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1

Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China  

SciTech Connect

Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

Jiang, Jianguo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China)], E-mail: jianguoj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China); Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping [Xiaping Solid Waste Landfill, Shenzhen 518019, PR China (China)

2007-07-01

2

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage.  

PubMed

The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters. PMID:22988609

Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I

2012-01-01

3

Long-term pilot scale investigation of novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactors  

E-print Network

. · FO water flux was maintained constant for more than four months with the UFO-MBR. G R A P H I C A L membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and a novel hybrid ultrafiltration OMBR (UFO-MBR) were investigated for extended bioreactor (UFO-MBR). Results from long-term OMBR and UFO-MBR investigations revealed that the overall

4

Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale  

PubMed Central

Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s ?-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/? 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

2013-01-01

5

Pilot-scale temperate-climate treatment of domestic wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR).  

PubMed

A pilot-scale staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) was operated continuously for 485 days, without chemical cleaning of membranes, treating primary-settled domestic wastewater with wastewater temperature between 8 and 30°C and total hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 4.6 and 6.8h. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removals averaged 81% and 85%, respectively, during the first winter at 8-15°C before full acclimation had occurred. However, subsequently when fully acclimated, summer and winter COD removals of 94% and 90% and BOD5 removals of 98% and 90%, respectively, were obtained with average effluent COD never higher than 23 mg/L nor BOD5 higher than 9 mg/L. Operational energy requirement of 0.23 kW h/m(3) could be met with primary and secondary methane production, and could be reduced further through hydraulic change. Biosolids production in all seasons averaged 0.051 g volatile suspended solids per g COD removed. PMID:24632631

Shin, Chungheon; McCarty, Perry L; Kim, Jeonghwan; Bae, Jaeho

2014-05-01

6

Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-11-26

7

Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate. PMID:24569290

Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Li, Mingyue; Xu, Jianguo

2014-01-01

8

Application of glyco-blotting for identification of structures of polysaccharides causing membrane fouling in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

A new approach for the analysis of polysaccharides in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is proposed in this study. Enrichment of polysaccharides by glyco-blotting, in which polysaccharides are specifically collected via interactions between the aldehydes in the polysaccharides and aminooxy groups on glycoblotting beads, enabled MALDI-TOF/MS analysis at a high resolution. Structures of polysaccharides extracted from fouled membranes used in a pilot-scale MBR treating municipal wastewater and those in the supernatant of the mixed liquor suspension in the MBR were investigated. It was found that the overlap between polysaccharides found in the supernatants and those extracted from the fouled membrane was rather limited, suggesting that polysaccharides that dominate in supernatants may not be important in membrane fouling in MBRs. Analysis using a bacterial carbohydrate database suggested that capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and/or lipo-polysaccharides (LPS) produced by gram-negative bacteria are key players in the evolution of membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:25544495

Kimura, Katsuki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Risho; Hoque, Asiful; Miyoshi, Taro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

2015-03-01

9

HPLC screening of natural vitamin E from mediterranean plant biofactories--a basic tool for pilot-scale bioreactors production of alpha-tocopherol.  

PubMed

The study was performed in order to investigate a simple, efficient, reliable and rapid method of extracting and quantifying natural vitamin E for pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Lyophilized Corylus avellana L. nut samples were powdered by high-speed milling with Waring blender for 40 s. alpha-Tocopherol was extracted from the nut tissue powder using dehydrated hexane fortified with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, co-antioxidant). The rate of alpha-tocopherol accumulation showed differences among nut samples collected in different areas of Italy. Sarda Piccola nut biofactory contained higher amount (81.17 microg/g d.w) of alpha-tocopherol than other-local eleven Italian cultivar nuts. These results provide insight into the biofactory basis for alpha-tocopherol accumulation in hazelnut and give the suitable cultivar tissues to establish pilot-scale bioreactors production of natural bioactive vitamin E. PMID:16323280

Sivakumar, G; Bacchetta, L; Gatti, R; Zappa, G

2005-11-01

10

Pilot-scale passive bioreactors for the treatment of acid mine drainage: efficiency of mushroom compost vs. mixed substrates for metal removal.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale field-testing of passive bioreactors was performed to evaluate the efficiency of a mixture of four substrates (cow manure compost, mushroom compost, sawdust, and rice straw) relative to mushroom compost alone, and of the effect of the Fe/Mn ratio, during the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) over a 174-day period. Three 141 L columns, filled with either mushroom compost or the four substrate mixture (in duplicate), were set-up and fed with AMD from a closed mine site, in South Korea, using a 4-day hydraulic retention time. In the former bioreactor, effluent deterioration was observed over 1-2 months, despite the good efficiency predicted by the physicochemical characterization of mushroom compost. Steady state effluent quality was then noted for around 100 days before worsening in AMD source water occurred in response to seasonal variations in precipitation. Such changes in AMD quality resulted in performance deterioration in all reactors followed by a slow recovery toward the end of testing. Both substrates (mushroom compost and mixtures) gave satisfactory performance in neutralizing pH (6.1-7.8). Moreover, the system was able to consistently reduce sulfate from day 49, after the initial leaching out from organic substrates. Metal removal efficiencies were on the order of Al (?100%) > Fe (68-92%) > Mn (49-61%). Overall, the mixed substrates showed comparable performance to mushroom compost, while yielding better effluent quality upon start-up. The results also indicated mushroom compost could release significant amounts of Mn and sulfate during bioreactor operation. PMID:22892144

Song, Hocheol; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Hwang, Taewoon

2012-11-30

11

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A TWO-STAGE METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR FOR BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

BioTrol, Inc., developed a two-stage, methanotrophic, bioreactor system for remediation of water contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated, volatile, aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first stage was a suspended-growth culture vessel with a bubbleless methane tran...

12

Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale  

E-print Network

geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP; biodegradation; bioaugmentation; fungi; wastewater treatment DOI

Boyer, Edmond

13

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a

R. K. Dereli; D. R. Urban; B. Heffernan; J. A. Jordan; J. Ewing; G. T. Rosenberger; T. I. Dunaev

2012-01-01

14

Pilot-scale experience with biological nutrient removal and biomass yield reduction in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor was developed at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada, to study its commercial viability for biological nutrient removal. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier media. The LSCFB removed approximately 90% organic, 80% nitrogen, and 70% phosphorus at loading rates of 4.12 kg COD/m3 x d, 0.26 kg N/m3 x d, and 0.052 kg P/m3 x d, and an empty bed contact time of 1.5 hours. Effluent characterized by < 1.0 mg NH4-N/L, < 5.0 mg NO3-N/ L, < 1.0 mg PO4-P/L, < 10 mg TN/L, < 10 mg SBOD/L, and 10 to 15 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L can easily meet the criteria for nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater. The system removed nutrients without using any chemicals, and the secondary clarifier removed suspended solids removal without chemicals. A significant reduction (approximately 75%) in biomass yield to 0.12 to 0.16 g VSS/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed, primarily because of long biological solids retention time (SRT) of 20 to 39 days and a combination of anoxic and aerobic COD consumption. PMID:20942332

Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse; Islam, Mohammad

2010-01-01

15

Scale-up of a cyclone bioreactor.  

PubMed

The operation of a cyclone bioreactor differs from conventional stirred tanks since the agitation is accomplished by means of a pumped recirculation loop. Oxygen transfer can occur across the swirling gas-liquid interface in the cyclone or from bubbles entrained in the recirculation loop. A cyclone bioreactor was scaled-up from a 1 dm3 bench top unit to a 75 dm3 Process Development Unit (PDU). A reduction in the aspect ratio was compensated for by extending the length of the recirculation loop and providing additional aeration. Performance of the two reactors for the production of microbial poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was compared under various operating conditions. The culture used for PHB production was Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545, grown on a mineral salts medium limited by the supply of nitrogen. The levels of dissolved oxygen obtained in the PDU were strongly dependent on the location at which the air was introduced into the reactor. However, with aeration balanced between two injection points and a similar level of power input, 17 J s-1 dm-3, the PDU was able to provide at least as much oxygen transfer capability as the laboratory-scale reactor. Under all conditions tested, the PHB accumulation by A. eutrophus was in excess of 80% of the biomass dry weight, although the yield on glucose was lower in the PDU than in the laboratory-scale reactor. PMID:7764498

Sheppard, J D; Marchessault, P; Whalen, T; Barrington, S F

1994-01-01

16

Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.  

PubMed

Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

2014-09-23

17

A pilot investigation into membrane bioreactor using mesh filter for treating low-strength municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) using nylon mesh as filter was investigated for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater (average influent COD=145.7±59.9 mg/L). During the operation, biomass was effectively retained by the nylon mesh with biofilm attached, and a low effluent turbidity of below 2 NTU was obtained. The average COD and NH(4)(+)-N removal efficiencies reached 86.3% and 98.1%, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time of 5 h. A sludge concentration of 4.15±0.15 g/L was maintained in the system without excess sludge discharge, attributed to the prolonged solid retention time and low organic loading rate. The low sludge concentration was also beneficial for mitigating the filter fouling. Thus, this mesh filter MBR provides a low-cost, efficient and simple approach to treat municipal wastewater, and shows a high potential for application in rural and sparsely populated areas. PMID:22595097

Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2012-10-01

18

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

19

Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in a production-scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-compartment model for the liquid flow and the oxygen transfer into the liquid phase of a large-scale bioreactor is presented. The aim of the model is to predict the following reactor operating variables: 1) the overall oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor; 2) the local liquid dissolved oxygen concentrations, for estimation of bad aerated zones which can introduce negative

N. M. G. Oosterhuis; N. W. F. Kossen

1984-01-01

20

Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB).  

PubMed

Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were used to optimize carbon and nutrient removal capability from leachate using 600 microm lava rock with a total porosity of 61%, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.55, 0.49, and 0.41 d. The LSCFB achieved COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 85%, 80%, and 70%, respectively at a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 and nutrients loading rates of 2.15 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.70 kg N/(m(3) d), and 0.014 kg P/(m(3) d), as compared with 60-77% COD and 70-79% nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), respectively. The LSCFB effluent characterized by

Eldyasti, Ahmed; Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

2010-09-15

21

The pilot study for oil refinery wastewater treatment using a gas–liquid–solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic bio-treatment of the refinery wastewater was carried out in a 170m3 pilot-scale gas–liquid–solid three-phase flow airlift loop bioreactor (ALR) with a low ratio of height to diameter (s), in which biological membrane replaced the activated sludge. The influences of pH value, air flow rate (AFR) and hydraulic residence time (HRT) on COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH4–N) reductions were investigated

Liu Xianling; Wen Jianping; Yuan Qing; Zhao Xueming

2005-01-01

22

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step. PMID:15890383

Smith, Richard L; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Repert, Deborah A; Miller, Daniel N

2005-05-01

23

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

Smith, R.L.; Buckwalter, S.P.; Repert, D.A.; Miller, D.N.

2005-01-01

24

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

25

Performance deterioration and structural changes of a ceramic membrane bioreactor due to inorganic abrasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a pilot-scale ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used for the treatment of simulated municipal wastewater. With the introduction of excess phosphorus to the bioreactor, a gradual deterioration of the membrane filtration performance and eventual failure of the pilot system was observed. A detailed investigation performed on the mixed liquor showed that phosphorus related calcium and

N Cicek; D Dionysiou; M. T Suidan; P Ginestet; J. M Audic

1999-01-01

26

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

27

Application of bioreactors for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of bioreactor culture techniques for plant micropropagation is regarded as one of the ways to reduce production\\u000a cost by scaling-up and automation. Recent experiments are restricted to a small number of species that, however, demonstrate\\u000a the feasibility of this technology. Periodic immersion liquid culture using ebb and flood system and column-type bubble bioreactors\\u000a equipped with a raft support

Kee-Yoeup Paek; Eun-Joo Hahn; Sung-Ho Son

2001-01-01

28

On-site engineering report of the slurry-phase biological reactor for pilot-scale testing on contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale test of the slurry-phase bioremediation technology was performed by ECOVA Corporation (ECOVA) at the U.S. EPA Test and Evaluation (T E) facility from May 8 through July 10, 1991 (12 weeks). The slurry-phase bioreactors were tested on a creosote-contaminated soil from the Burlington Northern Superfund Site in Brainerd, Minnesota. The results of the bench-scale study (performed by ECOVA

M. Dosani; J. Hessling; M. L. Smith; A. Jones; W. R. Mahaffey

1993-01-01

29

Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5?×?10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass. PMID:24061414

Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

2013-11-01

30

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

31

Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition. PMID:25261128

Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

2015-02-01

32

Cattle Mammary Bioreactor Generated by a Novel Procedure of Transgenic Cloning for Large-Scale Production of Functional Human Lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals by current bioreactor techniques is limited by low transgenic efficiency and low expression of foreign proteins. In general, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harboring most regulatory elements is capable of overcoming the limitations, but transferring BAC into donor cells is difficult. We describe here the use of cattle mammary bioreactor to produce functional recombinant human lactoferrin

Penghua Yang; Jianwu Wang; Guochun Gong; Xiuzhu Sun; Ran Zhang; Zhuo Du; Ying Liu; Rong Li; Fangrong Ding; Bo Tang; Yunping Dai; Ning Li; Hany A. El-Shemy

2008-01-01

33

Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production. PMID:24861313

Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

2014-11-01

34

Large-Scale Plantlet Conversion and Ex Vitro Transplantation Efficiency of Siberian Ginseng by Bioreactor Culture  

PubMed Central

To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs) induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval) and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7%) and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST) expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions. PMID:24302875

Yang, Jingli; Zhao, Shicheng; Yu, Changyeon; Li, Chenghao

2013-01-01

35

Full-scale bioreactor pretreatment of highly toxic wastewater from styrene and propylene oxide production.  

PubMed

The wastewater originating from simultaneous production of styrene and propylene oxide (SPO) is classified as highly polluted with chemical oxygen demand level in the range 5965 to 9137mgL(-1)-as well as highly toxic. The dilution factor providing for a 10 percent toxic effect of wastewater samples in a test with Paramecium caudatum was 8.0-9.5. Biological approach for pretreatment and detoxification of the wastewater under full-scale bioreactor conditions was investigated. The number of suspended microorganisms and the clean up efficiency were increased up to 5.5-6.58×10(8)CFUmL(-1) and 88 percent, respectively during the bioreactor's operation. Isolates in the Citrobacter, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, and Paracoccus genera were dominant in the mature suspended, as well as the immobilized microbial community of the bioreactor. The most dominant representatives were tested for their ability to biodegrade the major components of the SPO wastewater and evidence of their role in the treatment process was demonstrated. The investigated pretreatment process allowed the wastewater to be detoxified for conventional treatment with activated sludge and was closely related to the maturation of the bioreactor's microbial community. PMID:25086231

Dao, Linh; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Laikov, Alexander; Devjatijarov, Ruslan; Ilinskaya, Olga

2014-10-01

36

Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.  

PubMed

We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards. PMID:22326740

Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

2012-01-01

37

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a

Richard L. Smith; Seanne P. Buckwalter; Deborah A. Repert; Daniel N. Miller

2005-01-01

38

Characterization of membrane foulants in a full-scale membrane bioreactor for supermarket wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane foulants including external foulants and internal foulants were systematically characterized in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) for supermarket wastewater treatment in this study. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography (GFC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer were used to characterize the membrane foulants. The results indicated that

Xuefeng Zhu; Zhiwei Wang; Zhichao Wu

2011-01-01

39

Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

1994-01-01

40

Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semi-solid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large\\u000a amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation\\u000a of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors\\u000a was studied. Microbial changes

J. A. Morillo; M. Aguilera; B. Antízar-Ladislao; S. Fuentes; A. Ramos-Cormenzana; N. J. Russell; M. Monteoliva-Sánchez

2008-01-01

41

Effect of aeration on stabilization of organic solid waste and microbial population dynamics in lab-scale landfill bioreactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated microbial population dynamics and performance in lab-scale conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic landfill bioreactors specialized for high-organic wastes. Each reactor (2.35 l) was loaded with 1.5 kg of organic solid waste made of sludge cake, dry dog food, and wood chips. The conventional reactor was operated without leachate recirculation and aeration, but the other reactors used leachate recirculation at 200 ml/d and without aeration (anaerobic bioreactor) or with aeration at 2 l/min (aerobic bioreactor). The respective final waste volumes on day 138 of the conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic reactors were approximately 75%, 65%, and 60% of the initial volumes. Leachate recirculation in the anaerobic bioreactor accelerated biochemical reactions and promoted methane production. However, leachate from the anaerobic bioreactor showed TOC and NH(4)(+)-N concentrations that were as high as those of the conventional reactor. Aeration lowered leachate production and methane concentration and decreased organic matter in solid waste and leachate. Furthermore, the MPN value of amoA gene reached 10(5) MPN-copies/g-dry in the aerobic bioreactor, where nitrogen was removed from organic solid waste and leachate. During the first 72 d, the aerobic bioreactor's MPN value of fungal 18S rDNA was the highest among reactors, but it decreased gradually. All reactors showed similar MPN values of eubacterial 16S rDNA, nirS, and nirK. PMID:19111637

Sang, Nguyen Nhu; Soda, Satoshi; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

2008-11-01

42

Large-scale bioreactor production of the herbicide-degrading Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1.  

PubMed

The Aminobacter sp. strain MSH1 has potential for pesticide bioremediation because it degrades the herbicide metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM). Production of the BAM-degrading bacterium using aerobic bioreactor fermentation was investigated. A mineral salt medium limited for carbon and with an element composition similar to the strain was generated. The optimal pH and temperature for strain growth were determined using shaker flasks and verified in bioreactors. Glucose, fructose, and glycerol were suitable carbon sources for MSH1 (??=?0.1 h(-1)); slower growth was observed on succinate and acetic acid (??=?0.01 h(-1)). Standard conditions for growth of the MSH1 strain were defined at pH 7 and 25 °C, with glucose as the carbon source. In bioreactors (1 and 5 L), the specific growth rate of MSH1 increased from ??=?0.1 h(-1) on traditional mineral salt medium to ??=?0.18 h(-1) on the optimized mineral salt medium. The biomass yield under standard conditions was 0.47 g dry weight biomass/g glucose consumed. An investigation of the catabolic capacity of MSH1 cells harvested in exponential and stationary growth phases showed a degradation activity per cell of about 3?×?10(-9) ?g BAM h(-1). Thus, fast, efficient, large-scale production of herbicide-degrading Aminobacter was possible, bringing the use of this bacterium in bioaugmentation field remediation closer to reality. PMID:24562459

Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Knudsen, Berith E; Frkova, Zuzana; Aamand, Jens; Johansen, Tina; Thykaer, Jette; Sørensen, Sebastian R

2014-03-01

43

A specific pilot-scale membrane hybrid treatment system for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A specifically designed pilot-scale hybrid wastewater treatment system integrating an innovative equalizing reactor (EQ), rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR) and submerged flat sheet membrane bioreactor (SMBR) was evaluated for its effectiveness in practical, long-term, real-world applications. The pilot system was operated at a constant flux, but with different internal recycle flow rates (Q) over a long-term operating of 475 days. At 4 Q internal recycle flow rate, BOD5, CODCr, NH4(+)-N, T-N, T-P and TSS was highly removed with efficiencies up to 99.88 ± 0.05%, 95.01 ± 1.62%, 100%, 90.42 ± 2.43%, 73.44 ± 6.03%, and 99.93 ± 0.28%, respectively. Furthermore, the effluent quality was also superior in terms of turbidity (<1 NTU), color (<15 TCU) and taste (inoffensive). The results indicated that with providing only chemically cleaned-in-place (CIP) during the entire period of operation, the membrane could continuously maintain a constant permeate flux of 22.77 ± 2.19 L/m(2)h. In addition, the power consumption was also found to be reasonably low (0.92-1.62 k Wh/m(3)). PMID:25033324

Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Kim, Sa Dong; Yoon, Yong Soo

2014-10-01

44

COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

45

Feeding strategies enhance high cell density cultivation and protein expression in milliliter scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Miniature bioreactors under parallel fed-batch operations are not only useful screening tools for bioprocess development but also provide a suitable basis for eventual scale-up. In this study, three feeding strategies were investigated: besides the established intermittent feeding by a liquid handler, an optimized microfluidic device and a new enzymatic release system were applied for parallel fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli HMS174(DE3) and BL21(DE3) strains in stirred-tank bioreactors on a 10 mL scale. Lower fluctuation in dissolved oxygen (DO) and higher optical densities were measured in fed-batch processes applying the microfluidic device or the enzymatic glucose/fructose release system (conversion of intermittently added sucrose by an invertase), but no difference in dry cell weights (DCW) were observed. With all three feeding strategies high cell densities were realized on a milliliter scale with final optical density measured at 600 nm (OD600 ) of 114-133 and final DCW concentrations of 69-70 g L(-1) . The effect of feeding strategies on the expression of two heterologous proteins was investigated. Whereas no impact was observed on the expression of the spider silk protein eADF4(C16), the fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was reproducibly lower, if an intermittent glucose feed was applied. Thus, the impact of feeding strategy on expression is strongly dependent on the E. coli strain and/or expressed protein. As a completely continuous feed supply is difficult to realize in miniature bioreactors, the enzymatic release approach from this study can be easily applied in all microfluidic system to reduce fluctuations of glucose supply and DO concentrations. PMID:25104316

Faust, Georg; Janzen, Nils H; Bendig, Christoph; Römer, Lin; Kaufmann, Klaus; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

2014-10-01

46

A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams  

SciTech Connect

An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

1995-10-01

47

Performance of bench-scale membrane bioreactor under real work conditions using pure oxygen: viscosity and oxygen transfer analysis.  

PubMed

Pure oxygen to supply the aerobic condition was used in the performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Spain) and the experimental work was divided into two stages (Unsteady state and steady state conditions). Operation parameters (MLSS, MLVSS and dissolved oxygen concentration) and physical characteristics (temperature, conductivity, pH, COD and BOD(5)) were daily monitored. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material under a hydraulic retention time of 18.46 h and sludge retention time of 18.6 days. Therefore, Viscosity of the sludge and alphakLa-factor of the aeration, were determinate in the steady stage condition to understand the behavior of the system when pure oxygen has been used to supply the aerobic conditions of the MBR system showed an alpha-factor of 0.238 when the viscosity of the system was 4.04 Cp. PMID:20148266

Rodríguez, F A; Martínez-Toledo, M V; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

2010-09-01

48

On the fluid dynamics of a laboratory scale single-use stirred bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The commercial success of mammalian cell-derived recombinant proteins has fostered an increase in demand for novel single-use bioreactor (SUB) systems that facilitate greater productivity, increased flexibility and reduced costs (Zhang et al., 2010). These systems exhibit fluid flow regimes unlike those encountered in traditional glass/stainless steel bioreactors because of the way in which they are designed. With such disparate hydrodynamic environments between SUBs currently on the market, traditional scale-up approaches applied to stirred tanks should be revised. One such SUB is the Mobius® 3 L CellReady, which consists of an upward-pumping marine scoping impeller. This work represents the first experimental study of the flow within the CellReady using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) approach, combined with a biological study into the impact of these fluid dynamic characteristics on cell culture performance. The PIV study was conducted within the actual vessel, rather than using a purpose-built mimic. PIV measurements conveyed a degree of fluid compartmentalisation resulting from the up-pumping impeller. Both impeller tip speed and fluid working volume had an impact upon the fluid velocities and spatial distribution of turbulence within the vessel. Cell cultures were conducted using the GS-CHO cell-line (Lonza) producing an IgG4 antibody. Disparity in cellular growth and viability throughout the range of operating conditions used (80–350 rpm and 1–2.4 L working volume) was not substantial, although a significant reduction in recombinant protein productivity was found at 350 rpm and 1 L working volume (corresponding to the highest Reynolds number tested in this work). The study shows promise in the use of PIV to improve understanding of the hydrodynamic environment within individual SUBs and allows identification of the critical hydrodynamic parameters under the different flow regimes for compatibility and scalability across the range of bioreactor platforms. PMID:24864128

Odeleye, A.O.O.; Marsh, D.T.J.; Osborne, M.D.; Lye, G.J.; Micheletti, M.

2014-01-01

49

Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.  

PubMed

Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities. PMID:23315361

Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

2013-02-01

50

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

51

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30

52

SANASA Capivari II - the first full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor in Latin America.  

