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Sample records for pike esox lucius

  1. Trophic flexibility and opportunism in pike Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, D; Mariani, S; Coughlan, J; Voigt, C C; O'Grady, M; Caffrey, J; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2015-10-01

    The first comprehensive investigation of pike Esox lucius trophic ecology in a region (Ireland) where they have long been thought to be a non-native species is presented. Diet was investigated across habitat types (lake, river and canal) through the combined methods of stable-isotope and stomach content analyses. Variations in niche size, specialization and the timing of the ontogenetic dietary switch were examined, revealing pronounced opportunism and feeding plasticity in E. lucius, along with a high occurrence of invertivory (up to 60 cm fork length, LF ) and a concomitant delayed switch to piscivory. Furthermore, E. lucius were found to primarily prey upon the highly available non-native roach Rutilus rutilus, which may alleviate predation pressure on brown trout Salmo trutta, highlighting the complexity of dynamic systems and the essential role of research in informing effective management. PMID:26351044

  2. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species. PMID:25205560

  3. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields. PMID:26254247

  4. Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.

    PubMed

    Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, S?awomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Sta?czak, Katarzyna; Pali?ska, Katarzyna; Gryzi?ska, Magdalena; Targo?ska, Katarzyna; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

    2013-09-24

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations. PMID:24062552

  5. Age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; Pronin, Nikolai M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In 1993, pike, ages 1 to 3, ranged in length from 331 to 810 mm and in 1995 , pike, ages 2 to 10, ranged in length from 365 to 1,111 mm but only three percent were age 7 or older. Most growth in length occurred during the first two years of life. The length-weight relation for pike from Chivyrkui Bay was similar to that of pike from the St. Lawrence River. Calculated total length of pike from Lake Baikal equalled or exceeded the lengths of pike from lakes Erie or Ontario. Good agreement was found between ages from cleithra and from scales. Lengths at age in June 1995 (N=108) varied widely among pike. Females were generally larger than males at a given age among fish age-3 and older. When compared with the circumpolar growth standard, based on the von Bertalanffy growth curve, growth of Lake Baikal pike exceeded all other Asian populations, and equalled or exceeded many other northern hemisphere populations.

  6. Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

  7. Genetic characterization of 18 novel microsatellite loci in northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Chenghui; Qian, Long; Ma, Yuqing; Yang, Xinxin; Jeney, Zsigmond; Li, Sifa

    2011-01-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius L.), an important predatory freshwater species, is undergoing significant population decline. In this study, 18 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and used for assessing genetic variation in the Chinese Ulungur and Hungarian Balaton populations of the species. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, observed heterozygosity from 0.154 to 0.920 and expected heterozygosity from 0.145 to 0.921, thereby indicating the specific usefulness of these suites of markers for investigating genetic variability. PMID:21637562

  8. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Van Walleghem, Jillian L A

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day(-1), respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates. PMID:24667854

  9. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  10. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P 0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship. Histological abnormalities observed in gill, liver, spleen, and kidney tissues were not likely a result of contaminant exposure but provide information on the general health of YRB pike. The most common histologic anomalies were parasitic infestations in various organs and developing nephrons and nephrocalcinosis in posterior kidney tissues. Overall, few biomarker responses in YRB pike were correlated with chemical contaminant concentrations, and YRB pike generally appeared to be healthy with no site having multiple anomalous biomarker responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  12. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  13. Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

    2009-02-25

    In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation. PMID:19402450

  14. Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    kerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

    2012-02-01

    Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.76.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish. PMID:22014468

  15. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies for this species. PMID:25435649

  16. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  17. Post-glacial dispersal patterns of Northern pike inferred from an 8800 year old pike (Esox cf. lucius) skull from interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooller, Matthew J.; Gaglioti, Benjamin; Fulton, Tara L.; Lopez, Andres; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-07-01

    The biogeography of freshwater fish species during and after late-Pleistocene glaciations relate to how these species are genetically organized today, and the management of these often disjunct populations. Debate exists concerning the biogeography and routes of dispersal for Northern pike (Esox lucius) after the last glaciation. A hypothesis to account for the relatively low modern genetic diversity for E. lucius is post-glacial radiation from refugia, including lakes from within the un-glaciated portions of eastern Beringia. We report the remains of a Northern pike (E. cf. lucius) skull, including bones, teeth, bone collagen and ancient DNA. The remains were preserved at a depth of between 440 and 446 cm in a 670 cm long core of sediment from Quartz Lake, which initiated at ˜11,200 cal yr BP in interior Alaska. A calibrated accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon age of the collagen extracted from the preserved bones indicated that the organism was dated to 8820 cal yr BP and is bracketed by AMS values from analyses of terrestrial plant macrofossils, avoiding any potential aquatic reservoir effect that could have influenced the radiocarbon age of the bones. Scanning electron microscope images of the specimen show the hinged tooth anatomy typically of E. lucius. Molar C:N (3.5, 1σ = 0.1) value of the collagen from the specimen indicated well-preserved collagen and its mean stable nitrogen isotope value is consistent with the known predatory feeding ecology of E. lucius. Ancient DNA in the bones showed that the specimen was identical to modern E. lucius. Our record of E. lucius from interior Alaska is consistent with a biogeographic scenario involving rapid dispersal of this species from glacial refugia in the northern hemisphere after the last glaciation.

  18. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most notably arsenic and selenium, were bioaccumulating in tissue. PMID:19304330

  19. The mechanical power output and hydromechanical efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius) fast-starts

    PubMed

    Frith; Blake

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical power output and hydrodynamic efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, during acceleration from rest (fast-start) are calculated from hydrodynamic theory for two kinematic patterns, C-starts (used in escape) and S-starts (used in prey capture). The Weihs model is employed and modified to calculate the mechanical power produced by a fish during a fast-start. A term is included for the power required to accelerate body sections laterally. Lateral deceleration of fish body sections and their associated added mass are expressed as an active process requiring energy expenditure or as a passive process requiring no energy expenditure. In addition, two methods of calculating useful power (the power used to accelerate the virtual mass of the fish, i.e. fish body mass + longitudinal added mass, in the direction of motion), one derived from the Weihs model and the second by summing the changes in kinetic energy of the virtual mass of the fish during a fast-start, are compared and found to give similar estimates of useful power (not significantly different; differences average 22 %). Comparisons of the kinematics and performance of C- and S-starts reveal that C-starts are consistently terminated after two tail flips (stages 1 and 2) whereas S-starts continue for 3­6 tail flips (stages 3­6). In addition, acceleration during C-starts is more rapid and velocities are higher (2.3­2.8 m s-1) than during S-starts (0.8­1.8 m s-1) over the first 100 ms. However, the peak velocities achieved during S-starts and C-starts are similar over the duration of a fast-start. The superior acceleration rates achieved during the initial stages of a C-start can be explained, in part, by the use of greater maximum angles of attack, higher lateral and perpendicular velocities and larger maximum forces by the caudal fin. Hydrodynamic efficiencies for fast-starts range from 0.16 to 0.39, values that are lower than those observed during either burst-and-coast or steady swimming. Efficiencies are lower for S-starts than for C-starts during the first two tail beats. S-start efficiencies increase with each subsequent tail flip and the maximum efficiencies realised are similar to those achieved during C-starts. Power output during C- and S-starts (449.0 and 394.9 W kg-1 muscle fibre, respectively) approaches the theoretical maximum for vertebrate striated muscle (500 W kg-1). Also, the inferred muscle stress is close to the predicted optimum for maximum power output, at 30 % of the maximum isometric stress recorded for isolated fast muscle fibres. These measurements suggest that fast-start performance is near a physiological limit and is probably constrained by muscle function. The superior acceleration rates achieved by C-starts over S-starts are explained in part by differences in hydrodynamic efficiency, whereas power outputs are similar. PMID:9319773

  20. Dietary uptake in pike (Esox lucius) of some polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers administered in natural diet

    SciTech Connect

    Burreau, S.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Jakobsson, E.

    1997-12-01

    The dietary uptake of 12 halogenated diaromatic compounds was studied using northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fed with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)). Before the trout were fed to the pike, they had been injected with a cocktail of five polychlorinated biphenyls, four polychlorinated naphthalenes, and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dissolved in rainbow trout lipid. The reported uptake efficiencies (E) were in the range 35 to 90% and differ in some respect from earlier studies. The E-values for those substances with effective cross sections (ECS) >9.5 {angstrom} were considerably higher than expected if the membrane permeation at dietary uptake was restricted as proposed previously in the literature. There was no hydrophobicity dependency of the total dietary uptake efficiency as suggested by an earlier proposed empirical model. The difference between the results presented here and earlier studies is likely to depend on cotransport with lipids and/or proteins through a mediated, possibly active uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) in the gastrointestinal tract enabled by the actual exposure method. For the proposed mediated/active uptake of HOCs, the uptake efficiency varied with molecular weight and was greatest for a molecular weight of approximately 450.

  1. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  2. Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting. PMID:25567885

  3. Induction of gene responses in St. Lawrence River northern pike (Esox lucius) environmentally exposed to perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Douville, Mlanie; Despatie, Simon-Pierre; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Municipal waste water effluents (MWWEs) are important sources of chemical contamination for aquatic environments. This study investigated the presence and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmentally exposed northern pike (Esox lucius) collected upstream and downstream a major municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Twelve PFCs, including the newly detected perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), were quantified in fish muscle, liver, and plasma. Additionally, the expression of eight genes and the activity of three biomarkers were analyzed in fish tissues at both sites. Mean ?PFC concentration in fish plasma collected upstream the WWTP was 185ng/g w.w. compared to 545ng/g w.w. downstream the point of release. PFECHS was quantified for the first time in St. Lawrence River fish (mean plasma concentration in MWWE fish: 5.074.72ng/g w.w.). Results of transcriptomic responses were tissue-specific and indicated significant up-regulation for metallothionein (MT) in blood and MT, glutathion-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in gill tissue of fish collected in the MWWE suggesting greater stress responses for organisms at this location. Significant relationships were found between vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in liver, Vtg activity in plasma and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeA), and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) plasma concentrations. The possible endocrine effects of these PFCs should be further investigated. PMID:23453599

  4. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  5. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system.

    PubMed

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Genevive; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frdric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (750km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (F ST=0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (F ST=0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (F ST=0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R (2) =0.6397, P<0.001) revealed that water masses (b=0.3617, P<0.001) and man-made dams (b=0.4852, P<0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b=0.3499, P<0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  6. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    PubMed

    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (P<0.05). In general, the greatest percentage of motile spermatozoa and highest spermatozoa velocity were observed between 125 and 235 mOsmol kg(-1). Osmolality above 375 mOsmol kg(-1) inhibited the motility of spermatozoa. After triggering of sperm motility in activation media, beating waves propagated along the full length of flagella, while waves appeared dampened during later periods in the motility phase, and were absent at the end of the motility phase. By increasing osmolality, the velocity of spermatozoa reached the highest value while wave length, amplitude, number of waves and curvatures also were at their highest values. This study showed that sperm morphology can be used for fish classification. Sperm morphology, in particular, the flagellar part showed several changes during activation in distilled water. Sperm motility of pike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters. PMID:19269024

  7. Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Clark, Clarence F.

    1965-01-01

    The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

  8. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Halden, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  9. Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

    1984-07-01

    The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

  10. Assessment of larval deformities and selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2009-03-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) release effluents with elevated levels of certain trace metals and metalloids, including selenium. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the presence of selenium-induced deformities in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae originating from adults collected downstream of a uranium mine. Eggs were fertilized in the field and incubated in the laboratory following a two-way (crossover) analysis-of-variance experimental design to discriminate effects from maternal transfer versus those from exposure to site water in the developing embryos. Selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker eggs (8.02 and 4.89 microg/g dry wt, respectively; mean +/- standard error throughout) from the exposure site were approximately two- to threefold higher than reference (2.35 +/- 0.20 and 1.94 +/- 0.25 microg/g dry wt, respectively). Among all evaluated deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, fin deformities, and edema), only edema in white sucker fry from the exposure site was slightly elevated ( approximately 3%) compared to reference. The occurrence of edema, however, can be associated with factors other than selenium (e.g., other metals and organic compounds). Both fish species displayed strong linear relationships between the selenium concentrations in eggs and other tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and bone), suggesting that selenium concentrations in eggs could be predicted from selenium concentrations in adult tissues. The lack of a clear, toxic response in the present study is in agreement with selenium thresholds for early life-stage deformities reported in other studies, with egg selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker collected at the exposure site being less than the 10 microg/g (dry wt) threshold associated with the presence of deformities. PMID:18939891

  11. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution. PMID:24865502

  12. Ultrastructure of atrial and ventricular myocardium in the pike Esox lucius L. and mackerel Scomber scombrus L. (pisces).

    PubMed

    Midttun, B

    1980-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular muscle in the pike and mackerel hearts consists of narrow, branching cells. The atrial cells in the two species are similar whereas the ventricular cells differ. The sarcolemma is attached to the Z and M lines of the sarcomere. Intercalated discs are common, and the transverse parts display desmosomes and intermediate junctions. Nexuses are uncommon and only occur in the longitudinal parts of the intercalated discs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a regular hexagonal network on the myofibrillar surface. Subsarcolemmal cisternae form peripheral couplings at the I--A level. Junctional processes are usually inconspicuous, but an electron dense substance is present between the sarcolemma and the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. Specific heart granules are common in atrial cells of both species and in ventricular cells of the pike, but are very scarce in mackerel ventricular muscle. PMID:7407886

  13. UV-B exposure causes DNA damage and changes in protein expression in northern pike (Esox lucius) posthatched embryos.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing anthropogenically caused ozone depletion and climate change has increased the amount of biologically harmful UV-B radiation, which is detrimental to fish in embryonal stages. The effects of UV-B radiation on the levels and locations of DNA damage manifested as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and p53 protein in newly hatched embryos of pike were examined. Pike larvae were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of CPDs in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. Also at a fluence rate occurring in nature, the DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences. PMID:22145705

  14. A toxicological examination of whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to uranium mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Waite, D T; Joshi, S R; Sommerstad, H; Wobeser, G; Gajadhar, A A

    1990-01-01

    Operation of the Gunnar uranium mine, in nothern Saskatchewan, Canada, from 1955 to 1964, resulted in the deposition of radioactive tailings in Langley Bay, a small bay connected to Lake Athabasca. Previous publications have described the contamination of the sediments, water, macrophytes and fish of this area. The present study compares the parasite infestations, blood hematocrit, histopathology and condition factor (K) of the Langley Bay whitefish and northern pike populations with these factors measured for control populations from Lake Athabasca. No significant differences could be found, in any of the physiological parameters measured, between the contaminated and control populations. PMID:2386411

  15. The effect of hatching time on the bioenergetics of northern pike (Esox lucius) larvae from a single egg batch during the endogenous feeding period.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Awatef; Jaworski, Andrzej; Kamler, Ewa; Gardeur, Jean-Noël; Teletchea, Fabrice; Ayadi, Habib; Fontaine, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Size, caloric value and chemical composition were measured separately in the progeny of two northern pike (Esox lucius) females at 3-day intervals during the endogenous feeding period from hatching to final yolk resorption. Tissue, yolk and entire larvae were analysed separately in three groups of larvae that hatched at different times (between 88 and 106 degree-days post-fertilization). An integrated approach with the Gompertz model was used to compute the yolk conversion efficiency and time to maximum tissue size in early, mid and late hatched larvae. At hatching, unresorbed yolk of early hatched larvae contained more energy (39.20 J) and more protein (0.99 mg) compared to the yolk of larvae that hatched later (38.13 J and 0.92 mg protein for late hatched larvae, p < 0.05). In contrast, a significant reduction in tissue weight (-0.7 mg DW) and protein content (-0.5 mg) was found in early hatched larvae compared to those which hatched later (p < 0.05). Between days 9 and 12 post-hatching (108 and 144 degree-days post-hatching), close to the final yolk resorption, late hatched larvae stopped growing and their tissue began to be resorbed. This tissue resorption time was delayed in early hatched larvae which presented at the end of the experiment a greater tissue weight than late hatched ones. Yolk conversion efficiency in term of energy from hatching to complete yolk resorption stage was significantly higher for early and mid hatched larvae (51 %) compared to late hatched ones (44 %) (p = 0.004). Furthermore, the time to maximum tissue size was found to be negatively related to hatching time which implies that early hatched larvae take longer time to switch from one developmental stage to the next. The maximum tissue dry weight and energy content were found to be reached at approximately the same age post-fertilization for both early hatched and late hatched larvae, suggesting that the principal steps in a fish's lifespan are better correlated with time of fertilization than hatching time. PMID:26573855

  16. Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries. PMID:23566175

  17. Mitochondrial genome of Esox flaviae (Southern pike): announcement and comparison with other Esocidae.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Andrea; Fontaneto, Diego; Natali, Mauro; Lucentini, Livia

    2016-07-01

    Pikes are fish species belonging to order Esociformes, family Esocidae, genus Esox. Species of the genus Esox are common, large, and economically important for food and fishing activities. Recently, a new species, southern pike E. flaviae, was described for a well-studied area such as Italy, using also two mtDNA markers: cox1 and cytb. A scant number of remnant populations of the species persist in Italy, threatened by habitat loss and degradation and by competition and possible hybridization with E. lucius, massively and recurrently stocked to sustain angling pressure. The availability of new mtDNA markers will possibly contribute to the conservation of the species. Currently, whole mitogenome information for the genus is available only for E. lucius and for E. reichertii. The aim of the present paper is to report novel mitogenomic information for southern pike. PMID:26171871

  18. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions. PMID:24933165

  19. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

  20. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout genomes by facilitating their comparison with other major teleost groups. PMID:25069045

  1. Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. )

    1993-05-01

    Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

  2. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  3. Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae

    PubMed Central

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  4. Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.

    PubMed

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bil, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  5. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution. PMID:26349236

  6. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    trbac, Sneana; Kaanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation. PMID:26039743

  7. Behaviour in a standardized assay, but not metabolic or growth rate, predicts behavioural variation in an adult aquatic top predator Esox lucius in the wild.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, K L; Monk, C T; Polverino, G; Alós, J; Nakayama, S; Staaks, G; Mehner, T; Arlinghaus, R

    2016-04-01

    This study tested for links among behaviour, state and life-history variables as predicted by the pace-of-life hypothesis in adult pike Esox lucius. First, a standardized open-field behavioural assay was developed to assess individual behaviour of wild-captured adult E. lucius. Behaviour within the standardized assay predicted swimming behaviour in the lake, providing an ecological validation of the assay. There was no relationship between standardized behaviour and any of the life-history and state variables, including metabolism, body condition, juvenile growth rate and adult growth rate in contrast to predictions from the pace-of-life hypothesis. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess ecologically relevant behavioural variation in a large-bodied top predator using a standard open-field assay, but it is noteworthy that this standardized behaviour is not systematically related to standard metabolism or growth. PMID:26947935

  8. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p?pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens. PMID:21713472

  9. Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST) resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius) ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate. PMID:20433749

  10. Effects of environmental mercury on gonadal function in Lake Champlain northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, A.S.; Leiter, J.C.; Watzin, M.C.

    1996-03-01

    Levels of mercury in the environment have increased steadily over the past two centuries, primarily because of human activity. Common point sources of this heavy metal include industrial waste discharge from chloralkali and paper pulp plants. More diffuse emissions, which become widely distributed by global wind currents, result from the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of municipal wastes. Stricter laws in the United States have decreased the amount of pollution from point sources. In contrast, mercury from diffuse atmospheric origins has been increasing, causing a rise in rainwater concentrations and aquatic environments frequently distant from the source of pollution. Once in aquatic systems, mercury is readily converted to the more toxic methylated form and is the only heavy metal that indisputably biomagnifies through the food web. Acid rain compounds the environmental impact of anthropogenic mercury because aquatic organisms concentrate more mercury when living in waters with lower alkalinity. The persistence of this heavy metal in teleosts is illustrated by the finding that mercury, unlike cadmium, arsenic, and lead, did not decrease in North American freshwater fish between 1976 and 1984.

  11. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 34 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 34 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  12. Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Franckowiak, R.P.; Murphy, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures. PMID:25242691

  14. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  15. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50% of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments. PMID:26022327

  16. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  17. Population characteristics and ecological role of northern pike in shallow natural lakes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike Esox lucius were sampled in Nebraska's Sandhill lakes during 1998 and 1999 to determine population characteristics and their influence on the fish community in these shallow, warm lakes at the southwestern edge of this species' natural range. Density-dependent growth, size structure, and condition were not evident in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides was positively related to size structure of yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus when northen pike were absent. When northern pike and largemouth bass populations were sympatric, these relationships were less evident. Population size structure of yellow perch was lower in lakes with northern pike, but decreased size structure was not evident for bluegills. Northern pike growth decreased with July bottom water temperature, which ranged from 20??C to 25??C. Recruitment patterns of northern pike in the Sandhill lakes appeared to be lake-specific, strong and weak year-classes occurring in the same year among different populations. Northern pike in these shallow, warm lakes act as a top-down predator and appear to structure fish communities predominated by largemouth bass and panfish. Biologists managing warmwater Midwestern lakes thus should consider the effect of northern pike on fish communities.

