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1

Measuring the effectiveness of a pilot scale bioreactor for removing Microcystis in an outdoor pond system.  

PubMed

A pilot scale fluidized bed bioreactor to control the cyanobacterium, Microcystis, was tested in an outdoor experimental pond system (28 m3) over a 57 day period. The pond system was inoculated with a wild bloom of Microcystis, and the bioreactor was preinoculated with an oligochaete, Aeolosoma hemprichi, which is known to prey on colonial Microcystis. This and other Microcystis predators such as the rotifer, Philodina erythrophthalma were observed to colonize the bioreactor during the experiment. The bioreactor performance in removing Microcystis was estimated using a mathematical model and a multiple regression analysis of the chlorophyll-a concentration, which was a satisfactory surrogate for the Microcystis cell density in the ponds. The estimated specific decrease in chlorophyll-a concentration due to bioreactor treatment was 0.04 day-1, which was equal to the net removal of 4.3 x 10(11) Microcystis cells day(-1) from the treated pond. PMID:19068838

Itayama, Tomoaki; Iwami, Norio; Koike, Mitsuyo; Kuwabara, Takashi; Whangchai, Niwooti; Inamori, Yuhei

2008-11-15

2

Particle Size Distribution in Permeate from a Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor System under Actual Operating Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research study focuses on the performance of a bench-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) in a pilot plant at a wastewater treatment plant. We analyzed particle size distribution in the permeate stream under different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations in order to see how membrane fouling affects membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems. These analyses were performed over a period of 43

J. M. Poyatos; M. Molina-Muñoz; J. González-López; E. Hontoria

2010-01-01

3

Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

2012-01-01

4

Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China  

SciTech Connect

Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

Jiang, Jianguo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China)], E-mail: jianguoj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China); Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping [Xiaping Solid Waste Landfill, Shenzhen 518019, PR China (China)

2007-07-01

5

High-rate composting of barley dregs with sewage sludge in a pilot scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of high-rate composting of barley dregs and sewage sludge was examined using a pilot scale bioreactor. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the mix ratio of barley dregs/sewage sludge and moisture content. The performance of the bioreactor was monitored as a function of carbon decomposition rate (CDR) and total volatile solids (TVS) loss rate. The optimum range of mix ratio and moisture content was found to be 35-40% and 55-60%, respectively. High CO2 evolution rate (CER) and TVS loss rate were observed after 3 days of the composting and the compost was matured/stable after 7 days. Cardinal temperature model with inflection (CTMI) was used to analyze the compost stability with respect to CER as a parameter of composting efficiency. After examining the phytotoxicity, the compost can be promoted for land application. PMID:17606369

Lu, Li-An; Kumar, Mathava; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jih-Gaw

2007-07-02

6

A catalytic multistage fixed-bed tower bioreactor in an industrial-scale pilot plant for alcohol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of an industrial-scale, multistage fixed-bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor using the promoter mineral kissiris for industrial alcohol producing using free cells. Specifically, the authors examined the parameters needed to maintain operational stability from batch to batch for long periods. Pilot plant operations used one- and two-stage fixed-bed, 7,000-L bioreactors. Likewise a 100,000-L, multistage fixed-bed tower system

V. Bakoyianis; A. A. Koutinas

1996-01-01

7

Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

2012-01-25

8

Molecular Assessment of Inoculated and Indigenous Bacteria in Biofilms from a Pilot-Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater can occur via bacterial reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Although perchlorate reduction has been demonstrated in bacterial pure cultures, little is known about the efficacy of using perchlorate-reducing bacteria as inoculants for bioremediation in the field. A pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site in Southern California.

H. Zhang; B. E. Logan; J. M. Regan; L. A. Achenbach; M. A. Bruns

2005-01-01

9

Energy and water balances using kinetic modeling in a pilot-scale SSF bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct monitoring of bed conditions in large scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactors is difficult due to lack of reliable and affordable instrumentation. Although, relevant variables such as average bed temperature and water content can be inferred from energy and water balances, these estimations are prone to significant error since the process is complex and measured variables are extremely noisy. Hence,

J. Sebastián Lekanda; J. Ricardo Pérez-Correa

2004-01-01

10

Ethanol production in a membrane bioreactor: pilot-scale trials in a corn wet mill.  

PubMed

Pilot plant trials were conducted in a corn wet mill with a 7000-L membrane recycle bioreactor (MRB) that integrated ceramic microfiltration membranes in a semi-closed loop configuration with a stirred-tank reactor. Residence times of 7.5-10 h with ethanol outputs of 10-11.5% (v/v) were obtained when the cell concentration was 60-100 g/L dry wt of yeast, equivalent to about 10(9)-10(10) cells/mL. The performance of the membrane was dependent on the startup mode and pressure management techniques. A steady flux of 70 L/(m2 x h) could be maintained for several days before cleaning was necessary. The benefits of the MRB include better productivity; a clear product stream containing no particulates or yeast cells, which should improve subsequent stripping and distillation operations; and substantially reduced stillage handling. The capital cost of the MRB is $21-$34/(m3 x yr) ($0.08-$0.13/[gal x yr]) of ethanol capacity. Operating cost, including depreciation, energy, membrane replacement, maintenance, labor, and cleaning, is $4.5-9/m3 ($0.017-$0.034/gal) of ethanol. PMID:11963857

Escobar, J M; Rane, K D; Cheryan, M

2001-01-01

11

Biohydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation with a pilot-scale bioreactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 1.48m3) for over 200 days. The hydrogen bio-producing reactor (HBR) system was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.11–85.57kgCOD\\/m3reactor\\/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. Both biogas and hydrogen yields increased with OLR at the

Nanqi Ren; Jianzheng Li; Baikun Li; Yong Wang; Shirui Liu

2006-01-01

12

Control of membrane fouling during hyperhaline municipal wastewater treatment using a pilot-scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor system.  

PubMed

Membrane fouling limits the effects of long-term stable operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR). Control of membrane fouling can extend the membrane life and reduce water treatment cost effectively. A pilot scale anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR, 40 L/hr) was used to treat the hyperhaline municipal sewage from a processing zone of Tianjin, China. Impact factors including mixed liquid sludge suspension (MLSS), sludge viscosity (micro), microorganisms, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), aeration intensity and suction/suspended time on membrane fouling and pollution control were studied. The relationships among various factors associated with membrane fouling were analyzed. Results showed that there was a positive correlation among MLSS, sludge viscosity and trans-membrane pressure (TMP). Considering water treatment efficiency and stable operation of the membrane module, MLSS of 5 g/L was suggested for the process. There was a same trend among EPS, sludge viscosity and TMP. Numbers and species of microorganisms affected membrane fouling. Either too high or too low aeration intensity was not conducive to membrane fouling control. Aeration intensity of 1.0 m3/hr (gas/water ratio of 25:1) is suggested for the process. A long suction time caused a rapid increase in membrane resistance. However, long suspended time cannot prevent the increase of membrane resistance effectively even though a suspended time was necessary for scale off particles from the membrane surface. The suction/suspended time of 12 min/3 min was selected for the process. The interaction of various environmental factors and operation conditions must be considered synthetically. PMID:22432256

Sun, Jingmei; Rong, Jiangxiu; Dai, Lifeng; Liu, Baoshan; Zhu, Wenting

2011-01-01

13

Pilot-Scale Development of Fixed-Film, Anaerobic Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anaeraobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor, which uses fixed-films of bacteria in a packed-bed column, is being developed as an energy-conserving wastewater treatment process. Development efforts have progressed through a successful two-year feasibility st...

R. K. Genung C. W. Hancher M. T. Harris A. L. Rivera

1982-01-01

14

A zero-dimensional biofilm model for dynamic simulation of moving bed bioreactor systems: Model concepts, Peterson matrix, and application to a pilot-scale plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-dimensional (0D) biofilm model for dynamic simulation of biological wastewater treatment systems is proposed and applied to a pilot-scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR). The model, written in Peterson matrix format, does not describe biofilm structure in any form. Biochemical conversions in the model are based on the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Diffusional mass transport limitations are taken

M. Plattes; E. Henry; P. M. Schosseler

2008-01-01

15

Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest\\u000a during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed.\\u000a Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes\\u000a have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives

Naomi J. McSweeney; Jason J. Plumb; Amanda L. Tilbury; Hugh J. Nyeboer; Matt E. Sumich; Anthony J. McKinnon; Peter D. Franzmann; David C. Sutton; Anna H. Kaksonen

2011-01-01

16

Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-11-26

17

Experimental study of the anaerobic urban wastewater treatment in a submerged hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor at pilot scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of several operational variables on both biological and separation process performance in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor pilot plant that treats urban wastewater. The pilot plant is equipped with two industrial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration membrane modules (PURON® Koch Membrane Systems, 30 m² of filtration surface each). It was operated under mesophilic conditions (at 33 °C), 70 days of SRT, and variable HRT ranging from 20 to 6h. The effects of the influent COD/SO?-S ratio (ranging from 2 to 12) and the MLTS concentration (ranging from 6 to 22 g L?¹) were also analysed. The main performance results were about 87% of COD removal, effluent VFA below 20 mg L?¹ and biogas methane concentrations over 55% v/v. Methane yield was strongly affected by the influent COD/SO?-S ratio. No irreversible fouling problems were detected, even for MLTS concentrations above 22 g L?¹. PMID:21820896

Giménez, J B; Robles, A; Carretero, L; Durán, F; Ruano, M V; Gatti, M N; Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

2011-07-23

18

Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production. PMID:23489568

Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

2013-02-24

19

Treatment of chromium(VI) solutions in a pilot-scale bioreactor through a biofilm of Arthrobacter viscosus supported on GAC.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to evaluate the applicability of a biofilm to the removal of chromium in solution, at a pilot scale. The effect of the initial concentration of metal on the biosorption behavior of an Arthrobacter viscosus biofilm supported on granular activated carbon, in batch and column essays was also analyzed. Six isotherm equations have been tested in the present study. The best fit was obtained with the Freundlich model. It was observed that as the initial chromium concentration increases, the uptake increases too, but the removal percentage decreases, with values between 95.20% (C(0)=5mg/l) and 38.28% (C(0)=1000 mg/l). The batch adsorption studies were used to develop a pilot bioreactor able to remove chromium from aqueous solutions. Data obtained in a pilot-scale reactor showed an average removal percentage of 99.9%, during the first 30 days, for the initial concentration of 10mg/l and an average removal percentage of 72%, for the same period and for the initial concentration of 100mg/l. Uptake values of 11.35 mg/g and 14.55 mg/g were obtained, respectively, for the initial concentration of 10 and 100mg/l. The results obtained are very promising and encourage the utilization of this biofilm in environmental applications. PMID:18565747

Quintelas, C; Fonseca, B; Silva, B; Figueiredo, H; Tavares, T

2008-06-18

20

Effectiveness of heat treatment to protect introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predatory microorganisms in a pilot-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation of bioreactor systems with pre-cultured bacteria has proven difficult because inoculated bacteria are easily eliminated by predatory eukaryotic-microorganisms. Here, we demonstrated an intermediate thermal treatment was effective for protecting introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predators and consequently allowed the inoculated bacteria to survive longer in a denitrification reactor. PMID:23810658

Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Miyahara, Morio; Yamada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Akira; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Endo, Ginro

2013-06-28

21

Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method  

PubMed Central

Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to the study of bacterial populations of anaerobic treatment systems.

Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

1992-01-01

22

Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were

Ahmed Eldyasti; Nabin Chowdhury; George Nakhla; Jesse Zhu

2010-01-01

23

Design of an airlift loop bioreactor and pilot scales studies with fluidic oscillator induced microbubbles for growth of a microalgae Dunaliella salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to test the feasibility of growing microalgae on steel plant exhaust gas, generated from the combustion of offgases from steel processing, which has a high CO2 content. Two field trials of batch algal biomass growth, mediated by microbubble transfer processes in an airlift loop bioreactor showed only steady growth of biomass with 100% survival rate. The

William B. Zimmerman; Mohammad Zandi; H. C. Hemaka Bandulasena; Václav Tesa?; D. James Gilmour; Kezhen Ying

2011-01-01

24

Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

25

Scale-up of human embryonic stem cell culture using a hollow fibre bioreactor.  

PubMed

The commercialisation of human embryonic stem cell derived cell therapies for large patient populations is reliant on both minimising expensive and variable manual-handling methods whilst realising economies of scale. The Quantum Cell Expansion System, a hollow fibre bioreactor (Terumo BCT), was used in a pilot study to expand 60 million human embryonic stem cells to 708 million cells. Further improvements can be expected with optimisation of media flow rates throughout the run to better control the cellular microenvironment. High levels of pluripotency marker expression were maintained on the bioreactor, with 97.7 % of cells expressing SSEA-4 when harvested. PMID:22983716

Roberts, Iwan; Baila, Stefano; Rice, R Brent; Janssens, Michiel Etienne; Nguyen, Kim; Moens, Nathalie; Ruban, Ludmila; Hernandez, Diana; Coffey, Pete; Mason, Chris

2012-09-15

26

Large-scale growth and taxane production in cell cultures of Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew) using a novel bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel type of bioreactor was successfully developed for the production of taxol and its precursors by culturing cells of\\u000a Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew) on a pilot-scale. Rapidly growing cell lines were selected from callus cultures derived from immature embryos\\u000a of yew. The cells were inoculated in 20-l capacity bioreactors of different types to test the growth performance. The models

S. H. Son; S. M. Choi; Y. H. Lee; K. B. Choi; S. R. Yun; J. K. Kim; H. J. Park; O. W. Kwon; E. W. Noh; J. H. Seon; Y. G. Park

2000-01-01

27

Pilot-Scale Fermentation of Aqueous-Ammonia-Soaked Switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous-ammonia-steeped switchgrass was subject to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in two pilot-scale\\u000a bioreactors (50- and 350-L working volume). Switchgrass was pretreated by soaking in ammonium hydroxide (30%) with solid to\\u000a liquid ratio of 5 L ammonium hydroxide per kilogram dry switchgrass for 5 days in 75-L steeping vessels without agitation\\u000a at ambient temperatures (15 to 33 °C). SSF of the pretreated biomass

Asli Isci; Jennifer N. Himmelsbach; John Strohl; Anthony L. Pometto; D. Raj Raman; Robert P. Anex

2009-01-01

28

Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in a production-scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-compartment model for the liquid flow and the oxygen transfer into the liquid phase of a large-scale bioreactor is presented. The aim of the model is to predict the following reactor operating variables: 1) the overall oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor; 2) the local liquid dissolved oxygen concentrations, for estimation of bad aerated zones which can introduce negative

N. M. G. Oosterhuis; N. W. F. Kossen

1984-01-01

29

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

Smith, R. L.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Repert, D. A.; Miller, D. N.

2005-01-01

30

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

31

Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB).  

PubMed

Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were used to optimize carbon and nutrient removal capability from leachate using 600 microm lava rock with a total porosity of 61%, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.55, 0.49, and 0.41 d. The LSCFB achieved COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 85%, 80%, and 70%, respectively at a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 and nutrients loading rates of 2.15 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.70 kg N/(m(3) d), and 0.014 kg P/(m(3) d), as compared with 60-77% COD and 70-79% nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), respectively. The LSCFB effluent characterized by

Eldyasti, Ahmed; Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

2010-05-07

32

FULL-SCALE EVALUATION OF BIOREACTOR LANDFILL TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of landfills or portions of landfills have been operated as bioreactor landfills, but only limited scientific data is available for their optimal design and operation. In this research, a two-acre anaerobic bioreactor landfill cell was designed and constructed to extensively evaluate the basic chemical, biological and physical processes occurring within a bioreactor cell containing municipal solid waste (MSW)

Xianda Zhao; Thomas C. Voice; Milind Khire; Seth Maher; Reem Musleh; Priya Heerwani; Syed Hashsham

33

Biological denitrification in a continuous-flow pilot bioreactor containing immobilized Pseudomonas butanovora cells.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas butanovora, a novel denitrifying bacterium, was immobilized in composite beads and filled into a reactor system. The pilot bioreactor average denitrification activity was at ethanol-C:nitrate-N ratios of 3:1 and 1.5:1 0.88 and 0.54 kg NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1), respectively. The denitrification was stable in spite of the relatively low hydraulic retention times of 2.47 and 3 h. The nitrate content of the influent was almost completely reduced at the first level of the bioreactor and the nitrite formed underwent reduction in the upper part of the reactor. The experimentally determined optimum ethanol-C:nitrate-N ratio was 1.41 +/- 0.41. In consequence of the aerobic conditions, the acetic acid produced by the oxygenation of ethanol was also detectable in the reactor effluent. The pH of the effluent (7.58) never exceeded the acceptable maximum (8.5). The nitrate removal efficiency of the cells was nearly 1000% at both C:N ratios, and the nitrite content of the effluent was around the prescribed limit throughout the continuous operation. This continuous-flow pilot bioreactor containing immobilized P. butanovora cells proved an efficient denitrification system with a relatively low retention time. PMID:12733579

Kesserü, Péter; Kiss, István; Bihari, Zoltán; Polyák, Béla

2003-03-01

34

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application\\u000a of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has\\u000a also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale.\\u000a A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized,

P. R. Norris; N. P. Burton; N. A. M. Foulis

2000-01-01

35

MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a loop of interconnected continuous bioreactors, aimed to provide life support in space, is reported. The complete loop concept consists of four bioreactors and one higher plant compartment. For its realization the continuous and controlled operation of the bioreactors is characterized, up to the pilot scale level, first for each individual reactor, second for the interconnected reactor

F. Godia; J. Albiol; J. L. Montesinos; J. Perez; N. Creus; F. Cabello; X. Mengual; A. Montras; Ch. Lasseur

2002-01-01

36

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

37

Application of bioreactors for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of bioreactor culture techniques for plant micropropagation is regarded as one of the ways to reduce production\\u000a cost by scaling-up and automation. Recent experiments are restricted to a small number of species that, however, demonstrate\\u000a the feasibility of this technology. Periodic immersion liquid culture using ebb and flood system and column-type bubble bioreactors\\u000a equipped with a raft support

Kee-Yoeup Paek; Eun-Joo Hahn; Sung-Ho Son

2001-01-01

38

A novel scale-up method for mammalian cell culture in packed-bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the scale-up culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in a packed-bed bioreactor is developed wherein microcarriers, attached with CHO cells in a microcarrier culture system, are inoculated directly into the packed-bed bioreactor. Cells continue to grow after inoculation and the maximum cell density reaches about 2×107 cells ml-1. The method provides a new technique for

Chunshui Cong; Yu Chang; Jixian Deng; Chengzu Xiao; Zhiguo Su

2001-01-01

39

Bioreactor environment-sensitive sentinel genes as novel metrics for cell culture scale-down comparability.  

PubMed

Scale-down of bioreactors is currently done based on matching one or more measurable parameters such as k(L) a and P/V, which could result in insufficient process comparability. Currently, there is a lack of genomic translational studies in cell culture scale-down, which could help delineate measurable cellular attributes for improved scale-down. In this study, we scaled-down from a typical bench-scale 5-L bioreactor to a novel high-throughput 35-mL minibioreactor based on matching oxygen transfer rate, which resulted in cell growth and product-related discrepancies using Sp2/0 cells. Performing DNA microarrays on time-course samples from both systems, we identified ?200 differentially expressed transcripts, presumably because of bioreactor aeration and mixing differences with scale-down. Evaluating these transcripts for bioreactor-relevant cellular functions such as oxidative stress response and DNA damage response, we chose 18 sentinel genes based on their degree of difference and functionality, which we further verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Tracking the differential expression of Sod1, Apex1, and Odc1 genes, we were able to correlate sparging-related damage and poor mixing, as possible causes for physiological changes such as prolonged culture in minibioreactors. Additionally, to verify our sentinel gene findings, we performed follow-up improved scale-down studies based on gene analysis and measured transcriptomic changes. As a result, qRT-PCR-based genomic profiles and cell growth profiles showed better convergence between the improved minibioreactor conditions and the model 5-L bioreactor. Our results broadly show that based on the knowledge from transcriptomic changes of sentinel gene profiles, it is possible to improve bioreactor scale-down for more comparable processes. PMID:22848039

Kondragunta, Bhargavi; Joshi, Bharat H; Han, Jing; Brorson, Kurt A; Puri, Raj K; Moreira, Antonio R; Rao, Govind

2012-09-18

40

Tubular bioreactors: case study of bioreactor performance for industrial production and scientific research.  

