologic unit and that the uranium itself is ultimately controlled by the amount of organic matter. Uranium, organic matter (as measured by total organic carbon), and radon in the Ohio Shale outcrops all increase in a westward direction across Ohio. Similarly, the indoor radon concentration in houses increases from east to west across the state. Where the average thickness of the sediment overburden exceeds 27 m (Franklin and Logan counties), much of the radon in houses may be derived from Ohio Shale clasts in the glacial till. In other areas where the average overburden thickness is 6 m or less (Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie-Huron, and Pike counties), the indoor radon levels appear to be directly controlled by emanations from the underlying Ohio Shale bedrock.

Harrell, James A.; Belsito, Michael E.; Kumar, Ashok

1991-07-01

424

Seattle Municipal Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The staff of the Seattle Municipal Archives have created a Web site that facilitates the work of amateur and professional historians (along with satisfying the curiosity of the general public) seeking to utilize their archival holdings. A quick reference area allows visitors to obtain information about historical election results and some basic facts about Seattle, as well as read their in-house newsletter, which documents their ongoing archival projects. Additionally, an online exhibit section offers perspectives on subjects such as Seattle's City Halls and Pike Place Market's Corner Market Building. The centerpiece of this site is the online photograph collection, which contains over 40,000 images of Seattle from the last century. The photograph archive is searchable by time-period, neighborhood district (a neighborhood map is also provided), and user-identified search terms. Finally, the site also includes a variety of research guides, including a guide to the archives held by the City of Seattle and the Pike Place Market Records.

2001-01-01

425

Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ? 150 (?l/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ? 100 ?l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ? 50?l/l.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

1999-01-01

426

Mercury levels in freshwater fish of the state of South Carolina.  

PubMed

Samples of fish from freshwater sources of rivers, lakes and ponds all over the state of South Carolina were collected during the Summer of 1974 and 1975. The fish collected were Bass, Bluegill, Redbreast, Catfish, Shad, Carp, Crappie, Mudfish and Pike. Samples were analyzed using the flameless atomic absorption procedure outlined by Hatch and Ott, and Uthe et al as modified for use with Perkin-Elmer, Coleman MAS-50 mercury analyzer. Triplicate samples of fish tissue were analyzed by wet digestion method. The mean mercury levels in ppb were determined for baseline mercury levels. A significant finding of this report is that those species for which fish of widely differing weights were analyzed, larger fish had higher mercury levels. Mercury levels exceeding the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 500 ppb for fish tissues have been found in the Mudfish from Edisto River and Pike fish from Lake Murray. Higher levels of mercury occurred in the highly vascularized blood tissues of liver and kidney than in muscle. Carnivorous and bottom-feeding fishes are the most reliable indicators of mercury pollution. PMID:836979

Koli, A K; Williams, W R; McClary, E B; Wright, E L; Burrell, T M

1977-01-01

427

Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image of Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale (Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 1994), using the 1,000-m digital elevation data set referred to below. An important difference between our image and these previous ones is the method of reproduction: like the Thelin and Pike (1991) image, our image is a composite of halftone images that yields sharp resolution and preserves contrast. Indeed, the first impression of many viewers is that the Alaskan image and the Thelin and Pike image are composites of satellite-generated photographs rather than an artificial rendering of a digital elevation model. A shaded-relief image represents landforms in a natural fashion; that is, a viewer perceives the image as a rendering of reality. Thus a shaded-relief image is intrinsically appealing, especially in areas of spectacular relief. In addition, even subtle physiographic features that reflect geologic structures or the type of bedrock are visible. To our knowledge, some of these Alaskan features have not been depicted before and so the image should provide earth scientists with a new 'look' at fundamental geologic features of Alaska.

Riehle, J. R.; Fleming, M. D.; Molnia, B. F.; Dover, J. H.; Kelley, J. S.; Miller, M. L.; Nokleberg, W. J.; Plafker, George; Till, A. B.

1997-01-01

428

A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral salmonid genome duplication hypothesis. Genome resources, including a new 32 K microarray, provide valuable new tools to study salmonids.

Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

2008-01-01

429

Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes. PMID:17161450

Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

2006-12-11

430

Open Media Training Session  

ScienceCinema

Have you ever wondered how the media work and why some topics make it into the news and other don't? Would you like to know how to (and how not to) give an interview to a journalist? With the LHC preparing for first collisions at high energies, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. Follow the webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

431

Food chain enrichment of organochlorine compounds and mercury in clean and polluted lakes of Finland  

SciTech Connect

Lakes polluted by pulp mill and urban wastes including chlorobleaching of pulp, semipolluted lakes and reference lakes in nearly natural condition in Central Finland were studied for contents of mercury, methyl mercury and organochlorine compounds in sediment, plankton, roach and pike. Chlorobleaching has caused a 30-fold concentration of Hg in botton sediment related to that of the purest reference lake. This was not reflected to the mercury levels in fish which were highest at one natural condition (humic) lake and rather high also at semipolluted lake Paeijaenne. Mercury in fish was shown to be mostly methylated but not completely and its time trends could be estimated. Chloroform did not show, but carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene and chlorinated cymenes showed significant bioaccumulation in fish. Using fat basis attenuated the power of estimation of food chain enrichment by a three trophic level model for lipohilic biocides and a strong proof was obtained for the enrichment of hexachlorobenzene.

Paasivirta, J.; Saerkkae, J.; Surma-Aho, K.; Humppi, T.; Koukkanen, T.; Marttinen, M.

1983-01-01

432

Population Density of the Crayfish, Orconectes limosus, in Relation to Fish and Macroinvertebrate Densities in a Small Mesotrophic Lake - Implications for the Lake's Food Web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population density of Orconectes limosus in a mesotrophic lake was assessed in the context of fish and macroinvertebrate biomasses, and crayfish consumption by fish. The average O. limosus (6 cm total length) abundance and biomass in the littoral zone was 2200 ind ha-1 and 32.2 kg ha1, respectively. O. limosus biomass accounted for a large percentage (49%) of the lake's macroinvertebrate biomass. O. limosus was equal to 35% of the non-predatory fish biomass and to 81% of the predatory fish biomass. O. limosus comprised 15 and 48% of the annual consumption of pike and predatory perch, respectively. Altogether, O. limosus was identified as quantitatively important for the lake's littoral food web, and might also subsidize the pelagic food web. This strengthens the need for an integrated view on lake food webs.

Haertel-Borer, Susanne S.; Zak, Dominik; Eckmann, Reiner; Baade, Ulrich; Hölker, Franz

2005-12-01

433

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K.F.

1982-08-01

434

Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and sedimentation. Among the consequences of the present operational regime are constant, rapid changes in river discharge during spawning and Incubation seasons of trout species present in the lower river. Hamilton and Buell (1976) reported that similar fluctuation might exceed tolerance limits of adults and inhibit spawning behavior, dewater redds, strand fry, and displace juveniles to habitats less suitable for survival. Similar problems are felt to exist on the lower river. Constant fluctuations over backwater vegetation have been linked to major problems in successful northern pike spawning and recruitment by preventing access to spawning sites, and dewatering eggs and attached fry. Phase I of the South Bay investigation was completed this year resulting in a detailed study program for the next three years. Dominant habitat types were mapped, and physical habitat and biological monitoring methods were evaluated and selected. Permanent habitat transects, water quality stations, fish sampling, gillnetting, seining, and trapping sites were established.

Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

1984-12-01

435

Infection of the walleye, Stizostedion v. vitreum, of western Lake Erie with Bothriocephalus cuspidatus (Cooper)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years appreciable changes have taken place in the biota and physiochemical conditions in Lake Erie. The accelerated eutrophication of the lake has been accompanied by the near disappearance of several fish species, e.g., blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum), lake herring (Coregonus artedi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Interest in the biology of the remaining species has increased as means have been sought to preserve their numbers in the lake. This report, which describes the caecal and intestinal parasites of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum, is a contribution to the natural history of this fish in western Lake Erie. This study concerns: the type and degree of intestinal parasitic infestations in a single year class of walleyes during their first 3 years of life; seasonal changes in the incidence and maturity of the dominant parasite Bothriocephalus cuspidatus; and the effects of the infestations on the physical condition of the host.

Wolfert, David R.; Applegate, Vernon C.; Allison, Leonard N.

1967-01-01

436

Airborne mercury deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to mercury concentrations in water, sediments, plankton, and fish of eighty northern Minnesota lakes  

SciTech Connect

In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with extensive watershed and lake chemistry data for 80 lake watersheds in the study region of northeastern Minnesota including the Superior National Forest, Voyageurs National Park, and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Atmospheric deposition of mercury, transport, water column lifetimes, and sedimentation in lakes are determined. The factors relating mercury concentrations within the lake watershed components are analyzed and discussed. The notable correlates with mercury residue levels in northern pike of a standard length and weight (55 cm, 1.0 kg) were mercury concentrations in zooplankton and water, total organic carbon concentration, and pH. The primary source of mercury was found to be of atmospheric origin.