  18. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  19. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

  20. Age, growth, and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Miller, Terence J.

    1978-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) from eastern Lake Ontario were sampled with gill nets and trap nets in 1972-1973. Fish of age-groups IV, V, and VI were predominant in the catch. Although males were slightly longer after the 1st yr of life, females gained a 25-mm advantage in the 2nd yr and a 30-mm advantage in the 3rd yr. In later years, the increments of growth of males and females were similar. All males were mature after 2 yr and females after 3 yr. The stomachs of northern pike contained only fish; the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) was the principal forage species consumed. Electivity indexes for alewives, white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), the three most common species in the diet, indicated a positive selection for alewives that increased from June to October during a period when the relative abundance of alewives steadily decreased.

  1. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  2. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  3. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

  4. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  5. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Relationship of young-of-the-year northern pike to aquatic vegetation types in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The association of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) with different aquatic plant types (e.g., submerged, emergent, floating) was studied to evaluate the impacts of a potential loss of backwaters on available fish nursery habitats in the upper Mississippi River. Eight biweekly collections were made at each of six representative lentic habitats in Navigation Pool 7. In the spring, average catches of northern pike from areas with submerged vegetation were nearly three times greater than from areas with emergent vegetation, and more than 10 times greater than from an area with no vegetation. This pattern was consistent until late summer, when the young became more common in the more highly oxygenated, less heavily vegetated waters. Food and growth were examined as possible indicators for the selection of areas with submerged vegetation over other habitats. Food varied among fish in the different vegetation types; however, no significant patterns of improved growth or condition were apparent. Young northern pike apparently were successful, opportunistic feeders. Although preference for habitats with submerged vegetation was seemingly not related to food, the overall production of young was clearly best in these habitats.

  7. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (?XP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ?XP-HT for multiple isotopes (?13C, ?15N, ?34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ?XP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ?XP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ?XP-HT was more positive for ?13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the ?15N and ?34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ?XP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed. PMID:24451479

  8. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  9. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Effect of temperature on survival of northern pike embryos and yolk-sac larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of water temperature and handling procedure on the percentage hatch of known-age northern pike (Esox lucius) embryos and on survival of the yolk-sac larvae. Embryos and larvae were incubated at constant temperatures from 3 to 24/sup 0/C. Optimum hatching range was 6.2 to 20.9/sup 0/C and maximum hatch occurred at 9 to 15/sup 0/C. The age of the embryo before temperature change and the test temperatures both had a significant effect on percentage hatch. Temperature had the greatest adverse effect on percentage hatch during the first 5 h of development. There was no significant difference in the number of embryos hatching when comparing those that developed for 5 h before temperature change with those that developed 12, 24, and 48 h before change. There was a significant increase in hatch for embryos that had developed 120 h before change. The type of temperature change (shock or tempered) did not significantly influence the percentage hatch or hatching temperature range of embryos 5 h old or older. Management implications are also discussed.

  11. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  12. Year-class formation of upper St. Lawrence River northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.M.; Farrell, J.M.; Underwood, H.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974-1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and last day of ice presence). A second model (PLS 2) incorporated four additional ecological variables: potential predators (abundance of double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and yellow perch Perca flavescens), female northern pike biomass (as a measure of stock-recruitment effects), and total phosphorus (productivity). Trends in adult northern pike catch revealed a decline (1981-2005), and year-class strength was positively related to catch per unit effort (CPUE; R2 = 0.58). The YCSI exceeded the 23-year mean in only 2 of the last 10 years. Cyclic patterns in the YCSI time series (along with strong year-classes every 4-6 years) were apparent, as was a dampening effect of amplitude beginning around 1990. The PLS 1 model explained over 50% of variation in both explanatory variables and the dependent variable, YCSI first-order moving-average residuals. Variables retained (N = 10; Wold's statistic ??? 0.8) included negative YCSI associations with high summer water levels, high variability in spring and fall water levels, and variability in fall water temperature. The YCSI exhibited positive associations with high spring, summer, and fall water temperature, variability in spring temperature, and high winter and spring water level. The PLS 2 model led to positive YCSI associations with phosphorus and yellow perch CPUE and a negative correlation with double-crested cormorant abundance. Environmental variables (water level and temperature) are hypothesized to regulate northern pike YCSI cycles, and dampening in YCSI magnitude may be related to a combination of factors, including wetland habitat changes, reduced nutrient loading, and increased predation by double-crested cormorants. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Pike Parvalbumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parvalbumins are found in the muscles, endocrine glands, skin cells, and some neurons of vertebrates, but the role they play for musculature is not yet understood. Researchers are exploring theories of a correlation between parvalbumin concentration levels and the relaxation speed of mammalian muscles after contraction. An ultra-high resolution structure was achieved from samples grown on STS-83 and in July 1997, during STS-94, PCAM produced the largest crystals of pike parvalbumin grown to date. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  14. Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine-tuning of migratory timing in pike.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Borger, Tobias; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. These findings represent rare evidence of how between- and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management. PMID:26412457

  15. Testing for Local Adaptation to Spawning Habitat in Sympatric Subpopulations of Pike by Reciprocal Translocation of Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Tibblin, Petter; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2,500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development—which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations. PMID:27139695

  16. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, Craig, (compiler); Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  17. DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

  18. Physics Integration KErnels (PIKE)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-31

    Pike is a software library for coupling and solving multiphysics applications. It provides basic interfaces and utilities for performing code-to-code coupling. It provides simple “black-box” Picard iteration methods for solving the coupled system of equations including Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel solvers. Pike was developed originally to couple neutronics and thermal fluids codes to simulate a light water nuclear reactor for the Consortium for Simulation of Light-water Reactors (CASL) DOE Energy Innovation Hub. The Pike library containsmore » no physics and just provides interfaces and utilities for coupling codes. It will be released open source under a BSD license as part of the Trilinos solver framework (trilinos.org) which is also BSD. This code provides capabilities similar to other open source multiphysics coupling libraries such as LIME, AMP, and MOOSE.« less

  19. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  20. Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin

    Researchers with the Alaska Fish and Game travel along Alexander Creek in the Susitna Basin of south-central Alaska. The team is on their way to a back country base-camp for a study examining the preferred diet of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius).  ...

  1. WINTER MOVEMENTS OF FOUR FISH SPECIES NEAR A THERMAL PLUME IN NORTHERN MINNESOTA (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a po...

  2. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TEMPERATURE SELECTION OF FISH NEAR THE THERMAL OUTFALL OF A POWER PLANT DURING FALL, WINTER, AND SPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The movement patterns of 4 fish species: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) were monitored by radio telemetry near the thermal discharge of a power plant (delta T 15C nominal). F...

  3. OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

  4. Core Values, Education and Research: A Response to Mark Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Sara; Allington, Daniel; Simmons, Katy; Jones, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to the article by Mark Pike, which appeared in the "Oxford Review of Education" in December 2010. Pike's article focuses on Trinity Academy, one of four academies in the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (ESF): it is not a faith school, but sponsored by a Christian faith-based and business-oriented…

  5. The PIKE Homolog Centaurin gamma Regulates Developmental Timing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar larval transition. PMID:24845618

  6. PIKE PLACE MARKET, CENTER OF PICTURE; ALASKAN WAY AT BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIKE PLACE MARKET, CENTER OF PICTURE; ALASKAN WAY AT BOTTOM OF PICTURE. SECTION OF VIADUCT AS IT SEPARATES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  7. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposal rule; dismissal. SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition...

  8. PIKE mediates EGFR proliferative signaling in squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Jiang, Y; Liao, E-Y; Chen, Y; Pennypacker, S D; Peng, J; Chang, S M

    2012-12-01

    One of the key drivers for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) proliferation is activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known proto-oncogene. However, the mechanism of EGFR-dependent SCC proliferation remains unclear. Our previous studies indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced SCC cell proliferation requires the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), but not its catalytic activity. The SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 is known to activate the short form of nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) that enhances the activity of nuclear class Ia phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) required for proliferation. However, PIKE has been described for more than a decade to be present exclusively in neuronal cells. In the present study, we found that PIKE was highly expressed in malignant human keratinocytes (SCC4 and SCC12B2) but had low expression in normal human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong nuclear staining of PIKE in human epidermal and tongue SCC specimens but little staining in the adjacent non-cancerous epithelium. Treatment of SCC4 cells with EGF-induced translocation of PLC-γ1 to the nucleus and binding of PLC-γ1 to the nuclear PIKE. Knockdown of PLC-γ1 or PIKE blocked EGF-induced activation of class Ia PI3K and protein kinase C-ζ and phosphorylation of nucleolin in the nucleus as well as EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation. However, inhibition of the catalytic activity of PLC-γ1 had little effect. These data suggest that PIKE has a critical role in EGF-induced SCC cell proliferation and may function as a proto-oncogene in SCC. PMID:22349826

  9. EVALUATION OF THE E-SOX PROCESS ON THE EPA PILOT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small pilot-scale evaluation of the E-SOx process, undertaken to obtain information needed to conduct a planned 5 MWe field pilot demonstration. he process uses an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for combined sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and particu...

  10. Effects of E-SOx technology on ESP performance. Final report, Aug-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, G.H.; Gooch, J.P.; Faulkner, M.G.

    1992-10-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the E-SOx process at Ohio Edison's Burger Station. Adequate sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and acceptable particulate emission levels from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were the prime objectives of the investigation. The report describes limited ESP performance testing under both baseline and E-SOx conditions. The ESP data collected under E-SOx conditions, which give the required 50% SO2 removal, show evidence of ESP performance dominated by factors not represented in existing versions of ESP performance models. These analyses and other considerations indicate that the factors which dominate under the conditions tested are a combination of instantaneous reentrainment of low resistivity ash/sorbent particles and deagglomeration of slurry residues within the ESP. These observations may be important to other sorbent injection processes as well as to E-SOx. Improvement of the gas velocity and temperature distributions at the ESP inlet improved the ESP performance, but performance was still dominated by the reentrainment process and was therefore lower than mathematical model predictions.

  11. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  12. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  13. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  14. A radiation briefer's guide to the PIKE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, Jr, C R

    1990-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-exposure estimates to populations living immediately downwind from the Nevada Test Site have been required for many years by the US Department of Energy (DOE) before each containment-designed nuclear detonation. A highly unlikely worst-case'' scenario is utilized which assumes that there will be an accidental massive venting of radioactive debris into the atmosphere shortly after detonation. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) has supplied DOE with such estimates for the last 25 years using the WSNSO Fallout Scaling Technique (FOST), which employs a worst-case analog event that actually occurred in the past. The PIKE Model'' is the application of the FOST using the PIKE nuclear event as the analog. This report, which is primarily intended for WSNSO meteorologists who derive radiation estimates, gives a brief history of the model,'' presents the mathematical, radiological, and meteorological concepts upon which it is based, states its limitations, explains it apparent advantages over more sophisticated models, and details how it is used operationally. 10 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m−2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  16. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides , and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems n-2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  17. Variability and loading of Mercury in a small prairie river. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Gummer, W.D.

    1980-10-01

    Bottom sediments of Thunder Creek, a tributary of the Moose Jaw River located in the upper Qu'Appelle River Basin have been reported to contain total mercury concentrations as high as 38 ug/g and monomethyl mercury concentrations as high as 50 ug/kg. The uptake of mercury by biota of Thunder Creek has been reported. Pike (Esox lucius), Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), Goldeye (Hiodon alosoides) and other game fish in the Fishing Lakes of the Qu'Appelle River Basin contain mercury in excess of the Canadian guideline of 0.5 mg/kg.

  18. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, M.R.

    1980-03-01

    The results of mercury and selenium analyses conducted on northern pike (Esox lucius) muscle tissue indicate distinct and significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels of fish from two lakes in Quebec. While fish samples from Lake Dufault had very low mercury concentrations, they appeared to have elevated amounts of selenium. Conversely, fish samples originating from Lake Duparquet had elevated mercury concentrations and low selenium levels. In both cases a comparison of means by the Student t test indicated significant (P < 0.01) differences between the mercury and selenium concentrations of fish samples from the two lakes.

  19. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Four fish species were studied during the winter of 1975 to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. Seventeen yellow perch (Perca flavescens), six northern pike (Esox lucius), three walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and two largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters. The spatial distributions differed among species. Only the largemouth bass confined their movements to heated water areas. The yellow perch, which was of particular interest, do not seem to be attracted to warm winter waters, and thus locate themselves in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay and fail to reproduce. This finding is contrary to those of previous studies.

  20. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or constituents introduced by human activities that pose a health risk or otherwise were of concern in groundwater in the county. The analyses included major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), selected organic wastewater compounds, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activity, uranium, and radon-222. Analyses of the 20 samples were primarily for dissolved constituents, but six samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total metals. Results of the 2007 sampling indicated few water-quality problems, although concentrations of some constituents indicated influence of human activities on groundwater. No constituent analyzed exceeded any primary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Radon-222 levels were greater than, or equal to, the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in water from 15 (75 percent) of the 20 wells. Radon-222 levels did not exceed the alternative MCL of 4,000 pCi/L in any groundwater sample. Radon-222 is naturally occurring, and the greatest concentrations (up to 2,650 pCi/L) were in water samples from wells in members of the Catskill Formation, a fractured-rock aquifer. The dissolved arsenic concentration of 3.9 micrograms per liter (ug/L) in one sample was greater than the health-advisory (HA) level of 2 ug/L but less than the MCL of 10 ug/L. Recommended or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for pH, dissolved iron, and dissolved manganese. In six samples analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations of selected metals, total concentrations commonly were much greater than dissolved concentrations of iron, and to a lesser degree, for arsenic, lead, copper, and manganese. Concentrations of iron above the SMCL of 300 ug/L may be more widespread in the county for particulate iron than for dissolved iron. The total arsenic concentration in one of the six samples was greater than the HA level of

  1. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O.; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Vllestad, L. Asbjrn

    2010-01-01

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (?) by 3756%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of ? to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics. PMID:19923130

  2. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. The mean home range sizes, in hectares, were northern pike 19.0; yellow perch 13.4; largemouth bass 3.7; walleye 2.2. Northern pike and yellow perch had mean home range sizes larger than the discharge area. Mean water depths at fish locations were as follows: largemouth bass 0.8 m; northern pike 1.2 m; yellow perch 1.6 m; walleye 3.5 m. Largemouth bass preferred the warmest locations near the discharge point. Yellow perch were most often located in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay while walleyes were most often located in the deeper center area. Northern pike moved over the entire discharge area. All species except largemouth bass moved freely between discharge-affected and unaltered waters. The average numbers of movements per individual per week between heated and unheated areas were the following: northern pike 0.8; yellow perch 1.2; walleye 1.1; largemouth bass, 0.

  3. Uptake of pentachlorophenol in fish of acidified and nonacidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Bremle, G.; Okla, L. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the uptake of pentachlopophenol (PCP) in fish (northern pike, Esox lucius L.) in one acidified and two non-acidified lakes. The lakes are situated in southern Sweden within 30 km of each other and are only exposed to persistent pollutants from the atmosphere. Because the lakes are of similar size and depth and situated in the same fall-out area, atmospheric input of PCP should be similar. Concentrations of PCP were significantly higher in pike from the acidified lake than from the non-acidified lakes. The results suggest that fish in acidified lakes are subjected to higher PCP exposure and uptake than fish from non-acidified lakes. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

  5. Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

  6. Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, W.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Freeberg, M.H.; Dowling, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator. (USGS)

  7. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brnmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  8. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  9. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  10. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  11. HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. ATTACHED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT OF VIEW IS ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Young, Becker, and Pike's "Rogerian" Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Doug

    1991-01-01

    Concludes that the Rogerian rhetoric of Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike (as presented in their book "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change") shows its age by not being quite the epistemic rhetoric contemporary rhetoricians have come to require. Argues that the Rogerian insights can still provide a focus for a reformed rhetoric of

  13. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Catherine L.; hlund, Gunnar; Englund, Gran

    2014-01-01

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km2), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.91.5C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 20912100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pikebrown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  14. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-22

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  15. Technique and timing in the womens forward two and one half somersault pike and mens three and one half somersault pike 3m springboard dives.

    PubMed

    Sanders, R H; Gibson, B J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the forward two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (105B) performed by females (n=25) and the forward three and one half somersault dive in a pike position (107B) performed by males (n=25) to determine changes required by females to successfully perform 107B. Video data of the dives performed at the 1999 FINA World Diving Cup were captured and digitised to obtain times and postures of the divers at specific events including hurdle landing, takeoff, and entry. Estimates of hurdle flight height and mass-normalised work done on the springboard were obtained from hurdle and flight times. Females performing 105B had significantly less hip and knee flexion at landing from the hurdle than males performing 107B. It is known from simulations that the ability to land in a very flexed position without absorbing energy depends on the ability to generate large extension torques at landing. Therefore, it is likely that females need to increase strength to successfully complete 107B. PMID:11235008

  16. A Mechanical Fish to Emulate the Fast-Start Performance of Pike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2010-11-01

    A northern pike is capable of achieving an instantaneous acceleration of 25g, far greater than that achieved by any manmade vehicle. In order to understand the secrets behind achieving such high accelerations, we have built a mechanical fish to emulate the motion of a pike, a fast-start specialist. A live pike bends its body into a C-shaped curve and then uncoils it very quickly to send a traveling wave along its body in order to achieve high acceleration. We have designed a mechanical fish whose motion is accurately controlled by servo motors, to emulate the fast-start by bending its body to a C-shape from its original straight position, and then back to its straight position. An earlier design of a mechanical fish, which could start from an initial C-shaped curve, shed two vortex rings downstream, resulting in a transfer of energy from the fish to water, and therefore, a reaction force from the fluid to the fish. A maximum acceleration of around 4g was achieved in that design. Our new design adds an additional motion to the sequence by first bending the fish from its straight position into a C-shaped curve. Furthermore, this new mechanical fish is designed to be adjustable in swimming pattern, tail shape, tail rigidity, and body rigidity, making it possible to study the influence of all of these parameters on the fast-start performance.

  17. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  18. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM-based criteria are commonly lower values than the hardness-based criteria and thus suggest a greater degree or magnitude of impairment at the sampling locations. The riffle-habitat benthic invertebrate richness and abundance data correlate strongly with the extent of impact based on water quality for both brooks. Similarly, the fish community assessments document degraded conditions throughout most of Pike Hill Brook, whereas the data for the tributary to Cookville Brook suggest less degradation to this brook. The sediment environment shows similar extents of impairment to the surface-water environment, with most sampling locations in Pike Hill Brook, including the wetland areas, and the tributary to Cookville Brook affected. Sediment impairment is caused by elevated copper concentrations, although localized degradation due to elevated cadmium and zinc concentrations was documented on the basis of exceedances of probable effects concentrations (PECs). In contrast to impairment determined by exceedances of PECs, equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmarks (based on simultaneously extracted metals, acid volatile sulfides, and total organic carbon) predict no toxic effects in sediments at the background locations and uncertain toxic effects throughout Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook, with the exception of the most downstream Cookville Brook location, which indicated no toxic effects. Acute laboratory toxicity testing using the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus on pore waters extracted from sediment in situ indicate impairment (based on tests with H. azteca) at only one location in Pike Hill Brook and no impairment in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Chronic laboratory sediment toxicity testing using H. azteca and C. dilutus indicated toxicity in Pike Hill Brook at several locations in the lower reach and two locations in the tributary to Cookville Brook. Toxicity was not indicated for either species in sediment from the most acidic metal-rich location, likely due to the low lability of copper in that sediment, as indicated by a low proportion of extractable copper (simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) copper only 5 percent of total copper) and due to the flushing of acidic metal-rich pore water from experimental chambers as overlying test water was introduced before and replaced periodically during the toxicity tests. Depositional habitat invertebrate richness and abundance data generally agreed with the results of toxicity tests and with the extent of impact in the watersheds on the basis of sediment and pore waters. The information was used to develop an overall assessment of the impact of mine drainage on the aquatic system downstream from the Pike Hill copper mines. Most of Pike Hill Brook, including several wetland areas that are all downstream from the Eureka and Union mines, was found to be impaired on the basis of water-quality data and biological assessments of fish or benthic invertebrate communities. In contrast, only one location in the tributary to Cookville Brook, downstream from the Smith mine, is definitively impaired. The biological community begins to recover at the most downstream locations in both brooks due to natural attenuation from mixing with unimpaired streams. On the basis of water quality and biological assessment, the reference locations were of good quality. The sediment toxicity, chemistry, and aquatic community survey data suggest that the sediments could be a source of toxicity in Pike Hill Brook and the tributary to Cookville Brook. On the basis of water quality, sediment quality, and biologic communities, the impacts of mine drainage on the aquatic ecosystem health of the watersheds in the study area are generally consistent with the toxicity suggested from laboratory toxicity testing on pore water and sediments.