PubMed

Application of bioreactors is dominated by industrial production with the consequence that bioreactors also for scientific purposes are mainly used following an empiric pragmatic approach. For the sake of a breakthrough in biotechnology in general, and especially for advanced process development, a more systematic approach is emphasized here. This methodology in bioreactor performance studies is explained and the meaning clarified in a case study of a new type of tubular bioreactor. The central role of so-called "model bioreactors" in bench-scale applications is illustrated as a powerful contribution to the optimal design of bioreactors in technical scale. Pilot plant data in case of a tubular reactor for the production of ethanol with Zymomonas and biopesticides with Bacillus thuringiensis are presented. PMID:18597337

Moser, A

1991-05-01

41

Removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by an Arthrobacter viscosus biofilm supported on zeolite: from laboratory to pilot scale.  

PubMed

This study discusses the retention of Ni(II) by Arthrobacter viscosus supported on zeolite 13 X in batch mode and in continuous mode, at laboratory scale and at pilot scale. The maximum adsorption capacities of 28.37, 20.21 and 11.13 mg/g were recorded for lab scale batch, for continuous lab scale minicolumns and for pilot scale bioreactors, respectively. The Sips isotherm and pseudo second order kinetics described well the observations registered in batch assays. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to data obtained with the pilot scale bioreactor and a good fit was reached for Adams-Bohart and for Yoon-Nelson models. A fed-batch was performed at lab scale and the applicability of the biofilm in continuous mode for the described purpose was confirmed. The sorption mechanism was investigated in detail through FTIR, SEM and EDX analyses. PMID:23748085

Quintelas, Cristina; Pereira, Ricardo; Kaplan, Ecem; Tavares, Teresa

2013-05-23

42

Study on hydraulic characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic characteristics in a membrane bioreactor are of significance for retarding membrane fouling and maintaining stable operation. Cross flow velocity along the membrane surface and its effect on transmembrane pressure change were experimentally investigated using two pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors. A simulation model for calculating cross flow velocity was then developed. Cross flow velocity was a function of aeration intensity.

Rui Liu; Xia Huang; Chengwen Wang; Lvjun Chen; Yi Qian

2000-01-01

43

Performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) was developed by introducing biofilm carriers into a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) and operated for about one year for municipal wastewater treatment. Experiments were conducted to investigate the performances of the HMBR for organic removal, nutrients removal and membrane fouling control comparing with the CMBR. The comparative study results indicated that at a constant

Qiang Liu; Xiaochang C. Wang; Yongjun Liu; Honglin Yuan; Yujiao Du

2010-01-01

44

Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5?×?10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass. PMID:24061414

Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

2013-09-06

45

Air-lift bioreactors for algal growth on flue gas: Mathematical modeling and pilot-plant studies  

SciTech Connect

Air-lift reactors (ALRs) have great potential for industrial bioprocesses, because of the low level and homogeneous distribution of hydrodynamic shear. One growing field of application is the flue-gas treatment using algae for the absorption of CO{sub 2}, In this paper, we discuss the requirements for photosynthetic biomass growth in an ALR. The effects of the operating variables are analyzed using a mathematical model that accounts for the effects of ALR geometry, fluid flow, and illumination on the biomass growth. On the basis of the ALR principles and the specific requirements of photosynthetic processes, we developed a 'triangular' ALR configuration that is particularly suitable for algal growth. We describe the design and operation of this novel bioreactor and present the first series of experimental data obtained for two different algal species in a pilot-scale unit supplied with flue gases from a small power plant. The measured removal efficiency of CO{sub 2} was significant (82.3 12.5% on sunny days and 50.1 6.5% on cloudy days) and consistent with the increase in the algal biomass.

Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kim, Y.; Wu, X.X.; Berzin, I.; Merchuk, J.C. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (US)

2005-08-03

46

Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration

Felix Garcia-Ochoa; Emilio Gomez

2009-01-01

47

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

48

New milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms.  

PubMed

A novel milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was developed for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms on a 10 milliliter-scale. A newly designed one-sided paddle impeller is driven magnetically and rotates freely on an axis in an unbaffled reaction vessel made of polystyrene. A rotating lamella is formed which spreads out along the reactor wall. Thus an enhanced surface-to-volume ratio of the liquid phase is generated where oxygen is introduced via surface aeration. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)a) > 0.15 s(-1) were measured. The fast moving liquid lamella efficiently prevents wall growth and foaming. Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 10 mL) and compared to a standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor with six-bladed Rushton turbines (V = 2,000 mL). Mean power consumption increases with increasing impeller speed and shows the same characteristics and values on both scales. The maximum local energy dissipation of the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared to the laboratory-scale at the same mean volumetric power input. Hence the milliliter impeller distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. Based on these data a reliable and robust scale-up of fermentation processes is possible. This was demonstrated with the cultivation of the actinomycete Streptomyces tendae on both scales. It was shown that the process performances were equivalent with regard to biomass concentration, mannitol consumption and production of the pharmaceutical relevant fungicide nikkomycin Z up to a process time of 120 h. A high parallel reproducibility was observed on the milliliter-scale (standard deviation < 8%) with up to 48 stirred tank bioreactors operated in a magnetic inductive drive. Rheological behavior of the culture broth was measured and showed a highly viscous shear-thinning non-Newtonian behavior. The newly developed one-sided paddle impellers operated in unbaffled reactors on a 10 milliliter-scale with a magnetic inductive drive for up to 48 parallel bioreactors allows for the first time the parallel bioprocess development with mycelium forming microorganisms. This is especially important since these kinds of cultivations normally exhibit process times of 100 h and more. Thus the operation of parallel stirred tank reactors will have the potential to reduce process development times drastically. PMID:20198653

Hortsch, Ralf; Stratmann, Ansgar; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

2010-06-15

49

Cattle Mammary Bioreactor Generated by a Novel Procedure of Transgenic Cloning for Large-Scale Production of Functional Human Lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals by current bioreactor techniques is limited by low transgenic efficiency and low expression of foreign proteins. In general, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) harboring most regulatory elements is capable of overcoming the limitations, but transferring BAC into donor cells is difficult. We describe here the use of cattle mammary bioreactor to produce functional recombinant human lactoferrin

Penghua Yang; Jianwu Wang; Guochun Gong; Xiuzhu Sun; Ran Zhang; Zhuo Du; Ying Liu; Rong Li; Fangrong Ding; Bo Tang; Yunping Dai; Ning Li; Hany A. El-Shemy

2008-01-01

50

Failure analysis of a pilot scale melter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 (690) jacketed molybdenum electrode.\\u000a Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high\\u000a waste loading. Metallurgical evaluation revealed the presence of an alloy containing nickel and molybdenum in several ingots\\u000a found on the bottom of the

K. J. Imrich

2001-01-01

51

Scale-up strategies for packed-bed bioreactors for solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches are compared for scale-up of solid-state fermentation processes in packed-bed bioreactors, one based on a dynamic heat transfer model, and the other based on a modified Damköhler number. A critical bed height is proposed, being the maximum bed height which can be used without undesirable temperatures being reached in the substrate bed during the fermentation. It depends on

David A. Mitchell; Ashok Pandey; Penjit Sangsurasak; Nadia Krieger

1999-01-01

52

Production of bio-ethanol from soybean molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop an economical bioprocess to produce the bio-ethanol from soybean molasses at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LPB-SC) was selected and fermentation conditions were defined at the laboratory scale, which included the medium with soluble solids concentration of 30% (w/v), without pH adjustment or supplementation with the mineral sources. The kinetic parameters - ethanol productivity of 8.08g/Lh, YP/S 45.4%, YX/S 0.815%, m 0.27h(-1) and microX 0.0189h(-1) - were determined in a bench scale bioreactor. Ethanol production yields after the scale-up were satisfactory, with small decreases from 169.8L at the laboratory scale to 163.6 and 162.7L of absolute ethanol per ton of dry molasses, obtained at pilot and industrial scales, respectively. PMID:18485696

Siqueira, Paula F; Karp, Susan G; Carvalho, Júlio C; Sturm, Wilerson; Rodríguez-León, José A; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos R

2008-05-15

53

A new microfluidic concept for parallel operated milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors.  