Sorenson, J.A.; Schmidt, K.W.; Huber, J.K.; Rapp, G.R. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Glass, G.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (USA))

1990-11-01

437

Airborne mercury deposition and watershed characteristics in relation to mercury concentrations in water, sediments, plankton, and fish of eighty northern Minnesota lakes  

SciTech Connect

In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with extensive watershed and lake chemistry data for 80 lake watersheds in the study region of northeastern Minnesota including the Superior National Forest, Voyageurs National Park, and Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Atmospheric deposition of mercury, transport, water column lifetimes, and sedimentation in lakes are determined. The factors relating mercury concentrations within the lake watershed components are analyzed and discussed. The notable correlates with mercury residue levels in northern pike of a standard length and weight (55 cm, 1.0 kg) were mercury concentrations in zooplankton and water, total organic carbon concentration, and pH. The primary source of mercury was found to be of atmospheric origin.

Sorensen, J.A.; Glass, G.E.; Schmidt, K.W.; Huber, J.K.; Rapp, G.R.

1990-01-01

438

The Bruner Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rudy Bruner Foundation and Award for Urban Excellence was created in 1986 by Simeon Bruner to honor his late father. The award seeks to honor those urban places that "are developed with such vision and imagination that they transform urban problems into creative solutions." The award is given every two years, and one gold medal prize is awarded (along with a $50,000 prize) and several silver medal winners are also awarded. On this site, visitors can learn about previous award winners, such as the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, the Camino Nuevo Charter Academy, and the Pike Place Market. Additionally, the Bruner Foundation makes a number of its publications available online, including compilations of materials about the winning places from 1991 to 2003.

439

Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-05-01

440

Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Quarterly progress report, March-May 1983  

SciTech Connect

This project consists of three specific areas of coal petrology: spectral fluorescence of liptinite macerals; properties of semi-inert macerals; and size/form/microlithotype association of pyrite/marcasite. Techniques developed in the first three areas were used in additional research on Mannington and Dunbar coals in western Kentucky and the Alma coal zone in eastern Kentucky. Some of the findings are: percent variations (pseudovitrinite-vitrinite/vitrinite X100) indicate greater dispersions in Vicker's microhardness values, MH(v), of vitrinite and pseudovitrinite from eastern Kentucky coals than those of western Kentucky coals; reflectance data confirm a previously suspected rank increase from eastern Knott and Magoffin Counties to eastern Pike County; microhardness investigation of Upper Elkhorn 2 coal in eastern Kentucky indicates that pseudovitrinite is consistently harder than vitrinite; and of the western coals studied, Dunbar and Lead Creek, there appears to be some correlations between vitrinite, ash, sulfur, and thickness. 6 tables.

Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Cobb, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.; Frankie, K.A.; Poe, S.H.; Baynard, D.N.; Graese, A.M.; Raione, R.P.

1983-01-01

441

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 as a key signaling pathway in normal mammary gland developmental biology and breast cancer  

PubMed Central

STAT5 consists of two proteins, STAT5A/B, that impact mammary cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. In normal development, STAT5 expression and activity are regulated by prolactin signaling with JAK2/ELF5, EGF signaling networks that include c-Src, and growth hormone, insulin growth factor, estrogen, and progesterone signaling pathways. In cancer, erythropoietin signaling can also regulate STAT5. Activation levels are influenced by AKT, caveolin, PIKE-A, Pak1, c-Myb, Brk, beta-integrin, dystroglycan, other STATs, and STAT pathway molecules JAK1, Shp2, and SOCS. TGF-? and PTPN9 can downregulate prolactin- and EGF-mediated STAT5 activation, respectively. IGF, AKT, RANKL, cyclin D1, BCL6, and HSP90A lie downstream of STAT5.

2011-01-01

442

Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, July 1, 1977-May 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Engineering design and development concentrated on five aspects during the past year: (1) development of high power output transmitters for monitoring animals from greater distances; (2) improvement and updating of a sonic transmitting and receiving system for monitoring fish and marine mammals; (3) design and testing of corrosive links which permit a transmitter to release from an animal at a specified time; (4) development of high frequency transmitters; and (5) development and testing of time delay transmitters. Field efforts resulted in further information on activity patterns and movements of sea otters in California and Alaska and of walleye pike in experimental channels. Three manuscripts and two theses presented as part of this report describe these aspects in detail.

Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

1980-06-01

443

[Role of Aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the Volga-Caspian area].  

PubMed

The paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the Volga and Caspian Sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (Acipenseridae), pike perch (Stizostedion), carp (Cyprinus carpio), silurus (Silurus glanis), etc.). It provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. The findings suggest that Aeromonas is a causative agent of sapronoses and meets the criteria for natural focal infections. They show a wide range of tolerance to the abiotic factors of hydroecosystems, as well as mixotrophy and autrophic nutrition in the environment and they are of great sanitary and hygienic importance. PMID:21842729

Obukhova, O V; Lartseva, L V; Lisitskaia, I A

444

Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

NONE

1996-10-01

445

Safe and Secure Virtualization: Answers for IMA next Generation and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some of the challenges the aerospace industry is facing for the future and explains why and how a safe and secured virtualization technology can help solving these challenges Efforts around the next generation of IMA have already started, like the European FP7 funded project SCARLETT or the IDEE5 project and many avionics players and working groupware focused on how the new technologies like SMP capabilities introduced in latest CPU architectures, can help increasing system performances in future avionics system. We present PikeOS, a separation micro-kernel, which applies the state-of-the-art techniques and widely recognized standards such as ARINC 653 and MILS in order to guarantee safety and security properties, and still improve overall performance.

Almeida, J.; Vatrinet, F.

2010-08-01

446

Mercury concentrations in lentic fish populations related to ecosystem and watershed characteristics.  

PubMed

Predicting mercury (Hg) concentrations of fishes at large spatial scales is a fundamental environmental challenge with the potential to improve human health. In this study, mercury concentrations were examined for five species across 161 lakes and ecosystem, and watershed parameters were investigated as explanatory variables in statistical models. For all species, Hg concentrations were significantly, positively related to wetland coverage. For three species (largemouth bass, pike, and walleye), Hg concentrations were significantly, negatively related to lake trophic state index (TSI), suggestive of growth biodilution. There were no significant relationships between ecosystem size and mercury concentrations. However, Hg concentrations were strongly, positively related to ecosystem size across species. Scores of small or remote lakes that have never been tested could be prioritized for testing using models akin to those presented in this article. Such an approach could also be useful for exploring how Hg concentrations of fishes might respond to natural or anthropogenic changes to ecosystems over time. PMID:20496648

Rypel, Andrew L

2010-02-01

447

Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado and portions of adjacent territory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheets I-IV are triangulations, drainage, land classification, and geologic maps of Colorado west of longitude 102°, on the scale of 12 miles to the inch. Sheets V-XVI are topographic (contour) and geologic maps of Colorado and adjacent States, between meridians 104° 30' and 109° 30' and parallels 36° 45' and 40° 30', on the scale of 4 miles to the inch. Sheets XVII and XVIII contain three geologic sections across the State, west of the longitude 104° 30'. Sheets XIX and XX are panoramic views of the Pikes Peak group, Sawatch Range, central portion of West Elk Mountains, Twin Lakes, southwestern border of the Mesa Verde, San Juan Mountains, and La Plata Mountains.

Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer; Lithography by Bien, Julius

1881-01-01

448

Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado and portions of adjacent territory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sheets I-IV are triangulations, drainage, land classification, and geologic maps of Colorado west of longitude 102°, on the scale of 12 miles to the inch. Sheets V-XVI are topographic (contour) and geologic maps of Colorado and adjacent States, between meridians 104° 30' and 109° 30' and parallels 36° 45' and 40° 30', on the scale of 4 miles to the inch. Sheets XVII and XVIII contain three geologic sections across the State, west of the longitude 104° 30'. Sheets XIX and XX are panoramic views of the Pikes Peak group, Sawatch Range, central portion of West Elk Mountains, Twin Lakes, southwestern border of the Mesa Verde, San Juan Mountains, and La Plata Mountains.

Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer; Lithography by Bien, Julius

1877-01-01

449

A history of total mercury in edible muscle of fish from lakes in northern Canada.  