  19. "This I Suffered in the Short Space of my Life". The Epitaph for Lucius Minicius Anthimianus (CIG 3272; Peek GVn 1166).

    PubMed

    Graumann, Lutz A; Horstmanshoff, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Herewith we present an interdisciplinary study of the metrical funerary inscription from the third century CE (CIG 3272; Peek GV 1166). This emotional Greek epitaph reports the short life (from birth to death) of the 4 year old Lucius Minicius Anthimianus. This is the first detailed study since the dissertation by Klitsch (1976). The inscription presents an ideal case for a truly interdisciplinary study of the patient-history, in that its interpretation involves the study of Greek literature and linguistics, epigraphy, social and religious history, and ancient medicine. It also offers ample opportunity to show the contradictions inherent in proposing retrospective diagnosis, without neglecting the relevant information modern medicine has to offer for the interpretation of this case history. We argue that Lucius' father was most probably a physician, that the text of the inscription stems from expert knowledge of ancient medicine and that the traditional retrospective diagnosis of this case, tuberculosis, is an untenable hypothesis. PMID:26946673

  20. Potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on a shallow natural lake fish assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeggemann, Jason J.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Krause, J.; Letvin, Alexander P.; Stevens, Tanner M.; Willis, David W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists around how fish communities in shallow lakes will respond to climate change. In this study, we modelled the effects of increased water temperatures on consumption and growth rates of two piscivores (northern pike [Esox lucius] and largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides]) and examined relative effects of consumption by these predators on two prey species (bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus] and yellow perch [Perca flavescens]). Bioenergetics models were used to simulate the effects of climate change on growth and food consumption using predicted 2040 and 2060 temperatures in a shallow Nebraska Sandhill lake, USA. The patterns and magnitude of daily and cumulative consumption during the growing season (April–October) were generally similar between the two predators. However, growth of northern pike was always reduced (−3 to −45% change) compared to largemouth bass that experienced subtle changes (4 to −6% change) in weight by the end of the growing season. Assuming similar population size structure and numbers of predators in 2040–2060, future consumption of bluegill and yellow perch by northern pike and largemouth bass will likely increase (range: 3–24%), necessitating greater prey biomass to meet future energy demands. The timing of increased predator consumption will likely shift towards spring and fall (compared to summer), when prey species may not be available in the quantities required. Our findings suggest that increased water temperatures may affect species at the edge of their native range (i.e. northern pike) and a potential mismatch between predator and prey could exist.

  1. Perchlorate trophic transfer increases tissue concentrations above ambient water exposure alone in a predatory fish.

    PubMed

    Furin, Christoff G; von Hippel, Frank A; Hagedorn, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 d and/or through feeding, 1 per day over 14 d, sticklebacks that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10, or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:24188192

  2. PERCHLORATE TROPHIC TRANSFER INCREASES TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE AMBIENT WATER EXPOSURE ALONE IN A PREDATORY FISH

    PubMed Central

    Furin, Christoff G.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Hagedorn, Birgit; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 days and/or through feeding one stickleback per day over 14 days that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:24188192

  3. Climate and Physiography Predict Mercury Concentrations in Game Fish Species in Quebec Lakes Better than Anthropogenic Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Marc; Paquet, Serge; Moingt, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    The fluctuations of mercury levels (Hg) in fish consumed by sport fishers in North-Eastern America depend upon a plethora of interrelated biological and abiological factors. To identify the dominant factors ultimately controlling fish Hg concentrations, we compiled mercury levels (Hg) during the 1976-2010 period in 90 large natural lakes in Quebec (Canada) for two major game species: northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus). Our statistical analysis included 28 geographic information system variables and 15 climatic variables, including sulfate deposition. Higher winter temperatures explained 36 % of the variability in higher walleye growth rates, in turn accounting for 54 % of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. For northern pike, the dominance of a flat topography in the watershed explained 31 % of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. Higher mean annual temperatures explained 27 % of the variability in higher pike Hg concentrations. Pelagic versus littoral preferred habitats for walleye and pike respectively could explain the contrasted effect of temperature between the two species. Heavy logging could only explain 2 % of the increase in walleye Hg concentrations. The influence of mining on fish Hg concentrations appeared to be masked by climatic effects. PMID:26825460

  4. An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. PMID:23597093

  5. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  6. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb antibodies in sera of muskellunge Esox masquinongy using competitive ELISA.

    PubMed

    Millard, Elena V; Brenden, Travis O; LaPatra, Scott E; Marcquenski, Susan; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) in fish sera. Assay conditions were standardized using known negative and positive muskellunge Esox masquinongy. A positive-negative threshold of 14.6% inhibition was established based on analysis of sera of 60 muskellunge with no previous exposure to VHSV-IVb. The cELISA was then used to investigate immune responses of wild muskellunge sampled from 5 water bodies in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, between 2005 and 2012. Antibodies were detected in fish from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, and Lower Fox River/Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both water systems were considered enzootic for VHSV-IVb. Additionally, antibodies were detected in muskellunge from Thornapple Lake, a Michigan inland lake previously considered negative for VHSV-IVb based on virus isolation methods. Muskellunge populations from Lake Hudson, Michigan, and Butternut Lake, Wisconsin, lacked evidence of an immune response to VHSV-IVb. When results of the cELISA were compared to the 50% plaque neutralization test for several groups of fish, there was 78.4% agreement between the tests for antibody presence. The cELISA is a rapid and efficient test for the detection of binding antibodies to VHSV-IVb and will be a useful non-lethal tool for monitoring the spread of this serious pathogen. PMID:24695232

  7. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  8. Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term dewatering of nearshore spawning areas often occurs during passage of commercial tows in the upper Mississippi River as well as in other navigated river systems. This phenomenon was examined experimentally to identify potential effects on survival of fish eggs and larvae. Early life stages of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) and northern pike (Esox lucius ) were dewatered 2 min in laboratory studies at intervals of either 1, 3, 6, or 12 h from just after fertilization to 10-14 d posthatch. Dewatering did not cause mortality of eggs, but significant mortality of larvae of both species occurred at dewatering frequencies of 1 or 3 h. Therefore, significant mortality first was observed at a frequency equivalent to a mean passage of eight tows per day.

  9. Mercury and selenium concentrations in fish, sediments, and water of two northwestern Quebec lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, M.R.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:In an effort to learn more about mercury in the aquatic ecosystem and about possible ways to moderate the toxicity of mercury accumulated by aquatic organisms, sediment and water samples from Lake Dufault and Lake Duparquet in the Rouyn-Naranda region of Quebec were analyzed. Both mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of northern pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Significant differences between the mercury and selenium levels in fish from the two lakes were reported. Fish samples from Lake Dufault had low mercury concentrations but elevated levels of selenium. Fish samples from Lake Duparquet, however, had elevated mercury levels and low selenium levels. Elevated mercury levels were present in sediment samples from both lakes. Mercury and selenium levels in water samples from both lakes were at or below analytical detection limits. (15 references, 3 tables)

  10. Induced histopathologic alterations in early life stages (ELS) of medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos, S.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Hinton, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Agricultural and industrial pollutants cause extensive alterations in fish embryos, and the cardiovascular system is often targeted. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds produce lesions in lake and rainbow trout (Salvelinus namaycush and Oncorhynchus mykiss), and northern pike (Esox lucius), ultimately compromising ELS survival, and possibly stock recruitment. Pericardial edema was produced by exposure of medaka embryos to thiobencarb, molinate, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, dioxin, and products of incomplete combustion from trichloroethylene incineration. These lesions closely resembled those observed in birds, Xenopus, and other fish species. This work focuses on gross morphologic and histologic alterations of heart, major blood vessels, pericardial cavity, skeletal muscle, and brain. Endothelium, perivascular connective tissue, and other tissues of embryos and larvae were examined in semithin (4 {mu}m) glycolmethacrylate-embedded serial sections. Structural defects and their microscopic features will be presented.

  11. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  12. Allometric scaling of intraspecific space use.

    PubMed

    Rosten, Carolyn M; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lucas, Martyn C

    2016-03-01

    Allometric scaling relationships enable exploration of animal space-use patterns, yet interspecific studies cannot address many of the underlying mechanisms. We present the first intraspecific study of home range (HR) allometry relative to energetic requirements over several orders of magnitude of body mass, using as a model the predatory fish, pike Esox lucius. Analogous with interspecific studies, we show that space use increases more rapidly with mass (exponent = 1.08) than metabolic scaling theories predict. Our results support a theory that suggests increasing HR overlap with body mass explains many of these differences in allometric scaling of HR size. We conclude that, on a population scale, HR size and energetic requirement scale allometrically, but with different exponents. PMID:26979558

  13. Allometric scaling of intraspecific space use

    PubMed Central

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric scaling relationships enable exploration of animal space-use patterns, yet interspecific studies cannot address many of the underlying mechanisms. We present the first intraspecific study of home range (HR) allometry relative to energetic requirements over several orders of magnitude of body mass, using as a model the predatory fish, pike Esox lucius. Analogous with interspecific studies, we show that space use increases more rapidly with mass (exponent = 1.08) than metabolic scaling theories predict. Our results support a theory that suggests increasing HR overlap with body mass explains many of these differences in allometric scaling of HR size. We conclude that, on a population scale, HR size and energetic requirement scale allometrically, but with different exponents. PMID:26979558

  14. Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Larsson, Per; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention has been directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individuals and between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments. However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation and population differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causes and consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experiments indicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that population differences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traits further indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selection within populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which is critical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation. PMID:27210072

  15. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than temperature changes (˜8 m in a year) based on the reservoir simulation results. The pressure dependence of the seismic data is due to its influences on gas saturation. The bypassed oil area and steam fronts (high temperature front) can be estimated from the temperature and oil saturation distributions from the reservoir simulation. AVO results show a steam and gas zone pattern similar to the one produced by reservoir simulation.

  16. Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

  17. A ribonuclease protection assay can distinguish spring viremia of carp virus from pike fry rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen rhabdovirus isolates from 10 teleost fish species as well as reference strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) cross-reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay and were thus indistinguishable by this method. A ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) using a super(32)P-labeled RNA probe made from a cloned copy of the full length SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene was able to discriminate clearly between the type strains of SVCV and PFRV and among the 13 rhabdovirus isolates. Results for the RPA were generally in agreement with standard serum neutralisation assays; however, the RPA was also able to detect genomic differences between isolates of SVCV. These results have implications for fish disease control programs for SVCV.

  18. Analyzing the fast-start performance of northern pike using a mechanical fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Feng, Chengcheng; Bonafilia, Brian; Costain, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The northern pike is able to achieve an instantaneous acceleration of 245 m/s2 through a two-stage motion. In the first stage the fish curls its body into either a C-shaped or an S-shaped curve (preparatory stage), and in the second stage uncurls it very quickly (propulsive stage) generating high accelerations due to the vortices shed from its tail. We have built a mechanical fish, based on the body profile of a pike, which is capable of performing this two-stage fast-start motion. Movement is governed by servo motors, which pull on cables attached to certain ribs, bending the fish into a C- or an S-shape. The degree of bending and timing of strokes can be controlled, and the fish can perform either a propulsive stroke only or a full stroke consisting of both the preparatory stage and the propulsive stage. The mechanical fish is capable of achieving peak accelerations of around 4 m/s2. We use this fish in order to study the influence of various variables on the observed acceleration. Although the maximum accelerations observed in our mechanical fish are smaller than those of a live fish, the form of the measured acceleration signal as function of time is quite similar to that of a live fish. The hydrodynamic efficiencies are observed to be around 12%, and it is shown that the majority of the thrust is produced at the rear part of the mechanical fish--similarly to the live fish.

  19. Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

  20. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey

    PubMed Central

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L.; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming. PMID:25473013

  1. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    PubMed

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch. PMID:25475253

  2. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming. PMID:25473013

  3. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

  5. Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

  6. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andria Frana; Silva, Flvia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lcia Dias; de Pdua, Rbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paran, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  7. Feasibility of longwall mining in the Spurgeon Coal Field, Pike and Warrick Counties, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Spurgeon Coal Field, an area of nine square miles, is located in southern Pike and northern Warrick Counties, Indiana. In this region, overburden thickness increases above 120 feet (37 m), and strip mining based on current equipment and highwall procedures is uneconomical. Hence longwall mining, a procedure involving high-productivity and -safety aspects is under consideration. For longwall mining to succeed, several specific geological and mining conditions must occur. An essentially uniform thickness plus continuity of the coal (Indiana Coal V) was determined through examination of drilling data and interpretation of cross sections, isopach maps, and structural contour maps prepared. No coal discontinuities (channels, wash outs, faults) were indicated for the Spurgeon Field. Continuous and regular caving of the immediate roof after mining was also necessary for a successful longwall operation. Based on drill core strength, the caveability classification of the immediate roof qualified as fairly good/good, easy caving. These findings were favorable for adopting the longwall method. An aspect of concern is the shallow overburden (average 150 feet) (46 m) of the field as other longwall mines in the US have overburdens in excess of 800 ft (244 m) and experience is based on these conditions.

  8. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  9. Subsurface study of lower Tuscaloosa Formation at Olive Field, Pike and Amite Counties, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Wiygul, G.J.; Young, L.M.

    1987-09-01

    Olive field is located on the Amite-Pike county line in southwestern Mississippi. The field was discovered by Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc., and produces from a stratigraphically trapped sandstone within the lower Tuscaloosa Stringer Member. The Stringer Member consists of alternating sandstones, siltstones, and shales, and averages 76 m thick at Olive field. The Stringer Member represents a transgressive sequence deposited on eroded Washita Fredericksburg sediments and is overlain by middle Tuscaloosa marine shales. The Stringer Member was subdivided into five zones in this study, based on lithology and electric-log responses. The lower three zones were deposited in a fluvial environment. The sandstones were deposited as point bars and channel sands in a meandering system. Siltstones and shales represent overbank deposits, flood-basin deposits, and channel-fill deposits. The upper two zones consist of sediments deposited at or near sea level. Finely laminated shales and siltstones represent marsh and bay deposits. The top zone is a thin continuous sand body that represents a remnant beach deposited before major marine transgression occurred.

  10. Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.

    PubMed

    Brzov, Tmea; Hanzelov, Vladimra; Miklisov, Dana; algovi?ov, Danka; Tur?ekov, L'udmila

    2012-11-01

    The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplnska rava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P < 0.01). The concentrations were particularly high in predatory fish species, perch, pike, and pike perch (108.0, 90.1, and 113.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt, respectively), but comparable PCB values were also found in non-predatory detrivorous freshwater bream (128.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). The lowest PCB values were surprisingly assessed in European eel (17.1 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Tissue analysis showed the highest storage capacity of the liver (hepatopancreas in cyprinids) with maximum concentrations recorded found in northern pike (214.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt) and freshwater bream (163.0 mg kg(-1) lipid wt). Negative correlations, mostly not significant, between the total PCB concentrations and fish weight were observed (P > 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

  11. Pathogens trigger top-down climate forcing on ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Groth, Andreas; Cazelles, Bernard; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Ohlberger, Jan; Asbjørn Vøllestad, L; Stenseth, Nils C; Ghil, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the effects of climate variation on ecosystems is of paramount importance for our ability to forecast and mitigate the consequences of global change. However, the ways in which complex food webs respond to climate variations remain poorly understood. Here, we use long-term time series to investigate the effects of temperature variation on the intraguild-predation (IGP) system of Windermere (UK), a lake where pike (Esox lucius, top predator) feed on small-sized perch (Perca fluviatilis) but compete with large-sized perch for the same food sources. Spectral analyses of time series reveal that pike recruitment dynamics are temperature controlled. In 1976, expansion of a size-truncating perch pathogen into the lake severely impacted large perch and favoured pike as the IGP-dominant species. This pathogen-induced regime shift to a pike-dominated IGP apparently triggered a temperature-controlled trophic cascade passing through pike down to dissolved nutrients. In simple food chains, warming is predicted to strengthen top-down control by accelerating metabolic rates in ectothermic consumers, while pathogens of top consumers are predicted to dampen this top-down control. In contrast, the local IGP structure in Windermere made warming and pathogens synergistic in their top-down effects on ecosystem functioning. More generally, our results point to top predators as major mediators of community response to global change, and show that size-selective agents (e.g. pathogens, fishers or hunters) may change the topological architecture of food webs and alter whole ecosystem sensitivity to climate variation. PMID:26910776

  12. Hip extension during the come-out of multiple forward and inward pike somersaulting dives is controlled by eccentric contraction of the hip flexors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pui W

    2010-03-01

    A modelling approach was used in the present study to investigate the role of the hip muscles during the come-out of forward and inward multiple somersaulting dives in a pike position. A planar two-segment model was used to simulate the somersault and come-out of three commonly performed dives from a 3-m springboard: forward two-and-one-half somersault pike dive (105B), forward three-and-one-half somersault pike dive (107B), and inward two-and-one-half somersault pike dive (405B). Three simulations were run for each dive: (1) hip angle was constrained to be constant, (2) hip torque was removed after 0.1 s, and (3) hip angle was constrained to a typical come-out time history used by elite divers. Simulation results indicated that hip flexion torque was required both to maintain a rigid pike position during somersault (range = 205.5-282.3 Nm) and to control the hip extension movement during the come-out (peak torque range = 355.8-548.1 Nm) in forward and inward multiple somersaulting dives. Coaches and divers should be aware that dry-land exercise drills producing hip extension movement by concentric actions of the hip extensor muscles do not replicate the neuromuscular control during the come-out of fast rotating dives. PMID:20373197

  13. The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

    1975-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization. PMID:1236946

  14. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were statistically different (p<0.05) among the three continuously monitored sites (sites 1, 4, and 5). Instantaneous loads of aluminum, iron, and copper decreased by one to three orders of magnitude from site 1 to a site 1.1 mi downstream (site 4). Instantaneous loads of sulfate were similar between sites 1, 4, and at a site 3 mi downstream (site 5). Instantaneous loads of cadmium and zinc were similar between sites 1 and 4, and loads of iron and copper were similar between sites 4 and 5. Loads of chemical constituents were compared at site 1 (closest to the mine waste piles) and site 5 (near the mouth of Pike Hill Brook and below a majority of the wetlands). Annually, the loads of dissolved cadmium and zinc at site 1 were about five times greater than loads at site 5, and the load of dissolved copper at site 1 was about 17 times greater than at site 5. The ratio of loads for dissolved cadmium, copper, and zinc to total cadmium, copper, and zinc at site 1 was about 1. Samples collected in Pike Hill Brook upstream and downstream from the wetlands during low flows in August 2005 showed that oxidation of ferrous iron and precipitation of iron-hydroxides were probably not affecting trace metals in the wetlands through sorption; however, a significant portion of the iron entering the wetlands was in particulate form and may have transported sorbed copper and other trace metals. Thus, aerobic activity in the wetlands was probably not affecting metal cycling in the watershed. Concentrations and loads of sulfate may be unlikely to define unequivocally the role of the wetlands with regard to anaerobic bacterial sulfate reduction; however, bacterial sulfate removal may have affected loads of sulfate. Loads of copper increased downstream from the wetlands and may reflect the reductive dissolution of ferric hydroxide particulates in anaerobic parts of the wetlands.Concentrations of dissolved iron increased downstream from the wetlands. The most apparent effects on the macroinvertebr

  15. Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, David M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not correlate with color zoning, whereas Zn variations (up to 1.1 wt. %) are entirely independent. The dark color zones probably reflect Fe-Ti charge transfer. The mica composition sequence described here is typical of the extreme fractionation observed in pegmatites of the NYF family, associated with anorogenec granites. Elevated Fe, Zn, and enhanced Sc contents are characteristic of this family. Strong enrichment in Li, Rb, and F is present, particularly in the micas of the miarolitic cavities. Sharp color zonation and compositional variation in cavity-grown zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite crystals suggest rapid changes in the intensive parameters, particularly the f(O2), of the parent fluid during the final stages of pegmatite consolidation ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Total mercury in sediments, macrophytes, and fish from a shallow steppe lake in eastern Austria.

    PubMed

    Jirsa, Franz; Pirker, Daniel; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2014-08-01

    During summer 2011, samples of sediment, macrophytes, and fish tissues from the shallow, slightly alkaline Lake Neusiedl, Austria, were evaluated for their total Hg content. This is the first report of Hg levels from this lake. Sediments displayed Hg contents between 0.025 and 0.113 μg g(-1) dw (dry weight), significantly correlating with the proportion of organic components pointing to a small anthropogenic impact on the lake's Hg content. Hg Levels in plants and fish were unexpectedly high: both investigated submerged plant species, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, showed mean values of 0.245 ± 0.152 and 0.298 ± 0.115 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. Biomagnification was evident when comparing muscle samples of the planktivorous fish species rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (n = 10, mean = 0.084 μg g(-1) ww (wet weight)) with the piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis (n = 21, mean = 0.184 μg g(-1) ww) or pike-perch Sander lucioperca (n = 9, mean = 0.205 μg g(-1) ww). Significantly lower values were found in the muscle of the piscivorous pike Esox lucius (n = 25, mean = 0.135 μg g(-1) ww), pointing to a specific Hg metabolism of this fish, presumably under the particular physicochemical properties of the lake. Hg Concentrations in fish could pose a risk to piscivorous birds in this protected wetland system. PMID:25146770

  17. Lake and watershed influences on the distribution of elemental contaminants in the Rideau Canal System, a UNESCO world heritage site.