PubMed

The macro region of Campinas (Brazil) is rapidly evolving with new housing developments and industries, creating the challenge of finding new ways to treat wastewater to a quality that can be reused in order to overcome water scarcity problems. To address this challenge, SANASA (a publicly owned water and wastewater concessionaire from Campinas) has recently constructed the 'EPAR (Water Reuse Production Plant) Capivari II' using the GE ZeeWeed 500D(®) ultrafiltration membrane system. This is the first large-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system in Latin America with biological tertiary treatment capability (nitrogen and phosphorus removal), being able to treat an average flow of 182 L/s in its first phase of construction. The filtration system is composed of three membrane trains with more than 36,000 m(2) of total membrane filtration area. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was commissioned in April 2012 and the permeate quality has exceeded expectations. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates are around and above 97% on a consistent basis, with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH3 (ammonia) concentrations at very low levels, and turbidity lower than 0.3 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). Treated effluent is sent to a water reuse accumulation tank (from where will be distributed as reuse water), and the excess is discharged into the Capivari River. PMID:25051474

Pagotto, R; Rossetto, R; Gasperi, R L P; Andrade, J P; Trovati, J; Vallero, M V G; Okumura, A; Arntsen, B

2014-01-01

53

Adaptive predictive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a laboratory-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for the adaptive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a bioreactor, based on the agitation rate. The dynamics are represented by an incremental first-order model with variable dead-time and parameters. These are estimated on-line by a recursive least-squares identification method with a forgetting factor and a constant sensitivity. The model is employed to predict the behaviour of the dissolved oxygen concentration over a finite horizon, using an original method which requires little computation. Then, a Generalized Predictive Control optimisation strategy computes the agitation rate from the predictions and the desired set point, while gradually updating the controller smoothness. This algorithm, which requires little preliminary knowledge, has been implemented on a laboratory-scale fed-batch bioreactor for which the use of conventional controllers showed limited performance, due to the unpredictable and evolutive nature of the dynamics. The new controller proved to be robust and effective over a wide range of operating conditions, while requiring no operator adjustments. PMID:8573319

Diaz, C; Dieu, P; Feuillerat, C; Lelong, P; Salomé, M

1995-11-21

54

Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

55

Ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor for urban wastewater reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 162-day pilot-scale operation for reclamation of urban wastewater was studied by using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Performance of the UMBR was investigated with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 5, 15, and 30 days, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5h, and membrane flux between 75 and 150lm?2h?1, respectively. It was observed that the highest sludge concentration in

C.-H Xing; E Tardieu; Y Qian; X.-H Wen

2000-01-01

56

Anaerobic digestibility of the waste activated sludge discharged from large-scale membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestibility of the waste activated sludge (WAS) discharged from large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and conventional activated sludge processes (CASs) were compared using batch trials. Four wastewater treatment plants were sampled. Results showed that the sludge from MBRs had poor anaerobic digestibility as it had lower volatile solid (VS) reduction rate and lower maximum biogas production rate. The partial sludge stabilization during the long sludge retention time (SRT) typically applied in MBRs was the possible reason. On the other hand, the difference in wastewater composition had a great impact on the properties of activated sludge and the downstream sludge digestion. Inorganic matter accumulation in the WAS may hinder the access of microorganisms to substrate. The humic-like substances accumulating in the activated sludge was expected to contribute to the worse digestibility and these substances were observed to be released during anaerobic digestion through three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra. PMID:23131311

Yu, Zhiyong; Wen, Xianghua; Xu, Meilan; Qi, Meng; Huang, Xia

2012-12-01

57

ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

58

Application of bioreactor systems for large scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of micropropagation via organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in a bioreactor has been advanced as a possible way of reducing costs. Micropropagation by conventional techniques is typically a labour-intensive means of clonal propagation. The paper describes lower cost and less labour-intensive clonal propagation through the use of modified air-lift, bubble column, bioreactors (a balloon-type bubble bioreactor), together with temporary immersion

K. Y. Paek; D. Chakrabarty; E. J. Hahn

2005-01-01

59

Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and

James G. Mueller; Suzanne E. Lantz; Derek Ross; Richard J. Colvin; Douglas P. Middaugh; Parmely H. Pritchard

1993-01-01

60

Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged membrane bioreactor with gravitational filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined practical performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with gravitational filtration, using a pilot-scale plant (volume of the bioreactor: 3.12m3) and raw domestic wastewater. Treated water was filtered through flat microfiltration membrane modules (polyethylene; pore size 0.4?m) by the pressure head of bulk solution. A combined aerobic\\/anaerobic (single-sludge) system was used to enhance nitrogen removal. Operation was continued

Tatsuki Ueda; Kenji Hata

1999-01-01

61

Characterization and application of a miniature 10 mL stirred-tank bioreactor, showing scale-down equivalence with a conventional 7 L reactor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the engineering environment of an instrumented 10 mL miniature stirred-tank bioreactor and evaluate its potential as a scale-down device for microbial fermentation processes. Miniature bioreactors such as the one detailed in this work have been developed by several research groups and companies and seek to address the current bottleneck at the screening stage of bioprocess development. The miniature bioreactor was characterized in terms of overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient and mixing time over a wide range of impeller speeds. Power input to the miniature bioreactor was directly measured, and from this the power number of each impeller was calculated and specific power input estimated, allowing the performance of the miniature bioreactor to be directly compared with that of a conventional 7 L bioreactor. The capability of the miniature bioreactor to carry out microbial fermentations was also investigated. Replicate batch fermentations of Escherichia coli DH5alpha producing plasmid DNA were performed at equal specific power input, under fully aerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions. The results showed a high degree of equivalence between the two scales with regard to growth and product kinetics. This was underlined by the equal maximum specific growth rate and equal specific DNA product yield on biomass obtained at the two scales of operation, demonstrating the feasibility of scaling down to 10 mL on the basis of equivalent specific power input. PMID:16739949

Betts, Jonathan I; Doig, Steven D; Baganz, Frank

2006-01-01

62

Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms. PMID:18347793

Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

2008-05-01

63

Biogeochemistry of a Field-Scale Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor Treating Mining Influenced Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidity, metal release, and toxicity may be environmental health concerns in areas influenced by mining. Mining influenced waters (MIW) can be remediated through the establishment of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors (SRBRs) as part of engineered passive treatment systems. The objective of our research is an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry in SRBRs by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques. Bioreactor reactive substrate, settling pond water, and effluent (from the SRBR) were collected from a field scale SRBR in Arizona, which has been in operation for approximately 3 years. Schematically, the water passes through the SRBR; combines with flow that bypasses the SRBR into the and goes into the mixing pond, and finally is released as effluent to aerobic polishing cells. High throughput sequencing of extracted DNA revealed that Proteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (61%), settling pond (93%), and effluent (50%), with the next most abundant phylum in all samples (excluding uncultured organisms) being Bacteriodes (1-17%). However, at the superclass level, the three samples were more variable. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (35%), Betaproteobacteria in the settling pond (63%) and finally the effluent was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Helicobacteraceae) (43%). Diversity was most pronounced in association with the reactor matrix, and least diverse in the settling pond. Putative functional analysis revealed a modest presence of sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) (>5%) in both the matrix and settling pond but a much higher abundance (43%) of sulfur reducing bacteria in the effluent. Interestingly this effluent population was composed entirely of the family Helicobacteraceae (sulfur reduction II via polysulfide pathway). Other putative functions of interest include metal reduction in the matrix (3%) and effluent (3%), as well as polysaccharide degradation, which was largely abundant in all samples (21-38%). Acid digests and micro-focused X-ray fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy revealed precipitation heterogeneities exist between surface samples taken near the front of the influent pipe (west) and downstream (east). Zinc was disproportionately immobilized at the front of the reactor (~10-fold higher), while a higher portion (~3-fold) of iron precipitates was observed downstream. Microfocused XAS further revealed matrix heterogeneities consisting of clusters of stellar shaped sulfur / iron precipitates. An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry of SRBRs has applications in passive remediation of contaminated MIW and an interdisciplinary understanding of metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Webb, S.; Sharp, J. O.

2012-12-01

64

Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.  

PubMed

Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387?g/L and M12 yields of ?20?mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 308-321. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25117428

Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

2015-02-01

65

Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors  

SciTech Connect

Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

2011-02-01

66

PILOT SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOTOLYTIC OZONATION FOR TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation has been studied at the pilot-scale for removing trihalomethane (THM) precursors from potable water. The effects of variations in ozone dose rate, UV intensity and other parameters were first studied using a synthetic feedwater...

67

Occurrence and composition of extracellular lipids and polysaccharides in a full-scale membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the polysaccharides and lipid fractions of membrane foulants in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater. Both of these polymeric compounds are major components of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and are impacting membrane fouling; however most of the data so far have been collected by determining sum parameters rather than the detailed composition of these polymers. Photometric analysis of sugars showed that uronic acids (glucuronic, mannuronic and galacturonic acid) as common units of bacterial polysaccharides accounted for 8% (w/w) of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge flocs. Further the so-called polysaccharide peak of EPS, with a molecular weight >10 kDa according to size exclusion chromatography, was proven to contain bacterial sugar units as shown by high resolution LC-MS. Interestingly, only traces of uronic acids could be detected in EPS of the membrane fouling layer. A far more dramatic enrichment in the fouling layer was revealed for the lipid fraction of EPS, which was determined as fatty acid methyl esters by GC-MS. The weight percentage of fatty acids in EPS extracted from fouled ultrafiltration membranes was much higher (10%) than in the activated sludge itself (1-3%). The fatty acids accumulated on the membrane fouling layer were obviously not only of microbial origin (C16:0, C18:0) but also derived from the raw wastewater itself (C9:0). Hydrophobic interaction of lipids with the PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membrane material therefore seems a plausible explanation for the observed fouling phenomenon. The results suggest that fatty acids from bacterial lipopolysaccharides as well as from synthetic sources are of much higher relevance to membrane fouling than previously assumed. PMID:18996555

Al-Halbouni, Djamila; Dott, Wolfgang; Hollender, Juliane

2009-01-01

68

Model-based energy optimisation of a small-scale decentralised membrane bioreactor for urban reuse.  

PubMed

The energy consumption of a small-scale membrane bioreactor, treating high strength domestic wastewater for community level wastewater recycling, has been optimised using a dynamic model of the plant. ASM2d was chosen as biological process model to account for the presence of phosphate accumulating organisms. A tracer test was carried out to determine the hydraulic behaviour of the plant. To realistically simulate the aeration demand, a dedicated aeration model was used incorporating the dependency of the oxygen transfer on the mixed liquor concentration and allowing differentiation between coarse and fine bubble aeration, both typically present in MBRs. A steady state and dynamic calibration was performed, and the calibrated model was able to predict effluent nutrient concentrations and MLSS concentrations accurately. A scenario analysis (SCA) was carried out using the calibrated model to simulate the effect of varying SRT, recirculation ratio and DO set point on effluent quality, MLSS concentrations and aeration demand. Linking the model output with empirically derived correlations for energy consumption allowed an accurate prediction of the energy consumption. The SCA results showed that decreasing membrane aeration and SRT were most beneficial towards total energy consumption, while increasing the recirculation flow led to improved TN removal but at the same time also deterioration in TP removal. A validation of the model was performed by effectively applying better operational parameters to the plant. This resulted in a reduction in energy consumption by 23% without compromising effluent quality, as was accurately predicted by the model. This modelling approach thus allows the operating envelope to be reliably identified for meeting criteria based on energy demand and specific water quality determinants. PMID:20554307

Verrecht, Bart; Maere, Thomas; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Nopens, Ingmar; Judd, Simon

2010-07-01

69

Mathematical modeling of ultrasound in tissue engineering: From bioreactors to the cellular scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model predicted resonance. It appears that ultrasound applied close to the cell's resonant frequency effectively recreates the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells during natural movement. Ultrasonic bioreactors may therefore reproduce physiological conditions just as well as more complex bioreactors.

Louw, Tobias M.

70

MTBE BIODEGRADATION IN A GRAVITY FLOW, HIGH-BIOMASS RETAINING BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), a widely used fuel oxygenate, was investigated using a pilot-scale biomass-retaining bioreactor called a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The reactor was operated for a year at a flow rate of 2500 L/d on Ci...

71

Fouling behaviours of two membranes in a submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filtration performances and fouling behaviours of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were studied in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Results showed that removable fouling was dominant for both membranes while irremovable fouling of the PVDF membrane was severer than that of the PAN membrane. The PAN membrane could reject more soluble microbial products (SMP) than the PVDF membrane due

Pan Wang; Zhiwei Wang; Zhichao Wu; Suihai Mai

2011-01-01

72

Structure and dynamics of nitrifier populations in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor during start-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of microbial characteristics in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor system (capacity, 60,000 m3 day?1) treating sewage were monitored over the start-up period (96 days). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that\\u000a the percentages of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (nitrobacter-related population) in total\\u000a bacteria counted with DAPI staining increased significantly from 1.9% and 0.9% to 4.5% and 2.8%, corresponding to an

Tao Yu; Dong Li; Rong Qi; Sheng-tao Li; Shi-wei Xu; Min Yang

2011-01-01

73

Zero Nuisance Piggeries: long-term performance of MBR (membrane bioreactor) for dilute swine wastewater treatment using submerged membrane bioreactor in semi-industrial scale.  

PubMed

Effective aerobic/anoxic treatment of piggery manure wastewater was achieved in a real farm scale using a small piggery (72 pigs) with reuse of the treated water. The experimental procedure was followed for 9 months. Fresh manure (FM) is formed by daily flush on piggeries and biologically treated after centrifuge pre-treatment. For upgrade liquid/solid separation and pathogen retention in biological treatment, a membrane system was used with the aim of effluent reuse in flush. Despite an evolution of FM through time, centrifuge pre-treatment and bioreactor performances stayed at high level. An elimination of 86% of the suspended solids occurred through pre-treatment, and nitrogen and COD biological degradation remains at 90% all time long. Moreover, interestingly about half of the soluble part of phosphorus (20% of the global phosphorus content) was biologically removed via the recirculation between the anoxic and the aerobic tank which acted as an intermittent aerobic/anoxic sequence. A part of COD was proved not biodegradable and was accumulated via the reuse of the treated water for flushing purpose. This accumulation justifies washing of the biomass between two runs in purpose to enhance the treated water quality and also to meet the membrane tolerance. The membrane was proved reliable as far as the maintenance procedure was respected. Maintenance cleaning had to be operated as soon as the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) achieved 50 mbar and curative washing was necessary if the TMP increased over 90 mbar or between 2 runs. The temperature was proved to influence both the bioactivity and the membrane fouling kinetic. Finally, it was demonstrated that the process was sustainable for long-term management of swine wastewater at semi-industrial scale. PMID:19136138

Prado, Nolwenn; Ochoa, Juan; Amrane, Abdeltif

2009-04-01

74

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

2012-01-01

75

Pilot-scale chemical-biological system for efficient H2S removal from biogas.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale chemical-biological process was performed efficiently to remove corrosive H2S from biogas. Consecutive 356-d livestock biogas purification was conducted at various H2S loading rates. The average inlet H2S concentration was 3542 ppm, and a removal efficiency of 95% was achieved with gas retention time of 288 s. This system showed robust performance during operation with stable parameters. Purified biogas with an average of 59% CH4 was collected for power production. Moreover, 28.3 kW h of power was produced by using a 30 kW biogas generator under 300 LPM biogas flow rate. During the 30-d shut down test, the jarosite formation resulted in pH decrease and appearance of Leptospirillum sp. and Sulfobacillus sp. in the bioreactor. However, the cell density of the inoculated Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was maintained above 5×10(7) CFU/g-AC during long-term operation. Thus, given the successful H2S elimination, the chemical-biological process is a feasible system for biogas purification. PMID:23186660

Lin, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yu-Pei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

2013-05-01

76

Production and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors.  

PubMed

Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell · mL(-1) at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day(-1), with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day(-1). After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures. PMID:22822378

Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp

2012-06-01

77

FIELD-SCALE TESTING OF A TWO-STAGE BIOREACTOR FOR REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM GROUNDWATER: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. n separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (...

78

Performance evaluation of a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC) performances, an investigation was carried out in a 0.45 m diameter\\u000a and 4.45 m height pilot scale VFBC. Rice husks, corn, and soybean were used as the biomass feedstock and silica sand serving\\u000a as the bed material. The bubbling bed temperature was controlled by using water injected into the bed. The experimental results

Chien-Song Chyang; Kuo-Chao Lo; Kuo-Lian Wang

2005-01-01

79

Modeling scaleup effects on a small pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor for fuel ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Domestic ethanol use and production are presently undergoing significant increases along with planning and construction of new production facilities. Significant efforts are ongoing to reduce ethanol production costs by investigating new inexpensive feedstocks (woody biomass) and by reducing capital and energy costs through process improvements. A key element in the development of advanced bioreactor systems capable of very high conversion rates is the retention of high biocatalyst concentrations within the bioreactor and a reaction environment that ensures intimate contact between substrate and biocatalyst. One very effective method is to use an immobilized biocatalyst that can be placed into a reaction environment that provides effective mass transport, such as a fluidized bed. Mathematical descriptions are needed based on fundamental principles and accepted correlations that describe important physical phenomena. We describe refinements and semi-quantitatively extend the predictive model of Petersen and Davison to a multiphase fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) that was scaled-up for ethanol production. Axial concentration profiles were evaluated by solving coupled differential equations for glucose and carbon dioxide. The pilot-scale FBR (2 to 5 m tall, 10.2-cm ID, and 23,000 L month{sup -1} capacity) was scaled up from bench-scale reactors (91 to 224 cm long, 2.54 to 3.81 cm ID, and 400 to 2,300 L month{sup -1} capacity). Significant improvements in volumetric productivites (50 to 200 g EtOH h{sup -1} L{sup -1} compared with 40 to 110 for bench-scale experiments and 2 to 10 for reported industrial benchmarks) and good operability were demonstrated.

Webb, O.F.; Davison, B.H.; Scott, T.C.

1995-09-01

80

Proliferation of meristematic clusters in disposable presterilized plastic bioreactors for the large-scale micropropagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Proliferation of meristematic clusters of several plants in an inexpensive airlift bioreactor system, consisting of a disposable\\u000a presterilized light transmittable plastic film vessel is described. The optimal shape, size, and structural function of the\\u000a disposable plastic bioreactor are based on the bubble column and airlift glass bioreactors. The disposable bioreactors are\\u000a designed in a conical configuration with a single inoculation

M. Ziv; G. Ronen; M. Raviv

1998-01-01

81

Modeling energy consumption in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment in north Africa.  

PubMed

Two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were operated alongside a full-sized activated sludge plant in Tunisia in order to compare specific energy demand and treated water quality. Energy consumption rates were measured for the complete membrane bioreactor systems and for their different components. Specific energy demand was measured for the systems and compared with the activated sludge plant, which operated at around 3 kWh m(-3). A model was developed for each membrane bioreactor based on both dynamic and steady-state mass balances, microbial kinetics and stoichiometry, and energy balance. Energy consumption was evaluated as a function of mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration, net permeate fluxes, and the resultant treated water quality. This work demonstrates the potential for using membrane bioreactors in decentralised domestic water treatment in North Africa, at energy consumption levels similar or lower than conventional activated sludge systems, with the added benefit of producing treated water suitable for unrestricted crop irrigation. PMID:24734471

Skouterisl, George; Arnot, Tom C; Jraou, Mouna; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami

2014-03-01

82

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

83

Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)- contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. In separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (454L) system, bioreactor performance in the presence of specially-selected microbial inoculants was compared to that observed using non-specific biomass. Results obtained with specialty organisms in the first run of the field-scale bioreactor showed that, on average, 70.6% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles were degraded. Only 36.9% of the pentachlorophenol (PCP) present was biodegraded. In the second run, microorganisms from an industrial waste water treatment facility averaged 51.0% biodegradation of PAHs and heterocycles. Degradaton of PCP was 81.0%, a value substantially higher than in the first run. Reductions in toxicity/teratogenicity were also observed for effluent from the second run of the field-scale bioreactor but the magnitude of toxicity reduction was less than in the first run.

Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

1993-11-15

84

Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production.  

PubMed

Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors. PMID:24240146

Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Angel

2014-01-01

85

Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production  

PubMed Central

Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors. PMID:24240146

Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

2013-01-01

86

Two-phase methanization of food wastes in pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5 ton\\/d pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digester was constructed and tested to treat Korean food wastes in Anyang city near\\u000a Seoul.\\u000a \\u000a The easily degradable presorted food waste was efficiently treated in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process. The waste\\u000a contained in plastic bags was shredded and then screened for the removal of inert materials such as fabrics and plastics,\\u000a and

Joon Pyo Lee; Jin Suk Lee; Soon Chul Park

1999-01-01

87

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pharmaceuticals, two polycyclic musk fragrances and nine endocrine disrupting chemicals were analysed in several waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). A membrane bioreactor in pilot scale was operated at different solid retention times (SRTs) and the results obtained are compared to conventional activated sludge plants (CASP) operated at different SRTs. The SRT is an important design parameter and its impact

M. Clara; B. Strenn; O. Gans; E. Martinez; N. Kreuzinger; H. Kroiss

2005-01-01

88

Macro-scale Topology Optimization for Controlling Internal Shear Stress in a Porous Scaffold Bioreactor  

E-print Network

Shear stress is an important physical factor that regulates proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. In particular, the homeostasis of blood vessels is dependent on shear stress. To mimic this process ex vivo, efforts have been made to seed scaffolds with vascular and other cell types in the presence of growth factors and under pulsatile flow conditions. However, the resulting bioreactors lack information on shear stress and flow distributions within the scaffold. Consequently, it is difficult to interpret the effects of shear stress on cell function. Such knowledge would enable researchers to improve upon cell culture protocols. Recent work has focused on optimizing the microstructural parameters of the scaffold to fine tune the shear stress. In this study, we have adopted a different approach whereby flows are redirected throughout the bioreactor along channels patterned in the porous scaffold to yield shear stress distributions that are optimized for uniformity centered on a target value. A topology optimization algorithm coupled to computational fluid dynamics simulations was devised to this end. The channel topology in the porous scaffold was varied using a combination of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic. The method is validated by experiments using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) readouts of the flow field.

K. Youssef; J. J. Mack; M. L. Iruela-Arispe; L. -S. Bouchard

2012-01-09

89

Macro-scale topology optimization for controlling internal shear stress in a porous scaffold bioreactor.  

PubMed

Shear stress is an important physical factor that regulates proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis. In particular, the homeostasis of blood vessels is dependent on shear stress. To mimic this process ex vivo, efforts have been made to seed scaffolds with vascular and other cell types in the presence of growth factors and under pulsatile flow conditions. However, the resulting bioreactors lack information on shear stress and flow distributions within the scaffold. Consequently, it is difficult to interpret the effects of shear stress on cell function. Such knowledge would enable researchers to improve upon cell culture protocols. Recent work has focused on optimizing the microstructural parameters of the scaffold to fine tune the shear stress. In this study, we have adopted a different approach whereby flows are redirected throughout the bioreactor along channels patterned in the porous scaffold to yield shear stress distributions that are optimized for uniformity centered on a target value. A topology optimization algorithm coupled to computational fluid dynamics simulations was devised to this end. The channel topology in the porous scaffold was varied using a combination of genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic. The method is validated by experiments using magnetic resonance imaging readouts of the flow field. PMID:22252902

Youssef, K; Mack, J J; Iruela-Arispe, M L; Bouchard, L-S

2012-07-01

90

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

91

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

92

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

93

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

94

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

95

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

96

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

97

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

98

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

99

Pilot-scale tests to optimize the treatment of net-alkaline mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale plant consisting of an oxidation basin (OB), a neutralization basin (NB), a reaction basin (RB), and a settling\\u000a basin (SB) was designed and built to conduct pilot-scale experiments. With this system, the effects of aeration and pH on\\u000a ferrous oxidation and on precipitation of the oxidized products were studied systemically. The results of pilot-scale tests\\u000a showed that aeration

Min Jang; Hyunho Kwon

2011-01-01

100

Biodegradation behavior of PHBV films in a pilot-scale composting condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), synthesized via microorganisms, has been paid great attention. However, its biodegradation behavior in pilot-scale composting conditions has not been investigated. In this paper, the biodegradability of PHBV containing 3mol% of hydroxyvalerate (HV) was tested under composting conditions on both a pilot and a laboratory scale. In the pilot-scale composting conditions, parameters such as pH value, temperature and the

Yun-Xuan Weng; Ying Wang; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Zhong Wang

2010-01-01

101

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

102

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

103

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

104

Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale trommel test at a laboratory in upper Marlboro, Maryland, was initiated to support theoretical work on development of a model performance and to supplement data collected in full scale testing at Recovery 1 in New Orleans. Descriptions and summaries of the project through July 1981 are presented. The feedstocks were identical nearsized flakes and wooden blocks. Three groupings of results are provided. The first group, Feedstock Tests, contains data on feedstock properties. This group includes description of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency, and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize. (MCW)

Bolczak, R.

1981-09-01

105

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

106

Structure and dynamics of nitrifier populations in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor during start-up.  