PubMed

Parallel miniaturized stirred tank bioreactors are an efficient tool for "high-throughput bioprocess design." As most industrial bioprocesses are pH-controlled and/or are operated in a fed-batch mode, an exact scale-down of these reactions with continuous dosing of fluids into the miniaturized bioreactors is highly desirable. Here, we present the development, characterization, and application of a novel concept for a highly integrated microfluidic device for a bioreaction block with 48 parallel milliliter-scale stirred tank reactors (V = 12 mL). The device consists of an autoclavable fluidic section to dispense up to three liquids individually per reactor. The fluidic section contains 144 membrane pumps, which are magnetically driven by a clamped-on actuator section. The micropumps are designed to dose 1.6 ?L per pump lift. Each micropump enables a continuous addition of liquid with a flow rate of up to 3 mL h(-1) . Viscous liquids up to a viscosity of 8.2 mPa s (corresponds to a 60% v/v glycerine solution) can be pumped without changes in the flow rates. Thus, nearly all feeding solutions can be delivered, which are commonly used in bioprocesses. The functionality of the first prototype of this microfluidic device was demonstrated by double-sided pH-controlled cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on signals of fluorimetric sensors embedded at the bottom of the bioreactors. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivations with constant and exponential feeding profiles were successfully performed. Thus, the presented novel microfluidic device will be a useful tool for parallel and, thus, efficient optimization of controlled fed-batch bioprocesses in small-scale stirred tank bioreactors. This can help to reduce bioprocess development times drastically. PMID:21523927

Gebhardt, Gabi; Hortsch, Ralf; Kaufmann, Klaus; Arnold, Matthias; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

2011-04-26

54

Effect of aeration on stabilization of organic solid waste and microbial population dynamics in lab-scale landfill bioreactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated microbial population dynamics and performance in lab-scale conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic landfill bioreactors specialized for high-organic wastes. Each reactor (2.35 l) was loaded with 1.5 kg of organic solid waste made of sludge cake, dry dog food, and wood chips. The conventional reactor was operated without leachate recirculation and aeration, but the other reactors used leachate recirculation at 200 ml/d and without aeration (anaerobic bioreactor) or with aeration at 2 l/min (aerobic bioreactor). The respective final waste volumes on day 138 of the conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic reactors were approximately 75%, 65%, and 60% of the initial volumes. Leachate recirculation in the anaerobic bioreactor accelerated biochemical reactions and promoted methane production. However, leachate from the anaerobic bioreactor showed TOC and NH(4)(+)-N concentrations that were as high as those of the conventional reactor. Aeration lowered leachate production and methane concentration and decreased organic matter in solid waste and leachate. Furthermore, the MPN value of amoA gene reached 10(5) MPN-copies/g-dry in the aerobic bioreactor, where nitrogen was removed from organic solid waste and leachate. During the first 72 d, the aerobic bioreactor's MPN value of fungal 18S rDNA was the highest among reactors, but it decreased gradually. All reactors showed similar MPN values of eubacterial 16S rDNA, nirS, and nirK. PMID:19111637

Sang, Nguyen Nhu; Soda, Satoshi; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

2008-11-01

55

COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

56

A test facility for fritted spargers of production-scale-bioreactors  

PubMed Central

The production of therapeutic proteins requires qualification of equipment components and appropriate validation procedures for all operations. Since protein productions are typically performed in bioreactors using aerobic cultivation processes air sparging is an essential factor. As recorded in literature, besides ring spargers and open pipe, sinter frits are often used as sparging elements in large scale bioreactors. Due to the manufacturing process these frits have a high lot-to-lot product variability. Experience shows this is a practical problem for use in production processes of therapeutic proteins, hence frits must be tested before they can be employed. The circumstance of checking quality and performance of frits as sparging elements was investigated and various possibilities have been compared. Criteria have been developed in order to evaluate the sparging performance under conditions comparable to those in production bioreactors. The oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was chosen as the evaluation criterion. It is well known as an essential performance measure for fermenters in the monoclonal antibody production. Therefore a test rig was constructed able to automatically test frit-spargers with respect to their kLa-values at various gas throughputs. Performance differences in the percent range could be detected.

Sieblist, C.; Aehle, M.; Pohlscheidt, M.; Jenzsch, M.

2010-01-01

57

A test facility for fritted spargers of production-scale-bioreactors.  

PubMed

The production of therapeutic proteins requires qualification of equipment components and appropriate validation procedures for all operations. Since protein productions are typically performed in bioreactors using aerobic cultivation processes air sparging is an essential factor. As recorded in literature, besides ring spargers and open pipe, sinter frits are often used as sparging elements in large scale bioreactors. Due to the manufacturing process these frits have a high lot-to-lot product variability. Experience shows this is a practical problem for use in production processes of therapeutic proteins, hence frits must be tested before they can be employed. The circumstance of checking quality and performance of frits as sparging elements was investigated and various possibilities have been compared. Criteria have been developed in order to evaluate the sparging performance under conditions comparable to those in production bioreactors. The oxygen mass transfer coefficient (k ( L ) a) was chosen as the evaluation criterion. It is well known as an essential performance measure for fermenters in the monoclonal antibody production. Therefore a test rig was constructed able to automatically test frit-spargers with respect to their k ( L ) a-values at various gas throughputs. Performance differences in the percent range could be detected. PMID:21161376

Sieblist, C; Aehle, M; Pohlscheidt, M; Jenzsch, M; Lübbert, A

2010-12-15

58

PILOT SCALE STUDIES OF CLOSED-LOOP ASH SLUICING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses pilot scale studies of closed-loop fly ash sluicing. Chemicals leached from fly ash in wet sluicing systems can cause scaling of equipment if the sluice water is recycled. A 50 gpm (190,000 cu cm/min) pilot unit was tested at two power plants to evaluate close...

59

Application of a membrane bioreactor system for opto-electronic industrial wastewater treatment - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) system has become more and more attractive in the field of wastewater treatment. It is particularly attractive in situations where long solids retention times are required, such as nitrifying bacteria, and physical retention is critical to achieving more efficiency for biological degradation of pollutants. Although it is a new technology, the MBR process has been applied

T. K. Chen; J. N. Chen; C. H. Ni; G. T. Lin; C. Y. Chang

60

Design of a large-scale surface-aerated bioreactor for biomass production using a VOC substrate.  

PubMed

The design of a large-scale bioreactor for the production of bacterial biomass adapted to the biodegradation of volatile organic compounds was carried out. The bioreactor model used integrated the microbial kinetics and fluid dynamics described by the compartment model approach. The process conditions and kinetic parameters were adopted from the laboratory experimental study of (León, E., Seignez, C., Adler, N., Péringer, P., 1999. Growth inhibition of biomass adapted to the degradation of toluene and xylenes in mixture in a batch reactor with substrates supplied by pulses. Biodegradation 10, 245-250). The performance of the pulsed-batch stirred bioreactor under surface aeration conditions was simulated for different mixing configurations and conditions such as the impeller diameter, number of impellers, stirring speed, and oxygen pressure. The simulations were used for the cost analysis which resulted in the optimal design of the bioreactor. PMID:17548122

Acai, P; Polakovic, M

2007-05-04

61

Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

62

In silico multi-scale model of transport and dynamic seeding in a bone tissue engineering perfusion bioreactor.  

PubMed

Computer simulations can potentially be used to design, predict, and inform properties for tissue engineering perfusion bioreactors. In this work, we investigate the flow properties that result from a particular poly-L-lactide porous scaffold and a particular choice of perfusion bioreactor vessel design used in bone tissue engineering. We also propose a model to investigate the dynamic seeding properties such as the homogeneity (or lack of) of the cellular distribution within the scaffold of the perfusion bioreactor: a pre-requisite for the subsequent successful uniform growth of a viable bone tissue engineered construct. Flows inside geometrically complex scaffolds have been investigated previously and results shown at these pore scales. Here, it is our aim to show accurately that through the use of modern high performance computers that the bioreactor device scale that encloses a scaffold can affect the flows and stresses within the pores throughout the scaffold which has implications for bioreactor design, control, and use. Central to this work is that the boundary conditions are derived from micro computed tomography scans of both a device chamber and scaffold in order to avoid generalizations and uncertainties. Dynamic seeding methods have also been shown to provide certain advantages over static seeding methods. We propose here a novel coupled model for dynamic seeding accounting for flow, species mass transport and cell advection-diffusion-attachment tuned for bone tissue engineering. The model highlights the timescale differences between different species suggesting that traditional homogeneous porous flow models of transport must be applied with caution to perfusion bioreactors. Our in silico data illustrate the extent to which these experiments have the potential to contribute to future design and development of large-scale bioreactors. PMID:23124479

Spencer, T J; Hidalgo-Bastida, L A; Cartmell, S H; Halliday, I; Care, C M

2012-11-23

63

Enhanced leachate recirculation and stabilization in a pilot landfill bioreactor in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study focused on the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) by modification and recirculation of leachate from a simulated landfill bioreactor. Hydrogen peroxide was added to recirculated leachate to maintain a constant oxygen concentration as the leachate passed again through the simulated landfill bioreactor. The results showed that leachate recirculation increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the test landfill bioreactor. Over a period of 405 days, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) in the collected leachate reduced by 99.7%, whereas the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduced by 96%. The BOD(5)/COD ratio at the initial stage of 0.9 improved to 0.09 under aerobic conditions (leachate recirculation with added hydrogen peroxide) compared with the anaerobic test cell 0.11 (leachate recirculation alone without hydrogen peroxide). The pH increased from 5.5 to 7.6, and the degradation rate of organic carbon was 93%. Leachate recirculation brings about the biodegradation of MSW comparatively faster than the conventional landfill operation. The addition of a constant concentration of hydrogen peroxide was found to further increase the biodegradation. This increased biodegradation rate ultimately enables an MSW landfill to reach a stable state sooner and free up the land for further reuse. PMID:22767874

Huang, Fu-Shih; Hung, Jui-Min; Lu, Chih-Jen

2012-07-05

64

Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.  

PubMed

Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities. PMID:23315361

Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

2013-01-11

65

Biogasification of community-derived biomass and solid wastes in a pilot-scale SOLCON reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology has developed a novel, solids- concentrating (SOLCON) bioreactor to convert a variety of individual or mixed feedstocks (biomass and wastes) to methane at higher rates and efficiencies than those obtained from conventional high-rate anaerobic digesters. The biogasification studies are being conducted in a pilot-scale experimental test unit (ETU) located in the Walt Disney World Resort Complex, Orlando, Florida. This paper describes the ETU facility, the logistics of feedstock integration, the SOLCON reactor design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 4 years of stable, uninterrupted operation with different feedstocks. The SOLCON reactor consistently outperformed the conventional stirred-tank reactor by 20% to 50%.

Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

1988-01-01

66

ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

67

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30

68

Large scale expansion of human umbilical cord cells in a rotating bed system bioreactor for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Widespread use of human umbilical cord cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering requires production of large numbers of well-characterized cells under controlled conditions. In current research projects, the expansion of cells to be used to create a tissue construct is usually performed in static cell culture systems which are, however, often not satisfactory due to limitations in nutrient and oxygen supply. To overcome these limitations dynamic cell expansion in bioreactor systems under controllable conditions could be an important tool providing continuous perfusion for the generation of large numbers of viable pre-conditioned cells in a short time period. For this purpose cells derived from human umbilical cord arteries were expanded in a rotating bed system bioreactor for up to 9 days. For a comparative study, cells were cultivated under static conditions in standard culture devices. Our results demonstrated that the microenvironment in the perfusion bioreactor was more favorable than that of the standard cell culture flasks. Data suggested that cells in the bioreactor expanded 39 fold (38.7 ± 6.1 fold) in comparison to statically cultured cells (31.8 ± 3.0 fold). Large-scale production of cells in the bioreactor resulted in more than 3 x 10(8) cells from a single umbilical cord fragment within 9 days. Furthermore cell doubling time was lower in the bioreactor system and production of extracellular matrix components was higher. With this study, we present an appropriate method to expand human umbilical cord artery derived cells with high cellular proliferation rates in a well-defined bioreactor system under GMP conditions. PMID:23847691

Reichardt, Anne; Polchow, Bianca; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hetzer, Roland; Lueders, Cora

2013-06-14

69

Model-based bioreactor selection for large-scale solid-state cultivation of Coniothyrium minitans spores on oats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-mixed and mixed SSF reactors were evaluated for their applicability in large-scale spore production of the biocontrol fungus Coniothyrium minitans. The major problem to overcome in large-scale SSF is heat accumulation. Testing various cooling strategies in large-scale bioreactors would be very expensive and time consuming, therefore lab experiments in combination with mathematical simulations were used instead. The metabolic heat production

J. Oostra; J. Tramper; A. Rinzema

2000-01-01

70

Fine-scale bacterial community dynamics and the taxa-time relationship within a full-scale activated sludge bioreactor.  

PubMed

In activated sludge bioreactors, aerobic heterotrophic communities efficiently remove organics, nutrients, toxic substances, and pathogens from wastewater, but the dynamics of these communities are as yet poorly understood. A macroecology metric used to quantify community shifts is the taxa-time relationship, a temporal analog of the species-area curve. To determine whether this metric can be applied to full-scale bioreactors, activated sludge samples were collected weekly over a one-year period at a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacterial community dynamics were evaluated by monitoring 16S rRNA genes using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP), corroborated by clone libraries. Observed taxa richness increased with time according to a power law model, as predicted by macroecological theory, with a power law exponent of w = 0.209. The results reveal strong long-term temporal dynamics during a period of stable performance (BOD removal and nitrification). Community dynamics followed a gradual succession away from initial conditions rather than periodicity around a mean "equilibrium", with greater within-month then among-month community similarities. Changes in community structure were significantly associated via multivariate statistical analyses with dissolved oxygen, temperature, influent silver, biomass (MLSS), flow rate, and influent nitrite, cadmium and chromium concentrations. Overall, our results suggest patterns of bacterial community dynamics likely regulated in part by operational parameters and provide evidence that the taxa-time relationship may be a fundamental ecological pattern in macro- and microbial systems. PMID:21875739

Wells, George F; Park, Hee-Deung; Eggleston, Brad; Francis, Christopher A; Criddle, Craig S

2011-08-16

71

Metabolic profiling reveals that time related physiological changes in mammalian cell perfusion cultures are bioreactor scale independent.  

PubMed

Metabolic profiling was used to characterize the time course of cell physiology both in laboratory- and manufacturing-scale mammalian cell perfusion cultures. Two independent experiments were performed involving three vials from the same BHK cell bank, used to inoculate three laboratory-scale bioreactors, from which four manufacturing-scale cultures were initiated. It was shown that metabolomic analysis can indeed enhance the prime variable dataset for the monitoring of perfusion cultures by providing a higher resolution view of the metabolic state. Metabolic profiles could capture physiological state shifts over the course of the perfusion cultures and indicated a metabolic "signature" of the phase transitions, which was not observable from prime variable data. Specifically, the vast majority of metabolites had lower concentrations in the middle compared to the other two phases. Notably, metabolomics provided orthogonal (to prime variables) evidence that all cultures followed this same metabolic state shift with cell age, independently of bioreactor scale. PMID:23680586

Vernardis, Spyros I; Goudar, Chetan T; Klapa, Maria I

2013-05-13

72

Development, parallelization, and automation of a gas-inducing milliliter-scale bioreactor for high-throughput bioprocess design (HTBD).  

PubMed

A novel milliliter-scale bioreactor equipped with a gas-inducing impeller was developed with oxygen transfer coefficients as high as in laboratory and industrial stirred-tank bioreactors. The bioreactor reaches oxygen transfer coefficients of >0.4 s(-1). Oxygen transfer coefficients of >0.2 s(-1) can be maintained over a range of 8- to 12-mL reaction volume. A reaction block with integrated heat exchangers was developed for 48-mL-scale bioreactors. The block can be closed with a single gas cover spreading sterile process gas from a central inlet into the headspace of all bioreactors. The gas cover simultaneously acts as a sterile barrier, making the reaction block a stand-alone device that represents an alternative to 48 parallel-operated shake flasks on a much smaller footprint. Process control software was developed to control a liquid-handling system for automated sampling, titration of pH, substrate feeding, and a microtiter plate reader for automated atline pH and atline optical density analytics. The liquid-handling parameters for titration agent, feeding solution, and cell samples were optimized to increase data quality. A simple proportional pH-control algorithm and intermittent titration of pH enabled Escherichia coli growth to a dry cell weight of 20.5 g L(-1) in fed-batch cultivation with air aeration. Growth of E. coli at the milliliter scale (10 mL) was shown to be equivalent to laboratory scale (3 L) with regard to growth rate, mu, and biomass yield, Y(XS). PMID:15669089

Puskeiler, R; Kaufmann, K; Weuster-Botz, D

2005-03-01

73

Denitrification of groundwater: pilot-plant testing of cotton-packed bioreactor and post-microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abtract The use of raw cotton as carbon source in the denitrification of drinking water was tested in a field pilot-plant. The reactor treated water from a well in which the concentration of nitrate varied from 22 mg N l-1 in summer to a minimum of 9 mg l-1 in winter. The experimental reactor had a capacity of approximately 9

M. I. M. Soares; A. Brenner; A. Yevzori; R. Messalem; Y. Leroux; A. Abeliovich

74

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

75

Full-scale assessment of the nutrient removal capabilities of membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Operating results from two full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) practicing biological and chemical phosphorus and biological nitrogen removal to meet stringent effluent nutrient limits are analyzed. Full-scale results and special studies conducted at these facilities resulted in the development of guidelines for the design of MBRs to achieve stringent effluent nutrient concentrations--as low as 0.05 mg/L total phosphorus and 3 mg/L total nitrogen. These guidelines include the following: (1) direct the membrane recirculation flow to the aerobic zone, (2) provide intense mixing at the inlets of the anaerobic and anoxic zones, (3) maintain internal recirculation flowrates to maintain the desired mixed liquor suspended solids distribution, and (4) carefully control supplemental metal salt addition in proportion to the phosphorus remaining after biological removal is complete. Staging the various process zones and providing effective dissolved oxygen control also enhances nutrient removal performance. The results demonstrated that process performance can be characterized by the International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) (IWA) activated sludge model number 2d (ASM2d) and the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Virginia) chemical phosphorus removal model. These models subsequently were used to develop unique process configurations that are currently under design and/or construction for several full-scale nutrient removal MBRs. PMID:20942336

Daigger, Glen T; Crawford, George V; Johnson, Bruce R

76

Characterization and application of a miniature 10 mL stirred-tank bioreactor, showing scale-down equivalence with a conventional 7 L reactor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the engineering environment of an instrumented 10 mL miniature stirred-tank bioreactor and evaluate its potential as a scale-down device for microbial fermentation processes. Miniature bioreactors such as the one detailed in this work have been developed by several research groups and companies and seek to address the current bottleneck at the screening stage of bioprocess development. The miniature bioreactor was characterized in terms of overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient and mixing time over a wide range of impeller speeds. Power input to the miniature bioreactor was directly measured, and from this the power number of each impeller was calculated and specific power input estimated, allowing the performance of the miniature bioreactor to be directly compared with that of a conventional 7 L bioreactor. The capability of the miniature bioreactor to carry out microbial fermentations was also investigated. Replicate batch fermentations of Escherichia coli DH5alpha producing plasmid DNA were performed at equal specific power input, under fully aerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions. The results showed a high degree of equivalence between the two scales with regard to growth and product kinetics. This was underlined by the equal maximum specific growth rate and equal specific DNA product yield on biomass obtained at the two scales of operation, demonstrating the feasibility of scaling down to 10 mL on the basis of equivalent specific power input. PMID:16739949

Betts, Jonathan I; Doig, Steven D; Baganz, Frank

77

Formulation variables affecting drug release from xanthan gum matrices at laboratory scale and pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to study processing variables at the laboratory and pilot scales that can affect hydration\\u000a rates of xanthan gum matrices containing diclofenac sodium and the rate of drug release. Tablets from the laboratory scale\\u000a and pilot scale proceedings were made by wet granulation. Swelling indices of xanthan gum formulations prepared with different\\u000a amounts of water

Nashiru Billa; Kah-Hay Yuen

2000-01-01

78

Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.  

PubMed

Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed. PMID:20453318

Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

2010-01-01

79

MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in space.  

PubMed

The development of a loop of interconnected continuous bioreactors, aimed to provide life support in space, is reported. The complete loop concept consists of four bioreactors and one higher plant compartment. For its realization the continuous and controlled operation of the bioreactors is characterized, up to the pilot scale level, first for each individual reactor, second for the interconnected reactor operation. The results obtained with the two more advanced bioreactors in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELISSA) loop are described more specifically. These reactors consist of a packed-bed reactor working with an immobilized co-culture of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter cells, and an external loop gas-lift photobioreactor for the culture of the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. Their individual operation for long duration runs has been achieved and characterized, and their interconnected operation at pilot scale is reported. PMID:12385718

Gòdia, F; Albiol, J; Montesinos, J L; Pérez, J; Creus, N; Cabello, F; Mengual, X; Montras, A; Lasseur, Ch

2002-11-13

80

An industrial perspective on bioreactor scale-down: what we can learn from combined large-scale bioprocess and model fluid studies.  