    PubMed

    Stuyt, Shannon S M; Chapman, E Emily V; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-08-01

    Watershed-specific variables such as sediment particle size distribution, water depth, sedimentation rate, focusing factors, and catchment area to lake area ratio can affect the distribution of trace element contaminants to lakes. The aim of this study was to investigate sources of metals to three headwater lakes and to quantify effects of watershed-specific variables on spatial and temporal trends of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) in sediments and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish. Surface sediment and water samples were used to characterize spatial patterns, while sediment cores were collected to portray temporal trends. Historical trends of Hg in northern pike (Esox lucius) were assessed in relation to paleolimnological trends of sediment Hg concentrations. Similarity in timing of sediment peak trace element concentrations for the lakes suggests large-scale, atmospheric sources. The lake with highest catchment area-to-lake area ratio was consistently associated with highest sediment elemental concentrations and displayed significant correlations between increased sediment Hg concentrations and decreased pike tissue concentrations over time. This suggests that catchment area-to-lake area ratio is an important factor influencing the concentration of atmospherically derived contaminants within lake sediments and their transfer through the food web. PMID:25827653

  18. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  19. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  20. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition. PMID:23280299

  1. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity. PMID:24111928

  2. Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

  3. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  4. Short- and long-term patterns of ¹³⁷Cs in fish and other aquatic organisms of small forest lakes in southern Finland since the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rask, Martti; Saxén, Ritva; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Arvola, Lauri; Järvinen, Marko; Koskelainen, Ulla; Outola, Iisa; Vuorinen, Pekka J

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the patterns of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations and transfer into fish and other biota in four small forest lakes in southern Finland during a twenty-year period following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The results from summer 1986 showed fastest accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs into planktivorous fishes, i.e. along the shortest food chains. Since 1987, the highest annual mean values of ¹³⁷Cs have been recorded in fish occupying the highest trophic levels, for perch (Perca fluviatilis) 13,600 Bq/kg (ww) and for pike (Esox lucius) 20,700 Bq/kg (ww). At the same time, activity concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in crustacean zooplankton and Asellus aquaticus have ranged between 1000 and 19,500 Bq/kg (dw). In 2006, 5-28% of the 1987 ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration levels were still present in perch and pike. Since 1989 their ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations in oligohumic seepage lakes have remained significantly higher than in polyhumic drainage lakes due to the increased transfer of ¹³⁷Cs into fish in the seepage lakes with lower electrolyte concentrations, longer water retention times and lower sedimentation rate. PMID:22036157

  5. Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.; Clark, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting the detrital influences at the time of deposition of a low-vitrinite durain; a high CaO zone with elevated B/Be, both suggesting marine influence, in a lithotype in the middle of the coal bed; and the postdepositional emplacement of pyrite in the uppermost lithotype. Individual lithotypes, each representing distinct depositional environments, all complicated to some degree by diagentic overprints, comprise the complex history of the coal bed. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining exposure history of northern pike and walleye to tailings effluence using trace metal uptake in otoliths.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Lisa A; Halden, Norman M

    2010-03-01

    Determining the effects of mining activity on fish populations is complicated by the uncertainty of fish residency in an affected area. Otoliths are considered to be metabolically inert and can contain complete chemical records of environments in which individuals have lived. When coupled with the annular structure, otoliths provide temporal information to the history of exposure to pollutants. In this preliminary study, northern pike and walleye otoliths collected from two lakes adjacent to base metal mine tailings at Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada, were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine background levels of trace metals. The presence of overlapping Zn, Cu, and Pb peaks above background levels in some otoliths is interpreted as a record of elevated levels in the environment. These otoliths provided a record of the history of fish movement into and out of the affected area. PMID:20136074

  7. Huffmanela hamo sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae: Huffmanelinae) from the dagger-tooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus off Japan.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Iwaki, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Huffmanela hamo sp. n. is described from eggs only, which were found in black spots in the somatic musculature of a dagger-tooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål), caught off Japan. The eggs are 66-77 microm (mean 72 microm) in length and 33-38 microm (mean 35 microm) in width. The surface of the eggs is smooth and bears neither envelope nor filaments. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by the dimensions of its eggs and the characteristics of their surface. This is the first species of Huffmanela Moravec, 1987 to be described from an anguilliform fish, and the twentieth nominal species in the genus. Similar black spots with eggs were reported four times in ten years from this fish caught off Japan; although eggs could not be examined, it is likely that the same species was involved in all cases. PMID:25065133

  8. Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Foord, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

  9. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  11. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC. PMID:26464646

  12. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC. PMID:26464646

  13. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the comparison between the two was favorable with a mean absolute difference of 0.58 feet in Area C and 0.32 feet in Area D. Results of a HEC-RAS model of the Little Missouri River watershed upstream from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Langley showed no difference in mean depth in the areas in common between the models, and a difference in mean velocity of only 0.5 foot per second. Predictions of flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent indicated that the extent of inundation of the June 11, 2010, flood exceeded that of the 1 percent flood, and that for both the 1 and 2 percent floods, all of Areas C and D, and parts of Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area were inundated. Predicted water-surface elevations for the 1 and 2 percent floods were approximately 1 foot lower than those predicted by the U.S. Forest Service using a standard-step model.

  14. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    4. Economic costs and benefits of artificial closure. This report for breach management presents protocols which specify when breach closures within the FIIS might be desirable and necessary, as well as provides recommendations for structural breach closure engineering operations which are indented to minimize negative impacts to the natural wilderness values and cultural resources within the FIIS, particularly the Otis Pike Wilderness Area. The goal of the plan is to strike a balance between protecting natural resources and allowing natural processes to operate and avoiding loss of life and excessive property damage.

  15. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ? Northern Pike Esox lucius ? Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

  16. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1995-12-31

    An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

  17. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

  18. Description of the Microsporidian Parasite, Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp., Infecting Fish in the Great Lakes Region, USA

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; Mor, Sunil K.; Armién, Aníbal G.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2015-01-01

    Heterosporosis is an increasingly important microsporidian disease worldwide, impacting wild and farmed raised fishes in both marine and freshwater environments. A previously undescribed species (Heterosporis sp.), with widespread distribution in the Great Lakes region, was the subject of this study. Three angler-caught fish were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2009–2010 with lesions caused by intracellular proliferation of parasitic spores, resulting in destruction and eventual widespread necrosis of the host skeletal muscles. Mature ovoid (5.8 x 3.5μm) spores of a microsporidian parasite, consistent with the genus Heterosporis, were observed by light and electron microscopy. Molecular identification was performed using primer walking to obtain a near-complete rRNA gene sequence (~3,600 bp). A unique species of Heterosporis was identified, demonstrating less than 96% sequence identity to other published Heterosporis sp. on the basis of partial rRNA gene sequence analysis. Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp. (formerly Heterosporis sp.) was identified in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from inland lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Previous research suggests this species may be even more widespread in the Great Lakes region and should be reexamined using molecular techniques to better understand the distribution of this novel species. PMID:26244983

  19. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life. PMID:26098342

  1. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Luke, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  2. Heterogeneity in levels of serum neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVB among fish species in Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Millard, Elena V; Faisal, Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    The presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) was investigated in sera of 13 fish species collected from Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, a VHSV-endemic water body. We tested 297 sera collected May 2004-June of 2010, using a complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (50% PNT). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 23% (67/297) of the samples. The highest overall antibody prevalence (85%, 34/40) and mean positive antibody titer (12,113 11,699 SD) were detected in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy). Antibodies were also detected in 50% (15/30) of sampled northern pike (E. lucius), 25% (15/61) of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), and 7% (3/41) of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). All sera from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), silver redhorse (M. anisurum), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were negative. Antibodies in one or more fish species were detected in all sampling years (2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010), whereas in parallel sampling periods, VHS virus was detected only in 2006 and 2009. Our results suggest the continued presence of VHSV-IVb in the Lake St. Clair ecosystem, and underscore the importance of assessing immune responses of fish populations to determine prior virus exposure. PMID:22493115

  3. Comparative ultrastructure of Langerhans-like cells in spleens of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii).

    PubMed

    Lovy, Jan; Wright, Glenda M; Speare, David J; Tyml, Tomas; Dykova, Iva

    2010-10-01

    We studied the morphology and occurrence of splenic Langerhans-like (LL) cells in species representing 11 orders of ray-finned fishes, Actinopterygii. LL cells were frequent in spleen tissue of species among Cypriniformes, Esociformes, Salmoniformes, and Pleuronectiformes. These cells contained granules which resembled Birbeck granules known to occur in mammalian Langerhans cells. The ultrastructure of LL cells in Northern pike, Esox lucius, and in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus were similar to those reported in salmonids. LL cells found in cyprinids shared some characteristics with the LL cells in other Actinopterygii species, although unique structures distinguished them from the latter. They contained dense bodies within the Birbeck-like (BL) granules, a characteristic that was never observed in species outside the Cypriniformes. Two types of BL granules were characterized in cyprinid LL cells. The ultrastructure of BL granules across the species is discussed. LL cells in all Actinopterygii species demonstrated close contacts with nearby cells, characterized by adherens-like junctions. Additionally, multivesicular bodies were present within the cytoplasm and large aggregates of exosomes were observed closely associated with the plasma membrane suggesting their release from the cells. These structures are discussed in relation to mammalian dendritic cells. Macrophages found in European perch, Perca fluviatilis, blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus, and Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus contained lysosomes and residual bodies with structures resembling Birbeck granules. These granules and cells were clearly distinct from LL cells. PMID:20623556

  4. Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.

    PubMed

    Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

    2013-11-19

    Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada. PMID:24156245

  5. Classification of threespine stickleback along the benthic-limnetic axis.

    PubMed

    Willacker, James J; von Hippel, Frank A; Wilton, Peter R; Walton, Kelly M

    2010-11-01

    Many species of fish display morphological divergence between individuals feeding on macroinvertebrates associated with littoral habitats (benthic morphotypes) and individuals feeding on zooplankton in the limnetic zone (limnetic morphotypes). Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) have diverged along the benthic-limnetic axis into allopatric morphotypes in thousands of populations and into sympatric species pairs in several lakes. However, only a few well known populations have been studied because identifying additional populations as either benthic or limnetic requires detailed dietary or observational studies. Here we develop a Fisher's linear discriminant function based on the skull morphology of known benthic and limnetic stickleback populations from the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska and test the feasibility of using this function to identify other morphologically divergent populations. Benthic and limnetic morphotypes were separable using this technique and of 45 populations classified, three were identified as morphologically extreme (two benthic and one limnetic), nine as moderately divergent (three benthic and six limnetic) and the remaining 33 populations as morphologically intermediate. Classification scores were found to correlate with eye size, the depth profile of lakes, and the presence of invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). This type of classification function provides a means of integrating the complex morphological differences between morphotypes into a single score that reflects the position of a population along the benthic-limnetic axis and can be used to relate that position to other aspects of stickleback biology. PMID:21221422

  6. Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-02-15

    The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta. PMID:21247102

  7. Species-specific mercury bioaccumulation in a diverse fish community.

    PubMed

    Donald, David B; Wissel, Bjrn; Anas, M U Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation models developed for fish provide insight into the sources and transfer of Hg within ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were assessed for 16 fish species of the western reach of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. For top predators (northern pike, Esox Lucius; walleye, Sander vitreum), Hg concentrations were positively correlated to ?(15)N, and ?(15)N to fish age, suggesting that throughout life these fish fed on organisms with increasingly higher trophic values and Hg concentrations. However, fish mass and/or age were the principal parameters related to Hg concentrations for most species. For 9 common species combined, individual variation in Hg concentration was explained in declining order of importance by fish mass, trophic position (?(15)N), and fish age. Delta (15)N value was not the leading variable related to Hg concentration for the assemblage, probably because of the longevity of lower--trophic-level species (3 species ??20?yr), substantial overlap in Hg concentration and ?(15)N values for large-bodied fish up to 3000?g, and complex relationships between Hg concentration and ?(15)N among species. These results suggest that the quantity of food (and Hg) consumed each year and converted to fish mass, the quantity of Hg bioaccumulated over years and decades, and trophic position were significant determinants of Hg concentration in Lake Diefenbaker fish. PMID:26113505

  8. Description of the Microsporidian Parasite, Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp., Infecting Fish in the Great Lakes Region, USA.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Mor, Sunil K; Armin, Anbal G; Pelican, Katharine M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-01-01

    Heterosporosis is an increasingly important microsporidian disease worldwide, impacting wild and farmed raised fishes in both marine and freshwater environments. A previously undescribed species (Heterosporis sp.), with widespread distribution in the Great Lakes region, was the subject of this study. Three angler-caught fish were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2009-2010 with lesions caused by intracellular proliferation of parasitic spores, resulting in destruction and eventual widespread necrosis of the host skeletal muscles. Mature ovoid (5.8 x 3.5 ?m) spores of a microsporidian parasite, consistent with the genus Heterosporis, were observed by light and electron microscopy. Molecular identification was performed using primer walking to obtain a near-complete rRNA gene sequence (~3,600 bp). A unique species of Heterosporis was identified, demonstrating less than 96% sequence identity to other published Heterosporis sp. on the basis of partial rRNA gene sequence analysis. Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp. (formerly Heterosporis sp.) was identified in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from inland lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Previous research suggests this species may be even more widespread in the Great Lakes region and should be reexamined using molecular techniques to better understand the distribution of this novel species. PMID:26244983

  9. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 ?g g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 ?g g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations. PMID:21691859

  10. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 {micro}g/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife.

  11. A food chain model of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran bioaccumulation in a northern Canadian river system

    SciTech Connect

    Starodub, M.E.; Pastershank, G.; Muir, D.

    1995-12-31

    Field data from a comprehensive study of chemical contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzofurans provided the opportunity for comparison of predicted and observed concentrations in fish and invertebrates in sediment-invertebrate-fish food chains. The field study was from the Athabasca River downstream of a bleached-kraft pulp mill in northwest Alberta, Canada. The food chain model used predator-prey relationships which resulted in distinct exposure pathways for fish inhabiting the river. The model distinguished between exposure to suspended and deposited sediments in the Athabasca River. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in two bottom feeding fish species, mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and one piscivorous fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), as well as in invertebrates were measured in the field samples. A sensitivity analysis revealed that exposure of mountain whitefish to TCDF sorbed to suspended solids through consumption of filter feeding invertebrates was the primary exposure pathway. Furthermore, failure to consider consumption of bottom sediments by longnose sucker resulted in underpredicted tissue concentrations compared to observed values.

  12. Temporal changes in mercury bioaccumulation by predatory fishes of boreal lakes following the invasion of an exotic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Thomas A; Leggett, William C; Bodaly, Richard A; Swanson, Heidi K

    2003-09-01

    We evaluated the prediction that mercury concentrations of predatory fishes in boreal lakes would rise following the invasion of an exotic forage fish species (rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax) that was believed to feed at a higher trophic position than native forage fishes. We compared temporal trends (postinvasion minus preinvasion values) in fish mercury bioaccumulation between lakes experiencing recent smelt invasions and reference lakes of central Canada. Piscivore mercury concentrations in this region have remained stable or declined during approximately the last 20 years. These trends were not strongly influenced by the smelt invasion, despite the fact that smelt were a major prey item for all piscivore species examined. The effect of smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in the predator species reflected the importance of smelt in their respective diets (lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush > walleye, Stizostedion vitreum > northern pike, Esox lucius). However, these effects were not statistically significant for any piscivore species. The impact of rainbow smelt invasion on mercury bioaccumulation in native piscivores of this region has been much less than previous food-web studies have predicted. PMID:12959531

  13. Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

  15. Effects of climate change on trait-based dynamics of a top predator in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Edeline, Eric; Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-02-01

    Predicted universal responses of ectotherms to climate warming include increased maximum population growth rate and changes in body size through the temperature-size rule. However, the mechanisms that would underlie these predicted responses are not clear. Many studies have focused on proximate mechanisms of physiological processes affecting individual growth. One can also consider ultimate mechanisms involving adaptive explanations by evaluating temperature effects on different vital rates across the life history and using the information in a population dynamical model. Here, we combine long-term data for a top predator in freshwater ecosystems (pike; Esox lucius) with a stochastic integral projection model to analyze concurrent effects of temperature on vital rates, body size, and population dynamics. As predicted, the net effect of warming on population growth rate (fitness) is positive, but the thermal sensitivity of this rate is highly size- and vital rate-dependent. These results are not sensitive to increasing variability in temperature. Somatic growth follows the temperature-size rule, and our results support an adaptive explanation for this response. The stable length structure of the population shifts with warming toward an increased proportion of medium-sized but a reduced proportion of small and large individuals. This study highlights how demographic approaches can help reveal complex underlying mechanisms for population responses to warming. PMID:24464198

  16. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  17. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  18. System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W., II

    1991-01-01

    A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

  19. Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ≥3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations. PMID:24943864

  20. Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance. PMID:19114002

  1. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff. Observed concentrations of nitrate, which was the most abundant nitrogen species in ground water in t he glacial aquifer, ranged from less than 0.05 to 5.1 mg/L as nitrogen, with a median of 1.1 mg/L as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrogen measured in ground water were lower than estimated concentrations for recharge suggesting that dissolved nitrogen species may not be conservative in ground water. Nitrate is unstable in anoxic ground water and can be removed by denitrification. Ammonium can be sorbed onto the aquifer materials. Evidence for reducing conditions included a positive correlation between low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and low concentrations of nitrate. The estimated concentration of chloride in recharge ranged from 6.7 to 21 mg/L, and total annual load of chloride to ground water ranged from 19.4 to 50.6 x 10(3) lb/mi2. Chloride is considered to be a chemically conservative ion in ground water. Contributions of chloride to ground water from road salting were greater than contributions from septic tanks. Observed concentrations of chloride in 18 ground-water samples from the glacial aquifer ranged from 2.1 to 32 mg/L, with a median of 17.5 mg/L. Local contamination is indicated by the elevated concentrations of chloride (up to 680 mg/L) detected in four wells located downgradient of an abandoned industry that may have released salts in processing waste. Chloride concentrations in ground water appeared to be greater near major roads and in areas of relatively greater septic-system density than in areas upgradient of roads, farther downgradient from roads, or with less densely spaced septic systems.

  2. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying; Zhao, Qingwei; Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia; Zhu, Danyan

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with α-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 μM. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-κB activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  3. Pike and salmon as sister taxa: detailed intraclade resolution and divergence time estimation of Esociformes + Salmoniformes based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; Lpez, J Andrs; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2013-11-01

    The increasing number of taxa and loci in molecular phylogenetic studies of basal euteleosts has brought stability in a controversial area. A key emerging aspect to these studies is a sister Esociformes (pike) and Salmoniformes (salmon) relationship. We evaluate mitochondrial genome support for a sister Esociformes and Salmoniformes hypothesis by surveying many potential outgroups for these taxa, employing multiple phylogenetic approaches, and utilizing a thorough sampling scheme. Secondly, we conduct a simultaneous divergence time estimation and phylogenetic inference in a Bayesian framework with fossil calibrations focusing on relationships within Esociformes+Salmoniformes. Our dataset supports a sister relationship between Esociformes and Salmoniformes; however the nearest relatives of Esociformes+Salmoniformes are inconsistent among analyses. Within the order Esociformes, we advocate for a single family, Esocidae. Subfamily relationships within Salmonidae are poorly supported as Salmoninae sister to Thymallinae+Coregoninae. PMID:23954876

  4. Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations using water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lake Model Suite (WiLMS) indicated Pike Lake's response to 13 different phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included a base 'normal' year (2000) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six different percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable sources, and six different loading scenarios corresponding to specific management actions. Model simulations indicate that a 50-percent reduction in controllable loading sources would be needed to achieve a mesotrophic classification with respect to phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth (an index of water clarity). Model simulations indicated that short-circuiting of phosphorus from the inlet to the outlet was the main reason the water quality of the lake is good relative to the amount of loading from the Rubicon River and that changes in the percentage of inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting have a significant influence on the water quality of the lake.