PubMed

Changes of microbial characteristics in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor system (capacity, 60,000 m(3) day(-1)) treating sewage were monitored over the start-up period (96 days). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the percentages of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (nitrobacter-related population) in total bacteria counted with DAPI staining increased significantly from 1.9% and 0.9% to 4.5% and 2.8%, corresponding to an increase of the specific ammonium oxidizing rate (from 0.06 to 0.12 kg N kg(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) per day) and the specific nitrate forming rate (from 0.05 to 0.10 kg N kg(-1) MLSS day(-1)). Both the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction and clone library results showed that the AOB was dominated by the genus Nitrosomonas, the diversity of which increased markedly with operational time. Most of the day 2 clones were closely related with the uncultured Nitrosomonas sp. clone Ninesprings-49S amoA gene (AY356450.1) originated from activated sludge, while the day 96 clone library showed a more diverse distribution characterized by the appearance of the oligotrophic nitrifiers like the Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosomonas ureae-like bacteria, perhaps due to the interception by membrane and the low food-to-microorganisms ratio environment. The above results show that the membrane bioreactor system was characterized by the increased diversity and percentage of nitrifiers, which made it possible to achieve a stable and high efficient nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea with the changing population structures were also detected, but their roles for ammonia oxidation in the system need further studies. PMID:21181155

Yu, Tao; Li, Dong; Qi, Rong; Li, Sheng-tao; Xu, Shi-wei; Yang, Min

2011-04-01

107

Construction and validation of background data scales for the selection of pilots: a comparison of three scaling approaches  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF BACKGROUND DATA SCALES FOR THE SELECTION OF PILOTS: A COMPARISON OF THREE SCALING APPROACHES A Thesis by RICK R. FUENTES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Psychology CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF BACKGROUND DATA SCALES FOR THE SELECTION OF PILOTS: A COMPARISON OF THREE SCALING APPROACHES A Thesis by RICK R. FUENTES Approved...

Fuentes, Rick R

1988-01-01

108

Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. PMID:22537399

Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

2012-07-01

109

Cell-culture bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

When contrasted with microbial fermentation, the characteristics having a bearing on the design and operation of cell-culture bioreactors are fragility, steam sensitivity and anchorage requirements of cells, heat lability and foaming of proteins and other components of cell culture media. Design details of agitation and gas supply, bearings, seals and drives, foam control and sterilization, temperature, oxygen and pH control, water, air and gas purification, liquid feeding and level control, gas exhaust analysis and disposal, handling of liquid effluent and bioreactor installation and scale up are given.

Beck, C.; Stiefel, H.; Stinnett, T.

1987-02-16

110

Bioreactors Modeling and Control  

E-print Network

of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, fungi) ex: ethanol, penicillin Recombinant m.o., mammalian (or insect) cells-bioreactor-downstream) #12;MODEL 1 ("classic") Scaling up penicillin production 1928, Fleming ­ inhibitory halo 1939, Florey Chain isolates active penicillin 1941-1943, surface cultivation (semi-solid reactors) does not1941

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

111

Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

Rivera, A.L.

1982-04-01

112

Photosynthetic biomass and H2 production by green algae: from bioengineering to bioreactor scale-up.  

PubMed

The development of clean borderless fuels is of vital importance to human and environmental health and global prosperity. Currently, fuels make up approximately 67% of the global energy market (total market = 15 TW year(-1)) (Hoffert et al. 1998). In contrast, global electricity demand accounts for only 33% (Hoffert et al. 1998). Yet, despite the importance of fuels, almost all CO(2) free energy production systems under development are designed to drive electricity generation (e.g. clean-coal technology, nuclear, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, wave and hydroelectric). In contrast, and indeed almost uniquely, biofuels also target the much larger fuel market and so in the future will play an increasingly important role in maintaining energy security (Lal 2005). Currently, the main biofuels that are at varying stages of development include bio-ethanol, liquid carbohydrates [e.g. biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) products], biomethane and bio-H(2). This review is focused on placing bio-H(2) production processes into the context of the current biofuels market and summarizing advances made both at the level of bioengineering and bioreactor design. PMID:18251920

Hankamer, Ben; Lehr, Florian; Rupprecht, Jens; Mussgnug, Jan H; Posten, Clemens; Kruse, Olaf

2007-09-01

113

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01

114

Optimization of xylanase production by filamentous fungi in solid-state fermentation and scale-up to horizontal tube bioreactor.  

PubMed

Five microorganisms, namely Aspergillus niger CECT 2700, A. niger CECT 2915, A. niger CECT 2088, Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808, and Rhizopus stolonifer CECT 2344, were grown on corncob to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, mainly xylanases, by solid-state fermentation (SSF). A. niger CECT 2700 produced the highest amount of xylanases of 504?±?7 U/g dry corncob (dcc) after 3 days of fermentation. The optimization of the culture broth (5.0 g/L NaNO3, 1.3 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 4.5 g/L KH2PO4, and 3 g/L yeast extract) and operational conditions (5 g of bed loading, using an initial substrate to moistening medium of 1:3.6 (w/v)) allowed increasing the predicted maximal xylanase activity up to 2,452.7 U/g dcc. However, different pretreatments of materials, including destarching, autoclaving, microwave, and alkaline treatments, were detrimental. Finally, the process was successfully established in a laboratory-scale horizontal tube bioreactor, achieving the highest xylanase activity (2,926 U/g dcc) at a flow rate of 0.2 L/min. The result showed an overall 5.8-fold increase in xylanase activity after optimization of culture media, operational conditions, and scale-up. PMID:24728763

Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Oliveira, F; Pérez-Bibbins, B; Belo, I; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

2014-06-01

115

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2010-11-01

116

Anaerobic digestibility of marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The biomass of industrially grown Phaeodactylum tricornutum was subjected in a novel way to bio-methanation at 33°C, i.e., in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, at solid retention times of 20 to 10 days and at loading rates in the range of 2.6-5.9 g biomass-COD L(-1) day(-1) with membrane fluxes ranging from 1 to 0.8 L m(-2) h(-1). The total COD recovered as biogas was in the order of 52%. The input suspension was converted to a clear effluent rich in total ammonium nitrogen (546 mg TAN L(-1)) and phosphate (141 mg PO(4)-P L(-1)) usable as liquid fertilizer. The microbial community richness, dynamics, and organization in the reactor were interpreted using the microbial resource management approach. The AnMBR communities were found to be moderate in species richness and low in dynamics and community organization relative to UASB and conventional CSTR sludges. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Methanosaeta sp. was the dominant acetoclastic methanogen species followed by Methanosarcina sp. This work demonstrated that the use of AnMBR for the digestion of algal biomass is possible. The fact that some 50% of the organic matter is not liquefied means that the algal particulates in the digestate constitute a considerable fraction which should be valorized properly, for instance as slow release organic fertilizer. Overall, 1 kg of algae dry matter (DM) could be valorized in the form of biogas ( euro 2.07), N and P in the effluent (euro 0.02) and N and P in the digestate (euro 0.04), thus totaling about euro 2.13 per kilogram algae DM. PMID:22005739

Zamalloa, Carlos; De Vrieze, Jo; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2012-01-01

117

A pilot Rasch scaling of lawyers' perceptions of expert bias.  

PubMed

How seriously do attorneys consider the biases of their retained mental health experts? Participants in this pilot study included 40 attorneys, randomly selected from a pool of members of the Pennsylvania Bar Institute, who rated-for their biasing potential-several situations that might affect the behavior of an expert. A Rasch analysis produced a linear scale as to the perceived biasing potential of these different items from most to least biasing. Among other results, the study suggests that attorneys do view mental health experts who work on both sides of cases as being more balanced in their testimony. However, they also indicated that they have a preference for using individuals who repeatedly testify for one side. Working for only one side in both civil and criminal cases yielded large scaled values. Additional comments offered by respondents indicated that: (1) an opposing expert also serving as the litigant's treater and (2) an opposing expert being viewed as a "hired gun" (supplying an opinion only for money) were viewed by subjects as not being very biased. A discussion of the results raises the need for future research in this area. PMID:17185478

Dattilio, Frank M; Commons, Michael Lamport; Adams, Kathryn Marie; Gutheil, Thomas G; Sadoff, Robert L

2006-01-01

118

Pilot scale production of cellulolytic enzymes by Trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

The French substitute fuels program aims at the substitution of part of gasoline by methanol. In order to avoid phase separation of the gasoline-methanol blend, a cosolvant has to be added; one of the most efficient cosolvants is the mixture of acetone and butanol produced by anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation. The Institut Francais du Petrole is thus implementing a research and development program on the production of acetone butanol from biomass, either sugar crops (fodder beets and Jerusalem artichoke) or lignocellulosic (corn stover and wheat straw). Production of sugars from lignocellulosics is a major part of this program. The enzymatic hydrolysis route, based on Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzymes, has been chosen since it does not cause any degradation of C/sub 5/ sugars which are good substrates of the acetone butanol fermentation. Efficient and cheap large-scale production of cellulolytic enzymes is thus a key step in this process. This paper reports on production of cellulases by Trichoderma reesei in a 3-m/sup 3/ pilot fermentor under conditions which should facilitate the scaling-up of the process. 7 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Warzywoda, M.; Chevron, F.; Ferre, V.; Pourquie, J.

1983-01-01

119

Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance  

PubMed Central

The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant ?-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

2012-01-01

120

Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.  

PubMed

Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

2011-01-01

121

The Development and Testing of a Full-Scale Piloted Ornithopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the design, construction, and testing of a full-scale piloted omithopter. The project was based on the earlier development of a successful loft-span remotely-piloted proof-of-concept model, which provided the key analytical tools for assessing the feasibility of the full-scale aircraft. Also, many of the structural-design and construction methods were scaled from the model. However, there were several new

J. D. DeLaurier

122

Kinetic model for an up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor: Dairy wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of anaerobic digestion process of cheese whey were conducted in a pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor (UAPB). An influent COD concentration of 59419 mg\\/l was utilized at steady state condition. Logistic and Monod kinetic models were employed to describe microbial activities of cheese whey in an anaerobic digester. The hydraulic retention times (HRT) in the range of

G. D. Najafpour; M. Tajallipour; M. Komeili; M. Mohammadi

123

Fluorescent dissolved organic matter variations in a submerged membrane bioreactor under different sludge retention times  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of real municipal wastewater was operated in this study under various sludge retention time (SRT) in order to verify the correlations of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM) with membrane fouling. The fluorescent DOM determined by three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) under different SRT operation were

Zhiwei Wang; Shujuan Tang; Yufeng Zhu; Zhichao Wu; Qi Zhou; Dianhai Yang

2010-01-01

124

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and their effects on membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for real municipal wastewater treatment was operated for over one year in order to investigate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and their role in membrane fouling. The components and properties of bound EPS were examined by the evaluation of mean oxidation state (MOS) of organic carbons, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix

Zhiwei Wang; Zhichao Wu; Shujuan Tang

2009-01-01

125

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

126

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

127

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

128

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

129

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

130

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

131

The Development, Test, and Evaluation of Three Pilot Performance Reference Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of pilot performance reference scales was developed based upon airborne Audio-Video Recording (AVR) of student performance in T-37 undergraduate Pilot Training. After selection of the training maneuvers to be studied, video tape recordings of the maneuvers were selected from video tape recordings already available from a previous research…

Horner, Walter R.; And Others

132

APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

133

Development of a membrane dialysis bioreactor and its application to a large-scale culture of a symbiotic bacterium, Symbiobacterium thermophilum.  

PubMed

A simple membrane dialysis bioreactor was developed for a large-scale axenic culture of Symbiobacterium thermophilum, a symbiotic thermophile that requires co-cultivation with an associating thermophilic Bacillus strain S for normal growth. The bioreactor consisted of an outer- and an inner-coaxial cylindrical compartment bordered across a dialyzing membrane, which enabled a 1 l-scale dialysis culture with exchange of low molecular metabolites between the two compartments to be performed. Using the bioreactor, growth characteristics of S. thermophilum and Bacillus strain S were assessed under two medium conditions. The growth of S. thermophilum was measured by quantitative PCR because the bacterium formed no visible colonies and gave abnormally low turbidity. In medium containing 2% tryptone peptone, S. thermophilum proliferated up to 4x10(7) cells/ml, and strict dependence on the co-culture with Bacillus strain S was observed. On the other hand, medium containing 0.5% yeast extract not only facilitated the growth of S. thermophilum in the co-culture (6x10(7) cells/ml), but also allowed limited pure growth independent of Bacillus strain S (1x10(7) cells/ml), implying that some component of yeast extract can partially replace the growth requirement of S. thermophilum supplied by Bacillus strain S. Both the oxidative redox potential values and the cell morphology in the independently growing culture suggested the occurrence of marked unbalanced growth possibly caused by significant metabolic changes. The bioreactor is applicable to the analyses of culturing characteristics in symbiotic systems between free-living microorganisms. PMID:12436311

Ueda, K; Saka, H; Ishikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kato, T; Takeshita, Y; Shiratori, H; Ohno, M; Hosono, K; Wada, M; Ishikawa, Yohichi; Beppu, T

2002-11-01

134

Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accomodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components : emulsification unit ( height : 650 mm, diameter 500 mm ), mixing unit ( height : 1900mm, diameter 1200 mm ) and vulcanization reactor ( height : 1800 mm, diameter 1300 mm ). The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one-in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process comparedto the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR Latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized, and depend on many factors such as irradiation dose, sensitizer content, dry rubber content and storage time.

Ridwan, M.

135

Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop  

SciTech Connect

We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

2011-08-01

136

SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

2007-07-02

137

Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development  

SciTech Connect

Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

1994-11-01

138

Multimembrane Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

1989-01-01

139

BIOENERGY AND BIOFUELS Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial  

E-print Network

BIOENERGY AND BIOFUELS Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed generation and COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules performance. Keywords Biohydrogen . Biomethane . Bioelectricity. Microbial electrolysis cell . Bioenergy

140

NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

141

PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

142

Instrumentation and Evaluation of a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification System  

E-print Network

A pilot scale fluidized bed biomass gasifier developed at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas was instrumented with thermocouples, pressure transducers and motor controllers for monitoring gasification temperature and pressure, air flow...

Maglinao, Amado L

2009-12-04

143

Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the\\u000a lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale\\u000a tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order

Rui Xiao; Laihong Shen; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin; Yuanquan Xiong; Yufeng Duan; Zhaoping Zhong; Hongcang Zhou; Xiaoping Chen; Yaji Huang

2007-01-01

144

A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

1985-11-01

145

Pilot scale experiment with MBR operated in intermittent aeration condition: Analysis of biological performance.  

PubMed

The effect of intermittent aeration (IA) on a MBR system was investigated. The study was aimed at analyzing different working conditions and the influence of different IA cycles on the biological performance of the MBR pilot plant, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal as well as extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production. The membrane modules were placed in a separate compartment, continuously aerated. This configuration allowed to disconnect from the filtration stage the biological phenomena occurring into the IA bioreactor. The observed results highlighted good efficiencies, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal. It was noticed a significant soluble microbial products (SMPs) release, likely related to the higher metabolic stress that anoxic conditions exerted on the biomass. However, the proposed configuration, with the membranes in a separate compartment, allowed to reduce the EPSs in the membrane tank even during the non-aerated phase, thus lowering fouling development. PMID:25483989

Capodici, M; Di Bella, G; Di Trapani, D; Torregrossa, M

2015-02-01

146

Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

1995-10-02

147

Modeling bioaugmentation with nitrifiers in membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation with nitrifiers was studied using two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors, with the purpose of assessing the suitability of state-of-the-art activated sludge models (ASMs) in predicting the efficiency of bioaugmentation as a function of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that the temperature difference between seeding and seeded reactors (?T) affects bioaugmentation efficiency. Experimental data were accurately predicted when ?T was within a range of up to 10 °C at the higher range, and when the temperature was significantly lower in the seeded reactor compared to the seeding one, standard ASMs overestimated the efficiency of bioaugmentation. A modified ASM, capable of accurately representing the behavior of seeded nitrifying biomass in the presence of high ?T, would require the inclusion of the effect of temperature time gradients on nitrifiers. A simple linear correlation between ?T and the Arrhenius coefficient was proposed as a preliminary step. PMID:25607664

Mannucci, Alberto; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Makinia, Jacek; Lubello, Claudio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2015-01-01

148

Scale-up of osmotic membrane bioreactors by modeling salt accumulation and draw solution dilution using hollow-fiber membrane characteristics and operation conditions.  

PubMed

A full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) model was developed to simulate salt accumulation, draw solution (DS) dilution, and water flux over the hollow-fiber membrane length. The model uses the OMBR design parameters, DS properties, and forward osmosis (FO) membrane characteristics obtained from lab-scale tests. The modeling results revealed a tremendous water flux decline (10?0.82LMH) and short solids retention time (SRT: 5days) due to salt accumulation and DS dilution when OMBR is scaled up using commercially available DS and FO membrane. Simulated water flux is a result of interplay among reverse salt flux, internal and external concentration polarization (ICP and ECP). ECP adversely impacts water flux considerably in full-scale OMBR although it is often ignored in previous works. The OMBR model makes it possible to select better DS properties (higher flow rate and salt concentration) and FO membranes with higher water flux propensity in full-scale operation. PMID:24746768

Kim, Suhan

2014-08-01

149

Disposable bioreactor for cell culture using wave-induced agitation.  

PubMed

This work describes a novel bioreactor system for the cultivation of animal, insect, and plant cells using wave agitation induced by a rocking motion. This agitation system provides good nutrient distribution, off-bottom suspension, and excellent oxygen transfer without damaging fluid shear or gas bubbles. Unlike other cell culture systems, such as spinners, hollow-fiber bioreactors, and roller bottles, scale-up is simple, and has been demonstrated up to 100 L of culture volume. The bioreactor is disposable, and therefore requires no cleaning or sterilization. Additions and sampling are possible without the need for a laminar flow cabinet. The unit can be placed in an incubator requiring minimal instrumentation. These features dramatically lower the purchase cost, and operating expenses of this laboratory/pilot scale cell cultivation system. Results are presented for various model systems: 1) recombinant NS0 cells in suspension; 2) adenovirus production using human 293 cells in suspension; 3) Sf9 insect cell/baculovirus system; and 4) human 293 cells on microcarrier. These examples show the general suitability of the system for cells in suspension, anchorage-dependent culture, and virus production in research and GMP applications. PMID:19003364

Singh, V

1999-07-01

150

Fermentation Bench-scale to pilot-scale capabilities for the conversion of biomass to sugars, fuels, and chemicals  

E-print Network

Fermentation Bench-scale to pilot-scale capabilities for the conversion of biomass to sugars, fuels 40 30 20 10 0 Concentration(g/L) 0 2 4 6 Time (days) Fermentation applications · Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation testing - Different enzyme mixtures - Pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks at low and high solids

151

Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste). PMID:24713237

Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

2014-09-01

152

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone  

E-print Network

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated, Dominic Frigon Department of Civil EngineeringINTRODUCTION Activated sludge treatment processes produce

Barthelat, Francois

153

PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

154

PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

155

PILOT SCALE PROCESS EVALUATION OF REBURNING FOR IN-FURNACE NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of coal and natural gas reburning application tests to a pilot scale 3.0 MWt furnace to provide the scaling information required for commercial application of reburning to pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Initial parametric studies had been conducted in a 2...

156

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

157

Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.  

PubMed

The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units. PMID:21252428

Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

2011-01-01

158

Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.  

PubMed

Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH?-N, TN, COD, and PO?-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

2014-02-01

159

Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

1995-10-02

160

Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. PMID:25218258

Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

2014-09-15

161

Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.  

PubMed

Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation. PMID:25037928

Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

2014-07-01

162

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05

163

Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor design favored preferential flow along these flowpaths, away from the sides of the bioreactor. An improved bioreactor design should consider the role of preferential flowpaths and the heterogeneous distribution of the genetic potential for denitrification, nitrous oxide reduction and anammox on bioreactor function. PMID:25233117

Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

2014-12-01

164

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies  

E-print Network

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot Addition of halogens or halides has been reported to promote mercury removal in coal-fired power plants mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured

Li, Ying

165

REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

166

Pilot-scale process development and scale up for antifungal production.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale fermentation was developed for an antifungal compound produced by a filamentous fungus. Replacement of galactose with lactose (20-fold cost savings) and a threefold phosphate reduction (15 to 5 g/L) improved productivity 2.5-fold. Addition of supplements--glycine, cobalt chloride, and trace elements--resulted in a further twofold productivity increase, greater process robustness, and less foaming which reduced antifoam addition tenfold (30 to <3 mL/L). Mid-cycle lactose limitations were addressed by raising initial lactose levels (40 to 120 g/L) resulting in another twofold productivity increase. Overall, peak titers increased tenfold from 45 +/- 9 to 448 +/- 39 mg/L, and productivities improved from 3 to 25 mg/L day. Despite its high productivity, process scale up was challenged by high broth viscosity (5,000-6,000 cP at 16.8 s(-1)). Gassed power requirements at the 600 L scale (4.7 kW/1,000 L) exceeded available power at the 15,000 L scale (3.0 kW/1,000 L), and broth transfer to the downstream isolation facility was hindered. Mid-cycle broth dilution with up to five 10 vol% additions of 12 wt% lactose solution or whole medium-reduced viscosity three- to fivefold (1,000-1,500 cP at 16.8 s(-1)), gassed power within scale-up limits (2.5 kW/1,000 L), and peak titer by up to 45%. The process was scaled up to the 15,000 L working volume based on constant aeration rate (vvm) and peak impeller tip speed, raising superficial velocities at similar shear. This strategy maximized mass transfer rates at target gassed power per unit volume levels, and along with controlled broth viscosity, precluded multiple dilution additions. A final titer of 333 mg/L with one dilution addition was achieved, somewhat lower than expected, likely owing to inhibition from some unmeasured volatile compound (not believed to be carbon dioxide) during an extended period of high back-pressure in the early production phase. PMID:18853195

Junker, Beth; Walker, Andre; Hesse, Michelle; Lester, Michael; Vesey, Diane; Christensen, Jens; Burgess, Bruce; Connors, Neal

2009-06-01

167

Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

2014-01-01

168

PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

169

Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725 L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (? 3.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)) was used. PMID:25192798

Wang, Long; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

2014-12-01

170

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

171

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale studies of sulfur capture in the EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process and the effect of LIMB on particulate properties and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. The sulfur capture studies showed that hydrated l...

172

Slaughter estate unit CO sub 2 floods; Comparison between pilot and field-scale performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the performance of a pilot and a unit-wide CO{sub 2} flood in the Slaughter Estate Unit, Slaughter field, Hockley County, TX. The performance and design of both projects are compared to yield insight into the process, the impact of flood design variables, and the effects of project scale.

Stein, M.H.; Frey, D.D.; Walker, R.D.; Pariani, G.J. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-09-01

173

Photocatalysis with solar energy at a pilot-plant scale: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting the high reactivity of OH radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving the complete abatement and through mineralization of even less reactive pollutants. This paper reviews the use of sunlight to produce OH radicals. The experimental systems necessary for performing pilot-plant scale

Sixto Malato; Julián Blanco; Alfonso Vidal; Christoph Richter

2002-01-01

174

EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL STABILITY POHC INCINERABILITY RANKING IN A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 P0HCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range af most to least difficult to ...

175

EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes the results of emission tests carried out on three pilot-scale air pollution control devices. The units were connected to a slip stream from the ENSCO, Inc. hazardous waste incinerator at El Dorado, Arkansas. The three units were a Hydro Sonic System wet scru...

176

SYSTEMS RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE: PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CHLORINATED BENZENES AT THE COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of 34 test burns was conducted between August 1983 and January 1984 in the pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system at the USEPA Combustion Research Facility (CRF), using chlorinated benzenes as surrogate Principal Organic Hazardous Components (POHCs), over a range of...

177

Mixing large and small particles in a pilot scale rotary kiln  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixing of solid alternative fuel particles in cement raw materials was studied experimentally by visual observation in a pilot scale rotary kiln. Fuel particles were placed on top of the raw material bed prior to the experiment. The percentage of particles visible above the bed as a function of time was evaluated with the bed predominantly in the rolling

Anders Rooma Nielsen; Rasmus Wochnik Aniol; Morten Boberg Larsen; Peter Glarborg; Kim Dam-Johansen

2011-01-01

178

PILOT-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-NOX COAL-FIRED TANGENTIAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirem...

179

REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

180

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EPA/IERL-RTP PILOT-SCALE PRECIPITATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the EPA/IERL-RTP pilot scale electrostatic precipitator, a research device used for testing and verifying new precipitator concepts and models of precipitator operation. It describes the basic capabilities of the precipitator, and contains measurements of pre...

181

FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

182

DYNAMIC MODELING OF A PILOT-SCALE FLUIDIZED-BED COAL GASIFICATION REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a dynamic mathematical model of a pressurized fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor, developed and used to correlate data from a pilot-scale reactor. The model accounts for pyrolysis, oxidation, char gasification and subsequent gas-phase reactions, fines elu...