PubMed

For industrial bioreactor design, operation, control and optimization, the scale-down approach is often advocated to efficiently generate data on a small scale, and effectively apply suggested improvements to the industrial scale. In all cases it is important to ensure that the scale-down conditions are representative of the real large-scale bioprocess. Progress is hampered by limited detailed and local information from large-scale bioprocesses. Complementary to real fermentation studies, physical aspects of model fluids such as air-water in large bioreactors provide useful information with limited effort and cost. Still, in industrial practice, investments of time, capital and resources often prohibit systematic work, although, in the end, savings obtained in this way are trivial compared to the expenses that result from real process disturbances, batch failures, and non-flyers with loss of business opportunity. Here we try to highlight what can be learned from real large-scale bioprocess in combination with model fluid studies, and to provide suitable computation tools to overcome data restrictions. Focus is on a specific well-documented case for a 30-m(3) bioreactor. Areas for further research from an industrial perspective are also indicated. PMID:21695785

Noorman, Henk

2011-06-21

81

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and

Zheng Wang; Lin Wang; Bao Z. Wang; Yi F. Jiang; Shuo Liu

2008-01-01

82

Process configurations adapted to membrane bioreactors for enhanced biological phosphorous and nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced biological phosphorous (Bio-P) removal process was adapted to membrane bioreactor (MBR). One bench-scale pilot plant (BSP, 200–250 L) and two medium-scale pilot plants (2\\/\\/MSP, 1000–3000 L each) were operated under several configurations, including pre-denitrification and post-denitrification without addition of carbon source, and two solid retention times (SRT) of 15 and 26 d, in parallel to the full-scale Bio-P removal

Boris Lesjean; Regina Gnirss; Christian Adam

2002-01-01

83

High cell density cultivation of Rhodococcus opacus for lipid production at a pilot-plant scale.  

PubMed

The triacylglycerol (TAG)-accumulating bacterium Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 was investigated with respect to the fermentative production of TAGs consisting of an unusually high fraction of fatty acids with an odd-number of carbon atoms and unsaturated monoenic fatty acids from sugar beet molasses and sucrose. Fed-batch fermentations were optimized at the 30-1 scale in a stirred tank bioreactor at 30 degrees C using a mineral salts medium, which contained sugar beet molasses and sucrose as sole carbon sources. Approximately 37.5 g cell dry matter (CDM) per liter was the highest cell density that was obtained at that scale with a TAG content in the cells of 52%. This fermentative process was also applied to a 500-1 pilot-plant scale. Cell densities as high as 18.4 g CDM per liter were obtained, and 42% of the sucrose present in the medium was converted into cell mass which consisted of 38.4% TAGs. PMID:11414319

Voss, I; Steinbüchel, A

2001-05-01

84

Powdered activated carbon and membrane bioreactors (MBRPAC) for tannery wastewater treatment: long term effect on biological and filtration process performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the findings of an experimental investigation carried out on a pilot scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to analyze improvements in effluent quality and in the filtration process. The results refer to a pilot plant monitoring stretched over a period of 594 days: 380 without PAC, 123 with a PAC concentration

G. Munz; R. Gori; G. Mori; C. Lubello

2007-01-01

85

Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and

James G. Mueller; Suzanne E. Lantz; Derek Ross; Richard J. Colvin; Douglas P. Middaugh; Parmely H. Pritchard

1993-01-01

86

DESIGN OF A PILOT SCALE FLUORINE CELL RESEARCH FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve cell life and reduce the unit cost of fluorine, a pilot plant ; was designed and constructed. The test facility was designed so that data ; obtained from experimental cells would be comparable to that expected from plant ; scale equipment. Ease of assembly, handling, inspection, and repair were also ; major factors in establishing the design criteria.

W. K. Henderson; W. B. Goode; S. Bernstein; E. J. Tullos

1962-01-01

87

Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

2010-01-01

88

Pilot?scale devices for remediation of munitions contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equipment is described for the remediation of (TNT) contaminated soil in pilot scale setting. Devices were developed for the preparation of soil samples and for the removal of water from soil after treatment of a soil slurry in a 60 L air?lift reactor, which was a prototype of larger commercial unit. The method was applied to clean up TNT?polluted

M. Arienzo; S. D. Comfort; M. Zerkoune; Z. M. Li; P. J. Shea

1998-01-01

89

Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors  

SciTech Connect

Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

2011-02-01

90

PILOT SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOTOLYTIC OZONATION FOR TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation has been studied at the pilot-scale for removing trihalomethane (THM) precursors from potable water. The effects of variations in ozone dose rate, UV intensity and other parameters were first studied using a synthetic feedwater...

91

Pilot Scale Tests Alden\\/Concepts NREC Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden\\/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to:

Thomas C. Cook; George E. Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-01-01

92

Synthesis of arsenic graft adsorbents in pilot scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of arsenic (As) adsorbents in pilot scale was carried out with a synthesizing apparatus by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate phosphoric acid monomer (PA), which consists of phosphoric acid mono- (50%) and di- (50%) ethyl methacrylate esters onto a nonwoven cotton fabric (NCF), and following chemical modification by contact with a zirconium (Zr) solution. The apparatus which was equipped with reaction tanks, a washing tank and a pump can produce up to 0.3 m×14 m size of the As(V) adsorbent in one reaction. A degree of grafting of 150% was obtained at an irradiation dose of 20 kGy with 5% of PA solution mixed with deionized water for 1 h at 40 °C. Finally, after Zr(IV) was loaded onto a NCF with 5 mmol/L of Zr(IV) solution, the graft adsorbent for the removal of As(V) was achieved in pilot-scale. The adsorbent which was synthesized in pilot scale was evaluated in batch mode adsorption with 1 ppm (mg/l) of As(V) solution for 2 h at room temperature. As a result, the adsorption capacity for As(V) was 0.02 mmol/g-adsorbent.

Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Noboru; Shibata, Takuya; Aketagawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Makikatsu; Yoshii, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Yasuhiko; Seko, Noriaki

2012-08-01

93

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification.

Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

2012-01-01

94

Removal efficiency of high-concentration H2S in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with polyurethane (PU) foam was installed at one pharmaceutical factory in Zhejiang Province to study the removal of high-concentration H2S from water treatment plant. Experiments were performed at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs), H2S input load, ratio of liquid flow rate to gas inlet rate (L/G) and sulfate concentration in recirculating liquid to examine their effects on the performance of the BTF. The performance of this bioreactor was monitored continuously over a period of 56 days. After the start-up within 8 days, H2S removal efficiency remained between 90% and 100% with inlet concentration fluctuating from 238 to 590 mg m(-3). H2S removal efficiency was consistently greater than 90%, even at a short EBRT of 9 s and inlet H2S load higher than 187 g m(-3) h(-1). Profiles over the height of the reactor indicated that H2S removal took place mostly in the first section of the column. The performance of BTF could be maintained at high and stable levels when L/G was below 0.005 and sulfate concentration down to 28 g l(-1). The results led to the conclusion that BTF is the optimal choice for treating high-concentration H2S. PMID:16894820

Chen, J M; Jiang, L Y; Sha, H L

2006-07-01

95

Feasibility of scaling from pilot to process scale.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical industry is looking for new technology that is easy to scale up from analytical to process scale and is cheap and reliable to operate. Large scale counter-current chromatography is an emerging technology that could provide this advance, but little was known about the key variables affecting scale-up. This paper investigates two such variables: the rotor radius and the tubing bore. The effect of rotor radius was studied using identical: length, beta-value, helix angle and tubing bore coils for rotors of different radii (50 mm, 110 mm and 300 mm). The effect of bore was researched using identical: length, helix angle and mean beta-value coils on the Maxi-DE centrifuge (R=300 mm). The rotor radius results show that there is very little difference in retention and resolution as rotor radius increases at constant bore. The tubing bore results show that good retention is maintained as bore increases and resolution only decrease slightly, but at the highest bore (17.5 mm) resolution can be maintained at very high flow rates making it possible for process scale centrifuges to be designed with throughputs exceeding 25 kg/day. PMID:17383663

Ignatova, Svetlana; Wood, Philip; Hawes, David; Janaway, Lee; Keay, David; Sutherland, Ian

2007-03-01

96

Scale up studies for the production of biosurfactant in packed column bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosurfactants capable of emulsifying pesticides have great potential to assist in microbial degradation of the pesticides. Solid State Fermentation (SSF) due to several advantages, is one of the efficient ways of producing these surfactants and seldom receives attention for commercial exploitation. In this study, a packed column bioreactor with wheat bran as the raw material and Bacillus subtilis has been

N. K. Veenanadig; M. K. Gowthaman; N. G. K. Karanth

2000-01-01

97

FIELD-SCALE TESTING OF A TWO-STAGE BIOREACTOR FOR REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM GROUNDWATER: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. n separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (...

98

High-strength nitrogen removal of opto-electronic industrial wastewater in membrane bioreactor - a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) system has become more and more attractive in the field of wastewater treatment. It is particularly attractive in situations where long solids retention times are required, such as nitrifying bacteria, and physical retention critical to achieving more efficiency for biological degradation of pollutant. Although it is a new technology, the MBR process has been applied for

T. K. Chen; C. H. Ni; J. N. Chen; J. Lin

99

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the dynamic simulation of a pilot scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The proposed MBBR model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The biofilm growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Diffusional mass transport limitations

M. Plattes; E. Henry; P. M. Schosseler; A. Weidenhaupt

2006-01-01

100

Effectiveness of the membrane bioreactor in the biodegradation of high molecular weight compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents biological and physical performance data from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor system fed with synthetic wastewater containing high molecular weight compounds. At steady state, high effluent quality was obtained and maintained for about 350days. The membrane was effective in retaining heterotrophic microorganisms and MS-2 viruses, eliminating the need for effluent disinfection. The flux through the membrane decreased rapidly

Nazim Cicek; Hans Winnen; Makram T. Suidan; Brian E. Wrenn; Vincent Urbain; Jacques Manem

1998-01-01

101

STRATEGY USING BIOREACTORS AND SPECIALLY SELECTED MICROORGANISMS FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. erformance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using ...