  5. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  6. Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous in their design. PMID:22652822

  7. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Thilo; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, Stefan; Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects for offspring growth in the wild is largely unknown. Otoliths of 366 age-0 pike (Esox lucius L.) were sampled in a natural lake over three seasons. All offspring were assigned to more than 330 potential mothers using 16 informative microsatellites. We found temperature and past maternal environment (as represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated with the offspring length in early summer. One mechanism could be related to fast-growing females spawning somewhat earlier in the season. However, the more likely mechanism emerging in our study was that fast-growing females could have been in better condition prior to spawning, in turn possibly producing higher numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions. PMID:25894093

  8. Differential habitat use and antipredator response of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to olfactory and visual cues from multiple predators.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Fodrie, F Joel; Heck, Kenneth L; Mattila, Johanna

    2010-04-01

    The indirect, behavioral effects of predation and predator-predator interactions can significantly alter the trophic ecology of many communities. In numerous instances, the strength of these effects may be determined by the ability of prey to identify predation risk through predator-specific cues and respond accordingly to avoid capture. We exposed juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common forage fish in many brackish and freshwater environments, to vision and/or olfactory cues from two predators with different hunting methods: northern pike (Esox lucius, an ambush predator) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis, a roving predator). Our results demonstrated that responses of roach to perceived risk (as evidenced by their selection of structured or open-water habitats) were highly dependent on cue type and predator identity. For instance, roach responded to olfactory cues of pike by entering open-water habitat, but entered structured habitat when presented with a vision cue of this predator. Opposite responses were elicited from roach for both olfactory and visual cues of perch. Interestingly, roach defaulted to selection of structured habitat when presented with vision + olfaction cues of either predator. Moreover, when presented individual cues of both predators together, roach responded by choosing open-water habitat. Upon being presented with vision + olfaction cues of both predators, however, roach strongly favored structured habitat. Differences in habitat selection of roach were likely in response to the alternative foraging strategies of the two predators, and suggest that prey species may not always use structured habitats as protection. This appears particularly true when a threat is perceived, but cannot immediately be located. These results provide insight to the complex and variable nature by which prey respond to various cues and predators, and offer a mechanistic guide for how behaviorally mediated and predator-predator interactions act as structuring processes in aquatic systems. PMID:20127367

  9. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:173-181. 2015 SETAC. PMID:26202062

  10. Comparison of the sensitivity of four native Canadian fish species to 17-α ethinylestradiol, using an in vitro liver explant assay.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Eisner, Bryanna K; Hecker, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens and other endocrine-active chemicals can impact reproduction of freshwater fishes. While extensive data exists regarding the effect of estrogens on standard laboratory species, little is known about the sensitivity of freshwater fishes native to North America to these compounds. Current testing strategies for the toxicological assessment of contaminants still rely heavily on studies with live animals, which poses increasing concerns from an economical and ethical perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of four native species, namely, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to an environmental estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), using an in vitro tissue explant approach. Transcript abundances of vitellogenin (VTG) as well as the estrogen receptors (ER) α and β were used as the measuring endpoints as they represent well established biomarkers previously used to assess exposure to estrogens. Transcript abundance of VTG was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner in each species. Liver explants of male walleye were found to have the greatest sensitivity to EE2, with a lowest observable effect concentration of 300 ng/L (1.0 nM) for VTG transcript abundance, with juvenile white sturgeon having the greatest magnitude of VTG transcript upregulation in exposed tissue (15-fold relative to control). Exposure of liver explants to EE2 resulted in no alteration in transcript abundance of ERβ, whereas upregulation of ERα was observed in northern pike only. Based on in vitro expression of VTG, the species tested were among the species with greatest sensitivity to environmental estrogens tested to date. PMID:26304805

  11. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was potentially acid generating because of paste-pH values of less than 4 and negative net-neutralization potentials (NNP). The processed flotation-mill tailings, however, had a near neutral paste pH, positive NNP, and a few weight percent calcite. Leachate tests indicated that elements and compounds such as Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, SO4, and Zn were leached from mine waste in concentrations that exceeded aquatic ecosystem and drinking-water standards. Mine waste from the Pike Hill mines was chemically and mineralogically similar to that from the Elizabeth and Ely mines. In addition, metals were leached and acid was produced from mine waste from the Pike Hill mines in comparable concentrations to those from the Elizabeth and Ely mines, although the host rock of the Pike Hill deposits contains significant amounts of carbonate minerals and, thus, a greater acid-neutralizing capacity when compared to the host rocks of the Elizabeth and Ely deposits. Water samples collected from unimpacted parts of the Waits River watershed generally contained lower amounts of metals compared to water samples from mine drainage, were alkaline, and had a neutral pH, which was likely because of calcareous bedrock. Seeps and mine pools at the mine site had acidic to neutral pH, ranged from oxic to anoxic, and generally contained concentrations of metals, for example, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc, that exceeded aquatic toxicity standards or drinking-water standards, or both. Surface waters directly downstream of the Eureka and Union mines were acidic, as indicated by pH values from 3.1 to 4.2, and contained high concentrations of some elements including as much as 11,400 micrograms per liter (?g/L) Al, as much as 22.9 ?g/L Cd, as much as 6,790 ?g/L Cu, as much as 23,300 ?g/L Fe, as much as 1,400 ?g/L Mn, and as much as 3,570 ?g/L Zn. The concentrations of these elements exceeded water-quality guidelines. Generally, in surface waters, the pH increased and the concentrations of these elemen

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): Implications for petrogenetic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Noblett, J.; Wobus, R.A.; Unruh, D.; Douglass, J.; Beane, R.; Davis, C.; Goldman, S.; Kay, G.; Gustavson, B.; Saltoun, B.; Stewart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ~1.08 Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite ?? amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado): (1) a sodic series (SiO2= ~44-78 wt%; K/Na=0.32-1.36) composed of gabbro, diabase, syenite/quartz syenite and fayalite and sodic amphibole granite; and (2) a potassic series (SiO2= ~ 70-77 wt%; K/Na=0.95-2.05), composed of biotite granite and minor quartz monzonite. Differences in major and trace element and Nd isotopic characteristics for the two series indicate different petrogenetic histories. Potassic granites of the late-stage intrusions appear to represent crustal anatectic melts derived from tonalite sources, based on comparison of their major element compositions with experimental melt products. In addition, Nd isotopic characteristics of the potassic granites [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -0.2 to -2.7] overlap with those for tonalites/granodiorites [ca 1.7 Ga Boulder Creek intrusions; ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -2.4 to -3.6] exposed in the region. Some of the partial melts evolved by fractionation dominated by feldspar. The late-stage potassic granites share geochemical characteristics with most of the PPG, which is also interpreted to have an anatectic origin involving tonalitic crust. The origin of monzogranites associated with the PPG remains unclear, but mixing between granitic and mafic or intermediate magmas is a possibility. Syenites and granites of the sodic series cannot be explained as crustal melts, but are interpreted as fractionation products of mantle-derived mafic magmas with minor crustal input. High temperature and low oxygen fugacity estimates (e.g. Frost et al., 1988. American Mineralogist 73, 727-740) support a basalt fractionation origin, as do ??(Nd) values for sodic granitoids [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = +2.2 to -0.7], which are higher than ??(Nd) values for Colorado crust at 1.08 Ga (ca -1.0 to -4.0). Enrichments in incompatible elements (e.g. rare earth elements, Rb, Y) and depletions in compatible elements (e.g. Cr, Sr, Ba) in the sodic granitoids compared to coeval mafic rocks are also consistent with fractionation. Accessory mineral fractionation, release of fluorine-rich volatiles and/or removal of pegmatitic fluids could have modified abundances of Ce, Nb, Zr and Y in some sodic granitoid magmas. Gabbros and mafic dikes associated with the sodic granitoids have ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) of -3.0 to +3.5, which are lower than depleted mantle at 1.08 Ga, and their trace element characteristics suggest derivation from mantle sources that were previously affected by subduction-related processes. However, it is difficult to characterize the mantle component in these magmas, because assimilation of crust during magma ascent could also result in their observed geochemical features. The Pikes Peak batholith is composed of at least two petrogenetically different granite types, both of which exhibit geochemical characteristics typical of A-type granites. Models proposed for the petrogenesis of the granitoids imply the existence of mafic rocks at depth and addition of juvenile material to the crust in central Colorado at ~ 1.1 Ga.

  13. Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

  14. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite, Mass., and syenite of Kungnat, Greenland, among others - allowing for different levels of erosion. A suite that includes gabbro or basalt, anorthosite, quartz syenite, fayalite granite, riebeckite granite, and biotite and/or hornblende granites is of worldwide occurrence. A model is proposed in which mantle-derived, convecting alkali olivine basaltic magma first reacts with K2O-poor lower crust of granulite facies to produce magma of quartz syenitic composition. The syenitic liquid in turn reacts with granodioritic to granitic intermediate crust of amphibolite facies to produce the predominant fayalite-free biotite and biotite-hornblende granites of the batholith. This reaction of magma and roof involves both partial melting and the reconstitution and precipitation of refractory phases, as Bowen proposed. Intermediate liquids include MgO-depleted and Na2O-enriched gabbro, which precipitated anorthosite, and alkali diorite. The heat source is the basaltic magma; the heat required for partial melting of the roof is supplied largely by heats of crystallization of phases that settle out of the liquid - mostly olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. ?? 1975.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated derivatives in pike from Swedish waters with emphasis on temporal trends, 1967-2000.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A; Bignert, A; Sellstrm, U; Olsson, M; Asplund, L; Jansson, B; De Wit, C A

    2004-07-01

    Temporal trends of five tetra- to hexabromodiphenyl ethers [BDE47, BDE99, BDE100, BDE153 and BDE154) and two methoxy-tetraBDEs [6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'- tetraBDE (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2'-methoxy-2,3',4,5'- tetraBDE (2'-MeO-BDE68)] in pike from Lake Bolmen for the years 1967-2000, are presented. All BDE congeners show increasing trends up to the mid-1980s (Sigma5PBDE from 60 to 1600 pg/g wet weight in 1989, i.e. a more than 25-fold increase), and then decrease or level off. The decreasing trends of PBDEs after the 1980s were considerably slower in the present study than was found in a study of an environmental matrix from the Baltic Proper covering the same time period. This difference suggests local sources near Lake Bolmen. The MeO-BDEs show initially decreasing concentrations, which for 6-MeO-BDE47 continues until the early 1990s. The concentrations of 6-MeO-BDE47 in herring from five locations along the Swedish coast increased from south to north in the Baltic Sea. No correlation between the concentrations of the BDE congeners and the MeO-BDEs was observed, indicating sources other than PBDEs for these compounds. The presence of MeO-BDEs in fish from lakes with different characteristics suggests a natural production not favoured by eutrophication, or dependent on sampling season and geographical location. PMID:15158033

  16. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, June-November 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kimberly F.; Faulkenburg, C.W.; Chambers, D.B.; Waldron, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River, collected during the summer and fall of 1992, from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam). The data were collected to assess the effects of hydropower development on water quality. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water quality were measured at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and specific conductance were measured at each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at three depths (about 3.3 feet below the surface of the water, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three or four detailed vertical pro- files of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phyto- plankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated seven times between June 25 and November 6, 1992.

  17. Bioinformatic and enzymatic characterization of the MAPEG superfamily.

    PubMed

    Bresell, Anders; Weinander, Rolf; Lundqvist, Gerd; Raza, Haider; Shimoji, Miyuki; Sun, Tie-Hua; Balk, Lennart; Wiklund, Ronney; Eriksson, Jan; Jansson, Christer; Persson, Bengt; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Morgenstern, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The membrane associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) superfamily includes structurally related membrane proteins with diverse functions of widespread origin. A total of 136 proteins belonging to the MAPEG superfamily were found in database and genome screenings. The members were found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but not in any archaeal organism. Multiple sequence alignments and calculations of evolutionary trees revealed a clear subdivision of the eukaryotic MAPEG members, corresponding to the six families of microsomal glutathione transferases (MGST) 1, 2 and 3, leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and prostaglandin E synthase. Prokaryotes contain at least two distinct potential ancestral subfamilies, of which one is unique, whereas the other most closely resembles enzymes that belong to the MGST2/FLAP/LTC4 synthase families. The insect members are most similar to MGST1/prostaglandin E synthase. With the new data available, we observe that fish enzymes are present in all six families, showing an early origin for MAPEG family differentiation. Thus, the evolutionary origins and relationships of the MAPEG superfamily can be defined, including distinct sequence patterns characteristic for each of the subfamilies. We have further investigated and functionally characterized representative gene products from Escherichia coli, Synechocystis sp., Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster, and the fish liver enzyme, purified from pike (Esox lucius). Protein overexpression and enzyme activity analysis demonstrated that all proteins catalyzed the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione. The E. coli protein displayed glutathione transferase activity of 0.11 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1) in the membrane fraction from bacteria overexpressing the protein. Partial purification of the Synechocystis sp. protein yielded an enzyme of the expected molecular mass and an N-terminal amino acid sequence that was at least 50% pure, with a specific activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene of 11 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). Yeast microsomes expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme showed an activity of 0.02 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1), whereas the Drosophila enzyme expressed in E. coli was highly active at 3.6 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). The purified pike enzyme is the most active MGST described so far with a specific activity of 285 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). Drosophila and pike enzymes also displayed glutathione peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide (0.4 and 2.2 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1), respectively). Glutathione transferase activity can thus be regarded as a common denominator for a majority of MAPEG members throughout the kingdoms of life whereas glutathione peroxidase activity occurs in representatives from the MGST1, 2 and 3 and PGES subfamilies. PMID:15794756

  18. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Pike County in northeastern Pennsylvania is underlain by the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and other shales, formations that have potential for natural gas development. During 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District conducted a reconnaissance study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers prior to possible shale-gas development in the county. For the spatial component of the assessment, 20 wells were sampled in summer 2012 to provide data on the occurrence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines. For the temporal component of the assessment, 4 of the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 were sampled monthly from July 2012 through June 2013 to provide data on seasonal variability in groundwater quality. All water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), stable isotopes of water, radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and ethene), and, if possible, isotopic composition of methane. Additional analyses for boron and strontium isotopes, age-dating of water, and radium-226 were done on water samples collected from six wells in June 2013. Results of the summer 2012 sampling show that water from 16 (80 percent) of 20 wells had detectable concentrations of methane, but concentrations were less than 0.1 milligram per liter (mg/L) in most well-water samples; only two well-water samples had concentrations greater than 1 mg/L. The groundwater with elevated methane also had a chemical composition that differed in some respects (pH, selected major ions, and inorganic trace constituents) from groundwater with low methane concentrations. The two well-water samples with the highest methane concentrations (about 3.7 and 5.8 mg/L) also had the highest pH values (8.7 and 8.3, respectively) and the highest concentrations of sodium, lithium, boron, fluoride, and bromide. Elevated concentrations of some other constituents, such as barium, strontium, and chloride, were not limited to well-water samples with elevated methane, although the two samples with elevated methane also had among the highest concentrations of these constituents. One sample with elevated methane concentrations also had elevated arsenic concentrations, with the arsenic concentration of 30 micrograms per liter (μg/L) exceeding the drinking-water standard of 10 µg/L for arsenic. No other sample from the 20 wells sampled in summer 2012 had concentrations of constituents that exceeded any established primary drinking-water standards. However, radon-222 activities ranging up to 4,500 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) exceeded the proposed drinking-water standard of 300 pCi/L in 85 percent of the 20 well-water samples. The isotopic composition methane in the two high-methane samples (δCCH4 values of -64.55 and -64.41 per mil and δDCH4 values of -216.9 and -201.8 per mil, respectively) indicates a predominantly microbial source for the methane formed by a carbon dioxide reduction process. The stable isotopic composition of water (δDH20 and δ18OH20) in samples from all 20 wells falls on the local meteoric line, indicating water in the wells was of relatively recent meteoric origin (modern precipitation), including samples with elevated methane concentrations. Analytical results for 4 of the 20 wells sampled monthly for 1 year ending June 2013 in order to assess temporal variability in groundwater quality show that concentrations of major ions generally varied by less than 20 percent, with most differences less than 4 mg/L. Concentrations of methane varied by less than 1 μg/L (0.001 mg/L) in samples from three wells with low methane and by as much as 1 mg/L (1,000 μg/L) in samples from one well with relatively high methane. The isotopic composition of methane in the one well with relatively high methane varied slightly in the monthly samples, ranging from about -64.5 to -64.8 per mil for δ13CCH4 and from about -217 to -228 per mil for δDCH4. The δ13C values for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water from this well were consistent with microbial methane formation by carbon dioxide reduction (drift-type methane) and varied little in the temporal samples, ranging from -10.5 to -10.1 per mil. Additional analyses of samples collected in late June 2013 from six wells with a range of methane and trace constituent concentrations provided baseline data on strontium and boron isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr ratios and δ11B, respectively) that potentially may be used to differentiate among sources of these constituents. The strontium and boron isotopic composition determined in the six shallow Pike County groundwater samples had 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.71426 to 0.71531 and δ11B values of 11.7 to 27.0 per mil, which differ from those reported for brines in Devonian-age formations in Pennsylvania. The June 2013 samples were also analyzed for radium-226 and age-dating dissolved gases. Activities of radium-226 ranged from 0.041 to 0.29 pCi/L in water samples from the six wells and were less than the drinking-water standard of 5 pCi/L for combined radium-226 and radium-228. Age-dating of groundwater using a method based on the presence of anthropogenic gases (chlorofluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride) released into the atmosphere yielded estimated recharge dates for water from these six wells that ranged from the 1940s to early 2000s. The oldest water was in samples from wells that had the highest methane concentrations and the youngest water was in samples from a continuously pumped 300-foot deep production well.

  19. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration, made at a depth of 6.6 feet upstream and downstream of New Cumberland Dam. Continuous monitors were operated from May through October 1993.

  20. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback sucker were 0.54, 0.38, and 0.25 mg/L NH3, respectively. The fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker are relatively similar in sensitivity and rank at the 35th, 49th, and 31st percentiles, respectively, of the theoretical chronic fish sensitivity distributions for NH3. The existing water quality criteria for NH3, if met by remediation activities at the Moab site, would be protective of these endangered fishes even if fish sensitivity is based on the conservative LC1 value. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during environmental monitoring.

  2. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole. PMID:26855876

  3. A fish bradykinin (Arg0, Trp5, Leu8-bradykinin) from the defensive skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus: structural characterization; molecular cloning of skin kininogen cDNA and pharmacological effects on mammalian smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaole; Wang, Lei; Wang, He; Chen, Hang; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Extensive studies on bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) generated from plasma kininogens in representative species of various vertebrate taxa, have confirmed that many amphibian skin BRPs reflect those present in putative vertebrate predators. For example, the (Val(1), Thr(6))-bradykinin, present in the defensive skin secretions of many ranids and phyllomedusines, can be generated from plasma kininogens in colubrid snakes-common predators of these frogs. Here, we report the presence of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the skin secretion of the European edible frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus, and have found it to be encoded in single copy by a kininogen with an open-reading frame of 68 amino acid residues. This peptide is the archetypal bony fish bradykinin that has been generated from plasma kininogens of the bowfin (Amia calva), the long-nosed gar (Lepisosteus oseus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). More recently, this peptide has been shown to be encoded within cloned kininogens of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spotted wolf-fish (Anarichas minor), zebrafish (Danio rerio), pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and Northern pike (Esox lucius). The latter species is regarded as a major predator of P. kl. esculentus. Synthetic (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin was previously reported as having multiphasic effects on arterial blood pressure in conscious trout and here we have demonstrated that it can antagonize the relaxation in rat arterial smooth muscle induced by canonical mammalian bradykinin. The discovery of (Arg(0), Trp(5), Leu(8))-bradykinin in the defensive skin secretion of this amphibian completes the spectrum of vertebrate taxon-specific BRPs identified from this source. PMID:20923691

  4. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking intensity from year to year, and attempting to match stocking intensity with the abundance of prey species other than walleye may improve the walleye fishery in Spirit Lake.