183

Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNOâ), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with

William F. Wright; Edward D. Schroeder; Daniel P. Y. Chang; Keith Romstad

1997-01-01

184

Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale natural treatment system in central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is severe degradation of the water quality of the Texcoco River in central Mexico as a result of discharges of raw sewage from communities into the watershed. Constructed wetlands may be appropriate technologies for treating the domestic wastewater generated by small communities in central Mexico. To assess the removal of pollutants from wastewater, we constructed a pilot-scale treatment wetland

Marco A. Belmont; Eliseo Cantellano; Steve Thompson; Mark Williamson; Abel Sánchez; Chris D. Metcalfe

2004-01-01

185

Nitrogen removal efficiency of different filter media and macrophyte in pilot-scale constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale constructed wetland was setup for the studies of removal efficiency of nitrogen from treated municipal wastewater using various filter media and a macrophyte. For the current research work pulverized fly ash bricks, shale and gravel media were used and a macrophyte Phragmites was chosen to find out the removal efficiency with various filter media. In this study,

R. P. Singh; Jiang Ying he

2010-01-01

186

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EPA OWNED BENCH SCALE PILOT PLANT FOR EVALUATING SCR DENOX CATALYSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia (NH3)-based technology and process for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides. A key objective was to establish the performance of SCR catalysts on U.S. uels and...

187

SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

188

PILOT-SCALE PRETREATMENT OF CORN FIBER USING SNAKE COIL REACTOR SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process was designed, based on experimental knowledge and industrial experience, to incorporate a corn fiber pretreatment/enzyme hydrolysis/ethanol fermentation system into an existing corn starch-fermenting ethanol plant. A pilot-scale test of the design consists of several steps. The corn fibe...

189

Goal attainment scaling in the rehabilitation of patients with lower-extremity amputations: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rushton PW, Miller WC. Goal Attainment Scaling in the rehabilitation of patients with lower-extremity amputations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:771-5. Objective: To assess the interrater reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) among patients who have had lower-extremity amputations. Design: Pilot study comparing GAS with 2 functional measures with established reliability, validity, and responsiveness values. Setting: Regional

Paula W. Rushton; William C. Miller

2002-01-01

190

[Plant as bioreactor].  

PubMed

Plant can be used as bioreactor for heterogenous protein expression. We reviewed different expression systems of plant bioreactor as well as recent relevant developments. In addition, we discussed perspectives in combination with our own experience. PMID:19670631

Yang, Jing; Li, Tianhang; Xiong, Lidong; Pang, Shifeng; Li, Xiaokun

2009-05-01

191

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

Adamson, D.

2009-05-28

192

WRDA SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PILOT-SCALE DATA REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal and non-thermal decontamination technologies have been undergoing demonstrations at the bench through full/commercial-scale levels. The decontamination program is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Acts (92, 96) working in conjunction wi...

193

Vermicomposting of sludges from paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia andrei: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of sludges from a paper mill mixed with cattle manure in a six-month pilot-scale experiment. Initially, a small-scale laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms in the different substrates tested. In the pilot-scale experiment, the number of earthworms increased between 22- and 36-fold and total biomass increased

C. Elvira; L. Sampedro; E. Benítez; R. Nogales

1998-01-01

194

A new computational control strategy for leachate management in bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

A novel computational measurement-based control strategy (CMCS) was developed to manage leachate recirculation based on monitoring ofkey system parameters. The proposed framework identifies the operational phase ofthe controlled bioreactor, and accordingly determines quantities ofleachate, buffer, supplemental water, and nutritional amendments required to provide the temporally changing landfill microbial consortia with their growth requirements. The CMCS was tested in a pilot-scale bioreactor cell (0.5 m3) for a period of nine months, and compared to a conventional open-loop leachate control scheme (fixed recirculation rate of produced leachate) in an identical cell. Overall, positive results confirmed the applicability and benefits of the control strategy to optimize the leachate recirculation and manipulation processes. Throughout the 21 operational cycles of the controlled bioreactor cell, the maximum specific daily recirculation volume (24 L/t/d) was sixfold the minimum volume determined. The amounts of inoculum/nutrient, buffer, and supplemental water were also computed cyclically, and ranged between 2% and 11%, 1% and 9%, and 3% and 16% of the total volume recycled, respectively. The recirculated volumes of leachate and other amendments were highly variable, and did not follow any predictable trends. In general, CMCS achieved proper control with a minimal use of resources, e.g. it utilized about 55% less buffer compared with the leachate neutralization practice commonly used in lab- and pilot-scale studies. The greater degradation rates of organic matter combined with relative increases in biogas production (1.7-fold greater) demonstrate that calculation-based recirculation stimulated the methanogenic activity and accelerated the bioreactor evolution. PMID:24600869

Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa

2014-01-01

195

Performance of a pilot-scale nitrifying trickling filter treating municipal aerated lagoon effluent.  

PubMed

Colfax, WA, operates an aerated lagoon to achieve compliance with its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, which currently requires biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. However, ammonia removal may soon be required, and Colfax is considering a nitrifying trickling filter (NTF) that would allow them to also maintain the lagoons. To obtain data from which to ultimately design a full-scale system, a four-year NTF pilot study was performed. Results demonstrated that an NTF would be an effective, reliable NH3 removal method and could produce effluent NH3 concentrations < 1.0 mg/L. NTF performance was characterized by zero- and first-order kinetics; zero-order rates correlated with influent NH3 concentrations and mass load. Utilizing data from these investigations it was determined that the pilot NTF could be reduced by 19%, which demonstrates the value of pilot testing. Finally, pilot data was evaluated to provide a data set that will be useful to engineers designing full-scale NTFs. PMID:25630125

Coats, Erik R; Watson, Ben; Lee, Kiersten; Hammer, Matt

2015-01-01

196

Pilot-scale field tests for the methanotrophic technology cometabolic bioreactor demonstration at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of cometabolic technology for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated and aromatic solvents conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The technology demonstration is located at a seep from the K-1070-C/D Classified Burial Ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Funding for this demonstration is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program, Office of Technology Development.

Donaldson, T.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Herbes, S.E.

1993-06-01

197

INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

2011-01-24

198

WAT ENVIRON RESEARCH (in press, final version may have small changes) ODOR AND VOC TREATMENT BY BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: PILOT SCALE  

E-print Network

Treatment Plant (HTP) in Los Angeles have been testing pilot- scale biotrickling filters and biofilters) and relatively high operational costs. Various pilot-studies with biotrickling filters and biofilters at POTWs as mandated under the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Since biotrickling filters and biofilters host

199

Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

Erickson, Daniel Thomas

200

Interpretation of pilot-scale, fluidized bed behavior using chaotic time series analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we apply conventional and chaotic time series analyses to the interpretation of pressure-drop measurements from a 250 kW, pilot-scale, bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Our results demonstrate that such analyses can be useful for discriminating different types of fluidization in a practical combustor and offer a basis for improving fluidized bed monitoring and control. A new comparative index that reflects the multivariate structure in pressure-drop measurements is proposed for detecting variations in the fluidized state. We also propose standards for acquiring fluidized bed pressure-drop measurements in pilot and commercial-scale facilities as well as three potential commercial uses. Recent findings regarding the effect of pressure tap location and design on the measured signal fidelity are discussed.

Fuller, T.A.; Flynn, T.J. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Daw, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halow, J.S. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1993-06-01

201

Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

1997-10-01

202

Evaluation of a pilot scale dual media biological activated carbon process for drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to optimize a dual media BAC (biological activated carbon) process for DOC removal and DBPs (disinfection\\u000a by-products) control. Pilot scale tests were coducted at the Tukdo water treatment plant in Seoul, Korea. The dual media BAC\\u000a process is highly efficient in the removal of DOC and THMFP, and is more capable of sustaining microorganisms than

Young-Song Ko; Yoon-Jin Lee; Sang-ho Nam

2007-01-01

203

Pilot-Scale Test of Counter-Current Ion Exchange (CCIX) Using UOP IONSIV IE911  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale test of a moving-bed configuration of a UOP IONSIV? IE-911 ion-exchange column was performed over 17 days at Severn Trent Services facilities. The objectives of the test, in order of priority, were to determine if aluminosilicate precipitation caused clumping of IE-911 particles in the column, to observe the effect on aluminum-hydroxide precipitation of water added to a simulant-filled

Dennis W. Wester; Robert K Leugemors; Richard Dennis; Jeff Pike; Paul W. Taylor; Thong Hang

2001-01-01

204

Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment

Eva M. Seeger; Peter Kuschk; Helga Fazekas; Peter Grathwohl; Matthias Kaestner

2011-01-01

205

Characteristics of extracellular fluorescent substances of aerobic granular sludge in pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and some of the granules were\\u000a stored at 8 °C for 150 d. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge samples were extracted and analyzed during the\\u000a granulation and storage process. The results show that the contents of protein and EPS increase along with the granulation\\u000a process, while

Xiang Tu; Ben-sheng Su; Xiao-ning Li; Jian-rong Zhu

2010-01-01

206

Dynamic modeling of a pilot-scale fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic mathematical model of a pressurized fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor has been developed and used to correlate data from a pilot-scale reactor. The model accounts for pyrolysis, oxidation, char gasification, and subsequent gas-phase reactions, fines elutriation and heat losses from the reactor, and simulates both transient and steady-state operation. If the values of three model parameters are adjusted to

R. Russell Rhinehart; Richard M. Felder; James K. Ferrell

1987-01-01

207

Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal.The wetland was 6×3×0.4m. Water discharge was 1000ld?1

H. R. Hadad; M. A. Maine; C. A. Bonetto

2006-01-01

208

Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

U.S. Geological Survey

2006-01-01

209

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Hyperbaric Filtration of Ultra Fine Clean Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale evaluation of continuous pressure filtration was conducted on minus 200 mesh clean coal recovered by column flotation using an Andritz-Ruthner trailer mounted hyperbaric filter. Results showed that increasing vessel pressure for a given cake formation angle (CFA), increased cake thickness and throughput, while decreasing cake moisture. Baseline testing concluded that filter operating parameters-of 3 bar pressure, 1.5

J. G. GROPPO; B. K. PAREKH

1996-01-01

210

Gasification of Natural and Waste Biomass in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercially available biomass fuels, made of natural and waste wood, were fed in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier having an internal diameter of 0.381 m and a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg\\/h. The experimental runs were carried out at about 850°C and under values of the equivalence ratio between 0.20 and 0.30. The fluidized bed was generally made

U. Arena; L. Zaccariello; M. L. Mastellone

2010-01-01

211

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION ; PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING\\/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing\\/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to

SPRITZER. M; G HONG

2005-01-01

212

Water Treatment and Performance Characteristics Evaluation of a Pilot-Scale Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize the impact on the environment and land requirements, a pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture system was engineered and investigated in a greenhouse. The system included a three-step particulates separation device, fluidized bed reactors (FBR), UV treatment and cooling. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were raised from initial mean weight 4.9 plusmn 0.6g to final mean weight 35.8 plusmn 14.6g after 140

Yan Zaisheng; Liu Changfa; Wang Shihe; He Jie; Liu Yuan; Zhang Liyong; Zhang Junxin

2008-01-01

213

Production of recombinant proteins in microalgae at pilot greenhouse scale.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production in microalgae chloroplasts can provide correctly folded proteins in significant quantities and potentially inexpensive costs compared to other heterologous protein production platforms. The best results have been achieved by using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) to drive the expression of heterologous genes in a psbA-deficient, non-photosynthetic, algal host. Unfortunately, using such a strategy makes the system unviable for large scale cultivation using natural sunlight for photosynthetic growth. In this study we characterized eight different combinations of 5' regulatory regions and psbA coding sequences for their ability to restore photosynthesis in a psbA-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while maintaining robust accumulation of a commercially viable recombinant protein driven by the psbA promoter/5'UTR. The recombinant protein corresponded to bovine Milk Amyloid A (MAA), which is present in milk colostrum and could be used to prevent infectious diarrhea in mammals. This approach allowed us to identify photosynthetic strains that achieved constitutive production of MAA when grown photosynthetically in 100?L bags in a greenhouse. Under these conditions, the maximum MAA expression achieved was 1.86% of total protein, which corresponded to 3.28?mg/L of culture medium. Within our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant protein being produced this way in microalgae. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 339-345. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25116083

Gimpel, Javier A; Hyun, James S; Schoepp, Nathan G; Mayfield, Stephen P

2015-02-01

214

Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study. PMID:24188578

Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

2014-01-01

215

Changes in the Structure and Function of Microbial Communities in Drinking Water Treatment Bioreactors upon Addition of Phosphorus? †  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors. PMID:20889793

Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

2010-01-01

216

Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.  

PubMed

Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors. PMID:20889793

Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

2010-11-01

217

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF THE CHLORINATION PROCESS. VOLUME I: COMPARISON OF OPTIMIZED PILOT SYSTEM WITH EXISTING FULL-SCALE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Parallel wastewater effluent chlorination studies were done on a mobile optimized chlorination pilot system and the full-scale system at eight different treatment plants. Disinfection efficiency was measured by total coliform enumeration and chlorine residual tests. Parallel flow...

218

Assessing Stress in Disability: Developing and Piloting the Disability Related Stress Scale  

PubMed Central

Background Stress negatively influences health, but few scales capture the unique stressors encountered by people with physical disability. Objective/Hypothesis Conduct a pilot study to develop and evaluate the factor structure of a stress measure targeting unique stressors facing people with physical limitations due to impaired movement of the upper and lower extremities. Methods Development of the Disability Related Stress Scale (DRSS) included: (1) obtaining input regarding content and items from focus groups and outside experts and (2) piloting the instrument. Participants recruited from an independent living center attended a focus group or completed the pilot survey. The piloted measure was a 107 item two-part survey. Part 1 assessed stressors encountered over the past week and Part 2 assessed stressors encountered over the past six months. Participants included a convenience sample of 143 adults who experienced a physical limitation; 26 attended focus groups and 117 completed the instrument. Respondents were predominantly women (60%), Caucasian (58%), and unemployed (92%). Respondents’ were 50.51 ± 14.46 years old and had lived with their disability for 15.64 ± 13.04 years. Results Exploratory factor analyses revealed a four factor solution for Part 1 and a two factor solution for Part 2 of the DRSS. Estimates of both scales’ internal consistency (Part 1 Cronbach’s ? = .78 – 84; Part 2 Cronbach’s ? = .72) and factor loadings (.40–1.00 for Part 1; .43–.87 for Part 2) indicate adequate reliability. Conclusions Preliminary results provide initial support for the instrument’s reliability and factor structure although further validation studies are warranted. PMID:22726857

Rhode, Paula C.; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Hockemeyer, Jill R.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Lee, Jaehoon

2013-01-01

219

Pilot-scale manufacture and marketing of Quarg cheese: implications for future U.S. market potential  

E-print Network

PILOT-SCALE MANUFACTURE AND MARKETING OF QUARG CHEESE: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE U. S, MARKET POTENTIAL A Professional P aper by ANN CHRISTINE BATTAGLIA Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas ARM Unlverslty ln partial fulfillmen... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE August, 1086 Malor SubJect: Food Science and Technology Department of Animal Science PILOT-SCALE MANUFACTURE AND MARKETING OF QUARG CHEESE: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE U. S. MARKET POTENTIAL A...

Battaglia, Ann Christine

1986-01-01

220

A review of pilot- and full-scale bioventing system performance  

SciTech Connect

Results from over 140 pilot- and full-scale bioventing projects are summarized in this paper. In situ respiration results and biodegradation rates are presented for a variety of contaminant and soil conditions. The impact of site specific variables such as soil type, temperature, and natural nutrient and moisture conditions on the bioventing process are discussed. The performance of long-term bioventing systems, including soil sampling results and full-scale costs are also provided. The objective of this paper is to describe both the success and limitations of this innovative, low-cost technology.

Downey, D.C.

1996-12-31

221

Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

Jankura, B.J.

1996-01-01

222

Pilot-scale removal of chromium from industrial wastewater using the ChromeBac™ system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Cr(VI) resistant bacteria followed by chemical precipitation constitutes the ChromeBac™ system. Acinetobacter haemolyticus was immobilized onto carrier material inside a 0.2m3 bioreactor. Neutralized electroplating wastewater with Cr(VI) concentration of 17–81mgL?1 was fed into the bioreactor (0.11–0.33m3h?1). Complete Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) was obtained immediately after the start of bioreactor operation. Together with

Wan Azlina Ahmad; Zainul Akmar Zakaria; Ali Reza Khasim; Muhamad Anuar Alias; Shaik Muhammad Hasbullah Shaik Ismail

2010-01-01

223

Poliovirus-1 Inactivation and Interaction with Biofilm: a Pilot-Scale Study  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale study was initiated to examine the behavior of viruses pulse injected into a distribution system. The influence of a free-chlorine residual and that of virus preadsorption to clay particles was evaluated by tracing the viruses both in the water flow and after elution from the biofilm. These experiments demonstrated, first, that virus preadsorption on 40 mg of Na-montmorillonite per liter increased the residence time of the viruses within the pilot plant by roughly three times and, second, that preadsorption to clay did not prevent viruses from being inactivated by chlorine. Moreover, with no clay added, a greater amount of viruses was recovered from the biofilm than from the water flow (by a factor of 2 or 10 in the absence or presence of chlorine, respectively), indicating a tendency for virus accumulation within biofilms. PMID:14692421

Quignon, F.; Sardin, M.; Kiene, L.; Schwartzbrod, L.

1997-01-01

224

Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

Scott, C.D.; Hancher, C.W.; Arcuri, E.J.

1980-01-01

225

Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.  

PubMed

The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

2012-12-01

226

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

227

Removal of indicator bacteriophages from municipal wastewater by a full-scale membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge process: implications to water reuse.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a full scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) in the removal of bacteriophages and bacterial fecal indicators from municipal wastewater was compared with that obtained by conventional activated sludge process (CASP). Somatic coliphages (SOMCPH) and F-RNA specific bacteriophages (FRNAPH) were always detected in the pre-treated effluent (mean: 6Log10), while phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis were not always present (mean: 3.9Log10). The MBR process was able to achieve respectively 2.7 and 1.7Log10 higher reductions of SOMCPH and FRNAPH compared to CASP (significant differences: P<0.05). SOMCPH were found to be the most suitable indicators for assessing MBR performance, since they showed greater resistance to biofiltration than FRNAPH and a more regular distribution in pre-treated effluent than BFRAGPH. Moreover, since the traditional bacterial indicators were almost totally removed by biofiltration, SOMCPH proved to be the best indicators to evaluate the microbiological risk when MBR effluent is discharged into natural waters or reused. PMID:23266855

De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella; Leoni, Erica; Zanetti, Franca

2013-02-01

228

Development of a small-scale bioreactor method to monitor the molecular diversity and environmental impacts of bacterial biofilm communities from an acid mine drainage impacted creek.  

PubMed

Shamokin Creek is a tributary of the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania that is heavily impacted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by the oxidation of pyrite from the region's extensive anthracite coal mining industry. Recent studies have begun to characterize the microbial communities present in this and other AMD-impacted waters, but varying environmental conditions have complicated attempts to determine the ecological impacts of individual bacterial species within these communities. This study developed a small-scale biofilm reactor protocol that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the development of bacterial biofilm communities in AMD-impacted creek collected water using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes, while assessing the impacts that the developing biofilms were having on water quality. Our analysis confirmed that the diversity and composition of these small in situ biofilm communities could be monitored using molecular methods, and indicated the possible presence of many taxa frequently found in AMD environments, including Sulfobacillus, Nitrospira, Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, and Leptothrix species. A significant increase in the total sulfate was observed in the bioreactor, and as most likely due to the accumulation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria such as Sulfobacillus in the biofilms. This system will allow us to study the microbial ecology of Shamokin Creek through controlled experiments that will ultimately integrate microscopic, molecular, physiological and chemical analyses, and that can be utilized to develop more effective and cost-efficient environmental remediation techniques for AMD-impacted areas. PMID:21821067

Cole, Michael; Wrubel, Joshua; Henegan, Patricia; Janzen, Christopher; Holt, Jack; Tobin, Tammy

2011-10-01

229

OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

230

Comparison of lab-scale and pilot-scale hybrid anaerobic solid–liquid systems operated in batch and semi-continuous modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrid anaerobic solid–liquid (HASL) system was developed for food waste bioconversion. Lab-scale and pilot-scale HASL systems were operated in batch and semi-continuous modes. High efficiencies for conversion of food waste into biogas were shown for both the lab-scale and pilot-scale HASL systems. Semi-continuous mode of HASL system was more effective than batch process. Methane production was 0.49ll?1day?1 and 0.71ll?1day?1

J. Y. Wang; H. Zhang; O. Stabnikova; J. H. Tay

2005-01-01

231

Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2009-04-15

232

Solar photocatalytic degradation of some hazardous water-soluble pesticides at pilot-plant scale.  

PubMed

The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of six water-soluble pesticides (cymoxanil, methomyl, oxamyl, dimethoate, pyrimethanil and telone) have been studied at pilot-plant scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural solar UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. TiO(2) photocatalysis tests were performed in a 35L solar pilot plant with three Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) under natural illumination and a 75L solar pilot plant with four CPC units was used for homogeneous photocatalysis tests. The initial pesticide concentration studied was 50 mg L(-1) and the catalyst concentrations employed were 200 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) and 20 mg L(-1) of iron. Both toxicity (Vibrio fischeri, Biofix) and biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) of the initial pesticide solutions were also measured. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and nearly complete mineralization were attained with all pesticides tested. Treatment time, hydrogen peroxide consumption and release of heteroatoms are discussed. PMID:16839679

Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Maldonado, M I; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Malato, S

2006-12-01

233

Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

Wittreich, C.D.

1994-05-01

234

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

235

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

236

Separation characteristics in dissolved air flotation--pilot and full-scale demonstration.  

PubMed

This study presents practical implications for particle separation in Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF). The objectives were to localise where particles are separated from the water phase and to determine what particles, in terms of size, are removed by the DAF-process. Both pilot- and full-scale plants were investigated. Particle sizes were analysed with a light-blocking particle counter and an optical borescope was used for visualisation of particle-bubble aggregates. It was found that particles are preferably separated upstream in the process, i.e. close to the contact zone. Furthermore, separation efficiency for particles increased with increasing particle size. PMID:14518859

Ljunggren, M; Jönsson, L

2003-01-01

237

Predicting and verifying TOC removal by PAC in pilot-scale UF systems  

SciTech Connect

A modeling technique was developed to predict organics removal by powdered activated carbon (PAC) added as a pretreatment to hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF). Model predictions were successfully verified for large- and small-scale PAC-UF pilot plants. Experiments were conducted using different water sources, PAC dosages, and backwashing frequencies. Natural organic matter in the water sources, represented by total organic carbon, was the target compound studied. The modeling procedure can be used in the design and evaluation of PAC-UF systems.

Adham, S.S. (Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Snoeyink, V.L.; Clark, M.M.; Anselme, C.

1993-12-01

238

Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

Duignan, M.R.

2000-06-27

239

Modeling scale-up effects on a small pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor for fuel ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The algorithm generally underpredicted pilot-scale performance, although in some cases, the predicted and actual profiles\\u000a were similar. The model did a good job of predicting concentration profiles for the bench-scale reactor.\\u000a \\u000a Model refinements resulted in:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Better estimates of liquid, solid, and gas holdups;\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Inclusion of some wall effects; and\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Better estimates of Jacobians through improved step size

Oren F. Webb; Brian H. Davison; T. C. Scott

1996-01-01

240

EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES ON A REFUSE AND COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The project report describes the operation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices to gather data on air pollution efficiency versus several different operating parameters on various waste-as-fuel combustio processes. It also includes a test of a full scale fabric filter use...

241

Creative use of pilot points to address site and regional scale heterogeneity in a variable-density model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pilot points for parameter estimation were creatively used to address heterogeneity at both the well field and regional scales in a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model designed to test multiple hypotheses for upward migration of fresh effluent injected into a highly transmissive saline carbonate aquifer. Two sets of pilot points were used within in multiple model layers, with one set of inner pilot points (totaling 158) having high spatial density to represent hydraulic conductivity at the site, while a second set of outer points (totaling 36) of lower spatial density was used to represent hydraulic conductivity further from the site. Use of a lower spatial density outside the site allowed (1) the total number of pilot points to be reduced while maintaining flexibility to accommodate heterogeneity at different scales, and (2) development of a model with greater areal extent in order to simulate proper boundary conditions that have a limited effect on the area of interest. The parameters associated with the inner pilot points were log transformed hydraulic conductivity multipliers of the conductivity field obtained by interpolation from outer pilot points. The use of this dual inner-outer scale parameterization (with inner parameters constituting multipliers for outer parameters) allowed smooth transition of hydraulic conductivity from the site scale, where greater spatial variability of hydraulic properties exists, to the regional scale where less spatial variability was necessary for model calibration. While the model is highly parameterized to accommodate potential aquifer heterogeneity, the total number of pilot points is kept at a minimum to enable reasonable calibration run times.

Dausman, Alyssa M.; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D.