PubMed

Subsistence fishing has been an important source of food for Native People in northern Canada since prehistoric time. Measurements of the levels of mercury in edible muscle of northern fish have been undertaken for over three decades in efforts to evaluate the risks of consuming northern fish. This report summarizes the data obtained from 7974 fish of 25 species from sites distributed from the Yukon to Labrador. The most abundant species were lake trout, lake whitefish, arctic char, walleye, northern pike and burbot. The question being asked was essentially "Are the fish safe to eat?" The results were used to support decisions on fishing and consumption of fish. They were sorted in several ways, into concentration ranges corresponding to human consumption guidelines, into political jurisdictions and into types of bedrock geology. Overall walleye, northern pike and lake trout, usually exceeded the subsistence consumption guideline of 0.2 microg g-1 total mercury and often exceeded the higher guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 total mercury for commercial sales of fish. Mercury in burbot, another facultative predator, was often lower but several still exceeding a guideline. Arctic char collections were mostly from anadromous populations and these had very low levels of mercury, presumably reflecting marine food sources. Lake whitefish were among the cleanest fish examined with 69 of 81 collections falling in the lowest range. Most collections were from sites in sedimentary rock. However a few sites were in metamorphic, intrusive or volcanic rocks and these, taken together, tended to have a higher proportion of sites in the higher ranges of mercury. These results indicate a widespread problem with mercury in subsistence fisheries for predator species of fish with the problem being most problematic for Nunavut. PMID:16169059

Lockhart, W L; Stern, G A; Low, G; Hendzel, M; Boila, G; Roach, P; Evans, M S; Billeck, B N; DeLaronde, J; Friesen, S; Kidd, K; Atkins, S; Muir, D C G; Stoddart, M; Stephens, G; Stephenson, S; Harbicht, S; Snowshoe, N; Grey, B; Thompson, S; DeGraff, N

2005-09-16

450

[Content of the main lipid components in blood serum lipoproteins of human and of various animal species].  

PubMed

Using precipitation method, low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL2 and HDL3) lipoproteins were isolated from blood serum of human (donors, patients with ischemic heart) diseases--IHD, with bronchial asthma--BA, with chronic obstructive bronchitis--COB), of mammals predisposed (pig, rabbit) and resistant (rat, mink, Arctic fox) to atherosclerosis, of birds (hen, pigeon), of bony fish (trout, white-fish, pike-perch, pike, bream, burbot), and of cartilaginous fish (sturgeon, white sturgeon). From each lipoprotein group, lipids were extracted, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and analyzed quantitatively by the spectrophotometric method. In phosphatidylcholine and HDL2 cholesterol esters, bound fatty acids (FA) were determined by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. The main amount of total cholesterol has been established to be concentrated in human LDL, especially in the cases of IHD, and in LDL in mammals predisposed to atherosclerosis. In mammals resistant to atherosclerosis and in fish the almost entire cholesterol was revealed in HDL. The phospholipid content in HDL was lower in patients with pathologies and in mammals predisposed to atherosclerosis, while the highest content--in fish and mammals resistant to atherosclerosis. In homoiothermal animals and in human the main FA amount in HDL was represented by the omega6-series. Acids of the omega3-series amounted to a negligible percentage, especially in IHD. On the contrary, the HDL FA composition of poikilothermal animals (fish) had a very high content of polyunsaturated FA of the omega3-series. A conclusion is made that composition of lipid components in animal lipoproteins by the example of several studied species and of human has a non-stable character and is submitted to changes. Their most pronounced modifications with a negative trend took place in human LDL and HDL in IHD. PMID:17674708

Lizenko, M V; Regerand, T I; Bakhirev, A M; Petrovski?, V I; Lizenko, E I

451

Geochemistry and evolution of the South Platte granite-pegmatite system, Jefferson County, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Platte pegmatite district is well known for its significant enrichment in the rare earth elements (REE), Y, Nb, F, and for the exceptionally well-developed internal zonation of the complex pegmatites located within a reversely zoned portion of the Pikes Peak batholith. Chemical trends both within and between pegmatites define the behavior of major and trace elements and the role of F in the fractionation of the granitic magma and pegmatitic fluids, suggesting a new model for the evolution of the granite-pegmatite system. Whole-rock XRF and INAA analyses of the host Pikes Peak granite and quartz monzonite and pegmatite wall zones provide strong evidence that all three are related by differentiation. With increasing SiO 2, there is systematic enrichment in K 2O, Na 2O, and Rb, and depletion in CaO, MgO, FeO?, TiO 2, P 2O 5, Ba, Sr, and Sc. REE, Y, Zr, and Th were strongly partitioned out of the wall zone into the final residual fluids where they were concentrated up to an order of magnitude over levels in the granite. Within the district, there is also chemical zonation of F, Nb, Th, U, and REE between groups of pegmatites. Polyzonal quartz-core types typically contain more fluorite, samarskite, HREE-zircon, and yttrian-fluorite than their bizonal composite-core counterparts, which contain only sparse fluorite and allanite. The sequence of magmatic evolution involved: (1) a process of diffusive differentiation and fractional crystallization which produced a chemically stratified magma chamber with a hotter more mafic quartz monzonitic base and a more felsic, granitic top enriched in H 2O, F, HREE, Nb, and Y; (2) resurgence of the more mafic lower level crystal mush in to the upper more felsic part of the pluton; and (3) separation of pegmatitic fluids from the juxtaposed magmas giving rise to two compositionally distinct groups of pegmatites.

Simmons, Wm. B.; Lee, Maxie T.; Brewster, Renee H.

1987-03-01

452

Distribution and relationships of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in freshwater fish from five French fishing areas.  

PubMed

The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in 149 muscle samples of eight freshwater fish species (European eel, bream, common carp, European catfish, roach, perch, pike and pikeperch) from five different French fishing areas from contaminated and control sites were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion under pressure. No significant correlation was found between the condition factor (CF), based on the length-mass relationship, and As, Cd and Pb levels in all the samples analysed, but a positive correlation was detected between CF and Hg levels (P<0.0001, R=0.49). Positive correlations with body length were only found for Hg in roach (P<0.05, R=0.32) and Pb in bream (P<0.05, R=0.48) and correlations with both body weight and length were also found for Hg in pike (P<0.05, R=0.90 and 0.86) and Cd in European eel (P<0.01, R=-0.35 and -0.37). The average content and the standard deviation in fish muscle samples was 0.007±0.012, 0.102±0.077, 0.142±0.097 and 0.035±0.053 mg kg(-1) of wet mass for Cd, As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Significant differences were established between groups of predatory fish and non-predatory fish for Hg and Pb, and between control and contaminated sites in the whole selection and also within feeding guilds, i.e. the values of Hg in the benthophagic fish were significantly different between these sites. Finally, these results were also compared for each species with previous French and European studies. PMID:23177713

Noël, Laurent; Chekri, Rachida; Millour, Sandrine; Merlo, Mathilde; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Guérin, Thierry

2012-11-21

453

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales  

SciTech Connect

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-12-31

454

The Comet of Bethlehem and its year of appearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Colin J. Humphreys the Star of Bethlehem was a comet which was visible in 5 BC. Numerous facts suggests that observations by Chinese astronomers at that time cannot be classified as a supernova or a conjunction of stars or as another object different from a comet. In order to erase further doubts it could be valuable to pinpoint the possible year of arrival by other sources if available. The testimonials in the early letters of Saint Paul contain such evidence and can be linked to historical reliable facts. Seven letters were written between 50 and 61 AC. Especially important is the encounter of Saint Paul with Proconsul Lucius Junius Gallio, brother of Seneca and Consul together with Claudius Caesar in 51 AC. The appearance of Saint Paul before the Bema of Gallio in 52 AC at the agora of Corinthia is a fixing point from which on a backword calculation establishes the year 30 AC as the year of crucification. After this it is furthermore possible to use biblical and historical evidence for calculating the year 5 BC as the year of Christ's birth and the visit of the Magi. Other suggestions referring to astronomical phenomena later than 4 BC can be excluded as well as constellations of stars etc.\\ during the year 6 BC or earlier. On the ground of a firm establishment of spring 5 BC as time of appearance of the Comet other research -- e. g. the influence of star constellations before or astronomical observations at that time -- might be stimulated.

Schuermeyer, Manfred

455

Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program [Implementaci??n de pr??cticas gen??ticas de conservaci??n dentro de un programa de crianza y propagaci??n del lucio rayado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

Jennings, M. J.; Sloss, B. L.; Hatzenbeler, G. R.; Kampa, J. M.; Simonson, T. D.; Avelallemant, S. P.; Lindenberger, G. A.; Underwood, B. D.

2010-01-01

456

A survey of size-specific mercury concentrations in game fish from Maryland fresh and estuarine waters.  