102

Short communication Long-term operation of slurry bioreactor for decomposition of food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale slurry bioreactor was used for the treatment of food wastes. Food wastes were continuously added (750 g wet weight per day) into the reactor and successfully decomposed to inorganic carbon without intermittent removal of suspended solids. During operation for 90 days, 91% reduction of food wastes was achieved. Microorganisms actively grew during the initial 20 days of

Jong Ik Park; Yeoung-Sang Yun; Jong Moon Park

103

Long-term operation of slurry bioreactor for decomposition of food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale slurry bioreactor was used for the treatment of food wastes. Food wastes were continuously added (750 g wet weight per day) into the reactor and successfully decomposed to inorganic carbon without intermittent removal of suspended solids. During operation for 90 days, 91% reduction of food wastes was achieved. Microorganisms actively grew during the initial 20 days of

Jong Ik Park; Yeoung-Sang Yun; Jong Moon Park

2002-01-01

104

Denitrification of drinking water sources by advanced biological treatment using a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate often contaminates groundwater resources due to excessive use of fertilizers and uncontrolled on-land discharges of raw and treated wastewater and can therefore limit the direct use of groundwater for drinking water purposes. In order to investigate the possible application of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for denitrification of groundwater, the performance of a pilot-scale MBR was tested as a function

Gianluigi Buttiglieri; Francesca Malpei; Emilio Daverio; Mauro Melchiori; Hans Nieman; Jos Ligthart

2005-01-01

105

Proliferation of meristematic clusters in disposable presterilized plastic bioreactors for the large-scale micropropagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Proliferation of meristematic clusters of several plants in an inexpensive airlift bioreactor system, consisting of a disposable\\u000a presterilized light transmittable plastic film vessel is described. The optimal shape, size, and structural function of the\\u000a disposable plastic bioreactor are based on the bubble column and airlift glass bioreactors. The disposable bioreactors are\\u000a designed in a conical configuration with a single inoculation

M. Ziv; G. Ronen; M. Raviv

1998-01-01

106

Performance characterization of a laboratory-scale bioreactor with liquid suspensions of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) was degraded in a single-stage, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) bioreactor containing pure cultures of liquid-dispersed Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. Phenol was supplied as the sole source of carbon and energy for induction of catabolic activities. Operating conditions were varied in a series of randomly ordered experiments. The independent variables were influent TCE concentration, influent phenol concentration, and hydraulic residence time. The dependent variable was the percent on influent TCE degraded or degradation efficiency. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 98.6%. An empirical equation was fitted to the data in the form of degradation efficiency as a function of the three independent variables. A close match was achieved between the equation and the data. This equation is valid only where the phenol was oxidized below the level of detection in the effluent (150 {mu}g/L). This equation is useful for bioreactor design and operation. Hydraulic residence time was noted to have a relatively small effect on degradation efficiency. Phenol and TCE were competitive, as expected in a cometabolism system. The implication for bioreactor operation is that phenol levels must be closely matched to TCE levels for optimum performance. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

McKay, D.J. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Morse, J.S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

107

Two-phase methanization of food wastes in pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5 ton\\/d pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digester was constructed and tested to treat Korean food wastes in Anyang city near\\u000a Seoul.\\u000a \\u000a The easily degradable presorted food waste was efficiently treated in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process. The waste\\u000a contained in plastic bags was shredded and then screened for the removal of inert materials such as fabrics and plastics,\\u000a and

Joon Pyo Lee; Jin Suk Lee; Soon Chul Park

1999-01-01

108

Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Urbain, V. [Centre International de Recherche Sur l`Eau et l`Environnement, Le Pecq (France)

1998-11-01

109

Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass transfer coefficients (kLa) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L\\/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g\\/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge

Jochen Henkel; Mladen Lemac; Martin Wagner; Peter Cornel

2009-01-01

110

Geophysical survey for site evaluation of pilot scale CO2 storage test in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration project to select the potential sites for the first Korean pilot-scale CO sequestration is being undertaken by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We try to evaluate the potential site of pilot-scale CO2 storage because the pilot-scale test is very important to understand the total procedure of CO2 storage. Three potential sites

S. Hwang; K. G. Park; T. J. Lee; Y. C. Park

2009-01-01

111

Bangla translation, adaptation and piloting of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.  

PubMed

Standardized questionnaires for screening common health problems in the community often need to be translated for use in non-English speaking countries. There is a lack of literature documenting the process of translation of such questionnaire/scale that would enable their application in cross-cultural settings and standardization of the procedure. This paper reports the process of translation into Bangla of the widely used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for use in Bangladesh. Three methods: forward translation, committee translation, and back translation were used to ensure the equivalence of the translated version. Both the English and Bangla versions were piloted among 10 social science graduates who were proficient in both the languages. The concurrence of each respondent between the two versions showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98 (p < 0.01). The Bland-Altman test also showed a high degree of agreement. The piloted version was also tested with 15 women in the postnatal period and found to be suitable for women with lower educational attainment. The documentation of the translation process and the lessons learnt would be helpful in similar settings where screening questionnaires need to be adapted for local use. PMID:18783062

Gausia, Kaniz; Hamadani, Jena D; Islam, Md Manirul; Ali, Mohammed; Algin, Sultana; Yunus, Mohammed; Fisher, Colleen; Oosthuizen, Jacques

2007-12-01

112

Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale trommel test at a laboratory in upper Marlboro, Maryland, was initiated to support theoretical work on development of a model performance and to supplement data collected in full scale testing at Recovery 1 in New Orleans. Descriptions and summaries of the project through July 1981 are presented. The feedstocks were identical nearsized flakes and wooden blocks. Three groupings of results are provided. The first group, Feedstock Tests, contains data on feedstock properties. This group includes description of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency, and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize. (MCW)

Bolczak, R.

1981-09-01

113

Coastal Response on Multiple Scales: a Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand to assess the impact of both small scale and large scale anthropogenic activities on all relevant spatial and temporal scales (e.g. from 10 m to 100 km and hours to decades) including effects of climate change and sea level rise. This requires a comprehensive approach which deals with the appropriate scales in a continuous way. However, most of our knowledge and predictive tools are designed to cover very specific scales. Furthermore, the fact that coupled behavior covering multiple scales may be the dominant force does not allow for a simple sub-division of scales and study approaches without taking the interaction into account. In essence we anticipate that such a modeling framework will primarily be related to innovative application, combination and interpretation of existing techniques and models rather then the improvement of individual models. As a first step a pilot study was initiated in which the impact of the extension of the IJmuiden harbor moles in 1965 was investigated (Figure 1). The long term dataset enables us to investigate the harbor impact on various temporal and spatial scales. To that end a combined modeling approach was set up focusing on the local scale using the Delft3D model and a coastline model Unibest-CL+ covering the entire Holland coast. The models were first individually calibrated and validated to assess their performance and ability to simulate the relevant impacts. This should provide insight into the benefits of such a combined approach and identify the different levels of impact in both time and space. Holland Coast with the IJmuiden Port (left plot) and dtail of the IJmuiden harbor (2008) and the 1965 mean low water (blue), mean high water (green) and dune foot positions (red) (right plot) Target transports based on sediment budget (dashed) and simulated transports (red) along the Holland coast (IJmuiden is located at KM = 61)

Luijendijk, A.; Walstra, D.

2010-12-01

114

Innovative bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent papers have described new bioreactor designs. Most innovations addressed either oxygen transfer, shear induced by stirring, control of water activity in organic phase systems or waste biotreatment. Innovations made during the past year were reported in mainly three areas: bioreactor designs for increases in oxygen transfer and decreases in shear stress; bioreactors for two-phases reactions with water activity control;

Marc A. Deshusses; Wilfred Chen; Ashok Mulchandani; Irving J. Dunn

1997-01-01

115

Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)- contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. In separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (454L) system, bioreactor performance in the presence of specially-selected microbial inoculants was compared to that observed using non-specific biomass. Results obtained with specialty organisms in the first run of the field-scale bioreactor showed that, on average, 70.6% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles were degraded. Only 36.9% of the pentachlorophenol (PCP) present was biodegraded. In the second run, microorganisms from an industrial waste water treatment facility averaged 51.0% biodegradation of PAHs and heterocycles. Degradaton of PCP was 81.0%, a value substantially higher than in the first run. Reductions in toxicity/teratogenicity were also observed for effluent from the second run of the field-scale bioreactor but the magnitude of toxicity reduction was less than in the first run.

Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

1993-11-15

116

Twenty-four well plate miniature bioreactor system as a scale-down model for cell culture process development.  

PubMed

Increasing the throughput and efficiency of cell culture process development has become increasingly important to rapidly screen and optimize cell culture media and process parameters. This study describes the application of a miniaturized bioreactor system as a scaled-down model for cell culture process development using a CHO cell line expressing a recombinant protein. The microbioreactor system (M24) provides non-invasive online monitoring and control capability for process parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature at the individual well level. A systematic evaluation of the M24 for cell culture process applications was successfully completed. Several challenges were initially identified. These included uneven gas distribution in the wells due to system design and lot to lot variability, foaming issues caused by sparging required for active DO control, and pH control limitation under conditions of minimal dissolved CO2. A high degree of variability was found which was addressed by changes in the system design. The foaming issue was resolved by addition of anti-foam, reduction of sparge rate, and elimination of DO control. The pH control limitation was overcome by a single manual liquid base addition. Intra-well reproducibility, as indicated by measurements of process parameters, cell growth, metabolite profiles, protein titer, protein quality, and scale-equivalency between the M24 and 2 L bioreactor cultures were very good. This evaluation has shown feasibility of utilizing the M24 as a scale-down tool for cell culture application development under industrially relevant process conditions. PMID:18683260

Chen, Aaron; Chitta, Rajesh; Chang, David; Amanullah, Ashraf

2009-01-01

117

Application of a 22L scale membrane bioreactor and cross-flow ultrafiltration to obtain purified chondroitin.  