2010-01-01

242

Pilot-scale fluoride-containing wastewater treatment by the ballasted flocculation process.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale ballasted flocculation system was used to remove fluoride from one type of industrial wastewater. The system included the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using calcium hydroxide followed by coagulation sedimentation. Calcium fluoride was recycled as nuclei for enhancing CaF2 precipitation and as a ballasting agent for improving fluoride removal and flocculation efficiency. Factors affecting fluoride and turbidity removal efficiencies, including pH in the CaF2-reacting tank and coagulation-mixing tank, sludge recycling ratio, and dosages of FeCl3 and polyacrylamide (PAM), were investigated in the pilot-scale system. The recycled CaF2 precipitates improved CaF2 formation kinetics, enhanced fluoride removal and flocculation performance. Under the optimized condition, the ballast flocculation process reduced fluoride concentration from 288.9 to 10.67 mg/L and the turbidity from 129.6 NTU to below 2.5 NTU. PMID:23823549

Wang, Bin-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Zhu, Jia; Shen, Ji-Min; Han, Ying

2013-01-01

243

[Pilot-scale cultivation of spirulina plantensis with digested piggery wastewater ].  

PubMed

The swine waste pretreated with coagulation sedimentation was used for the outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina platensis isolated from digested piggery wastewater (DPW) in a raceway pond. The growth of S. platensis and removal of nitrogen/ phosphorus were studied, moreover, the conversion efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) from DPW to S. platensis was calculated. On this basis, the existing problems and countermeasures during outdoor pilot-scale culture were analyzed and summarized combined with the laboratory research. We conducted 6 batches culture experiments, only 3 of which could reach the S. platensis harvest requirements (D560 >0. 8). Meanwhile, the 3 successful batches achieved removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN, TP with corresponding 28. 6% -48. 5% , 0.4% -48. 5% , 41. 8% -48. 6% , 14. 3% -94. 5% , and the conversion efficiency of TN or TP from DPW to S. platensis reached 12. 1% -98. 5% , 21.2% -83.7% , respectively. High concentration of ammonia nitrogen and insect attack of remaining egg hatching in the pretreated swine waste were the main factors to cause the slow-growing of the 3 batches of S. platensis. Therefore, it is highly necessary for the removal of ammonia nitrogen with biological treatment technology and insect eggs with membrane to achieve a stable high productivity. PMID:25518669

Guo, Qing-qing; Liu, Rui; Luo, Jin-fei; Wang, Gen-rong; Chen, Lii-jun; Liu, Xiao

2014-09-01

244

Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

2012-11-15

245

Bioreactor rotating wall vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

2001-01-01

246

Near-Tank Treatment of Hanford Tank Waste: Pilot-Scale Testing - 12107  

SciTech Connect

In order to reduce the number of high level waste canisters that will have to be produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, supplemental waste treatment technologies are being investigated. One such technology is the Near-Tank Treatment System, which uses continuous sludge leaching, filtration, and ion exchange to process the waste in a simple, compact system. The Near Tank Treatment System is ideally suited for handling Hanford tanks with large amounts of boehmite, a difficult aluminum phase to dissolve. A pilot-scale Near Tank Treatment System was constructed and tested with a boehmite and iron oxyhydroxide waste simulant to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the system. The data from the pilot-scale tests were also used to assess scale-up from previously performed bench-scale tests. It should be noted that any work involving the use of simulated HLW has inherent limitations. For this work, every attempt was made to ensure that the simulant mimicked the actual waste performance as closely as possible. However, there are always limitations in the ability to The NTTS Demonstration Test established that all the subsystems could be operated concurrently to process the waste simulant. The NTTS had a stable performance during the Demonstration Test that required very little external manipulation once a steady state was achieved. The CSL demonstrated effectively 90% dissolution of the hard to leach boehmite phase. The cross flow filtration system was able to deliver decontaminated salt solution to the NTCR system. The NTCR system exceeded the design basis by providing effluent below the detection limit beyond the design basis required time. The NTTS system was successfully demonstrated and has shown that leaching and decontamination of the subsequent permeate can be readily achieved using relatively small footprint equipment in an at tank application. (authors)

Schonewill, P.P.; Edwards, M.K.; Shimskey, R.W.; Peterson, R.A. [Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Smith, C.; Tranbarger, R. [Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Pasco, Washington 99301 (United States)

2012-07-01

247

Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales  

SciTech Connect

Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

2011-05-01

248

Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.  

PubMed

The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. PMID:25157746

Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

2014-08-23

249

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

250

Single cell protein production of Euglena gracilis and carbon dioxide fixation in an innovative photo-bioreactor.  

PubMed

The biological fixation using microalgae has been known as an effective and economical carbon dioxide reduction technology. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation by microalgae has been shown to be effective and economical. Among various algae, a species Euglena gracilis was selected as it has advantages such as high protein content and high digestibility for animal feed. A kinetic model was studied in order to determine the relationship between specific growth rate and light intensity. The half-saturation constant for light intensity in the Monod model was 178.7 micromol photons/m2/s. The most favorable initial pH, temperature, and CO2 concentration were found to be 3.5, 27 degrees C, and 5-10% (vol/vol), respectively. Light intensity and hydraulic retention time were tested for effects on cell yield in a laboratory-scale photo-bioreactor of 100l working volume followed by semi-continuous and continuous culture. Subsequently, an innovative pilot-scale photo-bioreactor that used sunlight and flue gas was developed to increase production of this bioresource. The proposed pilot-scale reactor showed improved cell yield compared with the laboratory-scale reactor. PMID:16171688

Chae, S R; Hwang, E J; Shin, H S

2006-01-01

251

Replacement of immobilised cell bioreactors by smaller immobilised enzyme bioreactors: unique-outcome predictability for cytochromes P450 isoforms?  

PubMed

Both immobilized enzymes (IME) and immobilized cells (IMC) are acceptable as the biocatalysts essential for the attainment of rapid rates of bioconversion in bioreactors. IMC can display higher than expected cellular permeability whilst IME can exhibit high catalytic constant (kcat/Km) despite limitations on substrate utilisation due to an unstired diffusion layer of solvent. Scale-down switching from IMC to IME involves the replacement of high-volume biotechnology by low-volume biotechnology, sometimes using IME mimics in partially non-aqueous solvent systems. Highly purified IME systems covalently immobilised to particles of, for instance, microcrystalline cellulose or porous glass, can retain both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic intermediate products in situ of the chosen sequence of enzyme reactions. These bioconversions, therefore, are as efficient as those with IMC where enzymes are often particle- or membrane-bound so that even hydrophilic intermediates are not released rapidly into solution. This mimicry of in vivo biosynthetic pathways that are compartmentalised in vivo (e.g. of lysosomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum) can replace larger IMC by IME especially in application of up to 2700 cytochromes P450 isoforms in bioprocessing. In silico investigation of appropriate model IME systems, in comparison with IMC systems, will be needed to define the optimal bioreactor configuration and parameters of operation, such as pH, T and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR). The application solely of hazop (applied hazard and operability concepts) may, nevertheless, not be recommended to replace fully the in silico and real-lab pilot-scale and scale studies. Here, food-safe bioprocessing has to be achieved without incorporation of recognised biohazards; especially in the form of unacceptable levels of toxic metals that promote a risk-analysis uncertainty. PMID:14584911

Wiseman, Alan

2003-10-01

252

Scale-down assessment of the sensitivity of Yarrowia lipolytica to oxygen transfer and foam management in bioreactors: investigation of the underlying physiological mechanisms.  

PubMed

A scale-down investigation of the impact of local dissolved oxygen limitation on lipase production by Y. lipolytica has been performed. One of the major issues encountered during this kind of process is foam formation, requiring a reduction of the overall oxygen transfer efficiency of the system in order to keep antifoam consumption to a reasonable level. A regulation strategy involving oxygen enrichment of the air flow through the reactor has allowed this issue to be partly overcome. For a second time, the scale dependency of the process operated with air enrichment has been investigated by a combination of scale-down and pilot-scale cultivation tests. The scale-down apparatus considered in this work comprised a well-mixed part connected to a plug-flow part subjected to dissolved oxygen limitation. Surprisingly, foaming intensity was greatly reduced in the case of the test performed in scale-down reactors (SDRs) while maintaining the same stirring and aeration intensities in the stirred part of the reactor. For mean residence time of 100 s in the recycle loop of the reactor, foam formation was significantly reduced while cell growth and lipase production were both unaltered. When the residence time in the recycle loop was raised to 200 s, the foam phenomena was also reduced, but the lipase yield was altered as well as lip2 gene transcription and translation as shown by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and reporter gene activity, respectively. Our results clearly show the importance of primarily taking into account cell physiology for the scaling-up procedure. PMID:21879355

Kar, Tambi; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank

2012-02-01

253

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

254

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

255

Bioreactor design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

Bowie, William

1987-01-01

256

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

2008-04-30

257

Enrichment of Plasticicumulans acidivorans at pilot-scale for PHA production on industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

A PHA producing microbial culture dominated by Plasticicumulans acidivorans was enriched in a pilot plant using fermented wastewater from the Mars candy bar factory. The pilot plant comprised (1) anaerobic fermentation, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community and (3) accumulation for maximization of the cellular PHA content. After anaerobic fermentation, the wastewater contained mainly VFAs (0.64±0.15gCOD/gCOD) and ethanol (0.22±0.13gCOD/gCOD). In the enrichment reactor (cycle 12h, SRT 24h) a feast-famine pattern was established with a feast phase of around 35±5min. The culture was able to accumulate 0.70±0.05gPHA/gVSS. The difference with previous lab-scale results from P. acidivorans, in which a PHA content of 0.90gPHA/gVSS was achieved, could be attributed to the presence of solids in the influent, the growth of a side population and the accumulation of non-PHA storage compounds that appeared to be related to ethanol consumption. PMID:25456060

Tamis, Jelmer; Lužkov, Kätlin; Jiang, Yang; Loosdrecht, Mark C M van; Kleerebezem, Robbert

2014-10-23

258

Pilot scale study on retrofitting conventional activated sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional activated sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-scale research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional activated sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system are discussed. PMID:10595443

Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C

1999-01-01

259

Pilot scale study and design of a granular activated carbon regeneration process using supercritical fluids  

SciTech Connect

A technology which has great potential for environmental control and waste remediation is contaminant removal and separation with supercritical fluids (SCF's) or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Pressure tuning of solvent power allows SCF processes to adapt to a wide variety of small batch oriented separations typified by environmental cleanup operations. The ability of supercritical CO[sub 2] to extract model contaminant compounds from GAC and subsequently drop out most of the contaminant in a liquid phase has been investigated in a pilot scale apparatus. Typical desorption profiles indicate an 85% removal of the compound from the carbon which allows for reuse. The desorption results have been interpreted with a generalized desorption-mass transfer model. The results of the pilot plant studies have been applied to the design of a fixed-site GAC regeneration unit consisting of a three-element desorber with two-stage flash separation. Optimization of the process centers around minimizing the cost of recycling the SCF through an efficient recompression scheme and cycle configuration in the desorber unit. An economic evaluation shows a processing cost of 10.6 cents/lb (23 cents/kg) GAC which compares favorably with thermal regeneration and incineration. This non-destructive process allows re-use of the GAC while maintaining a high adsorbate capacity, which reduces carbon replacement costs and significantly decreases the need for carbon disposal by landfill or incineration. 25 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Tomasko, D.L.; Hay, K.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Leman, G.W. (Cabot Corp., Tuscola, IL (United States)); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-08-01

260

Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant. PMID:23505813

John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

2011-10-01

261

Ph.D. viva voce examination of Mr. Vikrant Sarin ( 2005CHZ8243) Title : Wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor  

E-print Network

Ph.D. viva voce examination of Mr. Vikrant Sarin ( 2005CHZ8243) Title : Wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor Abstract Membrane Bioreactor combines membranes with biological processes for treatment involves using MBR Pilot Plant for studying the treat ability of Municipal Wastewater and Industrial

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

262

Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field?scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory?scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar

David Christian; Edmund Wong; Ronald L. Crawford; I. Francis Cheng; Thomas F. Hess

2010-01-01

263

Multiloop control of a pilot-scale membrane system for gas separations  

SciTech Connect

Membrane systems are preferred for many separations due to their low energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, cost effectiveness at low gas volumes, low maintenance costs, space and weight efficiency, and ease of operation. A multiloop control system for a pilot-scale membrane separation process is designed and evaluated. The process employs hollow fiber membrane modules and is representative of air separation systems in industry. The decentralized control system originally consists of five PID controllers which regulate feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure, suction pressure, and module temperature. This configuration yields poor performance as a result of interactions between the feed flow rate and feed pressure controllers. By disabling the flow rate controller and proper tuning of the remaining control loops, satisfactory control is achieved during 4 days of continuous operation.

Henson, M.A.; Koros, W.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01

264

Design and analysis of a pilot scale biofiltration system for odorous air  

SciTech Connect

Three pilot-scale biofilters and necessary peripheral equipment were built to clean odorous air from the pit of a swine gestation building at North Carolina State University. A computer measured temperatures, flow rates, and pressure drops. It also controlled and measured the moisture content of a biofilter medium comprised of a 3:1 mixture of yard waste compost to wood chips mixture (by volume). The system was evaluated to ensure that the biofilters would be useful for performing scientific experiments concerning the reduction of swine odor on future research projects. The capability of the biofilters to remove odor was measured using a cotton swatch absorption method and an odor panel. The average odor reductions measured by odor intensity, irritation intensity, and unpleasantness for five tests were 61%, 58%, and 84%, respectively. No significant differences in odor reduction performance were found between the biofilters.

Classen, J.J.; Young, J.S.; Bottcher, R.W.; Westerman, P.W.

2000-02-01

265

[Pilot-scale study on riparian mixed plant zones treating polluted river water].  

PubMed

The polluted river water is treated with pilot-scale riparian zones of no aquatic plant, Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants, and weed+ Typha angustifolia L. + Phragmites communis. It is shown that the vegetation water zones are better than the no vegetation water zone and Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants zone is the best in improving water quality. The average removals of the Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plant zone is 43.5% COD, 71.1% ammonia and 69.3% total phosphorus respectively. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature of effluents from the three water zones are also investigated. It shows that DO of effluent from the vegetation zones are more stable than that of effluent from the no vegetation zone, and the temperature of the effluent from the vegetation zones are lower than that from the no vegetation zones. The submerged plants have special role in water quality improvement, and should be studied further. PMID:16767981

Li, Rui-hua; Guan, Yun-tao; He, Miao; Hu, Hong-yin; Jiang, Zhan-peng

2006-04-01

266

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

SciTech Connect

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

267

Low frequency ultrasonic device Sonitube: A possible gate to pilot and industrial scale applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the first commercially available low frequency ultrasonic devices working on continuous mode, Sonitube®, is presented and described here below. This apparatus, unique in its design, is not only of an easy handling but also does require neither heavy maintenance nor high energy input. In addition the great advantage to work on continuous mode allows to foreseen potential pilot and even small scale industrial applications with flow-rates from 50 to 800L/h. Its potential has been so far explored in protein disaggregation, dispersion of aggregates and particles and transesterification processes. Here, some preliminary results done on biogas processing will be presented and discussed, highlighting the high potential of this device.

Leveque, J. M.; Duclaux, Laurent; Fontvieille, Dominique; Gondrexon, Nicolas; Vibert, Raphael; Perrier, Arnaud

2014-10-01

268

HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

1996-04-01

269

Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.  

PubMed

Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. PMID:25497055

Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

2015-02-01

270

Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.  

PubMed

The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5kgMg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6kgMg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP. PMID:25545090

Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

2015-03-01

271

Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

2007-09-28

272

Validation of a model for process development and scale-up of packed-bed solid-state bioreactors.  

PubMed

We have validated our previously described model for scale-up of packed-bed solid-state fermenters (Weber et al., 1999) with experiments in an adiabatic 15-dm(3) packed-bed reactor, using the fungi Coniothyrium minitans and Aspergillus oryzae. Effects of temperature on respiration, growth, and sporulation of the biocontrol fungus C. minitans on hemp impregnated with a liquid medium were determined in independent experiments, and the first two effects were translated into a kinetic model, which was incorporated in the material and energy balances of the packed-bed model. Predicted temperatures corresponded well with experimental results. As predicted, large amounts of water were lost due to evaporative cooling. With hemp as support no shrinkage was observed, and temperatures could be adequately controlled, both with C. minitans and A. oryzae. In experiments with grains, strong shrinkage of the grains was expected and observed. Nevertheless, cultivation of C. minitans on oats succeeded because this fungus did not form a tight hyphal network between the grains. However, cultivation of A. oryzae failed because shrinkage combined with the strong hyphal network formed by this fungus resulted in channeling, local overheating of the bed, and very inhomogeneous growth of the fungus. For cultivation of C. minitans on oats and for cultivation of A. oryzae on wheat and hemp, no kinetic models were available. Nevertheless, the enthalpy and water balances gave accurate temperature predictions when online measurements of oxygen consumption were used as input. The current model can be improved by incorporation of (1) gas-solids water and heat transfer kinetics to account for deviations from equilibrium observed with fast-growing fungi such as A. oryzae, and (2) the dynamic response of the fungus to changes in temperature, which were neglected in the isothermal kinetic experiments. PMID:11787011

Weber, Frans J; Oostra, Jaap; Tramper, Johannes; Rinzema, Arjen

2002-02-15

273

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11

274

Investigation of performance, noise and detectability characteristics of small-scale remotely piloted vehicle /RPV/ propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several small-scale propeller configurations, applicable to a conceptual remotely piloted vehicle, were tested under static and simulated forward flight conditions in a wind tunnel to determine their performance, acoustic, and detectability characteristics. The propellers tested had tractor, pusher, and ducted configurations, designed to develop 4 thrust horsepower at a cruise speed of 75 knots at 4000 ft altitude and 95 F. The acoustic data were used to determine the slant range and altitude of no detection of each propeller configuration. The acoustic and detectability characteristics of small-scale propellers were found to be significantly different from those of the large-scale propellers; this is explained by low disk loading or the low operating Reynolds numbers of the propellers. An increase in forward velocity caused a significant drop in SPLs at higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Tip speed had a strong effect on noise and detectability in forward flight: most of the propellers were detected at either the first or second harmonic of their blade passage frequency. Three-bladed propellers were generally less detectable than twoor four-bladed propellers for most of the forward velocities. Finally, ducted and pusher propeller configurations were more detectable and less efficient than their free and tractor counterparts.

Janakiram, D. S.; Scruggs, B. W.

1981-10-01

275

Pilot scale fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using sieving and air classification.  

PubMed

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the coproduct of fuel ethanol production from cereal grains like corn, is mainly used as cattle feed and is used at low inclusion levels in poultry and swine diets because of high fiber content. Elusieve process, the combination of sieving and air classification (elutriation), was developed in laboratory scale to separate fiber from DDGS to result in a low fiber product which would be more suitable for poultry and swine. In this pilot scale study, DDGS was sieved at a rate of 0.25 kg/s (1 ton/h) into four sieve fractions using a sifter and the three largest sieve fractions were air classified using aspirators to separate fiber on a continuous basis. Results were similar to laboratory scale. Nearly 12.4% by weight of DDGS was separated as Fiber product and resulted in two high protein products that had low fiber contents. Payback period for the Elusieve process in an existing dry grind plant processing corn at the rate of 2030 metric tonnes/day (80,000 bushels/day) would be 1.1 yr. PMID:19329305

Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; To, Filip; Columbus, Eugene

2009-07-01

276

Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

Swanstrom, C.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Besmer, M. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-03-09

277

SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF TRACE METALS IN FLUE GAS PARTICULATE FROM A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The distributions of nine trace metals in flue gas particulate by particle size range were determined as part of a pilot-scale hazardous waste incineration test program. hese tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incinerator system at the U.S. EPA's Incineration Research Facili...

278

Development and Validation of a Pilot Scale Enhanced Biosafety Level Two Containment for Performance Evaluation of Produce Disinfection Technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development and validation of the enhanced Biosafety Level Two containment system located at the produce pilot plant facility of the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Eastern Regional Research Center is presented. This multi-purpose containment is used to enclose commercial-scale processing equi...

279

INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

280

Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Owczarski, P.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-01

281

RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1189 Ferguson*, T.D., Chen, A.S.C., and Stencel, N. Recycling a Nonionic Aqueous-Based Metal-Cleaning Solution with a Ceramic Membrane: Pilot Scale Evaluation. Published in: Environmental Progress 20 (2):123-132 (2001). The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) ...

282

CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION SOURCES: FIELD EVALUATIONS OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot scale air pollution control devices supplied by Hydro-Sonic Systems, ETS, Inc., and Vulcan Engineering Company were installed at the ENSCO, Inc. Incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas, in the spring of 1984. Each of these units treated an uncontrolled slipstream of the incinera...

283

Towards direct potable reuse with forward osmosis: Technical assessment of long-term process performance at the pilot scale  

E-print Network

Towards direct potable reuse with forward osmosis: Technical assessment of long-term process 26 April 2013 Available online 23 May 2013 Keywords: Forward osmosis Osmotic dilution Reverse osmosis the performance of forward osmosis (FO) at the pilot scale to achieve simultaneous seawater desalination

284

RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

285

Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Pilot-Scale Warehouses Treated with B-Cyfluthrin: Are Residual Insecticides and Trapping Compatible?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...

286

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BROMINE AND CHLORINE IN A PILOT-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR (EPA/600/A-96/066)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses experiments that were performed in a 73-kW pilot-scale rotary-kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73-kW secondary combustion chamber during which a complex organic mixture containing bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) was incinerated. Detailed measurements ...

287

PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

288

A PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE PRECURSORS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF MIXED BROMO-CHLORO DIOXINS AND FURANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of experiments in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected fly-ash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products...

289

Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass yielded the lowest tar concentration (1.6 g/Nm 3). High-temperature and low-pressure conditions achieved the highest carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies of 91 and 94%, respectively. In addition, a relatively new method for monitoring hydrodynamic conditions in fluidized bed reactors using high-frequency bed pressure fluctuation measurement was demonstrated. This method proved capable of being used as a fluidized bed diagnostic method under reactive conditions.

Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

290

An innovative coupled solar-biological system at field pilot scale for the treatment of biorecalcitrant pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of recent works (1998–2002) coupling Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) and Biological systems for wastewater treatment confirms the beneficial effects of such two-steps treatment at lab scale. In this paper, an innovative coupled solar-biological system at field pilot scale was designed, builds, and experimental results are presented. The strategy to develop this system implicates the choice of the most

Victor Sarria; Siméon Kenfack; Olivier Guillod; César Pulgarin

2003-01-01

291

NASA Bioreactor Schematic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

292

NASA Classroom Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

Scully, Robert

2004-01-01

293

Pilot-scale aerated submerged biofilm reactor for organics removal and nitrification at cold temperatures.  

PubMed

This research describes pilot-scale experiments for efficient removal of dissolved organic and nitrogen compounds in domestic wastewater using aerated submerged biofilm (ASBF) reactors. These reactors could enhance the performance of shallow wastewater treatment lagoons through the addition of specially designed structures. The structures are designed to encourage the growth of a nitrifying bacterial biofilm on a submerged surface. They also force the direct contact of rising air bubbles against the submerged biofilm. This direct gas-phase contact is postulated to increase the oxygen transfer rate into the biofilm and increase the microclimate mixing of water, nutrients, and waste products into and out of the biofilm. This research investigated the efficiency of dissolved organic matter and ammonia-nitrogen removals. Specifically, the effects of cold temperatures on the dissolved organic matter and ammonia-nitrogen performance of the ASBF pilot plant (see Figure 1) was investigated for the batch system. Over a period of 3.5 months, a total of 11 batch runs were performed. By the fourth run, the biofilm had matured to the point that it consumed all the ammonia in 40 hours. On the ninth run, the air supply was left off as a control run. This time, the ammonia was barely consumed, with the level dropping from 24 to 18 mg/L in 40 hours. By the middle of December, the average water temperature during the runs had dropped to approximately 6 degrees C and, at one point, was as low as 3.3 degrees C. The biofilm continued to perform even at these low temperatures, reducing ammonia levels from approximately 25 mg/L to basically zero within 40 to 48 hours. PMID:18536479

Choi, Youngik; Johnson, Kraig; Hayes, Donald; Xu, Hua

2008-04-01

294

Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover  

PubMed Central

Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5%?±?1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction conditions using deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings and identified an optimum reaction condition was selected and used in a series of integrated pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production campaigns. Additionally, several issues exist to be considered in future pretreatment experiments in continuous reactor systems, including the formation of char within the reactor, as well as practical issues with feeding herbaceous feedstock into pressurized systems. PMID:24548527

2014-01-01

295

Fuel-grade ethanol transport and impacts to groundwater in a pilot-scale aquifer tank.  