  5. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  6. Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.H.; Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C.; Whittle, D.M.; Harbicht, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

  7. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Gran; Hrm, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergstrm, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  8. Rotenone formulation fate in Lake Davis following the 2007 treatment.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Martice E; Rinderneck, Janna; Newman, Julie; McMillin, Stella; Finlayson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2012-05-01

    In September 2007, Lake Davis (near Portola, California) was treated by the California Department of Fish and Game with CFT Legumine, a rotenone formulation, to eradicate the invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). The objective of this report is to describe the fate of the five major formulation constituents-rotenone, rotenolone, methyl pyrrolidone (MP), diethylene glycol monethyl ether (DEGEE), and Fennedefo 99-in water, sediment, and brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus; a rotenone-resistant species) by determination of their half-lives (t(1/2)) and pseudo first-order dissipation rate constants (k). The respective t(1/2) values in water for rotenone, rotenolone, MP, DEGEE, and Fennedefo 99 were 5.6, 11.1, 4.6, 7.7, and 13.5 d; in sediments they were 31.1, 31.8, 10.0, not able to calculate, and 48.5 d; and in tissues were 6.1, 12.7, 3.7, 3.2, and 10.4 d, respectively. Components possessing low water solubility values (rotenone and rotenolone) persisted longer in sediments (not detectable after 157 d) and tissues (<212 d) compared with water, whereas the water-miscible components (MP and DEGEE) dissipated more quickly from all matrices, except for Fennedefo 99, which was the most persistent in water (83 d). None of the constituents was found to bioaccumulate in tissues as a result of treatment. In essence, the physicochemical properties of the chemical constituents effectively dictated their fate in the lake following treatment. PMID:22407799

  9. Clear as mud: a meta-analysis on the effects of sedimentation on freshwater fish and the effectiveness of sediment-control measures.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jacqueline M; Proulx, Catherine L; Veilleux, Maxime A N; Levert, Caroline; Bliss, Shireen; André, Marie-Ève; Lapointe, Nicolas W R; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    Increase in fine sediments in freshwater resulting from anthropogenic development is a potential stressor for fish and thus may cause population declines. Though a large body of literature exists on the topic, there have been few attempts to synthesize this information in a quantitative manner. Through meta-analysis we investigated the effects of sediment in lotic environments on resident ichthyofauna using ecologically-relevant endpoints for tolerant (e.g., northern pike Esox lucius) and intolerant (e.g., brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis) species. Further, the efficiency of sediment-control devices was explored to inform mitigation measures. An increase in suspended and deposited sediments was demonstrated to have a negative effect on all parameters and tolerances tested (feeding behavior [feeding rate, reaction distance to food item]; spawning success [survival of fry to eyed stage, fry emergence]; species richness; P < 0.001) except fish abundance (P = 0.058). Heterogeneity between studies was a factor in all analyses. Although there were insufficient studies to conduct meta-analysis on sediment-control devices, weighted percent efficiency estimates revealed that properly installed sediment-control fences tended to have a higher percent efficiency (73-80%) than sediment traps and basins (40-52%). These results highlight the negative impact that increases in suspended and deposited sediments can have on resident fishes from the individual to the population, and the need for more transparent and thorough statistical reporting. The analysis also identifies a clear need for rigorous experimental studies contrasting different sediment-control devices and strategies given that little such work has been published. That alone is remarkable given that sediment-control devices are often a requirement of regulators for riparian development activities, yet the evidence to support the effectiveness of the primary mitigative strategies is weak. PMID:24681235

  10. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun A.; Dickinson, William C.; Ciampaglio, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole. PMID:26855876

  11. Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

  12. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

  13. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints, and 10 lethal yellow perch effect endpoints resulted in the observation of several statistically significant differences at the future exposure area relative to the reference area and/or areas. When the data from 2 reference areas assessed for the benthic invertebrate community survey were pooled, no significant differences in effect endpoints were observed. These results demonstrate weaknesses in the definition of an "effect" used by the MMER EEM program and in the use of a single reference area. Determination of the ecological significance of statistical differences identified as part of EEM programs conducted during the operational period should consider preexisting (background) natural variability between reference and exposure areas. PMID:22888037

  14. Fitness consequences of early life conditions and maternal size effects in a freshwater top predator.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein; Winfield, Ian J; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2016-05-01

    Conditions experienced in early life stages can be an important determinant of individual life histories. In fish, environmental conditions are known to affect early survival and growth, but recent studies have also emphasized maternal effects mediated by size or age. However, the relative sensitivity of the mean fitness (population growth rate λ) to different early life impacts remains largely unexplored. Using a female-based integral projection model (IPM) parameterized from unique long-term demographic data for pike (Esox lucius), we evaluated the relative fitness consequences of different early life impacts, including (i) maternal effects of length on egg weight, potentially affecting offspring (first year) survival, and (ii) effects of temperature on offspring growth and survival. Of the seven vital rates defining the model, offspring survival could not be directly estimated and four scenarios were defined for this rate. Elasticity analyses of the IPM were performed to calculate (i) the total contribution from different lengths to the elasticity of λ to the projection kernel, and (ii) the elasticity of λ to underlying variables of female current length, female offspring length at age 1, and temperature. These elasticities were decomposed into contributions from different vital rates across length. Egg weight increased with female length, as expected, but the effect leveled off for the largest females. However, λ was largely insensitive to this effect, even when egg weight was assumed to have a strong effect on offspring survival. In contrast, λ was sensitive to early temperature conditions through growth and survival. Among mature females, the total elasticity of λ to the projection kernel generally increased with length. The results were robust to a wide range of assumptions. These results suggest that environmental conditions experienced in early life represent a more important driver of mean population growth and fitness of pike than maternal effects of size on offspring survival. We discuss two general mechanisms underlying the weak influence of this maternal effect, suggesting that these may be general for long-lived and highly fecund fishes. This model and results are relevant for the management of long-lived top predators, including many commercially important fish species. PMID:26781671

  15. Technique and timing in women's inward two and one half somersault tuck (405C) and the men's inward two and one half somersault pike (405B) 3 m springboard dives.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross; Burnett, Angus

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the inward two and one half somersault dive in a tuck position (405C) performed by females (n = 22) and the inward two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (405B) performed by males (n = 24) to determine changes required by females to successfully perform 405B. Key performance variables in inward dives were also compared to those of backward dives. Video data of the dives performed at the 1999 FINA World Diving Cup were captured and digitized to obtain times and postures of the divers at specific events including takeoff and entry. Estimates of flight height and mass-normalised work done on the springboard were obtained from flight times. Some females worked the springboard strongly enough to generate sufficient height and rotation to perform 405B. Males performed 405B comfortably because they achieved better height and rotation than the females. A comparison of backward and inward dives revealed that divers are able to attain greater height in backward dives than inward dives. PMID:14737932

  16. Technique and timing in women's backward two and one half somersault tuck (205C) and the men's backward two and one half somersault pike (205B) 3m springboard dives.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross; Gibson, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the backward two and one half somersault dive in a tuck position (205C) performed by females (n = 22) and the backward two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (205B) performed by males (n = 27) and by females (n = 6) to determine changes required by females to successfully perform 205B. Video data of the dives performed at the 1999 FINA World Diving Cup were captured and digitised to obtain times and postures of the divers at specific events including maximum depression, takeoff, and entry. Estimates of mass-normalised work done on the springboard were obtained from flight times. Males performed 31% more mass-normalised work on the springboard to gain height than females. Based on the dive scores and the short time to extend and prepare for entry it was concluded that females are not yet able to perform 205B with the same quality as they perform 205C. Females performing backward dives need to adjust their techniques to allow increased work on the springboard to generate height and rotation. Also, faster contraction of the hip flexors may allow them to achieve the tightest position more quickly to complete rotations with more time to prepare for entry. PMID:14658247

  17. Technique and timing in the women's reverse two and one half somersault tuck (305C) and the men's reverse two and one half somersault pike (305B) 3m springboard dives.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Ross; Gibson, Barry; Prassas, Spiros

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reverse two and one half somersault dive in a tuck position (305C) performed by females (n = 24), and the reverse two and one half somersault dive in a pike position (305B) performed by males (n = 21), to determine changes required by females to successfully perform 305B. Key performance variables in reverse dives were also compared to those of forward dives. Video data of the dives performed at the 1999 FINA World Diving Cup were captured and digitised to obtain times and postures of the divers at specific events including hurdle landing, takeoff, and entry. Estimates of hurdle flight height and mass-normalised work done on the springboard were obtained from hurdle and flight times. The males did more work on the springboard to achieve greater height and rotation than females. Females performing 305C had less hip and knee flexion at hurdle landing than males performing 305B and took longer to achieve maximum hip flexion after takeoff from the springboard. To progress from 305C to 305B females need to adjust their techniques to put more energy into the system. Desirable changes include increased height in the hurdle and increased hip and knee flexion prior to hurdle landing. Comparison of results for reverse dives with data previously presented for forward dives indicated that divers are more limited in the number of somersaults and dive position in reverse dives than forward dives despite equivalent or better height in reverse dives than forward dives. PMID:14658376

  18. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

  19. Various aspects of piscine toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

    2010-09-01

    In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes.In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-?-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-?-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these "biomimetics of estrogen" can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath.Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

  20. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Strk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jrgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162?gkg(-1)w.w. in liver and 92?gkg(-1)w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241?gkg(-1)w.w. in liver and 256?gkg(-1)w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20?gHgkg(-1)w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500?gHgkg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish. PMID:26552521

  1. Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-01

    There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-? estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity. Male and female white sucker showed greatest sensitivity to forskolin, while male and female walleye showed greatest sensitivity to prochloraz. Also, gonad explants from these species were found to have greater sensitivity than responses previously reported for in vitro explants of other fish species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and stable cell lines currently used as screening applications to detect chemicals that might disrupt the endocrine system. Therefore, current approaches that use stable cell lines or tissue explants from standardized small bodied laboratory species might not be protective of some wild fish species. Future research is required that investigates whether this in vitro gonadal explant assay is predictive of in vivo effects in wild species of fishes. PMID:24800870

  2. Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or decreasing-head conditions resulted in dye being trapped in hydraulically dead zones in water- depleted fractures. Residual dye was remobilized from storage and transported (over periods ranging from several months to about 2 years) by increased recharge to the hydrologic system. Subsequent fluctuations in hydraulic gradients, resulting from increases or decreases in recharge to the hydrologic system, acted to speed or slow the transport of dye along the fracture-controlled flow paths. The dye-tracer tests also demonstrated that mining-related disturbances significantly altered the natural fracture-controlled flow paths of the hydrologic system over time. An abandoned underground mine and subsidence-related surface cracks extend to within 250 ft of the principal dye- injection core hole. Results from two of the dye-tracer tests at the site indicate that the annular seal in the core hole was breached by subsurface propagation of the mining-induced fractures. This propagation of fractures resulted in hydraulic short-circuiting between the dye-injection zone in the core hole and two lower piezometer zones, and a partial disruption of the hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and downgradient piezometers on the ridge crest and valley wall. In addition, injected dye was detected in piezometers monitoring a flooded part of the abandoned underground mine. Dye was apparently transported into the mine through a hydraulic connection between the injection core hole and subsidence-related fractures.

  3. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest disturbance, especially the historic forest fire pattern (Woodruff and Cannon, 2002). Forest fire has an essential role in the forest ecosystems of VNP (Heinselman, 1996). Because resource and land managers need to integrate both natural wildfire and prescribed fire in management plans, the potential influence of fire on an element as sensitive to the environment as mercury becomes a critical part of their decisionmaking. A number of recent studies have shown that while fire does have a significant impact on mercury at the landscape level, the observed effects of fire on aquatic environments are highly variable and unpredictable (Caldwell and others, 2000; Garcia and Carrigan, 2000; Kelly and others, 2006; Nelson and others, 2007). Caldwell and others (2000) described an increase in methylmercury in reservoir sediments resulting from mobilization and transport of charred vegetative matter following a fire in New Mexico. Krabbenhoft and Fink (2000) attributed increases in total mercury concentrations in young-of-the-year fish in the Florida Everglades to release of mercury resulting from peat oxidation following fires. A fivefold increase in whole-body mercury accumulation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a fire in Alberta, Canada, apparently resulted from increased nutrient concentrations that enhanced productivity and restructured the food web of a lake within the fire's burn footprint (Kelly and others, 2006). For this study, we determined the short-term effects of forest fire on mercury concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments in VNP by comparing and contrasting mercury concentrations in forest soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch for a burned watershed and an adjacent lake, with similar samples from watersheds and lakes with no fire activity (control watersheds and lakes). The concentration of total mercury in whole, 1-year-old yellow perch serves as a good biological indicator for monitoring trends in methylmercury conce

  4. Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development of…

  5. 76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... meeting is to vote on and recommend projects for funding. DATES: The meeting will be held on August 10...: (1) Review, discuss and vote on proposed projects, (2) Recommend projects to the Designated...

  6. Various aspects of piscine toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes. In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-β-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-β-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these “biomimetics of estrogen” can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath. Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

  7. Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Kozłowska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength λ = 254 nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation. PMID:24985207

  8. The Mirror Has Two Faces: Contradictory Reflections of Donkeys in Western Literature from Lucius to Balthazar

    PubMed Central

    Bough, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary I argue that cultural representations of donkeys arise from the contradictory philosophies that underpin western society. Donkeys have invariable been used symbolically in a negative way in early western literature which has affected our ongoing attitudes towards them: used as allegories for human nature, their own remains largely hidden. Tracing literary representations of donkeys reveals not only their conflicting origins but also how they developed over time. Understanding how these representations have affected our treatment of donkeys may lead to a better appreciation of the actual animals. Abstract How we represent animals both reflects our attitudes towards them and affects our treatment of them. The donkey has lived alongside humans, bearing their burdens since the time of their domestication over 10,000 years ago. Despite this, they have invariably enjoyed a low status in human cultures, received little appreciation and been treated harshly. We view some animals as being more worthy than others and represent them accordingly: donkeys have been ridiculed and derided. Literary representations of donkeys from the fables of Ancient Greece to contemporary iconic texts are explored to follow the donkey through the human imaginary. These representations derive from two main, conflicting sources, Greek literature and the Bible. Examining these cultural representations may lead towards a greater understanding of the way they affect the actual animal and lead to a greater understanding of that animal and, ultimately, to better treatment of them. PMID:26486214

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of pike-perch, Sander lucioperca (Perciformes: Percidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihong; Bercsenyi, Miklos; Yang, Xuefen; Wei, Kaijian; Yang, Ruibin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Sander lucioperca has been sequenced and analyzed in this study. It was a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 16,541 base pairs (bp) in length and exhibited 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes. The gene order and base composition were similar to those of other percid species. All protein-coding genes were initiated with ATG except for COX 1, which began with GTG instead. However, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes varied with TAG, TAA, TA or T. Within CR, we detected five copies of 10 bp tandemly repeated sequences domain, which immediately followed the tRNA(Pro). These mitogenome sequence data would contribute to better understanding phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of the family Percidae. PMID:25758047

  10. Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

  12. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  13. The invisible fish: hydrodynamic constraints for predator-prey interaction in fossil fish Saurichthys compared to recent actinopterygians.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ilja; Pacholak, Steffen; Licht, Martin; Schneider, Jörg W; Brücker, Christoph; Brandt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Recent pike-like predatory fishes attack prey animals by a quick strike out of rest or slow movement. This fast-start behaviour includes a preparatory, a propulsive and a final phase, and the latter is crucial for the success of the attack. To prevent prey from escape, predators tend to minimise the duration of the interaction and the disturbance caused to surrounding water in order to not be detected by the prey's lateral line sensory system. We compared the hydrodynamic properties of the earliest fossil representative of the pike-like morphotype, the Triassic actinopterygian Saurichthys, with several recent pike-like predators by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Rainbow trout has been used as a control example of a fish with a generalist body shape. Our results show that flow disturbance produced by Saurichthys was low and similar to that of the recent forms Belone and Lepisosteus, thus indicative of an effective ambush predator. Drag coefficients are low for all these fishes, but also for trout, which is a good swimmer over longer distances but generates considerable disturbance of flow. Second-highest flow disturbance values are calculated for Esox, which compensates the large disturbance with its extremely high acceleration performance (i.e. attacks at high speeds) and the derived teleostean protrusible mouth that allows prey catching from longer distances compared to the other fishes. We show CFD modelling to be a useful tool for palaeobiological reconstruction of fossil fishes, as it allows quantification of impacts of body morphology on a hypothesised lifestyle. PMID:26603471

  14. The invisible fish: hydrodynamic constraints for predator-prey interaction in fossil fish Saurichthys compared to recent actinopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Ilja; Pacholak, Steffen; Licht, Martin; Schneider, Jörg W.; Brücker, Christoph; Brandt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent pike-like predatory fishes attack prey animals by a quick strike out of rest or slow movement. This fast-start behaviour includes a preparatory, a propulsive and a final phase, and the latter is crucial for the success of the attack. To prevent prey from escape, predators tend to minimise the duration of the interaction and the disturbance caused to surrounding water in order to not be detected by the prey's lateral line sensory system. We compared the hydrodynamic properties of the earliest fossil representative of the pike-like morphotype, the Triassic actinopterygian Saurichthys, with several recent pike-like predators by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Rainbow trout has been used as a control example of a fish with a generalist body shape. Our results show that flow disturbance produced by Saurichthys was low and similar to that of the recent forms Belone and Lepisosteus, thus indicative of an effective ambush predator. Drag coefficients are low for all these fishes, but also for trout, which is a good swimmer over longer distances but generates considerable disturbance of flow. Second-highest flow disturbance values are calculated for Esox, which compensates the large disturbance with its extremely high acceleration performance (i.e. attacks at high speeds) and the derived teleostean protrusible mouth that allows prey catching from longer distances compared to the other fishes. We show CFD modelling to be a useful tool for palaeobiological reconstruction of fossil fishes, as it allows quantification of impacts of body morphology on a hypothesised lifestyle. PMID:26603471

  15. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione. PMID:26276034

  16. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  17. Utilization of surface-coal-mine waste water for construction of a northern pike spawning/rearing marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, R.W.; Elser, A.A.; Lenhart, T.

    1984-04-01

    As the limited water resources of the western United States are developed for agricultural and industrial uses, there is an ever-increasing need to utilize waste water to its fullest potential. This report describes one example where waste water from an energy development site (coal mine operation) was used to enhance the fisheries of an adjacent reservoir. The details of this report provide an example of what considerations may be necessary for similar projects; illustrate potential problem areas in the planning, construction and operation of such a project; and stimulate ideas for developing other innovative uses of waste water for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement.

  18. 78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... biodiversity goals (US Forest Service Minerals Program Policy); and (3) Enable the BLM to exercise its... prior to the leasing of specific NFS lands ; (2) Fulfill the federal government's policy to '' foster... assure satisfaction of industrial, security, and environmental needs'' (Mining and Minerals Policy Act...

  19. Estimates of long-term suspended-sediment loads in Bay Creek at Nebo, Pike County, Illinois, 1940-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lazaro, Timothy R.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Frost, Leonard R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Five years of daily suspended-sediment discharges (1968, 1969, 1975, 1976, and 1980) for Bay Creek at Nebo, Illinois, computed from once- or twice-weekly samples (more often during storm events), were used to develop transport equations that can be used to estimate long-term suspended-sediment discharges from long-term water-discharge records. Discharge was divided into three groups based on changes in slope on a graph of logarithms of water discharge versus suspended-sediment discharge. Two subgroups were formed within each of the three groups by determining whether the flow was steady or increasing, or was decreasing. Seasonality was accounted for by introducing day of the year in sine and cosine functions. The suspended-sediment load estimated from the equations for the 5 years was 77.3 percent of that computed from daily sediment- and water-discharge records for those years. The mean annual suspended-sediment load for 41 years of estimated loads was 359 ,500 tons, which represents a yield of about 3.5 tons per acre from the Bay Creek drainage basin. (USGS)

  20. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  1. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    PubMed

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the observation of edible fillet contamination. PMID:26213992

  2. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    PubMed Central

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the observation of edible fillet contamination. PMID:26213992

  3. Study of hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, eastern Kentucky annual technical report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Frankie, W.T.

    1985-07-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kentucky is conducting a 2-year research project funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to study hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky. Objectives are to develop an understanding of relationships between stratigraphy and hydrocarbon production, create a data base, and prepare geologic reports for each county in the study area. Data were compiled from the KGS, GRI Eastern Gas Data System (EGDS), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), and industry. Research for Letcher County was completed and 270 Devonian wells were entered into the KGS computer data base. Devonian black-shale units were correlated using gamma-ray logs. Structure and isopach maps, and stratigraphic cross sections have been constructed. An isopotential map defining areas of equal initial gas production has been prepared. Statistics for Letcher County have been run on the data base using Datatrieve software package. Statistical analyses focused on different types of formation treatments and the resulting production. Temperature logs were used to detect gas-producing intervals within the Mississippian-Devonian black-shale sequence. The results of the research provide the petroleum industry with a valuable tool for gas exploration in the Devonian shales.

  4. SPIKE and D-PIKE: innovative experiences that engage students early and position them to succeed in food-supply veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Karriker, Locke A; Ramirez, Alejandro; Leuschen, Bruce; Halbur, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends in urbanization of the population, increased need for bio-security on large farms, and more food-animal or mixed-animal practitioners approaching retirement age are forcing a renewed focus on recruiting and training veterinary students with an interest in production-animal medicine. The increasing number of veterinary students coming from urban backgrounds has led to a need to expose these students to standard animal-production practices and to interest them in a career involving food animals. This article describes one such program developed at Iowa State University, in which 14 students obtained hands-on experience in all aspects of swine and dairy production across a wide sampling of herd size, housing style, bio-security levels, and production phases. The participating students, ranging from senior undergraduates to third-year veterinary students, gained valuable insight not only into daily farming practices but also the knowledge and skills necessary to provide quality veterinary care to these clients. The first year of this program has yielded positive feedback from all participants, including the veterinary practices, private producers, corporate sponsors, and students. Current applicants cite positive comments from past participants as motivating their interest in the program. This program has the potential to expand as an opportunity to educate selected students in the field of food-supply veterinary medicine and to help fill the anticipated void in this area. PMID:18723819

  5. Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

  6. 75 FR 81631 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Annie Walker-Abbey, PhD, Scientific Review Officer... Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Annie Walker-Abbey,...

  7. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  8. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  10. 3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  11. 12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW EAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  12. 4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  13. 6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  14. 1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTH, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  15. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, ROUTE 30 EAST FROM ROUTE 30 EAST ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  16. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  17. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County... County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy...