PubMed

A survey of size-specific mercury (Hg) concentrations in game fish from a subset of Maryland fresh and estuarine waters was conducted, in which Hg concentrations in 112 fish from seven freshwater impoundments and three tidal and four estuarine locations in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries were measured. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) was the most intensively examined species. Of the fish examined, the largest freshwater sportfish contained the highest Hg concentrations. Striped bass and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries contained less Hg at the same size than the same species in fresh waters. Large striped bass, chain pickerel (Esox niger), and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from Deep Creek Lake and Liberty Reservoir exceeded the FDA action level of 1 mg Hg/kg. Striped bass, largemouth bass, and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) in other impoundments equaled or exceeded a common advisory level of 0.5 mg Hg/kg. Large differences in size-normalized Hg concentrations among lakes and particularly between fresh and salt waters highlight the large differences in MeHg production and bioaccumulation among ecosystems. This work indicates that a more comprehensive study of Hg in Maryland fish is warranted to protect human and wildlife health. PMID:10790502

Gilmour, C C; Riedel, G S

2000-07-01

457

Latest views on pill prescribing.  

PubMed

Guidelines for prescribing oral contraceptives (Ocs), which take into account recent research findings concerning the relationship between OC use and the development of cervical and breast neoplasia and vascular diseases, were suggested. The findings of M.P. Vessey and his colleagues that the risk of cervical neoplasia increases with the duration of OC use are difficult to interpret. OC is strongly associated with certain types of sexual behavior, e.g., initiation of sexual activity at an early age, frequent intercourse, and intercourse with multiple partners, and these behavioral factors, in turn, are known to be associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. Although an attempt was made to control for the effects of these behavioral factors, the findings of the study require further substantiation. Even if the findings are correct, OC users would appear to have only a minor excess risk of developing invasive carcinoma, and even this minimal increased risk could be avoided encouraging OC users to have cervical smears taken routinely. The findings of Pike and his colleagues in California concerning the risk of breast cancer among OC users are more controversial, and potentially more serious. The study found that there was a 4-fold increased risk of breast cancer in women, under the age of 37, who had used OCs prior to their 25th birthday, and the risk increased with duration of OC use. A study by McPerson and colleagues also reported that breast cancer was associated with the duration of OC use prior to 1st pregnancy. Other intensive studies have failed to reveal a relationship between breast neoplasia and OC use. Pike and his colleagues also published a table listing OC brands in rank order of their progestogen potency. Pike noted that there was a positive relationship between the occurrence of breast cancer and the level of progestogen potency. The table was harshly criticized because it is not possible to determine the potency level of combined formulations. Nevertheless, those brands associated with a higher risk of breast cancer contained high doses of progestogen as well as estrogen, and their use should be avoided. Furthermore, OCs with high progestogen doses should be avoided in order to reduce the risk of vascular diseases among OC users. The RCGP study demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between progestogen dosage and the development of arteriosclerotic diseases. OC formulations with doses exceeding 1 mg of norethisterone acetate and 150 mcg of levonorgestrel should be avoided. Breakthrough bleeding should be controlled by increasing the estrogen dose to 50 mcg rather than by altering the progesterone level. Effort should also be made to carefully tailor OC prescribing to the specific needs of each patient. The risk of vascular diseases among OC users is almost exclusively confined to older women who smoke. Care must be exercised in prescribing OCs for women who smoke and for women who other characteristics that place them at high risk of developing vascular disease. Since women differ considerably in the way they utilize and metabolize the steroids contained in OCs, efforts should be made to develop an inexpensive and simple technique for measuring serum steriod levels. This would allow physicians to reduce the steriod content of OCs for those women whose systems make maximal use of available steriods. PMID:6502571

Kay, C R

1984-11-01

458

Gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand I. Prevalence and fish species.  

PubMed

Between August 2000 and August 2001, 12,216 fish of 73 species were purchased from several local markets in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, and examined for the presence of Gnathostoma larvae. Almost all species were fresh-water fish that had grown naturally, rather than raised commercially. Eight species were found to be infected with gnathostome larvae. The overall prevalence was 5.1% (626/12,216) and a total of 5,969 larvae was recovered. The highest rate of infection (30.1 %) was found in Monopterus albus (swamp eel). The rates in the remaining infected fish were as follows: Anabas testudineus (climbing perch) 7.7%, Channa striata (striped snake-head fish) 7.4%, Clarius macrocephalus (Gunther's walking catfish) 6.7%, Channa micropeltes (giant snake-head fish) 5.1%, Channa lucius (blotched snake-head fish) 4.0%, Clarius batrachus (Batrachian walking catfish) 1.4%, and Ompok krattensis (butter sheatfish) 0.6%. The mean number of larvae/fish was highest in swamp eels (10.0 larvae/eel), and the maximum number of 698 larvae was recovered from one eel. The body sizes of the recovered G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae were 2.70-5.10 mm in length (average, 3.97+/-0.50 mm) and 0.29-0.60 mm in width (average, 0.40+/-0.04 mm). The average number of cephalic hooklets of the larvae from rows 1 to 4 were 41.8+/-0.5 (range, 40-43), 43.6+/-0.6 (range, 42-45), 46.1+/-0.9 (range, 44-48) and 49.3+/-0.7 (range, 48-51), respectively. PMID:15689060

Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Komalamisra, Chalit

2004-09-01

459

Cryopreservation of Sperm from the Endangered Colorado Pikeminnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed methods for the cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius. Sperm were collected from a captive broodstock population of Colorado pikeminnow reared and maintained at the Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects on sperm motility of 24-h storage in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS); (2) characterize sperm motility and duration; (3) examine the relationship between sperm motility and osmotic pressure; (4) examine the effect of four cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], dimethyl acetamide [DMA], glycerol, and methanol [MeOH] at two concentrations [5% and 10%]) on postthaw motility; and (5) compare the effect of two cooling rates (40??C/ min and 4??C/min) on postthaw motility. The sperm samples diluted with HBSS retained higher motility (mean ??SD, 77 ?? 22%; n = 9) than did undiluted samples (12 ?? 30%; n = 9) after 24 h of storage. When exposed to HBSS at 274 mosmols/kg or more, few sperm became motile (???1%). Exposure to HBSS at 265 mosmols/kg elicited threshold activation (defined as 10% motility), and maximum motility (>95%) was observed at 93 mosmols/ kg. The maximum motility of sperm was observed within 10 s after activation with deionized water, and sperm remained motile for 57 s. The sperm that were cooled at a rate of 40??C/min and cryopreserved with 5% MeOH retained higher postthaw motility (56 ?? 13%) than did sperm cryopreserved with DMSO, DMA, or glycerol (at 5% and 10%). When the sperm samples were cooled at a rate of 4??C/min, sperm cryopreserved with MeOH (5% or 10%) or DMSO (5% or 10%) retained the highest postthaw motilities (???14%). The use of cryopreserved sperm can assist hatchery managers in the production of fish, provide for the long-term conservation of genetic resources, and assist in the recovery of endangered species such as the Colorado pikeminnow.

Tiersch, T. R.; Figiel, Jr. , C. R.; Wayman, W. R.; Williamson, J. H.; Gorman, O. T.; Carmichael, G. J.

2004-01-01

460

Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole-effluent toxicity tests using those two species. If the responses of specific listed species are important for management decisions, our study supports the value in developing culture and testing procedures for those species. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dwyer, F. J.; Hardesty, D. K.; Henke, C. E.; Ingersoll, C. G.; Whites, D. W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T. J.; Mount, D. R.; Mayer, F. L.

2005-01-01

461

Simulated effects of recruitment variability, exploitation, and reduced habitat area on the muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetically unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabiting Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, is potentially at risk for loss of genetic variability and long-term viability. Shoepack Lake has been subject to dramatic surface area changes from the construction of an outlet dam by beavers Castor canadensis and its subsequent failure. We simulated the long-term dynamics of this population in response to recruitment variation, increased exploitation, and reduced habitat area. We then estimated the effective population size of the simulated population and evaluated potential threats to long-term viability, based on which we recommend management actions to help preserve the long-term viability of the population. Simulations based on the population size and habitat area at the beginning of a companion study resulted in an effective population size that was generally above the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability, except when fishing mortality was increased. Simulations based on the reduced habitat area after the beaver dam failure and our assumption of a proportional reduction in population size resulted in an effective population size that was generally below the threshold level for risk of loss of genetic variability. Our results identified two potential threats to the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population, reduction in habitat area and exploitation. Increased exploitation can be prevented through traditional fishery management approaches such as the adoption of no-kill, barbless hook, and limited entry regulations. Maintenance of the greatest possible habitat area and prevention of future habitat area reductions will require maintenance of the outlet dam built by beavers. Our study should enhance the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population and illustrates a useful approach for other unique populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Frohnauer, N. K.; Pierce, C. L.; Kallemeyn, L. W.