PubMed

Fuel-grade ethanol (76L of E95, 95%v/v ethanol, 5%v/v hydrocarbon mixture as a denaturant) was released at the water table in an 8150-L continuous-flow tank packed with fine-grain masonry sand. Ethanol, which is buoyant and hygroscopic, quickly migrated upwards and spread laterally in the capillary zone. Horizontal migration of ethanol occurred through a shallow thin layer with minimal vertical dispersion, and was one order of magnitude slower than the preceding bromide tracer. Dyes, one hydrophobic (Sudan-IV) and one hydrophilic (Fluorescein) provided evidence that the fuel hydrocarbons phase separated from the E95 mixture as ethanol was diluted by pore water and its cosolvent effect was diminished. Most of the added ethanol (98%) was recovered in the effluent wells that captured the flow through the high water content regions above the water table. Complementary bench-scale 2-D visualization experiments with E95 confirmed hydrocarbon phase separation, residual NAPL formation and migration within the capillary fringe. These results corroborate previous bench-scale studies showing that ethanol has high affinity for vadose-zone pore water and can migrate through the capillary zone. The pilot-scale tank experiment provides the first hydrocarbon and ethanol concentration measurements (and thus, quantification of impacts to groundwater quality) from a subsurface spill of E95 in a well-characterized system with a well-defined source. It also provides the first quantitative near-field-scale evidence that capillarity can significantly retard the vertical dispersion and horizontal advection of ethanol. Such effects could be important determinants of the extent of ethanol migration and longevity as well as groundwater impacts. PMID:17126874

Cápiro, Natalie L; Stafford, Brent P; Rixey, William G; Bedient, Philip B; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2007-02-01

296

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION  

SciTech Connect

Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

2000-12-01

297

Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters.  

PubMed

Tannery operations consist of converting raw animal skins into leather through a series of complex water- and chemically-intensive batch processes. Even when conventional primary treatment is supplemented with chemicals, the wastewater requires some form of biological treatment to enable the safe disposal to the natural environment. Thus, there is a need for the adoption of low cost, reliable, and easy-to-operate alternative secondary treatment processes. This paper reports the findings of two pilot-scale wetlands for the secondary treatment of primary effluents from a full tannery operation in terms of resilience (i.e., ability to produce consistent effluent quality in spite of variable influent loads) and reliability (i.e., ability to cope with sporadic shock loads) when treating this hazardous effluent. Areal mass removal rates of 77.1 g COD/m2/d, 11 g TSS/m2/d, and 53 mg Cr/m2/d were achieved with a simple gravity-flow horizontal subsurface flow unit operating at hydraulic loading rates of as much as 10 cm/d. Based on the findings, a full-scale wetland was sized to treat all the effluent from the tannery requiring 68% more land than would have been assumed based on literature values. Constructed wetlands can offer treatment plant resilience for minimum operational input and reliable effluent quality when biologically treating primary effluents from tannery operations. PMID:22999657

Dotro, Gabriela; Castro, Silvana; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Piovano, Nancy; Paris, Marta; Faggi, Ana; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel; Fitch, Mark

2012-11-15

298

Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.  

PubMed

Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species. PMID:16259427

Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

2005-09-01

299

Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies. PMID:18850276

Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

2008-01-01

300

Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.  

PubMed

Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 ?g/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 ?g Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale. PMID:23089728

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

2013-01-10

301

Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure. PMID:24995285

Ragothaman, Anjani; Feinstein, Wei; Jha, Shantenu; Kim, Joohyun

2014-01-01

302

Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. PMID:24762696

Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

2014-06-15

303

Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor  

DOEpatents

A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

Klein, David L. (Palo Alto, CA); Laidlaw, Robert D. (Albany, CA); Andronaco, Gregory (Palo Alto, CA); Boyer, Stephen G. (Moss Beach, CA)

2010-12-14

304

Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.  

PubMed

This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (?2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (?2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (?2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months. PMID:25342265

Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

2015-01-01

305

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

306

A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.  

PubMed

This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef. PMID:17067125

Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

2006-09-01

307

PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2 area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales (e.g., provinces/states), what factors constrain effective implementation? First, high tra

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

2009-09-01

308

Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.  

PubMed

This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 ?g/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

2014-07-01

309

Process challenges relating to hematopoietic stem cell cultivation in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are extremely useful in treating a wide range of diseases and have a variety of useful research\\u000a applications. However, the routinely generated low in vitro concentrations of HSCs from current bioreactor manufacturing systems\\u000a has been a hindrance to the full-scale application of these essential cellular materials. This has made the search for novel\\u000a bioreactor systems for

Marcin Kowalczyk; Kathryn Waldron; Penia Kresnowati; Michael K. Danquah

2011-01-01

310

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperatuare is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of tow hgih-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide.

SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

311

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture  

E-print Network

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture of hematopoietic stem cell HSC cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells

Meinhart, Carl

312

Translating research into MCH service: comparison of a pilot project and a large-scale resource mothers program.  

PubMed Central

This study examines the process and effect of translating a pilot research project into a large-scale service program. In a pilot resource mothers program for pregnant teenagers, participants had fewer low birth weight infants than teenagers in the comparison group. In the corresponding large-scale service program, a similarly positive effect on low birth weight was not seen. In an effort to understand how these differences occurred, the evaluation methodologies and key characteristics that describe the background, infrastructure, components, and service providers of the two projects were compared. Important differences between the pilot project and the service program were seen in funding stability, diversity of staff, community versus health department ownership of the program, caseloads, and levels of training and supervision. It seems probable that these differences brought about changes in the intensity and character of the intervention from the pilot to the service program, leading to a reduction of the intervention's efficacy in reducing the number of low birth weight infants. The implications of these findings for researchers and program planners are discussed. PMID:7480610

Rogers, M M; Peoples-Sheps, M D; Sorenson, J R

1995-01-01

313

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperature is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of two high-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide. The economics for plants processing 40 tpd sewage sludge solids augmented with grease trap waste are favorable over a significant range of cost parameters such as sludge disposal credit and capital financing. Hydrogen production costs for SWPO plants of this size are projected to be about $3/GJ or less. Economics may be further improved by future developments such as pumping of higher solids content sludges and improved gasifier nozzle designs to reduce char and improve hydrogen yields. The easiest market entry for SWPO is expected to be direct sales to municipal wastewater treatment plants for use with sewage sludge in conjunction with trap grease, as both of these wastes are ubiquitous and have reasonably well-defined negative value (i.e., the process can take credit for reduction of well-defined disposal costs for these streams). Additionally, waste grease is frequently recovered at municipal wastewater treatment plants where it is already contaminated with sewage. SWPO should also be favorable to other market applications in which low or negative value, high water content biomass is available in conjunction with a low or negative value fuel material. For biomass slurries primary candidates are sewage sludge, manure sludge, and shredded and/or composted organic municipal solid waste (MSW) slurries. For the high heating value stream primary candidates are trap grease, waste plastic or rubber slurries, and coal or coke slurries. Phase II of the SWPO program will be focused on verifying process improvements identified during Phase I, and then performing extended duration testing with the GA pilot plant. Tests of at least 1

SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

314

Kinetics of hydrocarbon and pesticide removal from clay soils during thermal treatment in a pilot-scale rotary kiln  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated clay soils during thermal treatment in rotary kilns were studied experimentally, and kinetic parameters were obtained for simple first-order models. Results are given for seven hydrocarbons: toluene, naphthalene, n-hexadecane, lindane ({gamma}-HCH or 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (1,1{prime}-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), DDD (1,1{prime}-(2,2-dichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene). The activation energies ranged from 18 kJ/mol for toluene on wet soil, to 90 kJ/mol for the chlorinated pesticides. All the kinetic data were obtained in a 130 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln. The wall temperature of the kiln was 700 C for the pesticides. Three of the hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene and n-hexadecane, were studied on both wet soil (5.0 and 8.5 wt%) and on oven-dried soil at temperatures ranging from 300 to 650 C in order to understand better the effects of water on desorption rates. Water increases the rate of desorption of toluene but decreases the rates for the heavier compounds. The pilot-scale data and correlations should be useful to those who are operating and/or designing rotary kilns to remediate soils thermally. A methodology for taking pilot-scale results and using them to estimate full-scale performance is given.

Silcox, G.D.; Larsen, F.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering; Owens, W.D. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choroszy-Marshall, M. [Ciba-Geigy Corp., Tarrytown, NY (United States)] [Ciba-Geigy Corp., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

315

Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (?87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium. PMID:25459842

Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

2014-10-29

316

Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect

A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2007-10-15

317

Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.  

PubMed

The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. PMID:25233473

Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

2014-11-01

318

Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

PubMed Central

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

319

Microbial community structure of a pilot-scale thermophilic anaerobic digester treating poultry litter.  

PubMed

The microbial community structure of a stable pilot-scale thermophilic continuous stirred tank reactor digester stabilized on poultry litter was investigated. This 40-m(3) digester produced biogas with 57% methane, and chemical oxygen demand removal of 54%. Bacterial and archaeal diversity were examined using both cloning and pyrosequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial community was dominated by phylum Firmicutes, constituting 93% of the clones and 76% of the pyrotags. Of the Firmicutes, class Clostridia (52% pyrotags) was most abundant followed by class Bacilli (13% pyrotags). The bacterial libraries identified 94 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and pyrosequencing identified 577 OTUs at the 97% minimum similarity level. Fifteen OTUs were dominant (?2% abundance), and nine of these were novel unclassified Firmicutes. Several of the dominant OTUs could not be classified more specifically than Clostridiales, but were most similar to plant biomass degraders, including Clostridium thermocellum. Of the rare pyrotag OTUs (<0.5% abundance), 75% were Firmicutes. The dominant methanogen was Methanothermobacter which has hydrogenotrophic metabolism, and accounted for >99% of the archaeal clones. Based on the primary methanogen, as well as digester chemistry (high VA and ammonia levels), we propose that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in this digester for the control of acetate levels. PMID:23989973

Smith, Ami M; Sharma, Deepak; Lappin-Scott, Hilary; Burton, Sara; Huber, David H

2014-03-01

320

Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease trap waste.  

PubMed

The maximum feasible loading rate of grease trap waste (GTW) to the municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) was investigated using two 1300 L pilot-scale (1200 L active volume) digesters under mesophilic conditions at a 20 day solids retention time. During the co-digestion, the test reactor received a mixture of GTW and MWS while the control reactor received only MWS. The test digester loading was increased incrementally to a maximum of 280% of the control digester COD loading. The highest feasible GTW loading was determined to be 23% and 58% in terms of its total 1.58 kg VS/(m(3) d) and 3.99 kg COD/(m(3) d) loadings, respectively. This test digester COD loading represented 240% of the control digester COD loading. At this loading, test digester biogas production was 67% greater than that of the control. During the test digester quasi steady state loading period when VS from GTW represented 19% of its total VS loading, the test digester COD and VS removal rates were 2.5 and 1.5 fold those of the control digester, respectively. The test digester biogas production declined markedly when the percentage of VS from GTW in its feed was increased to 30% of its total VS loading. Causes of the reduced biogas production were investigated and attributed to inhibition due to long chain fatty acid accumulation. PMID:23583789

Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D; Malik, Shahid; Katalambula, Hassan

2013-07-15

321

Two-step pilot-scale biofilter system for the abatement of food waste composting emission.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale two-step biofilter system was evaluated in treating food waste composting emission for 220 days. Wood chips were packed at the bottom section while mixture of rock wool and earthworm compost (6% w/v) was packed at the top section. Inlet ammonia concentration was found to be dominant and intermittent. The overall ammonia removal of over 98% was achieved, 70% of which was removed in the wood chip section. The highest ammonia elimination capacity was determined to be 39.43 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h at 99.5% removal efficiency. From biodegradation kinetic analysis, the maximum removal rate, V(m), of the wood chip section was determined to be 200 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and the saturation constant, K(s), 180 mg/m(3). For the rock wool-earthworm cast mixture section, the V(m) was 87 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and K(s) was 87 mg/m(3). Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide and most trace compounds were achieved by the biofilter. Highest hydrogen sulfide elimination rate was 0.22 g-H(2)S/m(3)/h. The biofilter was optimized from 24 to 16 s EBRT with resulting low average pressure drops of 16 and 29 mm H(2)O/m, respectively. PMID:18273747

Galera, Melvin Maaliw; Cho, Eulsaeng; Kim, Yekyung; Farnazo, Danvir; Park, Shin-Jung; Oh, Young-Sook; Park, Jae Kyu; Chung, Wook-Jin

2008-03-01

322

Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.  

PubMed

This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. PMID:23995560

Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

2013-10-15

323

A semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying soybean (Glycine max) lectin.  

PubMed

Availability of gram quantities of purified soybean lectin (SBL) to scientists will foster discovery of novel biomedical applications of the lectin and provide the opportunity to investigate the antinutritional effects of SBL in soybean-consuming food animals and poultry. Therefore, a semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying SBL was designed. Defatted soyflour was extracted overnight with 0.9% NaCl at 4 degrees C. The extract obtained was filtered (0.45 microm membrane) and subjected to affinity chromatography using a column containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine resin that is specific for SBL. Bound SBL was eluted off the column with 0.14 M galactose solution. The eluent was ultrafiltered (30 kDa), and the resulting solution (SBL and water) was freeze-dried. Electrophoretic analysis and hemagglutination assay revealed that the freeze-dried SBL was similar to Sigma-grade SBL in purity and activity (35 and 33 HU/mg protein, respectively). The procedure yielded 141 mg of SBL/100 g of soyflour. PMID:14705873

Fasina, Yewande O; Swaisgood, Harold E; Garlich, Jim D; Classen, Henry L

2003-07-30

324

Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3?h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20?mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

2015-01-01

325

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

SciTech Connect

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15

326

Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis  

PubMed Central

This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year. PMID:16535401

Cantafio, A. W.; Hagen, K. D.; Lewis, G. E.; Bledsoe, T. L.; Nunan, K. M.; Macy, J. M.

1996-01-01

327

Assessing struvite precipitation in a pilot-scale fluidized bed crystallizer.  

PubMed

The recovery of phosphates from biological wastewater treatment plants, through struvite crystallization, minimizes operational downtime and offers the potential for cost-effective recovery. The pilot-scale, fluidized bed reactor developed at the University of British Columbia (UBC) was found to be effective in recovering phosphate in the form of nearly pure struvite product, from an anaerobic digester centrate. The desired degree of phosphate removal was achieved by maintaining operating pH 8.0-8.2, and recycle ratio 5-9, to control the supersaturation conditions inside the reactor. The performance of the system was found to be optimal when the in-reactor supersaturation ratio was 2-6. In-reactor magnesium to phosphate molar ratio was found to be an important parameter to maintain system performance. In-reactor ammonium to phosphate molar ratio was also found to maintain a good correlation with phosphate removal. The influence of organic ligands on the struvite precipitation was investigated for a small molecular weight organic ligand, acetate, using a chemical equilibrium model PHREEQC. An acetate concentration below about 100 mg l(-1) was not found to affect the precipitation potential of struvite. Calcium and carbonate ion did not have any noticeable effect in struvite crystallization of struvite, under the operational concentrations utilized. Since the precipitation of calcium and carbonate compounds was controlled by kinetic factors, rather than thermodynamic solubility alone, the solid precipitates harvested were pure struvite, with undetectable impurities. PMID:18975848

Iqbal, M; Bhuiyan, H; Mavinic, D S

2008-11-01

328

Nitrate-based bioremediation of JP-4 jet fuel: Pilot-scale demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented for the first 4.5 months of operation of a pilot-scale treatment demonstration on nitrate-based bioremediation at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Two 30-m x 30-m treatment cells were delineated for treatment, one of which receives recharge amended to yield 10 to 20 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N and the other which receives no amendments. Application is by sprinklers at 11 gpm/cell. Movement of tracers and nitrate were monitored routinely through the use of both fully-penetrating wells and cluster wells. In the centers of both treatment cells, the tracers have penetrated to beneath the lower contaminated regions located 3 m beneath ground surface, 2.1 to 2.4 m below the water table. In the nitrate treatment cell, nitrate has also penetrated to this depth, but concentrations have decreased rapidly relative to the tracer at all depths. Lysimeter data show that about half of the applied nitrate is contacting the contaminated zone. Although total contaminant concentrations have not declined with nitrate addition to date, water quality analyses show some preferential degradation of labile compounds in the nitrate cell. Radiolabel microcosm studies confirm mineralization of toluene and m-xylene under denitrifying conditions. Part of the system has been modified to minimize vegetative uptake of nitrate.

Hutchins, S.R.; Miller, D.E.; Beck, F.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States). R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab.; Thomas, A. [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Williams, S.E. [Environmental Restoration Program, Eglin AFB, FL (United States); Willis, G.D. [EA Engineering, Science and Technology, Shalimar, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

329

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

2012-01-01

330

Ammonium removal from groundwater using a zeolite permeable reactive barrier: a pilot-scale demonstration.  

PubMed

In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal. PMID:25401319

Li, Shengpin; Huang, Guoxin; Kong, Xiangke; Yang, Yingzhao; Liu, Fei; Hou, Guohua; Chen, Honghan

2014-01-01

331

A pilot-scale homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides.  

PubMed

This paper reported a new, green and effective extraction technique for polysaccharides, namely homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction (HNPCE), which succeeded in the extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides (APs). Central composite design and kinetic model were applied to optimize the extraction conditions, and the optimal parameters were obtained as follows: homogenization time 70s, negative pressure -0.068MPa, extraction temperature 64.8°C, ratio of water to material 13.4 and extraction time 53min. The proposed method exhibited considerable predominance in terms of higher APs yield (16.74%) with much lower temperature and shorter duration, as against the reported hot water extraction method (14.33% of APs yield with 100°C and 3h). Moreover, FT-IR results showed that HNPCE method did not alter the primary structure of polysaccharides. Furthermore, the pilot-scale application of HNPCE was successfully performed with 16.62% of APs yield. Thus, HNPCE is an excellent alternative method for the extraction of polysaccharides from Astragalus or other plant materials in industry. PMID:24661891

Jiao, Jiao; Wei, Fu-Yao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

2014-06-01

332

[Formation and characterization of aerobic granules in a pilot-scale reactor for real wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

Microbial granules were successfully developed in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of real municipal wastewater. The aerobic granules developed had good settleability with a settling velocity of > 21 mh-1. The mature granular sludge was capable of simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). With the cycle of 3 h, the effluent COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH+4 -N) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were <50 mg L-1, <5. 0 mg L-1, and <15 mgL-1, respectively. The removal efficiency for TN and total phosphorus (TP) was about 50%. Examinations by confocallaser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were uniformly distributed throughout the granules, forming the granule structure matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the presence of SiO2 and other metal oxides inside aerobic granules, implying that minerals in real wastewater might function as the seed in the initial stage of aerobic granulation. PMID:25055677

Yang, Shu-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zou, Gao-Long; Du, Zhi-Li

2014-05-01

333

Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

2014-01-01

334

Pilot-Scale Test of Counter-Current Ion Exchange (CCIX) Using UOP IONSIV IE-911  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test of a moving-bed configuration of a UOP IONSIV? IE-911 ion-exchange column was performed over 17 days at Severn Trent Services facilities. The objectives of the test, in order of priority, were to determine if aluminosilicate precipitation caused clumping of IE-911 particles in the column, to observe the effect on aluminum-hydroxide precipitation of water added to a simulant-filled column, to evaluate the extent of particle attrition, and to measure the expansion of the mass-transfer zone under the influence of column pulsing. The IE-911 moved through the column with no apparent clumping during the test, although analytical results indicate that little if any aluminosilicate precipitated onto the particles. A precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was not produced when water was added to the simulant-filled column, indicating that this upset scenario is probably of little concern. Particle-size distributions remained relatively constant with time and position in the column, indicating that particle attrition was not significant. The expansion of the mass-transfer zone could not be accurately measured because of the slow loading kinetics of the IE-911 and the short duration of the test; however, the information obtained indicates that back-mixing of sorbent is not extensive.

Wester, Dennis W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fondeur, Fernando (Savannah River Technology Center); Dennis, Richard (Severn Trent Services); Pike, Jeff (Westinghouse Savannah River Company); Leugemors, Robert K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Taylor, Paul W. (SONALYSTS); Hang, Thong (Savannah River Technology Center)

2001-09-24

335

Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

336

Quality and quantity of leachate in aerobic pilot-scale landfills.  

PubMed

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3(-)-N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3(-) concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor. PMID:16788857

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

337

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

338

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach. J Cell Mol Med. Jul

Schüler, Axel

339

NASA Bioreactor tissue culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

340

Monitoring wolves ( Canis lupus ) by non-invasive genetics and camera trapping: a small-scale pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring populations of elusive large carnivores like wolves (Canis lupus), which are often distributed at low density in widespread forested areas, is difficult or exceedingly expensive. Aiming\\u000a to assess the power of two indirect monitoring methods, non-invasive genetic sampling and camera trapping, we designed a small-scale\\u000a pilot study that was carried out from 2006 to 2008 in and around the

Marco Galaverni; Davide Palumbo; Elena Fabbri; Romolo Caniglia; Claudia Greco; Ettore Randi

341

Isolation and purification of egg yolk phospholipids using liquid extraction and pilot-scale supercritical fluid techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg yolk is an excellent source of phospholipids. Egg yolk powder (EYP) contains about 60% lipids, which consist of, on average,\\u000a neutral lipids (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). The utilization of supercritical fluid techniques is a new\\u000a way to selectively extract and fractionate non-polar and slightly polar components from foods and food products. In this study,\\u000a we developed pilot-scale

Heikki Aro; Eila P. Järvenpää; Karoliina Könkö; Mikko Sihvonen; Veli Hietaniemi; Rainer Huopalahti

2009-01-01

342

Ammonia and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite- oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA (rDNA))

John M. Regan; Gregory W. Harrington; Daniel R. Noguera

2002-01-01

343

An Experimental Investigation of the Wall Deposition of Milk Powder in a Pilot-Scale Spray Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale, co-current spray dryer has been used to investigate the effect of varying the swirl vane angle for the inlet air, inlet air temperature and liquid feed flowrate on the wall deposition flux of skim milk powder. The spray dryer was a cylinder-on-cone unit with a diameter of 0.8 m and a height of 2 m. It was fitted with adjustable

L. Ozmen; T. A. G. Langrish

2003-01-01

344

Unconverted chars obtained during biomass gasification on a pilot-scale gasifier as a source of activated carbon production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification was used to produce activated carbon on a pilot-scale fluidised-bed gasifier. The feedstock included both biomass alone and biomass mixed with coal and coal\\/granulated plastic wastes. This paper reports the results obtained from four different runs undertaken under various conditions of fuel supply, different ratios of steam\\/air for the gasification and temperature. These conditions were selected because they

A Garc??a-Garc??a; A Gregório; C Franco; F Pinto; D Boavida; I Gulyurtlu

2003-01-01

345

Microbial adaptation to biodegrade toxic organic micro-pollutants in membrane bioreactor using different sludge sources.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of toxic organic micro-pollutants in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate by membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR systems were seeded with different sludge sources, one was from a pilot-scale MBR system treating MSW leachate and the other was from an activated sludge sewage treatment plant. The biodegradation of BPA, 2,6-DTBP, BHT, DEP, DBP and DEHP, DCP and BBzP, by sludge from both reactors were found improved with time. However, enhanced biodegradation of micro-pollutants was observed in MBR operated under long sludge age condition. Bacterial population analyses determined by PCR-DGGE revealed the development of phenol and phthalate degrading bacteria consortium in MBR sludge during its operation. PMID:24791712

Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

2014-08-01

346

DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

347

Applicability of passive compost bioreactors for treatment of extremely acidic and saline waters in semi-arid climates.  

PubMed

Extremely acidic and saline groundwater occurs naturally in south-western Australia. Discharge of this water to surface waters has increased following extensive clearing of native vegetation for agriculture and is likely to have negative environmental impacts. The use of passive treatment systems to manage the acidic discharge and its impacts is complicated by the region's semi-arid climate with hot dry summers and resulting periods of no flow. This study evaluates the performance of a pilot-scale compost bioreactor treating extremely acidic and saline drainage under semi-arid climatic conditions over a period of 2.5 years. The bioreactor's substrate consisted of municipal waste organics (MWO) mixed with 10 wt% recycled limestone. After the start-up phase the compost bioreactor raised the pH from ?3.7 to ?7 and produced net alkaline outflow for 126 days. The bioreactor removed up to 28 g/m(2)/d CaCO3 equivalent of acidity and acidity removal was found to be load dependent during the first and third year. Extended drying over summer combined with high salinity caused the formation of a salt-clay surface layer on top of the substrate, which was both beneficial and detrimental for bioreactor performance. The surface layer prevented the dehydration of the substrate and ensured it remained waterlogged when the water level in the bioreactor fell below the substrate surface in summer. However, when flow resumed the salt-clay layer acted as a barrier between the water and substrate decreasing performance efficiency. Performance increased again when the surface layer was broken up indicating that the negative climatic impacts can be managed. Based on substrate analysis after 1.5 years of operation, limestone dissolution was found to be the dominant acidity removal process contributing up to 78-91% of alkalinity generation, while bacterial sulfate reduction produced at least 9-22% of the total alkalinity. The substrate might last up to five years before the limestone is exhausted and would need to be replenished. The MWO substrate was found to release metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr) and cannot be recommended for use in passive treatment systems unless the risk of metal release is addressed. PMID:24602863

Biermann, Vera; Lillicrap, Adam M; Magana, Claudia; Price, Barry; Bell, Richard W; Oldham, Carolyn E

2014-05-15

348

Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation  

E-print Network

numerous pilot plant and laboratory items. To my fellow graduate students, Andrew Moody, Zhihong Fu, Rocio Sierra, Maxine Jones, Stanley Coleman, Andrea Forrest, Kristina Golub, Michael Landoll, Matthew Falls, Sebastian Taco, and Daniel Meysing I am...