  18. Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-02-01

    Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56″, W85°31'28.15″; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100μm) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra. PMID:25240698

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, 1940. BRICKWORK DETAIL - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  20. PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ON FACEWALL OF ABUTMENTS. - Barrackville Covered Bridge, Spanning Buffalo Creek on Pike Street , Barrackville, Marion County, WV

  1. Electrogenic sulfur oxidation in a northern saltmarsh (St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada).

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of porewater O2, pH, and H2S microprofiles in intact sediment cores collected in a northern saltmarsh in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) revealed the occurrence of electrogenic sulfur oxidation (e-SOx) by filamentous "cable" bacteria in submerged marsh pond sediments in the high marsh. In summer, the geochemical fingerprint of e-SOx was apparent in intact cores, while in fall, cable bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characteristic geochemical signature of e-SOx was observed only upon prolonged incubation. In exposed, unvegetated creek bank sediments sampled in the low marsh in summer, cable bacteria developed only in repacked cores of sieved (500 μm), homogenized sediments. These results suggest that e-SOx is suppressed by the activity of macrofauna in exposed, unvegetated marsh sediments. A reduced abundance of benthic invertebrates may promote e-SOx development in marsh ponds, which are dominant features of subarctic saltmarshes as in the St. Lawrence Estuary. PMID:27104296

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

  3. THE JAPANESE TONE AND INTONATION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YOTSUKURA, SAYO

    THE SCOPE OF THIS DISCUSSION IS LIMITED TO THE BASIC PATTERNS OF TONE AND INTONATION IN JAPANESE, (THE FIRST HAVING PRIORITY OVER THE SECOND). THE AUTHOR DISAGREES WITH PIKE ("TONE LANGUAGE"), WHO TENTATIVELY LIMITS SIGNIFICANT PITCH CONTRASTS TO STRESSED SYLLABLES OR TO LONG VOWELS. HE AGREES WITH PIKE, HOWEVER, IN SAYING THAT JAPANESE IS ONE OF…

  4. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  5. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

  6. The Segments and Tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…

  7. The Reports of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated: Tagmemics and the Politics of Indifference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Bruce L.

    In 1965, Richard Young and Alton Becker announced the task of founding a "modern theory of rhetoric," building on the insights of tagmemic linguist, Kenneth Pike. Five years later, their collaboration with Pike resulted in a textbook, "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," whose broad purpose was to restore invention to its proper place at the heart of

  8. Tagmemics: The Study of Units Beyond the Sentence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Kenneth L.; And Others

    In one essay of this collection of four, Kenneth L. Pike explores the value of exercises which are based on axioms about language structure and which are designed specifically to develop writing competence; he lists eight tagmemic principles accompanied by suggested exercises. In another essay, Pike differentiates the roles of linguist and

  9. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the

  10. Big Can Be Great: Enhancing Undergraduate Education at Research-Extensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Although recent results from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) suggest there is considerable variation in levels of undergraduate student engagement within Carnegie institutional classifications, research also suggests different classifications of institutions exhibit different types (Pike and Kuh, 2005) and levels (Pike, Kuh and

  11. 5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  12. 8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  13. Racializing the Discourse of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that unproblematized Eurocentrism characterizes adult education; explores the works of Cornel West and Lucius Outlaw, who racialize adult education discourse. Considers implications of their perspectives on critical thinking and offers recommendations for challenging the myth of neutral nonimpositional adult education. (Contains 74…

  14. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...R6ES@fws.gov (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) prohibits..., subject to the requirements of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) and Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C... (Acipenser transmontanus), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus Lucius),...

  15. 78 FR 35298 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    .... Mike Tinker, 211 North Elm Street April 12, 2013 400209 1297). 3225P). Manager, City of Jenks, OK 74037..., 1025 Paoli Pike, West Chester, PA 19380. Texas: Bell (FEMA Docket No.: B-1305) City of Killeen (12-...

  16. 76 FR 31369 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... includes the name, address, social security number, and the amount to be reimbursed. Travel expenses that..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC worldwide...

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  18. 78 FR 19714 - User Fees and Refunds for Premarket Approval Applications and Device Biologics License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ..., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 or Office of Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for... and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville,...

  19. 75 FR 63189 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Investigational New Drug Applications-Determining Whether Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ..., Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation Research (CBER), Food and Drug... for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, MD...

  20. 77 FR 7588 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... of January 30, 2012 (77 FR 4567). FDA intends to convene at a future date a public scientific... Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-71), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  1. 78 FR 14589 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission Meetings (FY2013)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission Meetings (FY2013) AGENCY... announces a schedule of upcoming meetings for the Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission... Gettysburg National Military Park, Ford Education Center, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania...

  2. 75 FR 60341 - Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Material Licensees; Reopening of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... (75 FR 43865). The proposed rule would amend the regulations by revising the provisions applicable to..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System... irradiators to clarify the definitions of ``construction'' and ``commencement of construction''. The...

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco Bradley & Rulofson, Lithographers c. 1853 ARRIVAL OF THE MAIL - Second Post Office, Historic View, Clay & Pike Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 76 FR 16733 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Indian Head, 4072 N Jackson Road, Suite 101, Indian Head, MD. NSA-PHILADELPHIA, Building 27D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA. NSA--MECHANICSBURG, Building 112, 5450 Carlisle Pike, Mechanicsburg, PA....

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Weyers acrofacial dysostosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  7. 21 CFR 1271.22 - How and where do I register and submit an HCT/P list?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Procedures for Registration and...: Tissue Establishment Registration Coordinator; (2) By contacting any Food and Drug Administration... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention: Tissue Establishment...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.22 - How and where do I register and submit an HCT/P list?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Procedures for Registration and...: Tissue Establishment Registration Coordinator; (2) By contacting any Food and Drug Administration... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention: Tissue Establishment...

  9. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, 1934 FIREPLACE AND PANELING (LIVING ROOM SOUTHEAST) - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  10. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on ...

  11. Liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 2.0 times more gas than nitrogen gas treated wells and produce 21.9 MMcf additional gas per well. After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 4.4 times more gas than nitrogen foam treated wells and produce 33.1 MMcf additional gas per well. For the Pike County, Kentucky, study area, payout times for the incremental cost of stimulation is estimated conservatively at less than 9 months. Both groups of wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area show consistent relative Production improvements compared to the overall study area results.

  12. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  13. 76 FR 46350 - Agency Self-Evaluation Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; Public Forums on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY... Accessibility for Individuals With Disabilities AGENCY: Social Security Administration . ACTION: Notice of... location for the forums is Social Security Administration, One Skyline Tower, 5107 Leesburg Pike,...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... statements literally and an inability to read non-verbal cues such as body language to understand what ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Down syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8. Review. Kumin L. Speech intelligibility and childhood verbal apraxia in children with Down syndrome. Downs Syndr ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: amelogenesis imperfecta

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (1 link) National ... Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, ...

  17. 77 FR 18873 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... March 26, 2012. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status... send an email to darlene.wright@nrc.gov . Dated: March 23, 2012. Kenneth Hart, Technical...

  18. 78 FR 26664 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... May 6, 13, 20, 27, June 3, 10, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike... darlene.wright@nrc.gov . Dated: May 2, 2013. Kenneth R. Hart, Technical Coordinator, Office of...

  19. The Technological Setting of the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses future possibilities for information technology in public libraries, particularly in view of decreasing computer costs and developmental trends in data processing. The technological developments of the Pikes Peak Regional Library are outlined as an example of feasibility. (CWM)

  20. 7. INTERIOR SIDE OF SPLAYED WINDOW OF SOUTH FRONT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR SIDE OF SPLAYED WINDOW OF SOUTH FRONT OF WEST STONE WING. NOTE PANELED JAMBS AND HEAD. (see also KY-204-4 for exterior view). - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  1. 10. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING CLOSET WITH WINDOW AND SEAT - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  2. 12. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 SECOND FLOOR, WEST ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 SECOND FLOOR, WEST ROOM, SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING CLOSET AND GRILLWORK - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  3. 18. Photocopy of photograph (original print in Chester County Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph (original print in Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Circa 1905, photographer unknown SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  4. Evaluating Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Internet Health Information: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  5. Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  6. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  7. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Meckel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hamed Z, Johnson CA. Molecular genetics and pathogenic mechanisms for the severe ciliopathies: insights into neurodevelopment and pathogenesis ... National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Krabbe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here . Back to Top

  10. 77 FR 67689 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of November 5, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  11. 75 FR 68630 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Week of November 1, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  12. 75 FR 34489 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of June 14, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  13. 76 FR 62868 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of October 10, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  14. 77 FR 56241 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of September 10, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  15. 76 FR 16459 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 21, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  16. 77 FR 15142 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 12, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  17. 77 FR 38342 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of June 25, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  18. 76 FR 24540 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of April 25, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  19. 76 FR 11525 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORTY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of February 28, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  20. 77 FR 5063 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DATE: Week of January 30, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  1. 75 FR 60129 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Investigators on Safety Reporting Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ..., 2003 (68 FR 12406), FDA published a proposed rule to revise its regulations governing pre- and... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville, MD 20852-1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: tubular aggregate myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakness may also lead to an unusual walking style (gait). Some people with this condition develop joint ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: activated PI3K-delta syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells can build up to form solid masses (nodular lymphoid hyperplasia), usually in the moist lining ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hyperekplexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6. Epub 2006 Jun 4. Regragui W, Gerdelat-Mas A, Simonetta-Moreau M. Cortical tremor (FCMTE: familial ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... 90. Epub 2005 Mar 15. Review. Lienhardt A, Mas JC, Kalifa G, Chaussain JL, Tauber M. IMAGe ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... time and vary in size. Larger deposits form masses that are noticeable under the skin and can ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensory cells that detect light and color, with masses of immature retinal cells accumulating at the back ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  8. 76 FR 55136 - Implementation of the Alternative Dispute Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Because on-street parking is extremely limited, the most convenient transportation to the meeting is via Metro's Red Line to the White Flint Stop which is directly across the...

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

  10. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Protein (WASP): hotspots, effect on transcription, and translation and phenotype/genotype correlation. Blood. 2004 Dec 15; ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  11. Detail of wall in highlift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of wall in high-lift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" cladding and glazed brick. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. View of the main stairway in the highlift pumping station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main stairway in the high-lift pumping station, looking from the second floor landing to the ground floor. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... State of Mississippi (FEMA- 4081-DR), dated 09/11/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08..., Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Lamar, Lawrence, Lincoln, Marion, Newton, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Smith,...

  14. 78 FR 70307 - Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Federal Register of November 29, 2012 (77 FR 71194), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance... Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, MD 20852- 1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist...

  15. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System...

  16. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  17. How Is Genetic Testing Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the University of Utah provides an interactive animation of DNA extraction techniques . Topics in the Genetic ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA This ...

  18. People May Eat More of A Food That's Labeled 'Healthy'

    MedlinePlus

    ... habits of other groups of people -- middle-aged folks, the elderly or the obese. For now, people ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  19. Metal-controlled interdomain cooperativity in parvalbumins.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Sergei E; Bakunts, Anush G; Permyakova, Maria E; Denesyuk, Alexander I; Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-09-01

    Conformational behavior of five homologous proteins, parvalbumins (PAs) from northern pike (alpha and beta isoforms), Baltic cod, and rat (alpha and beta isoforms), was studied by scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and bis-ANS fluorescence. The mechanism of the temperature-induced denaturation of these proteins depends dramatically on both the peculiarities of their amino acid sequences and on their interaction with metal ions. For example, the pike alpha-PA melting can be described by two successive two-state transitions with mid-temperatures of 90 and 120 degrees C, suggesting the presence of two thermodynamic domains. The intermediate state populated at the end of the first transition was shown to bind Ca(2+) ions, and was characterized by the largely preserved secondary structure and increased solvent exposure of hydrophobic groups. Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-loaded forms of pike alpha-PA demonstrated a single two-state transition. Therefore, the mechanism of the PA thermal denaturation is controlled by metal binding. It ranged from the absence of detectable first-order transition (apo-form of pike PA), to the two-state transition (e.g., Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-loaded forms of pike alpha-PA), to the more complex mechanisms (Ca(2+)-loaded PAs) involving at least one partially folded intermediate. Analysis of isolated cavities in the protein structures revealed that the interface between the CD and EF subdomains of Ca(2+)-loaded pike alpha-PA is much more loosely packed compared with PAs manifesting single heat-sorption peak. The impairment of interactions between CD and EF subdomains may cause a loss of structural cooperativity and appearance of two separate thermodynamic domains. One more peculiar feature of pike alpha-PA is that depending on its interactions with metal ions, it can be an intrinsically disordered protein (apo-form), an ordered protein of mesophilic (Na(+)-bound state), thermophilic (Mg(2+)-form), or even of the hyperthermophilic origin (Ca(2+)-form). PMID:19651438

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Scared fish get lazy, and lazy fish get fat.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Frank; Andersson, Jens

    2009-07-01

    1. Many biological textbooks present predator-induced morphological changes in prey species as an example of an adaptive response, because the morphological change is associated with lower predation risk. Here we show that the adaptive morphological response observed in many systems may actually be an indirect effect of decreased activity - which reduces the predation risk - rather than a direct adaptive response. 2. One of the classical examples comes from crucian carp, where the presence of pike leads to a deeper body. We manipulated pike cues (presence and absence) and water current (standing and running water) and found that both standing water and pike cues similarly and independently induced a deeper body. 3. Since the presence of pike cues as well as standing water might be associated with low swimming activity, we suggest that the presence of pike causes a reduction in activity (antipredator behaviour). Reduced activity subsequently induces a deeper body, possibly because the energy saved is allocated to a higher growth rate. 4. Our result suggests that even if morphological change is adaptive, it might be induced indirectly via activity. This important conceptual difference may be similar in many other systems. PMID:19302323

  2. The impact of electrogenic sulfide oxidation on elemental cycling and solute fluxes in coastal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous sulfide oxidizing cable bacteria are capable of linking the oxidation of free sulfide in deep anoxic layers of marine sediments to the reduction of oxygen or nitrate in surface sediments by conducting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Previous studies have shown that this newly discovered microbial process, referred to as electrogenic sulfide oxidation (e-SOx), may alter elemental cycling in sediments, but the nature and rates of the resulting biogeochemical transformations and their influence on benthic-pelagic coupling remain largely unknown. Here we quantify changes in sediment geochemistry and solute fluxes at the sediment-water interface as e-SOx develops and declines over time in laboratory incubations of organic-rich sediments from a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin (Marine Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands). Our results show that e-SOx enhanced sediment O2 consumption and acidified subsurface sediment, resulting in the dissolution of calcium carbonate and iron sulfide minerals in deeper sediment horizons and the associated accumulation of dissolved iron, manganese, and calcium in porewater. Remobilized Fe diffusing upward was reoxidized at the sediment-water interface, producing an amorphous Fe oxide crust, while dissolved Fe diffusing downward was reprecipitated in the form of FeS as it encountered the free sulfide horizon. The development of e-SOx enhanced the diffusive release of dissolved Mn at the sediment-water interface, capped the phosphate efflux, generated a buildup of organic matter in surface sediments, and strongly stimulated the release of alkalinity from the sediment. About 75% of this alkalinity production was associated with net CaCO3 dissolution, while the remaining 25% was attributed to a pumping mechanism that transfers alkalinity from anodic H2S oxidation (an alkalinity sink) in deeper sediments to cathodic O2 reduction (an alkalinity source) near the sediment-water interface. The resulting sediment alkalinity efflux buffers the release of dissolved inorganic carbon at the sediment-water interface, and may therefore counteract the influence of benthic respiration on coastal ocean pH. Overall, our results demonstrate that e-SOx development strongly affects the biogeochemical cycles of C, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, and S in coastal sediments.

  3. Pond Creek coal seam in eastern Kentucky - new look at an old resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Pollock, J.D.; Klapheke, J.G.

    1986-05-01

    The Middle Pennsylvania/Westphalian B Pond Creek Coal is an important low-sulfur resource in Pike and Martin Counties, Kentucky. The Breathitt Formation seam, also known as the lower Elkhorn coal, accounted for nearly 40% of Pike County's 1983 production of 22 million tons. Although the coal is nearly mined out through central Pike County, substantial reserves still exist in the northern part of the county. Past studies of the seam by the US Bureau of Mines concentrated on the utility of the seam as a coking blend, with additional consideration of the megascopic and microscopic coal petrology. The authors research has focused on the regional variations in the Pond Creek seam, with emphasis on the petrographic variations.

  4. 76 FR 55718 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Related to the March 11, 2011, Earthquake and Tsunami Events in Fukushima, Japan (Tentative) b. Nuclear...: Week of September 5, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. ADDITIONAL ITEMS TO BE CONSIDERED: Week of September 5, 2011...

  5. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  6. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Power Reactors,” 1 in effect six months before the examination date to prepare the written... by power reactor facility licensees pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. 1 Copies of NUREGs may... Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b)...

  7. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Standards for Power Reactors,” 1 in effect six months before the examination date to prepare the written... by power reactor facility licensees pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. 1 Copies of NUREGs may... Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b)...

  8. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Standards for Power Reactors,” 1 in effect six months before the examination date to prepare the written... by power reactor facility licensees pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. 1 Copies of NUREGs may... Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (0-1F23), Rockville, MD. (b)...

  9. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... approximately milepost 390.00 at or near Goshen, in Pike County, Ala.\\1\\ \\1\\ CVR is acquiring the line from COEH...-of-way station 22+57 at the interchange point with CSX Transportation, Inc., in Georgiana, Ala., and milepost 581.3 at Andalusia, Ala.;\\2\\ and Docket No. FD 35489, Wiregrass Central Railway,...

  10. 76 FR 22745 - Three Notch Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Three Notch Railroad Co., Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... interchange ] point with CSX Transportation, Inc., in Georgiana, Ala., and milepost 581.3 at Andalusia, Ala... Pike County, Ala.; and Docket No. FD 35489, Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-- Acquisition and Operation... 821.2 near Newton, in Coffee and Dale Counties, Ala. The parties intend to consummate the...

  11. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. The Experimental State of Mind in Elicitation: Illustrations from Tonal Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kristine M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates how an "experimental state of mind", i.e. principles of experimental design, can inform hypothesis generation and testing in structured fieldwork elicitation. The application of these principles is demonstrated with case studies in toneme discovery. Pike's classic toneme discovery procedure is shown to be a special…

  13. 76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns in size.) Once this finding becomes effective, the Pikes... outlined in 40 CFR 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our... Rule Amendments (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon...

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF LOCK AND DAM, LOOKING EAST Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF LOCK AND DAM, LOOKING EAST Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1980, courtesy of the U.S. Engineer Office, St. Louis, Missouri. Original print on file at Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Missouri - Upper Mississippi River Nine-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 24, Clarksville, Pike County, MO

  15. 77 FR 14405 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register... the contact person by May 9, 2012. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Kimberly Franklin (see Contact Person) at least 7 days in advance. Interested persons may...

  16. A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Peter J.

    The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated

  17. 78 FR 60290 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Reopening of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Efficacy Data; Request for Comments,'' which appeared in the Federal Register of June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33421... Register of June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33421), FDA published a request for public comments from interested persons... Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N,...

  18. 76 FR 51993 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on In Vitro Companion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Register of July 14, 2011 (76 FR 41506). In the notice, FDA requested comments on a draft guidance document... 14, 2011 (76 FR 41506), FDA published a notice announcing the availability of the draft guidance... Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite...

  19. 78 FR 10181 - Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... versions of technical documentation in the Federal Register of August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46763). FDA has... Spring, MD 20993-0002 or Office of Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics..., 11400 Rockville Pike, HFM-165, rm. 4155, Rockville, MD 20857, 301-827-1332,...

  20. Using Citizen Science beyond Teaching Science Content: A Strategy for Making Science Relevant to Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lynda L.

    2011-01-01

    I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel…

  1. 76 FR 77552 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... sets forth the dates of April 19, 2012 and September 6, 2012 of the Gettysburg National Military Park... National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania...

  2. 76 FR 11812 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... National Park Service Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service... notice sets forth the dates of April 14, 2011 and August 18, 2011 of the Gettysburg National Military..., Gettysburg National Military Park, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Suite 100, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania...

  3. Science First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2005-01-01

    At the elementary level, when children learn best through hands-on activities, when is the best time to use literacy and make that connection to enhance learning? For teachers involved in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Science Teacher Enhancement Program Unifying the Pikes Peak Region, STEP-uP professional development program for teachers, it is…

  4. Phonology and Language: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arezzo, Emilia La Pergola

    1978-01-01

    This article first gives the definition of "phonology" most widely accepted today, and then illustrates briefly the role that phonology has had in the works of European and American linguists, such as De Saussure, Trubetckoj, Sapir, Bloomfield, H. Sweet, D. Jones, O. Jesperson, K. Pike, Trager and Smith, and N. Chomsky. (CFM)

  5. 76 FR 11289 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, March 10, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR... Risk Insights To Enhance the Safety Focus of Small Modular Reactor Reviews (Open)--The Committee...