2007-01-01

462

Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

Meador, M. R.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

2005-01-01

463

Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus by Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction from Two Fish Species at Two Sites in Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 2005 during a mortality event in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Subsequent analysis of archived samples determined that the first known isolation of VHSV in the Laurentian Great Lakes was from a muskellunge Esox masquinongy collected in Lake St. Clair in 2003. By the end of 2008, mortality events and viral isolations had occurred in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes except Lake Superior. In 2009, a focused disease surveillance program was designed to determine whether VHSV was also present in Lake Superior. In this survey, 874 fish from 7 sites along the U.S. shoreline of Lake Superior were collected during June 2009. Collections were focused on nearshore species known to be susceptible to VHSV. All fish were dissected individually by using aseptic techniques and were tested for the presence of VHSV genetic material by use of a quantitative reverse transcription (qRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the viral nucleoprotein gene. Seventeen fish from two host species at two different sites tested positive at low levels for VHSV. All attempts to isolate virus in cell culture were unsuccessful. However, the presence of viral RNA was confirmed independently in five fish by using a nested PCR that targeted the glycoprotein (G) gene. Partial G gene sequences obtained from three fish were identical to the corresponding sequence from the original 2003 VHSV isolate (MI03) from muskellunge. These detections represent the earliest evidence for the presence of VHSV in Lake Superior and illustrate the utility of the highly sensitive qRT-PCR assay for disease surveillance in aquatic animals.

Cornwell, Emily R.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Thompson, Tarin M.; Batts, William N.; Casey, Rufina N.; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Bowser, Paul R.; Bain, Mark B.; Casey, James W.

2011-01-01

464

Ecological half-life of 137Cs in fish from a stream contaminated by nuclear reactor effluents.  

PubMed

Radiocesium (137Cs) concentrations were determined during 1974, 1981 and 1998 for seven species of fish inhabiting a stream (Steel Creek) contaminated by effluents from a nuclear reactor to examine the decline of this radionuclide in a natural ecosystem. Median 137Cs concentrations were highest in Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) during each year of the investigation (1974 = 6.67 Bq g(-1) dry wt. of whole body; 1981 = 3.72 Bq g(-1); 1998 = 0.35 Bq g(-1)), but no patterns of differences were observed among Aphredoderus sayanus (pirate perch), Esox americanus (redfin pickerel), Lepomis auritus (redbreast sunfish), L. gulosus (warmouth), L. punctatus (spotted sunfish), and Notropis cummingsae (dusky shiner). Results demonstrated a rapid decline in 137Cs within fish from Steel Creek during the 24-year period. For example, 137Cs concentrations in all fish species declined significantly among years, even after accounting for radioactive decay. The observed percent declines in 137Cs concentrations of individual species were 3-4 times greater between 1974 and 1981 compared to that expected by physical decay alone, and 2-3 times greater during 1981-1998. Ecological half-lives (EHLs) of 137Cs in fish ranged from 4.43 years in A. sayanus to 6.53 years in L. gulosus. The EHL for 137Cs in all fish species combined was 5.54 years. Current levels of 137Cs in fish from Steel Creek (1.16 Bq g(-1) dry wt. of whole body to below detection limits) indicate that the consumption of fish from this ecosystem poses little risk to humans and sensitive wildlife species. These results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the concept of ecological half-life into determinations concerning the length and severity of potential risks associated with radiocontaminants. PMID:11194159

Peles, J D; Bryan, A L; Garten, C T; Ribble, D O; Smith, M H

2000-12-18

465

Mercury and selenium in fish from the Savannah river: species, trophic level, and locational differences.  

PubMed

Levels of contaminants in fish are of considerable interest because of potential effects on the fish themselves, as well as on other organisms that consume them. In this article we compare the mercury levels in muscle tissue of 11 fish species from the Savannah River, as well as selenium levels because of its known protective effect against mercury toxicity. We sampled fish from three stretches of the river: upstream, along, and downstream the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear material production facility. We test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue as a function of species, trophic level, and location along the river. There were significant interspecific differences in mercury levels, with bowfin (Amia calva) having the highest levels, followed by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and pickerel (Esox niger). Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) had the lowest levels of mercury. As expected, these differences generally reflected trophic levels. There were few significant locational differences in mercury levels, and existing differences were not great, presumably reflecting local movements of fish between the sites examined. Selenium and mercury concentrations were positively correlated only for bass, perch (Perca flavescens), and red-breasted sunfish (Lepomis auritus). Mercury levels were positively correlated with body mass of the fish for all species except American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and bluegill sunfish (L. macrochirus). The mercury and selenium levels in fish tissue from the Savannah River are similar to or lower than those reported in many other studies, and in most cases pose little risk to the fish themselves or to other aquatic consumers, although levels in bowfin and bass are sufficiently high to pose a potential threat to high-level consumers. PMID:11683594

Burger, J; Gaines, K F; Boring, C S; Stephens, W L; Snodgrass, J; Gochfeld, M

2001-10-01

466

Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) infecting northern redbelly dace Phoxinus eos Cope (Cyprinidae) from Nova Scotia, Canada.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. is described from the gill rakers of red belly dace, Phoxinus eos Cope (Cyprinidae), from Nova Scotia, Canada. Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. is the second species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 described from this host and is characterised by weakly curving hamuli, a small ventral bar lacking anterolateral processes, stout dorsal bar, small marginal hooks with sickles larger proximally than distally and having a small circular process on the heel, a MCO with spines arranged in two arched rows, and lack of obvious excretory bladders. The new species most closely resembles Gyrodactylus laevis Malmberg, 1957, a Eurasian species whose principle host is Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). The two species are separated by Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. having less divergent and longer hamulus root and marginal hook sickle toe with a steeper continuous angle and heel that is less prominent. The morphological description is supplemented with sequences of the 18S gene (449 bp, including the V4 region) and of the ITS region (821 bp). Gyrodactylus sedelnikowi Gvosdev, 1950 infecting Barbatula barbatula (L.) and Gyrodactylus neili Leblanc, Hansen, Burt & Cone, 2006 infecting Esox niger Lesueur are the most genetically similar species on GenBank for the 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions respectively (c.96% and c.92%). Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. belongs to Malmberg's subgenus Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylus) and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region groups this species with other members of the subgenus. The phylogeny has two main clades, one comprised of Eurasian species and the other of North American species, specifically Gyrodactylus laevisoides n. sp. and Gyrodactylus neili. It is suspected that this lineage, which is seemingly underrepresented in North America, likely colonised the new world with an ancestral species of Phoxinus via the Bering land connection around the time of the Pliocene. PMID:24163028

King, Stanley D; Cone, David K; Mackley, Michael P; Bentzen, Paul

2013-10-27

467

Elevated mercury concentrations in fish in lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin: the role of physical, chemical, and biological factors.  

PubMed

During the mid-1990s and through the early 2000s, researchers determined that elevated mercury concentrations were a common occurrence in predatory fish in many lakes in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB), located in northern Canada. Here we present the results of studies investigating factors contributing to higher mercury concentrations in fish in many of these lakes. Twenty-two percent of lake trout, 33% of northern pike, and 50% of walleye populations had mean mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g, the guideline for the commercial sale of fish. Higher mercury concentrations were strongly associated with the relatively old age of MRB predatory fish; mean age ranged from 7.6 to 24.9 years for the three species. In contrast, none of the lake trout sampled in eight lakes further south in northern Saskatchewan and Alberta had mean mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g; fish also were younger (mean age 6 years for the 8 lakes). Mercury concentrations in MRB fish generally increased with fish length, age, and trophic feeding although the nature of these relationships varied with the lake. Mean length was a good predictor of mean mercury concentrations in walleye populations across the study lakes but not for whitefish, lake trout, and pike; age was a good predictor for lake trout and walleye. Mercury concentrations in water and invertebrates were similar to those observed in more southerly regions where fish do not have elevated mercury concentrations. Mercury concentrations tended to be higher in fish in smaller vs. larger lakes and as a probable consequence of higher summer epilimnion temperatures, which favour a higher net methylation rate, and higher mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in water which enter these lakes from the watershed. Increasing fishing pressures on MRB lakes may be a means of reducing mean fish age, improving growth rates, and decreasing mercury body burdens. Increased global warming may result in higher mercury concentrations in fish through increased water temperatures, a longer ice free season, and increased release of stored mercury from the watershed into these lakes. PMID:16183101

Evans, M S; Lockhart, W L; Doetzel, L; Low, G; Muir, D; Kidd, K; Stephens, G; Delaronde, J