Smith, Aaron Douglas

2011-08-08

349

Minimization of carbon losses in pilot-scale outdoor photobioreactors by model-based predictive control.  

PubMed

The optimization of carbon use in pilot-scale outdoor tubular photobioreactors is investigated in this study. The behavior of a 0.20-m(3) tubular photobioreactor was studied, with and without algae, by steady-state and pulse dynamic-response analysis experiments. A model of the system was obtained and implemented in a programmable control unit and was used to control the reactor under normal production conditions. Results showed that, using and on-off control, the mean daily CO(2) flow in the reactor was 0.86 g min(-1), 19.7% of this being lost. By using a predictive control algorithm the mean daily CO(2) flow was reduced to 0.74 g min(-1), with losses being reduced to 15.6%. In this case, pH tracking was not adequate, especially at the beginning and end of the daylight period, because the variation in solar irradiance was not considered. Taking solar irradiance into account resulted in better performance, with mean daily CO(2) flow reduced to 0.70 g min(-1), and carbon losses reduced to 5.5%. pH tracking was improved and valve actuation was reduced. Improvement of pH control reduced pH gradients in the culture, which increased the photosynthesis rate and biomass productivity of the system. Biomass productivity increased from 1.28 to 1.48 g L(-1) day-(1) when on-off control was replaced by model-based predictive control plus solar irradiance effect mode. Implementation of this methodology in outdoor photobioreactors can increase productivity by 15% and reduce the cost of producing biomass by >6%. Clearly, application of effective control techniques, such as model-based predictive control (MPC), must be considered when developing these processes. PMID:14574687

García Sánchez, J L; Berenguel, M; Rodríguez, F; Fernández Sevilla, J M; Brindley Alias, C; Acién Fernández, F G

2003-12-01

350

Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNO{sub 3}), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with outside dimensions of 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m (4 x 4 x 4 ft) operated in an up-flow mode. The units were configured in parallel during the first eight months and then reconfigured to two parallel systems of two units in series. Air flux values ranged from 0.29 to 1.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per min. Inlet total petroleum hydrogen hydrocarbon (TPH{sub gas}) concentrations ranged from 310 to 2,700 mg/m{sup 3}. The average empty bed contact time was 2.2 min. Following start-up, performance of the individual biofilters varied considerably for a seven-month period. The principal factor affecting performance appeared to be bed moisture content. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals reached 90% for short periods in one unit, and BTEX removals were typically above 90%. Drying resulted in channeling and loss of bed activity. Management of bed moisture content improved over the study period, and recovery of system performance was achieved without replacement of bed media. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals exceeded 90% during the final 50 days of the study.

Wright, W.F.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Romstad, K. [Environmental Resolutions, Inc., Novato, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

351

Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.  

PubMed

This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two. PMID:23453195

Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

2013-05-01

352

Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 microg l(-1)) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions. PMID:20237512

Xu, Meiying; Wu, Wei-Min; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; Luo, Jian; Carley, Jack; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Gentry, Terry J; Gu, Baouhua; Watson, David; Jardine, Philip M; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M; Hazen, Terry; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-08-01

353

A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

2012-05-01

354

Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

Jankura, B.J.

1995-11-01

355

Scale-up of anaerobic 1,3-propanediol production by Clostridium butyricum DSP1 from crude glycerol  

PubMed Central

Background As the production of biofuels from raw materials continuously increases, optimization of production processes is necessary. A very important issue is the development of wasteless methods of biodiesel production. One way of utilization of glycerol generated in biodiesel production is its microbial conversion to 1,3-PD (1,3-propanediol). Results The study investigated the scale-up of 1,3-PD synthesis from crude glycerol by Clostridium butyricum. Batch fermentations were carried out in 6.6 L, 42 L and 150 L bioreactors. It was observed that cultivation of C. butyricum on a pilot scale did not decrease the efficiency of 1,3-PD production. The highest concentrations of 1,3-PD, 37 g/L for batch fermentation and 71 g/L for fed-batch fermentation, were obtained in the 6.6 L bioreactor. The kinetic parameters of 1,3-PD synthesis from crude glycerol established for batch fermentation were similar regarding all three bioreactor capacities. During fed-batch fermentation, the concentration of 1,3-PD in the 150 L bioreactor was lower and the substrate was not completely utilized. That suggested the presence of multifunctional environmental stresses in the 150 L bioreactor, which was confirmed by protein analysis. Conclusion The values of effectivity parameters for 1,3-PD synthesis in batch fermentations carried out in 6.6 L, 42 L and 150 L bioreactors were similar. The parameters obtained during fed-batch fermentations in the 150 L bioreactor differed in the rate and percentage of substrate utilization. The analysis of cell proteins demonstrated that a number of multifunctional stresses occurred during fed-batch fermentations in the 150 L bioreactor, which suggests the possibility of identifying the key stages in the biochemical process where inhibition of 1,3-PD synthesis pathways can be observed. PMID:24555775

2014-01-01

356

A capillary membrane bioreactor using immobilized polyphenol oxidase for the removal of phenols from industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary membrane bioreactor has been developed and tested for the removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic and industrial effluents. Polyphenol oxidase was immobilized on single capillary membranes in a small-scale bioreactor using two morphologically different polymeric membranes. One has a novel structure with no external supporting skin layer. This membrane allows greater flux and was shown to facilitate high

W Edwards; R Bownes; W. D Leukes; E. P Jacobs; R Sanderson; P. D Rose; S. G Burton

1999-01-01

357

Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II  

SciTech Connect

A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

R. A. Christini

1999-12-30

358

Design challenges for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

1989-01-01

359

Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase. PMID:25446784

Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

2015-02-01

360

Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods. PMID:19044156

Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

2008-11-01

361

Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)  

SciTech Connect

Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

1999-02-01

362

Steps and Missteps: Redesigning, Piloting, and Scaling a Developmental Writing Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter tells a story of course reform, describing in a fresh and candid way the steps taken toward change and the results achieved. The authors emphasize that instructors need considerable support in order to teach differently, as well as underscore the need to consider scalability of reform even at the pilot stage.

Adams, Peter; McKusick, Donna

2014-01-01

363

A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses  

SciTech Connect

Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

Orloff, D.I.

1992-08-01

364

A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

1989-11-01

365

Perfusion Bioreactor Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1990-01-01

366

Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B  

PubMed Central

The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m2 area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFN? and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated. PMID:23458578

2013-01-01

367

Scale-up of Escherichia coli growth and recombinant protein expression conditions from microwell to laboratory and pilot scale based on matched k(L)a.  

PubMed

Fermentation optimization experiments are ideally performed at small scale to reduce time, cost and resource requirements. Currently microwell plates (MWPs) are under investigation for this purpose as the format is ideally suited to automated high-throughput experimentation. In order to translate an optimized small-scale fermentation process to laboratory and pilot scale stirred-tank reactors (STRs) it is necessary to characterize key engineering parameters at both scales given the differences in geometry and the mechanisms of aeration and agitation. In this study oxygen mass transfer coefficients are determined in three MWP formats and in 7.5 L and 75 L STRs. k(L)a values were determined in cell-free media using the dynamic gassing-out technique over a range of agitation conditions. Previously optimized culture conditions at the MWP scale were then scaled up to the larger STR scales on the basis of matched k(L)a values. The accurate reproduction of MWP (3 mL) E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture kinetics at the two larger scales was shown in terms of cell growth, protein expression, and substrate utilization for k(L)a values that provided effective mixing and gas-liquid distribution at each scale. This work suggests that k(L)a provides a useful initial scale-up criterion for MWP culture conditions which enabled a 15,000-fold scale translation in this particular case. This work complements our earlier studies on the application of DoE techniques to MWP fermentation optimization and in so doing provides a generic framework for the generation of large quantities of soluble protein in a rapid and cost-effective manner. PMID:17969169

Islam, R S; Tisi, D; Levy, M S; Lye, G J

2008-04-01

368

Microtechnology in space bioreactors.  

PubMed

Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000. PMID:11542392

Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

1999-03-01

369

Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas hydrate dissociation applying the foamy oil approach, a method earlier adopted to model the Mallik production test (see abstract Abendroth et al., this volume). Combined with a dense set of data from a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array (see abstract Priegnitz et al., this volume), very valuable information were gained on the spatial as well as temporal formation and dissociation of gas hydrates as well as changes in permeability and resulting pathways for the fluid flow. Here we present the set-up and execution of the experiment and discuss the results from temperature and flow measurements with respect to the gas hydrate dissociation and characteristics of resulting fluid flow. Uddin, M., Wright, F., and Coombe, D. 2011. Numerical Study of Gas Evolution and Transport Behaviours in Natural Gas-Hydrate Reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 50, 70-89.

Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

2014-05-01

370

Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

371

A next generation, pilot-scale continuous sterilization system for fermentation media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new continuous sterilization system was designed, constructed, started up, and qualified for media sterilization for secondary metabolite cultivations, bioconversions, and enzyme production. An existing Honeywell Total Distributed Control 3000-based control system was extended using redundant High performance Process Manager controllers for 98 I\\/O (input\\/output) points. This new equipment was retrofitted into an industrial research fermentation pilot plant, designed and

B. Junker; M. Lester; T. Brix; D. Wong; J. Nuechterlein

2006-01-01

372

Catalytic combustion of low heating value gas mixtures: comparison between laboratory and pilot scale tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic combustion of low heating value fuels is a promising method for electricity production combining the use of a renewable fuel with ultra-low emissions. In the present work, catalytic combustion of a low heating value gas has been studied over monolithic catalysts in an atmospheric 30kW pilot catalytic combustor connected to a wood pellet gasifier. The results have been compared

Magnus Berg; E Magnus Johansson; Sven G Järås

2000-01-01

373

Modelling effects of subgrid-scale mixture fraction variance in LES of a piloted diffusion flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

A posteriori analysis of the statistics of two large-eddy simulation (LES) solutions describing a piloted methane–air (Sandia D) flame is performed on a series of grids with progressively increased resolution reaching about 10.5 million cells. Chemical compositions, density and temperature fields are modelled with a steady flamelet approach and parametrised by the mixture fraction. The difference between the LES solutions

Konstantin A. Kemenov; Haifeng Wang; Stephen B. Pope

2012-01-01

374

Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: changes in concentration and toxicity.  

PubMed

Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2 x CMC* of a non-ionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)(2)). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 1 0 min of treatment when performed at elevated temperature (50 degrees C), with initial contaminant concentrations of As=105+/-4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH(16)=46.0+/-2.3mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH effect for As and a combination of SOM ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solubilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characteristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotoxicological evaluation, Microtox, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to increased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism. PMID:19699582

Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; Arwidsson, Zandra; Camdzija, Aida; Sjöberg, Ragnar; Ribé, Veronica; Waara, Sylvia; Allard, Bert; von Kronhelm, Thomas; van Hees, Patrick A W

2009-12-30

375

Nutrient removal and biomass production in an outdoor pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor for effluent polishing.  

PubMed

An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m(2)/day. The areal nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates averaged 0.13 g N/m(2)/day and 0.023 g P/m(2)/day, which are low compared to removal rates achieved in laboratory biofilm reactors. Nutrient removal increased during the day, decreased with decreasing light intensity and no removal occurred during the night. Additional carbon dioxide supply was not requisite as the wastewater was comprised of enough inorganic carbon to sustain microalgal growth. The study was not conclusive for the limiting factor that caused the low nutrient removal rate, possibly the process was limited by light and temperature, in combination with pH increases above pH 9 during the daytime. This pilot-scale study demonstrated that the proposed phototrophic biofilm reactor is not a viable post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluents under Dutch climate conditions. However, the reactor performance may be improved when controlling the pH and the temperatures in the morning. With these adaptations, a phototrophic biofilm reactor could be feasible at lower latitudes with higher irradiance levels. PMID:24081706

Boelee, N C; Janssen, M; Temmink, H; Shrestha, R; Buisman, C J N; Wijffels, R H

2014-01-01

376

Modeling sorbent injection for mercury control in baghouse filters: II--pilot-scale studies and model evaluation.  

PubMed

Activated carbon injection for Hg control in a 500-lb/hr pilot-scale coal-fired furnace equipped with a fabric filter for particulate control was evaluated at different operating conditions. The pilot-scale tests showed that Hg removal was improved at lower temperatures and higher C/Hg ratios. The two-stage mathematical model developed to describe Hg removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter was used to obtain Langmuir isotherm parameters as a function of temperature by fitting the model to a subset of experimental data. The predictive capability of the model was then tested by comparing model calculations with additional experimental data from this system obtained using different operating temperatures and sorbent to Hg ratios. Model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally measured Hg removal efficiency. Based on the model predictions, Hg removal in the duct appears to be limited and higher C/Hg ratio, lower operating temperature, and longer cleaning cycle of the baghouse filter should be utilized to achieve higher Hg removal in this system. PMID:12708513

Flora, Joseph R V; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Pennline, Henry W; Vidic, Radisav D

2003-04-01

377

Measurement and capture of fine and ultrafine particles from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor with an electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) were used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) in the range of 17 nm to 10 m at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). At the ESP inlet, a high number concentration of ultrafine particles was found, with the peak at approximately 75 nm. A trimodal PSD for mass concentration was observed with the modes at approximately 80-100 nm, 1-2 {mu}m, and 10 {mu}m. The penetration of ultrafine particles through the ESP increased dramatically as particle size decreased below 70 nm, attributable to insufficient or partial charging of the ultrafine particles. Injection of nanostructured fine-particle sorbents for capture of toxic metals in the flue gas caused high penetration of the ultrafine particles through the ESP. The conventional ESP was modified to enhance charging using soft X-ray irradiation. A slipstream of flue gas was introduced from the pilot-scale facility and passed through this modified ESP. Enhancement of particle capture was observed with the soft X-ray irradiation when moderate voltages were used in the ESP, indicating more efficient charging of fine particles. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Ying Li; Achariya Suriyawong; Michael Daukoru; Ye Zhuang; Pratim Biswas [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Laboratory

2009-05-15

378

Feasibility study to assess the use of the Cincinnati stroke scale by emergency medical dispatchers: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

The Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) receiving a call via 911 is the first point of contact within the acute care system and plays an important role in early stroke recognition. Published studies show that EMDs' diagnostic accuracy of stroke need to be improved. Therefore, the National Association of Emergency Medical Dispatchers (NAEMD) implemented a stroke diagnostic tool modelled after the Cincinnati Stroke Scale across 3000 cities world-wide. This is the first time a diagnostic tool that requires callers to test physical findings and report those back to the EMD has been implemented. However, the ability of EMDs and 911 callers to use this in real time has not been reported. Our goal in this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of an EMD applying the Cincinnati Stroke Scale tool during a 911 call, and to report the time required to administer the tool. PMID:21849337

Govindarajan, Prasanthi; DeSouza, Natalie T.; Pierog, Jessica; Ghilarducci, David; Johnston, S. Claiborne

2015-01-01

379

HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an aeroderivative turbine. The overall system design can be very similar to that of a typical pulverized coal-fired boiler system, except that ceramics and alloys are used to carry the very high-temperature air rather than steam. This design makes the combined-cycle system especially suitable as a boiler-repowering technology. With the use of a gas-fired duct heater, efficiencies of 55% can be achieved, leading to reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions of 40% as compared to today's coal-fired systems. On the basis of work completed to date, the high-temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) concept appears to offer a higher-efficiency technology option for coal-fired power generation systems than conventional pulverized coal firing. Concept analyses have demonstrated the ability to achieve program objectives for emissions (10% of New Source Performance Standards, i.e., 0.003 lb/MMBtu of particulate), efficiency (47%-55%), and cost of electricity (10%-25% below today's cost). Higher-efficiency technology options for new plants as well as repowering are important to the power generation industry in order to conserve valuable fossil fuel resources, reduce the quantity of pollutants (air and water) and solid wastes generated per MW, and reduce the cost of power production in a deregulated industry. Possibly more important than their potential application in a new high-temperature power system, the RAH panel and convective air heater tube bank are potential retrofit technology options for existing coal-fired boilers to improve plant efficiencies. Therefore, further development of these process air-based high-temperature heat exchangers and their potential for commercial application is directly applicable to the development of enabling technologies in support of the Vision 21 program objectives. The objective of the work documented in this report was to improve the performance of the UTRC high-temperature heat exchanger, demonstrate the fuel flexibility of the slagging combustor, and test methods for reducing corrosion of brick and castable refractory in such combustion environments. Specif

Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

1999-12-01

380

Scale-up of stirring as foam disruption (SAFD) to industrial scale.  

PubMed

Foam disruption by agitation-the stirring as foam disruption (SAFD) technique-was scaled up to pilot and production scale using Rushton turbines and an up-pumping hydrofoil impeller, the Scaba 3SHP1. The dominating mechanism behind SAFD-foam entrainment-was also demonstrated at production scale. The mechanistic model for SAFD defines a fictitious liquid velocity generated by the (upper) impeller near the dispersion surface, which is correlated with complete foam disruption. This model proved to be scalable, thus enabling the model to be used for the design of SAFD applications. Axial upward pumping impellers appeared to be more effective with respect to SAFD than Rushton turbines, as demonstrated by retrofitting a 12,000 l bioreactor, i.e. the triple Rushton configuration was compared with a mixed impeller configuration from Scaba with a 20% lower ungassed power draw. The retrofitted impeller configuration allowed 10% more broth without risking excessive foaming. In this way a substantial increase in the volumetric productivity of the bioreactor was achieved. Design recommendations for the application of SAFD are given in this paper. Using these recommendations for the design of a 30,000 l scale bioreactor, almost foamless Escherichia coli fermentations were realised. PMID:12612787

Hoeks, Frans W J M M; Boon, Lotte A; Studer, Fabian; Wolff, Menno O; van der Schot, Freija; Vrabél, Peter; van der Lans, Rob G J M; Bujalski, Waldemar; Manelius, Asa; Blomsten, Gustav; Hjorth, Sven; Prada, Giovanna; Luyben, Karel Ch A M; Nienow, Alvin W

2003-02-01

381

Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

2010-02-15

382

Ecotoxicity assessment of artificial groundwater recharge with reclaimed water: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

A demonstration of artificial groundwater recharge with tertiary effluent was evaluated using a set of bioassays (acute toxicity to Daphnia, genotoxicity, estrogenic and antiestrogenic toxicity). Around 95 % genotoxicity and 53 % antiestrogenicity were removed from the feed water by ozonation, whereas significant reduction of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was achieved during a 3 days vadose soil treatment. The toxicity was further removed to the same level as the local groundwater during a 20 days aquifer soil treatment. The pilot study has shown that ozonation and soil treatments can improve the quality of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents for possible groundwater recharge purposes. PMID:24072260

Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan

2013-11-01

383

Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

1991-01-01

384

Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

1997-01-01

385

Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.  

PubMed

An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. PMID:25528019

Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

2015-03-01

386

An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.

2009-01-01

387

A new hybrid treatment system of bioreactors and electrocoagulation for superior removal of organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale hybrid treatment system which combines rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR), submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) along with electrocoagulation (EC) as post treatment to treat organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater. The results indicated that the highest removal efficiency was achieved at the internal recycling ratio as 400% of the influent flow rate which produced a superior effluent quality with 0.26mgBOD5L(-1), 11.46mgCODCrL(-1), 0.00mgNH4(+)-NL(-1), and 3.81mgT-NL(-1), 0.03mgT-PL(-1). During 16months of operation, NH4(+)-N was completely eliminated and T-P removal efficiency was also up to 100%. It was found that increasing in internal recycling ratio could improve the nitrate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, the TSS and coliform bacteria concentration after treatment was less than 5mgL(-1) and 30MPNmL(-1), respectively, regardless of internal recycling ratios and its influent concentration. PMID:24355502

Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo

2014-02-01

388

Modeling scaleup effects on a small pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor for fuel ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic ethanol use and production are presently undergoing significant increases along with planning and construction of new production facilities. Significant efforts are ongoing to reduce ethanol production costs by investigating new inexpensive feedstocks (woody biomass) and by reducing capital and energy costs through process improvements. A key element in the development of advanced bioreactor systems capable of very high conversion

O. F. Webb; B. H. Davison; T. C. Scott

1995-01-01

389

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

2014-05-01

390

Outdoor pilot-scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana: influence of culture parameters and lipid production rates in tubular photobioreactors.  

PubMed

This work studied outdoor pilot scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana in tubular photobioreactors. The growth and biomass composition of the strain were studied under different culture strategies: continuous-mode (varying nutrient supply and dilution rate) and two-stage cultures aiming lipid enhancement. Besides, parameters such as irradiance, specific nitrate input and dilution rate were used to obtain models predicting growth, lipid and fatty acids production rates. The range of optimum dilution rate was 0.31-0.351/day with maximum biomass, lipid and fatty acids productivities of 590, 110 and 66.8 mg/l day, respectively. Nitrate limitation led to an increase in lipid and fatty acids contents (from 20.5% to 38.0% and from 16.9% to 23.5%, respectively). Two-stage culture strategy provided similar fatty acids productivities (56.4 mg/l day) but the neutral lipids content was doubled. PMID:25108265

San Pedro, A; González-López, C V; Acién, F G; Molina-Grima, E

2014-10-01

391

Treatment of oil and grease in produced water by a pilot-scale constructed wetland system using biogeochemical processes.  

PubMed

Constructed wetland treatment systems (CWTSs) can effectively remove many constituents that limit beneficial use of oilfield produced water. The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to assess the effect of mass loadings of oil and grease (O & G) on treatment performance in pilot-scale subsurface flow and free water surface CWTS series having sequential reducing and oxidizing cells, and (2) to evaluate effects on treatment performance of adding a pilot-scale oil-water separator. Increase in O & G mass loading from 5 to 20 mg min(-1) caused decreases in both dissolved oxygen concentration and sediment redox potential, which affected treatment performance. Biogeochemical pathways for removal of O & G, iron, and manganese operate under oxidizing conditions, and removal rate coefficients for these constituents decreased (0.905-0.514 d(-1) for O & G, 0.773-0.452 d(-1) for iron, and 0.970-0.518 d(-1) for manganese) because greater mass loading of O & G promoted reducing conditions. With increased mass loading, removal rate coefficients for nickel and zinc increased from 0.074 to 0.565 d(-1) and from 0.196 to 1.08 d(-1), respectively. Although the sequential reducing and oxidizing cells in the CWTS were very effective in treating the targeted constituents, an oil-water separator was added prior to wetland cells to enhance O & G removal at high inflow concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The oil-water separator removed approximately 50% of the O & G, and removal extents and efficiencies approximated those observed at 50 mg L(-1) inflow concentration during treatment without an oil-water separator. PMID:24321330

Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

2014-05-01

392

Pilot scale-up and shelf stability of hydrogel wound dressings obtained by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed of producing pilot batches of hydrogel wound dressings by gamma radiation and evaluating their shelf stability. Six batches of 3L capacity were prepared based on poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), agar and polyethylene glycol and they were dispensed in polyester trays, covered with polyester films and sealed in two types of materials: polyethylene bags and vacuum polyethylene bags. Dressings were formed in a single step process for the hydrogel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose in a JS-9500 Gamma Irradiator (Nordion, Canada). The six batches were initially physicochemical characterized in terms of dimensions and appearance, gel fraction, morphology analysis, hydrogel strength, moisture retention capability and swelling capacity. They were kept under two storage conditions: room temperature (T: 30±2 °C/RH: 70± 5%) and refrigerated temperature (T: 5±3 °C) during 24 months and sterility test was performed. The appearance of membranes was transparent, clear, uncut and flexible; the gel fraction of batches was higher than 75% and the hydrogel surface showed a porous structure. There was a slow decrease of the compression rate 20% until 7 h and about 70% at 24 h. Moisture retention capability in 5 h was similar for all the batches, about 40% and 60% at 37 °C and at room temperature respectively. The swelling of hydrogels in acidic media was strong and in alkaline media the weight variation remains almost stable until 24 h and then there is a loss of weight. The six batches remained sterile during the stability study in the conditions tested. The pilot batches were consistent from batch to batch and remained stable during 24 months.