  6. Measures of Native and Non-Native Rhythm in a Quantity Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace; Bond, Dzintra

    2005-01-01

    The traditional phonetic classification of language rhythm as stress-timed or syllable-timed is attributed to Pike. Recently, two different proposals have been offered for describing the rhythmic structure of languages from acoustic-phonetic measurements. Ramus has suggested a metric based on the proportion of vocalic intervals and the variability…

  7. 75 FR 3263 - Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Date: Weeks of January 18, 25, and February 1, 8, 15, 22, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status:...

  8. KILLARNEY LAKE, COEUR D'ALENE RIVER SYSTEM IDAHO - PILOT SAMPLING FOR HEAVY METALS IN FISH FLESH, 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study sampled largemouth bass, northern pike, black crappie, brown bullhead, and yellow perch from Killarney Lake, a lateral lake on the Coeur dAlene River in northern Idaho (17010301, 17010303) and analyzed edible flesh for concentrations of zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, co...

  9. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for...

  10. 76 FR 9668 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Bee Creek Pike County. Road (River Mile 38.9). Approximately 0.59 mile...

  11. 76 FR 30404 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2010 (74 FR 65038-65039). Wednesday, June 8, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039). In accordance with those procedures, oral or written views may be... system (ADAMS) which is accessible from the NRC Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html...

  12. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Attainment Ashley County Bradley County Calhoun County Nevada County Ouachita County Union County AQCR 020... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... 019 Monroe-El Dorado Interstate Unclassifiable/Attainment Ashley County Bradley County Calhoun...

  13. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume.../Attainment Ashley County Bradley County Calhoun County Nevada County Ouachita County Union County AQCR 020... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County...

  14. 75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50,...

  15. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... and Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room...

  16. Northampton Community College Adult Learner Competencies Implementation. Final Report, 1998-1999 [and] Adult Learner Competencies Implementation Manual for Workshops #1 and #2 and NCC Competencies-Based Lesson Plan "Mini-Bank".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Judy

    A project provided training and guidance to Northampton Community College (NCC) staff in implementing the "new" adult learner skill competencies. Two workshops were held to serve 29 staff in Monroe, Wayne, and Pike counties in Pennsylvania. Among the topics covered were defining and introducing portfolios to adult learners, individualizing…

  17. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS ON SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH. (TOXICITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM AND LEAD TO EGGS AND FRY OF SEVEN FISH SPECIES.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryo and larvae of rainbow trout, lake trout, channel catfish, bluegill, white sucker, northern pike, and walleye were exposed for 60 days after hatch to lead and chromium in soft water. Brook trout, channel catfish, and walleyes were also exposed for 60 days after hatch to cop...

  18. 78 FR 51727 - Announcement of the Second 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Meeting and Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... October 4, 2013, the meeting will be held in the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences... Drive, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Designated Federal..., Room 125; Beltsville, MD 20705- 2350; Telephone: (301) 504-0619. Additional information about the...

  19. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  20. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  1. 77 FR 31641 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Executive Office for Immigration Review Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection... information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Executive Office for Immigration Review... Immigration Review, U.S. Department of Justice, Suite 2600, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia...

  2. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  3. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a technical problem, comments... . Comments may also be mailed to: NIH Stem Cell Guidelines, MSC 7997, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human...

  4. 76 FR 37852 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... FR 65038-65039). Wednesday, July 13, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR... Due to Neutron Irradiation.'' 2 p.m.-7 p.m.: Preparation of ACRS Reports (Open/Closed)--The...

  5. 76 FR 52716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, September 8, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). In accordance with those procedures, oral or written.../CR-7027, ``Degradation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Core Internal Materials Due to...

  6. Outbuilding at end of lowlift pumping station parking lot. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outbuilding at end of low-lift pumping station parking lot. Note the concrete wall and light standard base, which are remnants of the former preliminary sedimentation basin. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. 78 FR 962 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of January 7, 14, 21, 28, February 4, 11, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public...

  8. 78 FR 69711 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting DATE: Week of November 18, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week of November 18, 2013 Monday, November 18, 2013 11:25 a.m. Affirmation Session...

  9. 76 FR 33804 - Ohio Disaster #OH-00027

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Ohio Disaster OH-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Ohio dated 06/02/2011...: Ohio: Gallia, Pike, Ross, Scioto, Vinton. Kentucky: Boyd, Greenup. West Virginia: Cabell, Wayne....

  10. Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional

  11. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 91.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Cincinnati Airport, Covington; and Standiford Field Airport, Louisville—airport only. (A) Newton Paddocks (horses only), Barn No. 8, Newton Pike, Lexington, KY 40511, (606) 253-3456. (7) Louisiana. (i) New...

  12. 78 FR 15055 - License Renewal Application for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Tennessee Valley Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... (SQN). Sequoyah Nuclear Plant is located in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. The current operating license for... continue until 8:00 p.m., as necessary. Both sessions will be held at the Soddy Daisy City Hall, 9835 Dayton Pike, Soddy Daisy, TN 37379. Both meetings will be transcribed and will include: (1) An...

  13. 75 FR 42758 - National Institutes of Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda,...

  14. Videotape Recording of Narcotic Addicts in Group Therapy: The Analysis of Communicational and Interactive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Irv

    An approach to the study of drug sub-culture groups and a model for predictive research in the identification and isolation of heroin addicts are developed in this thesis. The basic methodologies employed are the linguistic methods of Kenneth Pike and Claude Levi-Strauss for use in the analysis of social phenomena. Communicative mechanisms by…

  15. 75 FR 82413 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1 F21, Rockville, MD 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC.... Mail comments to NRC Clearance Officer, Tremaine Donnell (T-5 F53), U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Clearance Officer, Tremaine Donnell (T-5 F53), U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC...

  16. Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  17. 75 FR 39263 - Guidance for Humanitarian Device Exemption Holders, Institutional Review Boards, Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... their device. In the Federal Register of August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45460), FDA published a 60-day notice... September 30, 2009 (74 FR 50214), but republished a 30-day notice on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7270), to... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  18. 77 FR 9948 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    .... In the Federal Register of November 10, 2009 (74 FR 58024), FDA published a notice announcing the... copies of the guidance to the Division of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food... and Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville,...

  19. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to

  20. 78 FR 7428 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Cashout Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... settlement requires the settling party to pay a total of $52,000 to the EPA Hazardous Substances Superfund... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; In Re: The Miller Salvage Superfund Site, Latham, Pike County.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement under CERCLA concerning the...

  1. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  2. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  3. 75 FR 64711 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency; DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Information Systems Agency... Defense Information Systems Agency, 5600 Columbia Pike, Room 505, Falls Church, VA 22041-2705....

  4. 78 FR 46621 - Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cameron S. Goodwin, Office of New...: Cameron.Goodwin@nrc.gov . Further information This electronic distribution process was first utilized by.... Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 22nd day of July 2013. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  5. 78 FR 37648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... comments. SUMMARY: FHWA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and... comments within 30 days to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and... Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101. Office hours are from 8...

  6. 78 FR 11266 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New..., Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101. Office hours are from 8 a.m. to 5...

  7. 78 FR 37651 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... comments. SUMMARY: FHWA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and... within 30 days to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, 725... Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101. Office...

  8. 78 FR 17747 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... Highway Administration, Department of Transportation, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101. Office...

  9. 76 FR 35264 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval for a new information collection... the online instructions for submitting comments. Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility... Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101, tel....

  10. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 which was published in the Federal Register on August 16, 2013, 78 FR 50065... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis...

  11. 10 CFR 61.4 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a manner... accept, the use of electronic signatures, and the treatment of nonpublic information....

  12. 10 CFR 171.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a manner... accept, the use of electronic signatures, and the treatment of nonpublic information....

  13. Is Rogerian Rhetoric Really Rogerian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa

    The Rogerian argument, as described by Young, Baker, and Pike in "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," misrepresents Carl Rogers's own principles. Addressing the need for improved interpersonal communication both within and outside of therapy, Rogers describes three conditions for "listening with understanding": congruence, or nondirective listening;…

  14. 77 FR 10785 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... FR 64126-64127). Thursday, March 8, 2012, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). In accordance with those procedures, oral or written... discussions with representatives of the NRC staff and AREVA Nuclear Power regarding selected chapters of...

  15. 10 CFR 171.9 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... process and retrieve it a single page at a time. Detailed guidance on making electronic submissions can be... offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a...

  16. 76 FR 12992 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... City, 11000100 Sumner County Douglass--Clark House, Long Hollow Pike at Lower Station Camp Creek Rd... San Francisco Opera House, 4701-4705 Third St and 1601 Newcomb Ave, San Francisco, 11000117 COLORADO... Placer Gulch Boarding House, (Mining Industry in Colorado, MPS) Address Restricted, San Juan,...

  17. 76 FR 16846 - Illinois Disaster #IL-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster IL-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Illinois (FEMA- 1960-DR), dated 03/17/2011. Incident: Severe Winter Storm and Snowstorm..., Marshall, Mason, Mcdonough, Mchenry, Menard, Mercer, Morgan, Moultrie, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Putnam,...

  18. 78 FR 36010 - Illinois Disaster #IL-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Illinois Disaster IL-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Illinois (FEMA- 4116-DR), dated 06/06/2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Straight-line Winds and..., Knox, La Salle, Lake, Livingston, Marshall, Mason, Mchenry, Mercer, Ogle, Pike, Putnam, Rock...

  19. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Theater at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike... constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry; the Ministry...

  20. 75 FR 18848 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact... ICH was established in 1990 as a joint regulatory/industry project to improve, through harmonization... recent years, many important initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory authorities and...

  1. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  2. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  3. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  4. Things That Go Bump in the Night: Recent Developments in Horror Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila

    Whether teachers are horror fans or not, part of a teacher's service to student readers is to recommend recent and good horror novels. Unlike the almost idiosyncratic horror market of years past, today a series of recognizable horror writer such as Christopher Pike, D. E. Atkins, R. L. Stine and others are turning out numerous titles specifically

  5. METAL TOXICITY TO EMBRYOS AND LARVAE OF EIGHT SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH--II: COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tes...

  6. Teach Them All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike County Board of Education, Troy, AL.

    Six social studies units for teachers of elementary and secondary students are presented. The document, written by various authors, is one component of the Pike County, Alabama, ethnic studies inservice training project. Objectives of the units are to help students develop an awareness and understanding of differing cultures and customs. Topics…

  7. Is the Russian /y/ an Allophone of /i/?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaskacz, Bohdan

    Reasons for the structural or functional classification of the Russian /y/ as an allophone of /i/ are explained in this article. Theory countering this classification, proposed by L.V. Scherba and L.R. Zinder, is also presented. Additionally, comments by Kenneth Pike support the author's criticism of the structuralist approach to the problem. (RL)

  8. Rural Community Colleges: A Pennsylvania Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Kenneth B., Jr.

    This report describes the development, functions, and operations of the Delaware Valley Community College Service Center in Pike County, Pennsylvania, which is designed to provide diversified and comprehensive two-year postsecondary education to residents of a large, rural area without a postsecondary institution. The Center is sponsored by the

  9. The Tagmemic Discovery Procedure: An Evaluation of Its Uses in the Teaching of Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard E.; Koen, Frank M.

    In an effort to determine whether instruction in the tagmemic discovery procedure significantly improves the student's ability to inquire into ill-defined problems and to communicate the results clearly and persuasively, an experimental course based on the first half of Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike's "Rhetoric: Discovery and

  10. The Potential for Development of a Clearinghouse for Emergency Information in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Lynn L.; Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the role of the Pikes Peak Library District's services in the creation and dissemination of an online clearinghouse in all four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Seven agencies and organizations involved in the network of community information that has been created are briefly described.

  11. Linguistic Theory as an Aid to Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Hubert M., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    Some of Professor Kenneth Pike's tagmemic theory is explained, and an attempt to apply it in freshman English classes at the University of Michigan is described. Two writing subjects (a concrete object and an abstraction) are examined from the aspects of contrast; range of variation; and distribution with respect to class, context, and matrix. The

  12. The Use of Portable Microcomputers for Library Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.; Hawley, Brenda G.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Pikes Peak Library District's innovative use of portable microcomputers to accomplish an inexpensive collection inventory. The Radio Shack Model 100 battery-operated microcomputer was used as a data-capture device for updating status records of the library's regular automated circulation and cataloging programs. (Author/MBR)

  13. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C., Ed.

    This collection of nine papers addresses theory and research in higher education. The papers include: (1) "Student Learning at Metropolitan Universities" (George D. Kuh and others); (2) "Applications of Generalizability Theory in Higher Education Assessment Research" (Gary R. Pike); (3) Policy Models and Policy Instruments in Higher Education: The

  14. A Modern Theory of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews Kenneth Pike's tagmemic theory and its application to rhetorical concerns generally. Explains his epistemological assumptions. Presents a model for speech classroom use, which allows rhetors to channel their thought processes consciously and to vary their perspectives in search of a fuller understanding of any subject. (PD)

  15. The Use of Solid Aluminum Heat Transfer Devices in Organic Chemistry Laboratory Instruction and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwig, Siegfried N.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a practical and attractive alternative to the sand bath used in the microscale procedures developed by Mayo, Pike, and Butcher. Urges the organic chemistry teaching community to continue towards complete conversion to microscale techniques. Presents the use of aluminum devices in the microlaboratory. (MVL)

  16. 78 FR 45983 - Acceptability of Corrective Action Programs for Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... FR 11903). By letter dated April 22, 2013 (ADAMS Accession No. ML13133A219), the Nuclear Energy..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sabrina Atack, Office...-0001; telephone: 301-287-9075; email Sabrina.Atack@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In response...

  17. The Potential for Development of a Clearinghouse for Emergency Information in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Lynn L.; Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the role of the Pikes Peak Library District's services in the creation and dissemination of an online clearinghouse in all four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Seven agencies and organizations involved in the network of community information that has been created are briefly described.…

  18. 1. SOUTH FRONT OF ORIGINAL SECTION (ca. 1815). NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH FRONT OF ORIGINAL SECTION (ca. 1815). NOTE THE FOLLOWING: 1) TRACES OF OLD PORCH AROUND DOOR 2) TWO KINDS OF CORNICES 3) BASEMENT VENTS 4) HORIZONTAL BEADED WEATHERBOARDS (see also KY-204-2 and KY-204-3) 5) STONE CHIMNEY ON EAST SIDE 6) WEST STONE WING AT LEFT. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  19. Notes on Linguistics, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of this quarterly linguistics and language research serial issued during 1992. Typical significant articles include: "The Indispensable Tape Recorder" (Geoffrey Hunt); "Analysis of Tone Systems" (Eunice V. Pike); "Sentence Repetition Testing for Studies of Community Bilingualism: An Introduction" (Carla F.…

  20. 76 FR 59449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, October 6, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Force Report Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Site in Japan (Open)--The Committee will... recommendations on the Near-Term Task Force Report regarding the events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site in...

  1. Rogerian Rhetoric: Pedagogy and the Ethos of Seduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Byron

    In "Rhetoric, Discovery and Change" (1970), R. Young, A. Becker, and K. Pike took Carl Rogers' empathetic approach out of the context of one-on-one therapy and put it into the writing classroom. They proposed the now standard formulaic structure of argumentation which emphasizes a strong thesis up front, a detailed account of the opposing…

  2. Aztec Studies II. Sierra Nahuat Word Structure. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dow Frederick

    This grammar describes the word structure of a Nahuat dialect of Southern Mexico. The model used for this description is an eclectic one based on "the morphological principles of Nida, Pike's tagmeme, transforms as delineated by Lees, the syntagmeme of Longacre, and the transformational relationships as specified by Gleason." The study begins with…

  3. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on May 26, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  4. 76 FR 78672 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... indexed by the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  5. 77 FR 37684 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Library of Medicine, including... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  6. 75 FR 62549 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to...: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892... Library of Medicine, Department of Health and Human Services, Building 38A, Room 8N805, Bethesda, MD...

  7. 78 FR 13359 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, including... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  8. 78 FR 76846 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Library of Medicine, including...: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD...

  9. 77 FR 37684 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: Biomedical Library and Informatics Review Committee. Date: November 15-16, 2012. Time: November... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  10. 75 FR 80831 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  11. 78 FR 36555 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, including consideration of... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  12. 76 FR 54778 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... indexed by the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  13. Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  14. 21 CFR 99.201 - Manufacturer's submission to the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research, the Advertising and Promotional Labeling Staff (HFM-602), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville... for Drug Evaluation and Research, the Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications...

  15. 21 CFR 99.201 - Manufacturer's submission to the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research, the Advertising and Promotional Labeling Staff (HFM-602), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville... for Drug Evaluation and Research, the Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications...

  16. 21 CFR 99.201 - Manufacturer's submission to the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research, the Advertising and Promotional Labeling Staff (HFM-602), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville... for Drug Evaluation and Research, the Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications...

  17. 21 CFR 99.201 - Manufacturer's submission to the agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research, the Advertising and Promotional Labeling Staff (HFM-602), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N, Rockville... for Drug Evaluation and Research, the Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications...

  18. Migrant Children in Alabama. A Survey to Identify Children of Migrant Workers and Certain Former Migrant Workers in Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa. Coll. of Education.

    A 1-year study was completed in August of 1969 by the University of Alabama on procedures to identify the children of migrant workers and of former migrant workers in 6 school systems in Alabama (Blount, Cullman, Pike, and Washington County School Systems and Demopolis and Elba City School Systems). The report of this study (1) includes detailed

  19. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting on the ACRS Subcommittee on Power Uprates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting on the ACRS Subcommittee on Power Uprates Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Power Uprates will hold a meeting on June 7, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  20. 75 FR 76055 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Date: Weeks of December 6, 13, 20, 27, 2010, January 3, 10, 2011. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public...

  1. 75 FR 23822 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice DATES: Weeks of May 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, June 7, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public and closed. Week...

  2. 45 CFR 5.31 - Designation of authorized officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... records, except as follows: (i) CDC and ATSDR Freedom of Information Officer. If the records you seek are... Registry, only the Director, Office of Public Affairs, CDC, who also is the CDC and ATSDR Freedom of... Health, Building 31, Room 2B39, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, Tel: (301) 496-5633...

  3. 45 CFR 5.31 - Designation of authorized officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... records, except as follows: (i) CDC and ATSDR Freedom of Information Officer. If the records you seek are... Registry, only the Director, Office of Public Affairs, CDC, who also is the CDC and ATSDR Freedom of... Health, Building 31, Room 2B39, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, Tel: (301) 496-5633...

  4. 78 FR 45960 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Department of Natural Resources professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma; Sac & Fox of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska; and the Sac & Fox Tribe of the... University of Missouri-Columbia. The area of Pike County, MO, was ceded by the Sauk and Fox in a series...

  5. Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional…

  6. 76 FR 64399 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.] 10 a.m.-10:15 a.m.: Reconciliation of ACRS Comments and... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, November 3, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). In accordance with those procedures, oral...

  7. 76 FR 14037 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... applications. Place: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike..., National Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968,...

  8. 78 FR 76848 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings... Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Time: March 7, 2014... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968, 301-496-4253,...

  9. 75 FR 80512 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... applications. Place: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike..., National Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968,...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 fro...

  11. East elevation of lowlift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of low-lift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary sedimentation basin is in foreground. High-lift pumping station is in background. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. 77 FR 64372 - New York Disaster #NY-00126

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    .... Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/10/2012. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date..., Orange, Ulster. Pennsylvania: Pike, Wayne. The Interest Rates are: ] Percent For Physical Damage... Available Elsewhere 3.000 For Economic Injury: Businesses & Small Agricultural Cooperatives without Credit...

  13. Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair controlled by his brain waves. He can only communicate through a light integrated into his wheelchair to signal the answers "yes" or "no". Commodore Mendez, the commander of Starbase 11, describes the condition of Captain Pike as follows: "He is totally unable to move, Jim. His wheelchair is constructed to respond to his brain waves. He can turn it, move it forwards, backwards slightly. Through a flashing light he can say 'yes' or 'no'. But that's it, Jim. That is as much as the poor ever can do. His mind is as active as yours and mine, but it's trapped in a useless vegetating body. He's kept alive mechanically. A battery driven heart. "

  14. 75 FR 69686 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20910, which was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2010, FR Doc. 2010-26205 (75 FR 64318). Dated: November 8, 2010. Robert Hendricks, Director, Division of Policy and... Care Medicine and Dentistry AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  15. 75 FR 66804 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Siting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Siting; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Siting will hold a meeting on November 30, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland....

  16. 10 CFR 74.6 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. (c) Where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a manner that enables...

  17. 10 CFR 74.6 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. (c) Where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made in a manner that enables...

  18. 77 FR 11560 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...-stage. Inventors: Lisheng Cai and Victor W. Pike (NIMH). Publications 1. Cai L, et al. Synthesis and... al. Synthesis and evaluation of N-methyl and S-methyl 11C-labeled 6-methylthio-2-(4'-N,N... analogues. Isolated from an alga species, the mechanism of action of these compounds is through...

  19. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during...

  20. Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklin, L. Brice

    Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo Castro's…