2005-09-23

468

Has Martian History Been Dominated by Explosive Rather than Effusive Volcanism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to gain a clear understanding of basic physical properties of the upper martian crust. We can use these derived properties to test a range of plausible formation mechanisms and place constraints on the processes involved in the creation of the martian crust. Previous studies have addressed this problem using a variety of techniques and observations. It has been well-established that the martian upper crust is typically mechanically weak (e.g. Pike, 1980; Schultz, 2002; Stewart and Valiant, 2006) and the notion of a highly fractured mega-regolith has often been invoked as the cause of this weakness. There are apparent contradictions in the interpretations of separate observations, such as the fine-scale layering in canyon walls that would not be preserved in a mega-regolith (McEwen et al., 1999). In all cases, however, the original material that makes up either the layering or mega-regolith has been assumed to originate as effusive volcanic materials. We have re-examined the body of previous work in the light of more recent global thermophysical observations to place further constraints on the nature of the upper martian crust. Although the upper ~10 km of the crust is indeed mechanically weak, consistent with previous studies, these crustal materials are also inconsistent with a mega-regolith composed of fractured blocks. Thermal inertia derived from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data, High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, and Mars Exploration Rover observations clearly indicate that the upper martian crust is more typically composed of weakly consolidated fine-particulate materials. These materials are consistent with a volcaniclastic origin rather than effusive volcanism. Mechanically competent material akin to what might be derived from lava flows is clearly present on Mars in locations such as Hesperia Planum and at low latitudes within the northern lowlands, but it is much less common than has been assumed. It appears that Mars has a unique style of crustal formation that is distinct from that of the Moon and the other terrestrial planets. References: McEwen, A. S., and 14 colleagues (2007) Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). J. Geophys. Res., 112, 10.1029/2005JE002605. Pike, R.J. (1980) Control of crater morphology by gravity and target type - Mars, earth, moon. Proc. Lun. Planet. Sci. Conf., 11, 2159-2189. Schultz, R. A. (2002) Stability of rock slopes in Valles Marineris, Mars. Geophys. Res. Let., 29, 10.1029/2002GL015728. Stewart, S. T. and G. J. Valiant (2006) Martian subsurface properties and crater formation processes inferred from fresh impact crater geometries. Meteor. Planet. Sci., 41, 1509-1537.

Bandfield, J. L.; Edwards, C. S.; Montgomery, D. R.

2010-12-01

469

Relationships between 222Rn dissolved in ground water supplies and indoor 222Rn concentrations in some Colorado front range houses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 37 houses with alpha track detectors placed in water-use rooms near water sources (bathrooms, laundry rooms, and kitchens) and in non-water-use living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms away from water sources. Results show that relative contributions of 222Rn to indoor air from water use are insignificant when soil-gas concentrations are high but become increasingly important as the ratio of 222Rn-in-water:222Rn-in-soil gas increases. High soil-gas 222Rn concentrations may mask 222Rn contributions from water even when waterborne 222Rn concentrations are as high as 750 kBq m-3. Ground water in Precambrian Pikes Peak granite averages 340 kBq m-3222Rn, vs. 170 kBq m-3 in Precambrian migmatite, but average 222Rn concentrations in soil gas are also lower in migmatite. Because the ratio of 222Rn-in- water:222Rn-in-soil gas may be consistently higher for houses in migmatite than in Pikes Peak granite, indoor air in houses built on migmatite may have a greater relative contribution from water use even though average 222Rn concentrations in the water are lower. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in air on 15-min intervals also indicates that additions to indoor concentrations from water use are significant and measurable only when soil-gas concentrations are low and concentrations in water are high. When soil-gas concentrations were mitigated to less than 150 Bq m-3 in one house, water contributes 20-40% of the annual indoor 222Rn concentration in the laundry room (222Rn concentration in water of 670 kBq m-3). Conversely, when the mitigation system is inactive, diurnal fluctuations and other variations in the soil-gas 222Rn contribution swamp the variability due to water use in the house. Measurable variations in indoor concentrations from water use were not detected in one house despite a low soil-gas contribution of approximately 150 Bq m-3 because waterborne 222Rn concentrations also are low (80 kBq m-3). This result suggests that 222Rn concentrations in water near the recommended EPA limit in drinking water of 11 kBq m-3 may not contribute measurable amounts of 222Rn to indoor air in most houses.

Folger, P. F.; Nyberg, P.; Wanty, R. B.; Poeter, E.

1994-01-01

470

Selenium bioaccumulation and hazards in a fish community affected by coal fly ash effluent.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in the fish community of Pigeon River/Pigeon Lake, which receives inputs of Se from a coal fly ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se to fish, wildlife, and humans. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving seepage and effluents from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than those in fish from upstream, where Se concentrations were near background concentrations. Se concentrations differed among fish species, and interspecific variation was greatest at the most contaminated locations. Differences in Se bioaccumulation among fish species were not consistently associated with differences in trophic status. Although Se concentrations in northern pike were consistently less than those in likely prey species, large yellow perch contained Se concentrations as great as those in spottail shiners, their likely prey. Se bioaccumulation may have been influenced by differences in habitat preferences, as limnetic species generally contained greater Se concentrations than benthic species. Se concentrations in fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake did not exceed lowest observable adverse effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of fish species, but exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals. Human consumption of moderate quantities of fish from the areas studied should not result in excessive Se intake. PMID:8930500

Besser, J M; Giesy, J P; Brown, R W; Buell, J M; Dawson, G A

1996-10-01

471

Mercury concentrations in fish from forest harvesting and fire-impacted Canadian Boreal lakes compared using stable isotopes of nitrogen.  

PubMed

Total mercury (Hg) concentration was determined in several piscivorous and nonpiscivorous species of fish from 38 drainage lakes with clear-cut, burnt, or undisturbed catchments located in the Canadian Boreal Shield. Mercury concentrations increased with increasing fish trophic position as estimated using stable isotopes of nitrogen (N; r2 = 0.52, 0.49, and 0.30 for cut, reference, and burnt lakes, respectively; p < 0.01). Mercury biomagnification per thousand delta15N varied from 22 to 29% in the three groups of lakes. Mercury availability to organisms at the base of the food chain in lakes with cut catchments was higher than that in reference lakes. In cut lakes, Hg concentrations in fish were significantly related to ratio of the clear-cut area to lake area (or lake volume; r = +0.82 and +0.74, respectively, p < 0.01). Both impact ratios were, in turn, significantly correlated with dissolved organic carbon. These findings suggest that differential loading of organic matter-bound Hg to lakes can affect Hg cycling. In addition, Hg concentrations exceeded the advisory limit for human consumption (0.5 microg/g wet wt) from the World Health Organization in all top predatory species (northern pike, walleye, and burbot) found in cut and in two partially burnt lakes. Thus, high Hg concentrations in fish from forest-harvested and partially burnt lakes may reflect increased exposure to Hg relative to that in lakes not having these watershed disturbances. PMID:15779770

Garcia, Edenise; Carignan, Richard

2005-03-01

472

Genetic structure of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stocks of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance (R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.

Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils

2012-01-01

473

Small volcanoes in Tempe Terra, Mars: Their detailed morphometry and inferred geologic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tempe Terra province contains a variety of volcanic landforms that range in size from small vents (less than 10 km in diameter) to moderately sized volcanoes (150 km in diameter). The volcanoes are aligned along the dominant northerly and northeasterly trends of the faults in this region, and many of the volcanoes occur on grabens. Some workers have speculated on the nature of some of the volcanoes on the basis of their general morphology, shadow measurement height, lateral dimension, and geologic setting. As part of a larger study, we have obtained detailed photoclinometric profiles across five of the more conspicuous small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra region. For these data, we extracted for each volcano its flank width and edifice height and the width and depth of its summit crater. We statistically compared these dimensions for each volcano with a set of average dimensions for each type of terrestrial volcanic feature listed in Pike and Clow (1981). These comparisons indicate that the morphometries of the Martian volcanoes 1, 2, and 3 most closely match Earth's cratered basaltic lava shields, and the morphometries of volcanoes 4 and 5 are similar to those of terrestrial basaltic tuff rings.

Davis, P. A.; Tanaka, K. L.

1993-03-01

474

Development of a Fish Based Lake Typology for Natural Austrian Lakes >50 ha Based on the Reconstructed Historical Fish Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the reconstructed native fish communities all natural Austrian lakes >50 ha (n = 43) were classified into four groups using cluster analysis methods. Sentinel species (i.e. species with highest discriminating value for lake types and characteristic for a specific lake group) and type specific fish species (accompanying species with additional value for characterising lake groups) were defined by a newly developed index and by similarity analysis. The first group included 16 lakes of high altitude, small surface area and low fish species number with arctic char as a sentinel species. The second group (n = 10) was characterized by intermediate altitude, large surface area and high maximum water depth with the minnow as sentinel species. The third group contained 14 lakes with low maximum water depths and a long retention time. For this group the bleak was found as a sentinel species. The lakes of the eastern part of Austria represented the last group (n = 3) and were characterized by low altitude and very shallow water depth with pike-perch as a sentinel species.