Soler, Dulce María; Rodríguez, Yanet; Correa, Hector; Moreno, Ailed; Carrizales, Lila

2012-08-01

393

Predicting Pilot Behavior in Medium Scale Scenarios Using Game Theory and Reinforcement Learning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective automation is critical in achieving the capacity and safety goals of the Next Generation Air Traffic System. Unfortunately creating integration and validation tools for such automation is difficult as the interactions between automation and their human counterparts is complex and unpredictable. This validation becomes even more difficult as we integrate wide-reaching technologies that affect the behavior of different decision makers in the system such as pilots, controllers and airlines. While overt short-term behavior changes can be explicitly modeled with traditional agent modeling systems, subtle behavior changes caused by the integration of new technologies may snowball into larger problems and be very hard to detect. To overcome these obstacles, we show how integration of new technologies can be validated by learning behavior models based on goals. In this framework, human participants are not modeled explicitly. Instead, their goals are modeled and through reinforcement learning their actions are predicted. The main advantage to this approach is that modeling is done within the context of the entire system allowing for accurate modeling of all participants as they interact as a whole. In addition such an approach allows for efficient trade studies and feasibility testing on a wide range of automation scenarios. The goal of this paper is to test that such an approach is feasible. To do this we implement this approach using a simple discrete-state learning system on a scenario where 50 aircraft need to self-navigate using Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information. In this scenario, we show how the approach can be used to predict the ability of pilots to adequately balance aircraft separation and fly efficient paths. We present results with several levels of complexity and airspace congestion.

Yildiz, Yildiray; Agogino, Adrian; Brat, Guillaume

2013-01-01

394

Simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollutants by a plunging liquid jet bioreactor with crossflow filtration operated under intermittent aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (T-N) by a plunging liquid jet bioreactor was investigated for small-scale treatment of domestic wastewater. The bioreactor was operated under suspended growth and attached growth conditions and intermittent aeration to carry out both nitrification and denitrification processes in one vessel. In the suspended growth system, TOC removal efficiency was about 90%

Kazuaki Yamagiwa; Yuichi Oohira; Akira Ohkawa

1995-01-01

395

Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: Full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.  

PubMed

Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. PMID:25241019

Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

2014-12-01

396

Comparison of aluminum thermal-death-time disks with a pilot-scale pasteurizer on the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to compare thermal inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider using conventional glass tubes, aluminum thermal-death-time (TDT) disks, and a pilot-scale pasteurizer. D-values of E. coli K12 in glass tubes and TDT disks were determined at 56, 58, and 60C. D-...

397

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier at former Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Mountain View, California: Volume 1. Final report, April 1996November 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or treatment wall demonstration project was initiated by the US Navy EFA West at the former Naval Air Station Moffett Field site in Mountain View, California about 3 years ago. Performance evaluations and cost-benefit analyses were performed by the US Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and were sponsored by the Department of

C. Reeter; A. Gavaskar; B. Sass; N. Gupta; J. Hicks

1998-01-01

398

A Pilot Scale Long–Term Experimental Study on the Effects of Grazing and Gap Creation on Burren Grassland Dynamics: Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burren grassland is an important habitat for biodiversity conservation, but studies to date have not provided sufficient scientific understanding of vegetation dynamics to inform selection of appropriate management prescriptions. This paper reports on a pilot scale study on a small grassland patch on limestone pavement near Mullach More in the Burren National Park. Through experimental manipulation, it examines the effects

R. Moles; J. Breen; B. O'Regan

2005-01-01

399

Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending  

EPA Science Inventory

A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

400

Pilot-scale distillation and characterization of diesel-fuel fractions of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oils. Interim report, December 1985February 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little, beyond crude assay data, has been known about the properties of various fuel fractions, including diesel fuel, that might ensue in the event crude oils available at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve were actually to be refined. Accordingly, eight distinct crude-oil streams were collected from the Reserve and subjected to distillation in a pilot-scale unit. Middle distillate fractions were prepared

D. L. Morris; B. K. Bailey; L. L. Stavinoha; H. N. Giles

1987-01-01

401

Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

NONE

1994-09-01

402

DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

403

Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D  

SciTech Connect

This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

NONE

1994-09-01

404

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

405

The Fabi-Bolton chest wrinkle scale: a pilot validation study.  

PubMed

Up until now, no objective scale has existed to evaluate chest wrinkles and assess the efficacy of treatment. This study was designed to validate a new photonumeric wrinkle assessment scale using standardized photographic methodology to obtain reference photographs. Multiple photographs from 28 volunteer subjects with varying degrees of chest wrinkles were evaluated by a study team of two independent physicians. Photographs of 16 subjects representing the full spectrum of chest wrinkle severity were selected and classified using the Fabi-Bolton (F-B) 5-point wrinkle scale (1 = wrinkles absent; 2 = shallow but visible wrinkles; 3 = moderately deep wrinkles; 4 = deep wrinkles, with well-defined edges; 5 = wrinkles very deep with redundant folds). One representative photograph was chosen by study team consensus for each of the five scale points. A second, independent group of evaluators rated the randomly arranged photographs using the F-B wrinkle scale. The numeric results were then tabulated and compared. The F-B wrinkle scale provided a reproducible and effective method for assessing chest wrinkles with very little interrater variability. The F-B wrinkle scale is a reliable tool for the classification of chest wrinkles and evaluation of therapeutic and cosmetic interventions. PMID:22938008

Fabi, Sabrina; Bolton, Joanna; Goldman, Mitchel P; Guiha, Isabella

2012-09-01

406

A next generation, pilot-scale continuous sterilization system for fermentation media  

PubMed Central

A new continuous sterilization system was designed, constructed, started up, and qualified for media sterilization for secondary metabolite cultivations, bioconversions, and enzyme production. An existing Honeywell Total Distributed Control 3000-based control system was extended using redundant High performance Process Manager controllers for 98 I/O (input/output) points. This new equipment was retrofitted into an industrial research fermentation pilot plant, designed and constructed in the early 1980s. Design strategies of this new continuous sterilizer system and the expanded control system are described and compared with the literature (including dairy and bio-waste inactivation applications) and the weaknesses of the prior installation for expected effectiveness. In addition, the reasoning behind selection of some of these improved features has been incorporated. Examples of enhancements adopted include sanitary heat exchanger (HEX) design, incorporation of a “flash” cooling HEX, on-line calculation of Fo and Ro, and use of field I/O modules located near the vessel to permit low-cost addition of new instrumentation. Sterilizer performance also was characterized over the expected range of operating conditions. Differences between design and observed temperature, pressure, and other profiles were quantified and investigated. PMID:16496186

Lester, M.; Brix, T.; Wong, D.; Nuechterlein, J.

2006-01-01

407

Design and installation of a next generation pilot scale fermentation system.  

PubMed

Four new fermenters were designed and constructed for use in secondary metabolite cultivations, bioconversions, and enzyme production. A new PC/PLC-based control system also was implemented using GE Fanuc PLCs, Genius I/O blocks, and Fix Dynamics SCADA software. These systems were incorporated into an industrial research fermentation pilot plant, designed and constructed in the early 1980s. Details of the design of these new fermenters and the new control system are described and compared with the existing installation for expected effectiveness. In addition, the reasoning behind selection of some of these features has been included. Key to the design was the goal of preserving similarity between the new and previously existing and successfully utilized fermenter hardware and software installations where feasible but implementing improvements where warranted and beneficial. Examples of enhancements include strategic use of Inconel as a material of construction to reduce corrosion, piping layout design for simplified hazardous energy isolation, on-line calculation and control of nutrient feed rates, and the use of field I/O modules located near the vessel to permit low-cost addition of new instrumentation. PMID:12790627

Junker, B; Brix, T; Lester, M; Kardos, P; Adamca, J; Lynch, J; Schmitt, J; Salmon, P

2003-01-01

408

Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

409

A Pilot Study of the Correlation between the Numeric Rating Scale used to Evaluate "Geop" and Questionnaires on Pain Perception  

PubMed Central

Background The word "geop" is a unique Korean term commonly used to describe fright, fear and anxiety, and similar concepts. The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the correlation between the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score of geop and three different questionnaires on pain perception. Methods Patients aged 20 to 70 years who visited our outpatient pain clinics were evaluated. They were requested to rate the NRS score (range: 0-100) if they felt geop. Next, they completed questionnaires on pain perception, in this case the Korean version of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). The correlations among each variable were evaluated by statistical analyses. Results There was no statistically significant correlation between the NRS score of geop and the PSQ score (r = 0.075, P = 0.5605). The NRS score of geop showed a significant correlation with the PCS total score (r = 0.346, P = 0.0063). Among the sub-scales, Rumination (r = 0.338, P = 0.0077) and Magnification (r = 0.343, P = 0.0069) were correlated with the NRS score of geop. In addition, the NRS score of geop showed a significant correlation with the PASS total score (r = 0.475, P = 0.0001). The cognitive (r = 0.473, P = 0.0002) and fear factors (r = 0.349, P = 0.0063) also showed significant correlations with the NRS score of geop. Conclusions This study marks the first attempt to introduce the concept of "geop." The NRS score of geop showed a moderate positive correlation with the total PCS and PASS score. However, further investigations are required before the "geop" concept can be used practically in clinical fields. PMID:25589944

Jung, Myung Jin; Lee, Joon Ho; Jin, Hee Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seok; Kim, Yong Ik

2015-01-01

410

Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.  

PubMed

Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce > soybean > watermelon > corn> okra?millet >sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

2015-01-01

411

The modified Medical Research Council scale for the assessment of dyspnea in daily living in obesity: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Dyspnea is very frequent in obese subjects. However, its assessment is complex in clinical practice. The modified Medical Research Council scale (mMRC scale) is largely used in the assessment of dyspnea in chronic respiratory diseases, but has not been validated in obesity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of the mMRC scale in the assessment of dyspnea in obese subjects and to analyze its relationships with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), lung function and biological parameters. Methods Forty-five obese subjects (17 M/28 F, BMI: 43?±?9 kg/m2) were included in this pilot study. Dyspnea in daily living was evaluated by the mMRC scale and exertional dyspnea was evaluated by the Borg scale after 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests included spirometry, plethysmography, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide and arterial blood gases. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin levels were analyzed. Results Eighty-four percent of patients had a mMRC???1 and 40% a mMRC???2. Compared to subjects with no dyspnea (mMRC?=?0), a mMRC???1 was associated with a higher BMI (44?±?9 vs 36?±?5 kg/m2, p?=?0.01), and a lower expiratory reserve volume (ERV) (50?±?31 vs 91?±?32%, p?=?0.004), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (86?±?17 vs 101?±?16%, p?=?0.04) and distance covered in 6MWT (401?±?107 vs 524?±?72 m, p?=?0.007). A mMRC???2 was associated with a higher Borg score after the 6MWT (4.7?±?2.5 vs 6.5?±?1.5, p?scale for BMI, ERV, FEV1 and distance covered in 6MWT suggests that the mMRC scale might be an useful and easy-to-use tool to assess dyspnea in daily living in obese subjects. PMID:23025326

2012-01-01

412

Solar photocatalytic disinfection with immobilised TiO(2) at pilot-plant scale.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic disinfection efficiency has been investigated for two immobilized TiO(2) catalytic systems (wall reactor and fixed-bed reactor) in a solar pilot plant. Their performances have been compared with the use of a slurry reactor and the solar disinfection without catalyst. The use of photocatalytic TiO(2) wall reactors does no show clear benefits over the solar disinfection process in the absence of catalyst. The reason is that the efficiency of the solar disinfection is so high that the presence of titania in the reactor wall reduces the global efficiency due to the competition for the absorption of photons. As expected, the maximum efficiency was shown by the slurry TiO(2) reactor, due to the optimum contact between bacteria and catalyst. However, it is noticeable that the use of the fixed-bed reactor leads to inactivation rate quite close to that of the slurry, requiring comparable accumulated solar energy of about 6 kJ L(-1) to achieve a 6-log decrease in the concentration of viable bacteria and allowing a total disinfection of the water (below the detection limit of 1 CFU mL(-1)). Not only the high titania surface area of this configuration is responsible for the bacteria inactivation but the important contribution of the mechanical stress has to be considered. The main advantage of the fixed-bed TiO(2) catalyst is the outstanding stability, without deactivation effects after ten reaction cycles, being readily applicable for continuous water treatment systems. PMID:20107278

Sordo, Carlos; Van Grieken, Rafael; Marugán, Javier; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

2010-01-01

413

Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.  

PubMed

The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas. PMID:24762182

Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

2014-06-01

414

Scaled-up proliferation and regeneration of Nerine in liquid cultures Part I. The induction and maintenance of proliferating meristematic clusters by paclobutrazol in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural propagation rate of bulb forming Amaryllidaceae including Nerine is low. Conventional micropropagation techniques are labor intensive and therefore expensive. Liquid cultures facilitate: scaling up, automation and cost reduction of micropropagation. Inflorescence-derived explants of Nerine were cultured on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium. Callus-like tissue interspersed with nodular tissue, as well as

Meira Ziv; Sigal Kahany; Hannah Lilien-Kipnis

1994-01-01

415

Chemical additive to maximize antimicrobial effect of chlorine during pilot scale immersion chilling of broiler carcasses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A prior laboratory scale study demonstrated the potential for T-128, a proprietary blend including propylene glycol and phosphoric acid, to enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine during immersion chilling of broiler parts. The objective of the current study was to test the addition of T-128...

416

Effect of seed sludge and operation conditions on performance and archaeal community structure of low-temperature anaerobic solvent-degrading bioreactors.  

PubMed

Two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) anaerobic bioreactors (R1 and R2) were inoculated with biomass from different mesophilic (37 degrees C) treatment plants, and used for the treatment of an organic solvent-based wastewater at 9-14 degrees C at applied organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.2-3.6kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)m(-3)d(-1). Replicated treatment performance was observed at 10-14 degrees C, which suggested the feasibility of the process at pilot-scale. Stable and efficient COD removal, along with high methane productivity, was demonstrated at 9 degrees C at an applied OLR of 2.4kgCODm(-3)d(-1). Clonal libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the seed sludges were dominated (>60%) by acetoclastic Methanosaeta-like organisms. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) profiles indicated shifts in the physiological profiles of R1 and R2 biomass, including the development of psychrotolerant methanogenic activity. Acetoclastic methanogenesis represented the primary route of methane production in R1 and R2, which is in contrast with several previous reports from low-temperature bioreactor trials. A reduction in the abundance of Methanosaeta-like clones (R2), along with the detection of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic species, coincided with altered granule (sludge) morphology and the development of hydrogenotrophic SMA after prolonged operation at 9 degrees C. PMID:19108975

Enright, Anne-Marie; McGrath, Vincent; Gill, Darryl; Collins, Gavin; O'Flaherty, Vincent

2009-02-01

417

Optimization of color and antioxidant activity of peach and nectarine puree: scale-up study from pilot to industrial plant.  

PubMed

The effects of an innovative process for the manufacture of peach and nectarine purees on the main quality indices, namely, color, consistency, carotenoid and phenolic content, and antioxidant activity, were studied using a peach cultivar that is optimal for nectar processing (cv. Redhaven) and peach and nectarine varieties that undergo a faster browning degradation. The innovative process, operating the pulping/finishing step at room temperature, was compared to the traditional process of hot pulping/finishing. The study comprised initial trials on a pilot plant scale and scaling up to industrial production of the puree and nectar. The quality of products was analyzed at the time of production and as a function of storage of both the puree and the nectar. With respect to the traditional process, the new process, scaled up to industrial levels, improved the color of peach and nectarine products (by increasing the L* value and decreasing the a* value), whatever the variety studied; maintained almost the same levels of carotenoids, hydroxycinnamates, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols; and reduced the level of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. The presence of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was correlated to an unstable and undesirable red hue of the products (even if its concentration was very low in all products), and the decreased level obtained by the innovative process was considered to be positive. On the basis of these results, new technology can be proposed for the processing of fruit varieties that are not suitable for puree production using traditional technology. This opens up two possibilities: (a) utilization of fresh market fruit surplus and (b) processing of selected fruit varieties that are rich in antioxidants but have a high browning potential, such as the Stark Red Gold nectarine. Furthermore, as the positive impact of the new technology is optimal at the beginning of storage, it is particularly suitable for fruit-based products with a short shelf life. PMID:18620412

Lavelli, Vera; Pompei, Carlo; Casadei, Maria Aurelia

2008-08-27

418

Assessing the role of feed water constituents in irreversible membrane fouling of pilot-scale ultrafiltration drinking water treatment systems.  

PubMed

Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) approach together with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for assessing hydraulically irreversible fouling of three pilot-scale ultrafiltration (UF) systems containing full-scale and bench-scale hollow fiber membrane modules in drinking water treatment. These systems were operated for at least three months with extensive cycles of permeation, combination of back-pulsing and scouring and chemical cleaning. The principal component (PC) scores generated from the PCA of the fluorescence EEMs were found to be related to humic substances (HS), protein-like and colloidal/particulate matter content. PC scores of HS- and protein-like matter of the UF feed water, when considered separately, showed reasonably good correlations with the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling for long-term UF operations. In contrast, comparatively weaker correlations for PC scores of colloidal/particulate matter and the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling were obtained for all UF systems. Since, individual correlations could not fully explain the evolution of the rate of irreversible fouling, multi-linear regression models were developed to relate the combined effect of HS-like, protein-like and colloidal/particulate matter PC scores to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling for each specific UF system. These multi-linear regression models revealed significant individual and combined contribution of HS- and protein-like matter to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling, with protein-like matter generally showing the greatest contribution. The contribution of colloidal/particulate matter to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling was not as significant. The addition of polyaluminum chloride, as coagulant, to UF feed appeared to have a positive impact in reducing hydraulically irreversible fouling by these constituents. The proposed approach has applications in quantifying the individual and synergistic contribution of major natural water constituents to the rate of hydraulically irreversible membrane fouling and shows potential for controlling UF irreversible fouling in the production of drinking water. PMID:23615336

Peiris, R H; Jaklewicz, M; Budman, H; Legge, R L; Moresoli, C

2013-06-15

419

The development of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for longterm manned missions. The MELiSSA loop is formed by five interconnected compartments, organized in three different loops (solid, liquid and gas). This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility has been designed to achieve the preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale, using animals as a model for the crew compartent. The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space. In this communication, the latests developments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant will be reported. Particularly, the completion of the design phase and instalation of all the different compartments will be discussed in detail. Each of the compartments had to be designed and constructed according to very specific characteristics, associated to the biological systems to be cultured, as part of the complete MELiSSA loop (anerobic, oxygenic, thermophilic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, axenic, photosynthetic, etc.). Additionally, the sizing of each reactor (ranging from 8 to 100 Liters, depending of each particular compartment) should compile with the global integration scenario proposed, and with the final goal of connection of all compartments to provide a demonstration of the MELiSSA concept, and generate data for the design and operation of future biological life support systems.

Godia, Francesc; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Brunet, Jean; Demey, Dries; Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.

420

Pretreatment of landfill leachate using deep shaft aeration bioreactor (DSAB) in cold winter season.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale deep shaft aeration bioreactor (DSAB) with 110 m in depth and 0.5m in diameter for the pretreatment of landfill leachate in winter was operated at a daily treatment scale of around 10-20 tons. It was found that the performance of the DSAB mainly depended on the inflow loads and concentrations of pollutants. NH3-N, TN, COD, TOC removals of 66-94%, 41-64%, 67-87%, 55-92% at organic load rate of 1.7-9.4 g CODL(-1)day(-1) and hydraulic retention time of 1-2d were obtained using DSAB, respectively, with the lowest ambient temperature of -3 °C. The effluent COD can be reduced to below 1000 mg/L, an acceptable level for advanced treatment using reverse osmosis system, when the influent COD was below 7000 mg/L at 10t/d. The EEM and GPC analysis implied that the non-biodegradable contaminants such as humic- and fulvic-like DOM dominated in the organic fractions of the effluent, which rendered the biological treatment ineffective. Compared with 20-40% removals obtained using traditional biological processes below 15 °C, DSAB showed a higher treatment efficiency for COD and NH3-N, even though at adverse conditions of poor carbon source, lower C/N ratio and high nitrite concentrations in the leachate of test. PMID:23542320

Niu, Jing; Zhang, Tongju; He, Yijia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Youcai

2013-05-15

421

Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.  

PubMed

Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88%) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frédérique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

2014-02-01

422

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

SciTech Connect

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

Ergas, S.J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McGrath, M.S. [Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States)

1997-06-01

423

METC`s pilot-scale hot-gas desulfurization Process Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

801The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has designed and is currently constructing an on-site, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) Process Development Unit (PDU). The PDU is designed to use regenerable solid metal oxide sorbents that absorb hydrogen sulfide from high-temperature, high-pressure simulated coal-gasification fuel gas that is generated by a METC-designed syngas generator. The simulated coal gas is a mixture of partially combusted natural gas, water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. PDU process conditions will be representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling. The PDU supports the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) mission at METC by providing a test bed for development of IGCC cleanup systems that offer low capital cost, operating costs, and costs of electricity. METC intends to develop additional industrial involvement opportunities as the project progresses towards operations. Objectives The primary objectives of the PDU are to: (1) fill the gap between small-scale testing and large-scale demonstration projects by providing a cost effective test site for transport and fluid-bed desulfurization reactor and sorbent development, (2) demonstrate sorbent suitability over a wide range of parameters and (3) generate significant information on process control for transport and fluidized bed based desulfurization. PDU data is expected to be used to optimize process performance by expanding the experience for larger-scale demonstration projects, such as Sierra Pacific Power Company`s Clean Coal Technology project.

McMillian, M.H.; Bissett, L.A.

1996-12-31

424

Evaluation of sludge reduction by an environmentally friendly chemical uncoupler in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.  

PubMed

An environmentally friendly chemical, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS), was used as a metabolic uncoupler to reduce sludge production in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process. The results show that the addition of THPS (1.08-1.86 mL/m(3) influent) in the sludge return section could reduce waste activated sludge by about 22.5 %, and decrease the sludge yield by about 14.7 % at the end of a run. At the same time, the addition of THPS slightly lowered the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble COD and NH4 (+)-N, and slightly improved removal of total nitrogen. The effects of THPS addition on two characteristics of activated sludge in oxic tank are discussed in detail and the results suggest that the settleability of sludge was reduced by addition of THPS, while the specific oxygen uptake rate was increased. Molecular biology analysis shows that the addition of THPS had little effect on the microbial communities of sludge. PMID:23907720

Guo, Xuesong; Yang, Jianming; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

2014-03-01

425

Process lethality and product yield for chicken patties processed in a pilot-scale air-steam impingement oven.  

PubMed

Chicken breast patties were processed in a pilot-scale air-steam impingement oven to a patty center temperature of 55 to 80 degrees C. Thermal processing was conducted at an air temperature of 149 degrees C, an air velocity of 7 to 13 m3/min, and a wet bulb temperature of 39 to 98 degrees C. From thermal histories, the total process lethality of the patties was calculated for Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua using the previously published z-values. The effect of product temperature, wet bulb temperature, and air velocity on process lethality was analyzed using a regression model. The process lethality of Salmonella spp. and L. innocua in the cooked chicken patties was correlated to the patty center temperatures and cooking conditions. The process lethality was strongly correlated to product temperature and was affected by cooking conditions. Process lethality started to increase rapidly at the product temperature around 67 degrees C. Regression analysis was used to correlate the product yield with cooking conditions. Depending on air velocity, product yield decreased 10 to 14% with increasing endpoint temperature from 55 to 80 degrees C and increased 2 to 9% with increasing wet bulb temperature from 39 to 98 degrees C. The effect of air velocity on the yield interacted with product temperature and wet bulb temperature. PMID:11601704

Murphy, R Y; Duncan, L K; Johnson, E R; Davis, M D

2001-10-01

426

Characteristics of nitrogen removal and microbial distribution by application of spent sulfidic caustic in pilot scale wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Since spent sulfidic caustic (SSC) produced from petrochemical industry contains a high concentration of alkalinity and sulfide, it was expected that SSC could be used as an electron donor for autotrophic denitrification. To investigate the nitrogen removal performance, a pilot scale Bardenpho process was operated. The total nitrogen removal efficiency increased as SSC dosage increased, and the highest efficiency was observed as 77.5% when SSC was injected into both anoxic tank (1) and (2). FISH analysis was also performed to shed light on the effect of SSC dosage on the distribution ratio of nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus denitrificans. FISH results indicated that the relative distribution ratio of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrobacter spp., Nitrospira genus and Thiobacillus denitrificans to eubacteria varied little with the pH of the tanks, and SSC injection did not give harmful effect on nitrification efficiency. These results show that SSC can be applied as an electron donor of autotrophic denitrification to biological nitrogen removal process effectively, without any inhibitory effects to nitrifying bacteria and sulfur-utilizing denitrifying bacteria. PMID:20861561

Park, S; Lee, J; Park, J; Byun, I; Park, T; Lee, T

2010-01-01

427

Stable operation during pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of nutrient-supplemented maize/sugar beet silage.  

PubMed

Biogas production from maize/sugar beet silage was studied under mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor pilot-scale process. While energy crop mono-digest