Gassner, Hubert; Wanzenböck, Josef; Zick, Daniela; Tischler, Gerhard; Pamminger-Lahnsteiner, Barbara

2005-08-01

475

Vertebrate behavior and ecology. Progress report, 1 July 1978--30 June 1979  

SciTech Connect

Efforts in engineering design and development this year emphasized improvement in the quality and versatility of radio transmitters, use of microprocessors in an automated fish tracking system, and construction of an automated system to monitor movements and activities of aquatic mammals in response to water temperature. Improved radio transmitters were used on a variety of species including sea otters, manatees, and wall-eyed pike. The fish tracking system, installed at Monticello, Minnesota, will next be modified for monitoring marine mammal movements. The temperature data logging system was tested on manatees in the St. John River near Blue Springs, Florida. The long-term goal in the subproject on evaluation of census methods is to utilize the extensive experience, technology, and equipment developed over the years in radio telemetry to resolve basic problems in animal census and population study methods. During the past year, efforts have resulted in information on activity patterns and the behavioral repertoire of sea otters and on the response of otters to contamination by Alaskan crude oil. Three preliminary manuscripts presented as part of this report describe these aspects in detail.

Tester, J.R.; Siniff, D.B.

1979-07-01

476

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Pregnancy: A Meta-analytic Update  

PubMed Central

Objective?Recent increases in adolescent pregnancies have sparked a renewed impetus to identify risk factors, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), associated with adolescent pregnancy. Given mixed evidence regarding the strength of the relationship between CSA and adolescent pregnancy (Blinn-Pike, Berger, Dixon, Kuschel, & Kaplan, 2002), our objective was to provide an estimate of the effect size of this relationship using updated literature and meta-analytic techniques.?Methods?Meta-analyses of 21 studies were conducted using a random effects model of binary outcomes to determine aggregate effect-size estimates controlling for study heterogeneity.?Results?CSA significantly increased the odds of experiencing an adolescent pregnancy by 2.21-fold (95% CI: 1.94–2.51). A supplemental analysis suggested that 4.5 out of 10 pregnant adolescents may have a prior history of CSA.?Conclusions?CSA places females at increased risk for subsequent adolescent pregnancy. Addressing conditions associated with CSA might impact the overall adolescent pregnancy rate.

Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Karen T.

2009-01-01

477

Using citizen science beyond teaching science content: a strategy for making science relevant to students' lives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to their lives or they are simply not good at science. With this understanding, the science education community now needs to move beyond a discussion of the problem and move forward with continued discourse on possible solutions. Science educators need to focus on developing connections between students' everyday lives and science so that they will have tangible reasons for continuing with the lifelong learning of science. In this response, I will show that citizen science as an educational context holds much promise, respectively. Participation in citizen science projects moves scientific content from the abstract to the tangible involving students in hands-on, active learning. In addition, if civic projects are centered within their own communities, then the science becomes relevant to their lives because it is focused on topics in their own backyards.

Jenkins, Lynda L.

2011-06-01

478

Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

Piatak, N. M.; Seal, R. R., II; Sanzolone, R. F.; Lamothe, P. J.; Brown, Z. A.; Adams, M.

2007-01-01

479

On the organizing role of nonmuscular forces during performance of a giant circle in gymnastics.  

PubMed

Five elite gymnasts performed giant circles on the high bar under different conditions of loading (without and with 6-kg loads attached to the shoulders, waist or ankles). Comparing the gymnasts' kinematic pattern of movement with that of a triple-pendulum moving under the sole influence of nonmuscular forces revealed qualitative similarities, including the adoption of an arched position during the downswing and a piked position during the upswing. The structuring role of nonmuscular forces in the organization of movement was further reinforced by the results of an inverse dynamics analysis, assessing the contributions of gravitational, inertial and muscular components to the net joint torques. Adding loads at the level of the shoulders, waist or ankles systematically influenced movement kinematics and net joint torques. However, with the loads attached at the level of the shoulders or waist, the load-induced changes in gravitational and inertial torques provided the required increase in net joint torque, thereby allowing the muscular torques to remain unchanged. With the loads attached at the level of the ankles, this was no longer the case and the gymnasts increased the muscular torques at the shoulder and hip joints. Together, these results demonstrate that expert gymnasts skillfully exploit the operative nonmuscular forces, employing muscle force only in the capacity of complementary forces needed to perform the task. PMID:21975422

Sevrez, Violaine; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Bootsma, Reinoud J

2011-10-04

480

Origins of variation in muscle cytochrome c oxidase activity within and between fish species.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial content, central to aerobic metabolism, is thought to be controlled by a few transcriptional master regulators, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), NRF-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). Though well studied in mammals, the mechanisms by which these factors control mitochondrial content have been less studied in lower vertebrates. We evaluated the role of these transcriptional regulators in seasonal changes in white muscle cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in eight local fish species representing five families: Centrarchidae, Umbridae, Esocidae, Gasterosteidae and Cyprinidae. Amongst centrarchids, COX activity was significantly higher in winter for pumpkinseed (2-fold) and black crappie (1.3-fold) but not bluegill or largemouth bass. In esociforms, winter COX activity was significantly higher in central mudminnow (3.5-fold) but not northern pike. COX activity was significantly higher in winter-acclimatized brook stickleback (2-fold) and northern redbelly dace (3-fold). Though mudminnow COX activity increased in winter, lab acclimation to winter temperatures did not alter COX activity, suggesting a role for non-thermal cues. When mRNA was measured for putative master regulators of mitochondria, there was little evidence for a uniform relationship between COX activity and any of NRF-1, NRF-2? or PGC-1? mRNA levels Collectively, these studies argue against a simple temperature-dependent mitochondrial response ubiquitous in fish, and suggest that pathways which control mitochondrial content in fish may differ in important ways from those of the better studied mammals. PMID:21562176

Bremer, Katharina; Moyes, Christopher D

2011-06-01

481

Empirical Bayes procedure for estimating genetic distance between populations and effective population size.  

PubMed Central

We developed an empirical Bayes procedure to estimate genetic distances between populations using allele frequencies. This procedure makes it possible to describe the skewness of the genetic distance while taking full account of the uncertainty of the sample allele frequencies. Dirichlet priors of the allele frequencies are specified, and the posterior distributions of the various composite parameters are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. To avoid overdependence on subjective priors, we adopt a hierarchical model and estimate hyperparameters by maximizing the joint marginal-likelihood function. Taking advantage of the empirical Bayesian procedure, we extend the method to estimate the effective population size using temporal changes in allele frequencies. The method is applied to data sets on red sea bream, herring, northern pike, and ayu broodstock. It is shown that overdispersion overestimates the genetic distance and underestimates the effective population size, if it is not taken into account during the analysis. The joint marginal-likelihood function also estimates the rate of gene flow into island populations.

Kitada, S; Hayashi, T; Kishino, H

2000-01-01

482

Generalization of learned predator recognition: an experimental test and framework for future studies  

PubMed Central

While some prey species possess an innate recognition of their predators, others require learning to recognize their predators. The specific characteristics of the predators that prey learn and whether prey can generalize this learning to similar predatory threats have been virtually ignored. Here, we investigated whether fathead minnows that learned to chemically recognize a specific predator species as a threat has the ability to generalize their recognition to closely related predators. We found that minnows trained to recognize the odour of a lake trout as a threat (the reference predator) generalized their responses to brook trout (same genus as lake trout) and rainbow trout (same family), but did not generalize to a distantly related predatory pike or non-predatory suckers. We also found that the intensity of antipredator responses to the other species was correlated with the phylogenetic distance to the reference predator; minnows responded with a higher intensity response to brook trout than rainbow trout. This is the first study showing that prey have the ability to exhibit generalization of predator odour recognition. We discuss these results and provide a theoretical framework for future studies of generalization of predator recognition.

Ferrari, Maud C.O; Gonzalo, Adega; Messier, Francois; Chivers, Douglas P

2007-01-01

483

The inner ears of Northern Canadian freshwater fishes following exposure to seismic air gun sounds  

PubMed Central

An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). “Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958–3971]. The sound pressure levels to which the fishes were exposed were a mean received level of 205–209 dB re 1 ?Pa (peak) per shot and an approximate received mean SEL of 176–180 dB re 1 ?Pa2 s per shot. In this report, the same animals were examined to determine whether there were effects on the sensory cells of the inner ear as a result of the seismic exposure. No damage was found to the ears of the fishes exposed to seismic sounds despite the fact that two of the species, adult northern pike and lake chub, had shown a temporary threshold shift in hearing studies.

Song, Jiakun; Mann, David A.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; Popper, Arthur N.

2008-01-01

484

The inner ears of Northern Canadian freshwater fishes following exposure to seismic air gun sounds.  

PubMed

An earlier study examined the effects of exposure to seismic air guns on the hearing of three species of fish from the Mackenzie River Delta in Northern Canada [Popper et al. (2005). "Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3958-3971]. The sound pressure levels to which the fishes were exposed were a mean received level of 205-209 dB re 1 microPa (peak) per shot and an approximate received mean SEL of 176-180 dB re 1 microPa(2) s per shot. In this report, the same animals were examined to determine whether there were effects on the sensory cells of the inner ear as a result of the seismic exposure. No damage was found to the ears of the fishes exposed to seismic sounds despite the fact that two of the species, adult northern pike and lake chub, had shown a temporary threshold shift in hearing studies. PMID:18681621

Song, Jiakun; Mann, David A; Cott, Peter A; Hanna, Bruce W; Popper, Arthur N

2008-08-01

485

An Exploratory Study of Diabetes in a First Nation Community with Respect to Serum Concentrations of p,p’-DDE and PCBs and Fish Consumption  

PubMed Central

This study examined the association between self-reported diabetes, fish consumption and serum levels of organochlorines in a First Nation community. One quarter of the 101 participants reported diabetes. Serum PCBs, but not p,p’-DDE, were positively correlated to consumption frequency of total fish, walleye and pike, but not trout. Reported diabetes was positively associated to p,p’-DDE and some PCB congeners. Odds Ratios (OR) for reported diabetes for those in the upper 75th percentile for serum p,p’-DDE compared to the others were 3.5 (95% CI 1–13.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.4–27.3) (weight wet and lipid-standardized values, respectively) and for total sum of PCBs: 4.91 (95% CI 1.4–19.0) and 5.51 (95% CI 1.3–24.1). For participants who were in the upper 50th percentile for trout and white fish intake, reported diabetes was respectively 6 and 4 times lower compared to the others. These findings support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to elevated p,p’-DDE and PCBs is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Consumption of trout and white fish may be beneficial to reduce risk.

Philibert, Aline; Schwartz, Harold; Mergler, Donna

2009-01-01

486

US Department of Energy Portsmouth annual environmental report for 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth plant is one of two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-managed uranium enrichment facilities in operation. As of July 1, 1993, responsibility for implementing environmental compliance at the facility was split between DOE, as site owner, and the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government-owned corporation formed by the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, to operate the nation`s uranium enrichment business. The management contractor for DOE is Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems), which is responsible for waste management, environmental restoration, removal of highly enriched uranium (HEU), and operation of nonleased facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE/PORTS). Lockheed Martin Utility Services (formerly Martin Marietta Utility Services) provides management services for USEC. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission will assume direct oversight of USEC operations in 1997. Until then, DOE will provide oversight of nuclear safety and safeguards and security. DOE/PORTS is located on about six square miles in Pike County, Ohio. The County has approximately 24,250 residents. The total population within 50 miles of the plant is about 900,000. The main process at PORTS has been the separation of uranium isotopes through gaseous diffusion. Uranium is no longer enriched by DOE at PORTS. The uranium enrichment production operation facilities at the site are leased to USEC and are managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Utility Services.

NONE

1997-09-01

487

Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1986 Interim Report.  

SciTech Connect

We believe our results have clearly shown Kerr hydroelectric operations and operational constraints have negatively affected Flathead River trout and northern pike populations and the aquatic habitat which support them. Even so, it is possible to mitigate many of these impacts and develop a very important fishery. Trout abundance in the lower Flathead averaged only 19 fish per kilometer, the lowest abundance of trout for a river of this size in Montana. Little main channel spawning by trout was observed and most spawning probably occurs in tributaries. Lower river tributaries support resident populations of brook, rainbow, brown, and cutthroat trout; and a small resident population of bull trout is present in the South Fork of the Jocko River. Using weirs, spawning runs of rainbow and brown trout from the main river were monitored entering the Jocko River and the Post/Mission Creek system. Utilization of Crow Creek by main river trout stocks of trout was limited to the 6 km segment below Crow Dam. Evaluations of tributary spawning gravels showed high levels of silt which would suggest poor survival of trout eggs. Excessive harvest in the tributaries was indicated by analysis of age class structure and abundance of trout greater than 200 mm.

Bradshaw, William H.; DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James M.

1986-08-01

488

Predation leads to assembly rules in fragmented fish communities.  

PubMed

Diamond [Assembly of species communities. In: Ecology and Evolution of Communities (eds Cody, M.L. & Diamond, J.M.). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 342-444] proposed that resource competition leads to checkerboard-like distributions of competing species. This proposal prompted research that revealed checkerboard patterns within a wide range of communities, but the mechanisms that generate such patterns are still poorly understood. Here we present whole-lake natural experiments and analyses of species-environment relationships in small coastal lake fish communities that were fragmented when land uplift isolated these lakes from the Baltic Sea, showing that a combination of predation and habitat suitability generated checkerboard distributions. Checkerboard patterns developed because two piscivores, northern pike and Eurasian perch, caused the extinction of several prey species in deep lakes. Conversely, low oxygen levels in shallow lakes caused extinction of the piscivores, and these areas served as a refuge for tolerant prey species. Based on these findings, we suggest that habitat suitability and biotic interactions should be viewed simultaneously in null models of assembly rules. PMID:19453615

Englund, Göran; Johansson, Frank; Olofsson, Patrik; Salonsaari, Juha; Ohman, Johanna

2009-05-08

489

A revision of the Lower Guinean Hepsetus species (Characiformes; Hepsetidae) with the description of Hepsetus kingsleyae sp. nov.  

PubMed

An ?-taxonomic revision of the African pike, Hepsetus odoe, from Lower Guinea is provided. The results show that three different species occur in Lower Guinea instead of one. Hepsetus akawo, recently described from West Africa, is present in the northern part of Lower Guinea; Hepsetus lineata, the most widespread species within Lower Guinea, is known from the Sanaga (Cameroon) in the north to the Shiloango (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in the south and Hepsetus kingsleyae sp. nov. is endemic to the Ogowe Basin. The new species H. kingsleyae is described and H. lineata, which is elevated here to the species level, is redescribed. Hepsetus lineata can easily be recognized by its prominent horizontal line pattern on the flanks and differs further from H. akawo and H. kingsleyae in the number of lateral-line scales and the number of gill rakers. Hepsetus kingsleyae differs from H. lineata and H. akawo by its narrow head, elongated snout and narrow, knife-shaped body. All three species are also distinguishable from H. odoe and the recently revalidated H. cuvieri. A few exceptional specimens could not be allocated to one of the three species and may represent hybrids because of their mixed diagnostic characters or their intermediate values. PMID:23557311

Decru, E; Vreven, E; Snoeks, J

2013-04-01

490

[Comparative biochemical analysis of blood serum lipoproteins from human and various animal species].  

PubMed

Lipid composition of blood serum and total lipids of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) were studied in human (donors, patients with ischemic heart disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchitis, as well as with a combined pathology), in mammals predisposed to atherosclerosis (pig, rabbit) and resistant to atherosclerosis (rat, mink, Arctic fox), in birds (hen, pigeon), in teleost fish (white fish, pikeperch, pike, bream, burbot) and cartilaginous fish (sturgeon, housen). It has been established that the most enriched in lipids is the blood serum of animals, particularly of cartilaginous fish. Twice lower is the lipid content in blood serum of donors than of animals. However, in the vascular, bronchial-pulmonary, and combined human pathologies the lipid level rises statistically significantly. In human and in animals predisposed to atherosclerosis the main mass of lipid is located in LDL, whereas in animals resistant to this disease--in HDL. The ratio of the human lipid content in LDL/HDL increases from 1.4 (in donors) to 2.7 in pathological states--in ischemic heart disease and its combination with chronic obstructive disease. In animals, a decrease of this ratio is noted from 1.0 to 0.2 in cartilaginous fish. By the example of one taxon (fish) there is established a regularity that indicates that evolution of lipoproteins occurred with an increase of the lipid amount in the "younger" LDL and with a decrease of concentration of the "colder" HDL. PMID:18959212

Lizenko, M V; Regerand, T I; Bakhirev, A M; Lizenko, E I

491

Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

Asmus, John F.

2005-08-01

492

Gender comparisons in the perception of self-competence among four-year-old children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of gender differences in the perception of self-competence among 4-year-old children. Sixty-one-4-year-olds (27 girls and 34 boys) from predominantly European American backgrounds