PubMed

Recently, the possibility of producing fructosylated chondroitin from the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O5:K4:H4, in fed-batch and microfiltration experiments was assessed on a 2 L bioreactor. In this work, a first scale-up step was set on a 22 L membrane reactor with modified baffles to insert ad hoc designed microfiltration modules permanently inside the bioreactor vessel. Moreover, the downstream polysaccharide purification process, recently established on the A¨?KTA cross-flow instrument, was translated to a UNIFLUX-10, a tangential flow filtration system suitable for prepilot scale. In particular, the microfiltered permeates obtained throughout the fermentation, and the supernatant recovered from the centrifuged broth at the end of the process, were treated as two separate samples in the following ultrafiltration procedure, and the differences in the two streams and how these affected the ultrafiltration/diafiltration process performance were analysed. The total amount of K4 capsular polysaccharide was about 85% in the broth and 15% in the microfiltered permeates. However, the downstream treatment was more efficient when applied to the latter. The major contaminant, the lipopolysaccharide, could easily be separated by a mild hydrolysis that also results in the elimination of the unwanted fructosyl residue, which is linked to the C-3 of glucuronic acid residues. The tangential ultrafiltration/diafiltration protocols developed in a previous work were effectively scaled-up, and therefore in this research proof of principle was established for the biotechnological production of chondroitin from the wild-type strain E. coli O5:K4:H4. The complete downstream procedure yielded about 80% chondroitin with 90% purity. PMID:22619212

Schiraldi, Chiara; Alfano, Alberto; Cimini, Donatella; Rosa, Mario De; Panariello, Andrea; Restaino, Odile F; Rosa, Mario De

2012-06-22

118

Scaling down of a clinical three-dimensional perfusion multicompartment hollow fiber liver bioreactor developed for extracorporeal liver support to an analytical scale device useful for hepatic pharmacological in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Within the scope of developing an in vitro culture model for pharmacological research on human liver functions, a three-dimensional multicompartment hollow fiber bioreactor proven to function as a clinical extracorporeal liver support system was scaled down in two steps from 800 mL to 8 mL and 2 mL bioreactors. Primary human liver cells cultured over 14 days in 800, 8, or 2 mL bioreactors exhibited comparable time-course profiles for most of the metabolic parameters in the different bioreactor size variants. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 activities analyzed in the 2 mL bioreactor were preserved over up to 23 days. Immunohistochemical studies revealed tissue-like structures of parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the miniaturized bioreactor, indicating physiological reorganization of the cells. Moreover, the canalicular transporters multidrug-resistance-associated protein 2, multidrug-resistance protein 1 (P-glycoprotein), and breast cancer resistance protein showed a similar distribution pattern to that found in human liver tissue. In conclusion, the down-scaled multicompartment hollow fiber technology allows stable maintenance of primary human liver cells and provides an innovative tool for pharmacological and kinetic studies of hepatic functions with small cell numbers. PMID:21210724

Zeilinger, Katrin; Schreiter, Thomas; Darnell, Malin; Söderdahl, Therese; Lübberstedt, Marc; Dillner, Birgitta; Knobeloch, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gerlach, Jörg C; Andersson, Tommy B

2011-02-16

119

Synchronization of fluid-dynamics related and physiological time scales and algal biomass production in thin flat-plate bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on ultrahigh density unicellular algae cultures in thin flat-plate bioreactors (thickness <=2 cm) indicate that: i) Optimal areal biomass production rates are significantly higher than in traditional ponds or raceways, ii) productivity grows for radiation levels substantially higher than one sun; saturation emerging, possibly, at intensities of about four suns, and iii) optimal volumetric and areal production rates as well as culture densities increase as reactor thickness is reduced. The observations are reproduced within the framework of a simple model, which takes into account the random motion of cells across the reactor thickness, and the competing effects of two physiologically significant time scales. These are TR, the time that elapses from the moment a reaction center has collected the number of photons required for one photosynthetic cycle until it is available again for exploiting impinging photons (1-10 ms), and TW, an average of the decay time characteristic of photon loss processes (several ms to several tens of ms).

Gebremariam, Alemayehu Kasahun; Zarmi, Yair

2012-02-01

120

Scale-up and design of a pilot-plant photobioreactor for the continuous culture of Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

Scale-up of bioreactors has the intrinsic difficulty of establishing a reliable relationship among physical parameters involved in the design of the new bioreactor and the physiology of the cultured cells. This is more critical in those cases where a more complex operation of the bioreactor is needed, such as in photobioreactors. A key issue in the operation of photobioreactors is establishing a quantification for the interaction between external illumination, internal light distribution and cell growth. In this paper an approach to the scale-up of a photobioreactor for the culture of Spirulina platensis, based on a mathematical model describing this interaction, and the operation of a previous reactor 10 times smaller is presented. The paper describes the approach followed in the scale-up, the analysis of different design constraints, the physical realization of the new bioreactor design, innovative use of plastic material walls to improve reactor safety, and finally the corroboration of its satisfactory operation. PMID:11386862

Vernerey, A; Albiol, J; Lasseur, C; Gòdia, F

121

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30

122

Organic emissions from pilot-scale incineration of CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichloro-difluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international accord implemented to reduce the production and use of stratospheric ozone depleting substances, considerable quantities of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons may be accumulated and ultimately require disposal or destruction. Incineration is a potential destruction technology; however, little is known of the combustion emission characteristics from CFC incineration.) A 293-kW (1 million Btu/h) incinerator was made available to the EPA for the characterization, which focused on determining the destruction efficiencies (DEs) and major products of incomplete combustion (PICs) for each CFC evaluated.

Ryan, J.V.; Lee, C.W.; Korn, S.

1993-01-01

123

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a moving bed bioreactor using respirometry for the estimation of kinetic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respirometry was used for the characterization of active autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass in a pilot scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR). For this purpose biofilm samples attached to the carrier elements of the MBBR were transferred to a static gas\\/static liquid type respirometer with intermittent aeration. Known amounts of ammonia nitrogen and acetate were added to the respirometer. The dissolved oxygen

M. Plattes; D. Fiorelli; S. Gillé; C. Girard; E. Henry; F. Minette; O. O’Nagy; P. M. Schosseler

2007-01-01

124

Process efficiency and microbial monitoring in MBR (membrane bioreactor) and CASP (conventional activated sludge process) treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge plant (CASP), treating the same tannery wastewaters and in the same operating conditions, have been compared in order to evaluate the overall treatment efficiency, the presence and distribution of Gram negative bacteria and the kinetics of nitrifying bacteria. Process efficiency was evaluated in terms of organic and

Giulio Munz; Mori Gualtiero; Laura Salvadori; Barberio Claudia; Lubello Claudio

2008-01-01

125

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pharmaceuticals, two polycyclic musk fragrances and nine endocrine disrupting chemicals were analysed in several waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). A membrane bioreactor in pilot scale was operated at different solid retention times (SRTs) and the results obtained are compared to conventional activated sludge plants (CASP) operated at different SRTs. The SRT is an important design parameter and its impact

M. Clara; B. Strenn; O. Gans; E. Martinez; N. Kreuzinger; H. Kroiss

2005-01-01

126

Structure and dynamics of nitrifier populations in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor during start-up.  

PubMed

Changes of microbial characteristics in a full-scale submerged membrane bioreactor system (capacity, 60,000 m(3) day(-1)) treating sewage were monitored over the start-up period (96 days). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the percentages of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (nitrobacter-related population) in total bacteria counted with DAPI staining increased significantly from 1.9% and 0.9% to 4.5% and 2.8%, corresponding to an increase of the specific ammonium oxidizing rate (from 0.06 to 0.12 kg N kg(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) per day) and the specific nitrate forming rate (from 0.05 to 0.10 kg N kg(-1) MLSS day(-1)). Both the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction and clone library results showed that the AOB was dominated by the genus Nitrosomonas, the diversity of which increased markedly with operational time. Most of the day 2 clones were closely related with the uncultured Nitrosomonas sp. clone Ninesprings-49S amoA gene (AY356450.1) originated from activated sludge, while the day 96 clone library showed a more diverse distribution characterized by the appearance of the oligotrophic nitrifiers like the Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosomonas ureae-like bacteria, perhaps due to the interception by membrane and the low food-to-microorganisms ratio environment. The above results show that the membrane bioreactor system was characterized by the increased diversity and percentage of nitrifiers, which made it possible to achieve a stable and high efficient nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea with the changing population structures were also detected, but their roles for ammonia oxidation in the system need further studies. PMID:21181155

Yu, Tao; Li, Dong; Qi, Rong; Li, Sheng-tao; Xu, Shi-wei; Yang, Min

2010-12-23

127

Pilot scale production of cellulolytic enzymes by Trichoderma reesei  

SciTech Connect

The French substitute fuels program aims at the substitution of part of gasoline by methanol. In order to avoid phase separation of the gasoline-methanol blend, a cosolvant has to be added; one of the most efficient cosolvants is the mixture of acetone and butanol produced by anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation. The Institut Francais du Petrole is thus implementing a research and development program on the production of acetone butanol from biomass, either sugar crops (fodder beets and Jerusalem artichoke) or lignocellulosic (corn stover and wheat straw). Production of sugars from lignocellulosics is a major part of this program. The enzymatic hydrolysis route, based on Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzymes, has been chosen since it does not cause any degradation of C/sub 5/ sugars which are good substrates of the acetone butanol fermentation. Efficient and cheap large-scale production of cellulolytic enzymes is thus a key step in this process. This paper reports on production of cellulases by Trichoderma reesei in a 3-m/sup 3/ pilot fermentor under conditions which should facilitate the scaling-up of the process. 7 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Warzywoda, M.; Chevron, F.; Ferre, V.; Pourquie, J.

1983-01-01

128

Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

Rivera, A.L.

1982-04-01

129

A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively. PMID:21121456

Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

2010-11-01

130

Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05m2 was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless

Ángela Anglada; Ana M. Urtiaga; Inmaculada Ortiz

2010-01-01

131

A proposal for a field?scale pilot demonstration unit for bioremediation of tnt contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reasonable field?scale operational scenario was developed as the hypothetical TNT bioremediation unit. II is described in Appendix A and termed the Riffle?Pool Reactor. The two?stage system consists of TNT leach?bed followed by a plant?pool bioreactor. Water is recirculated either continuously or intermittently over the riffle?bed TNT extractor and into the plant?pool reactor. A previously published manuscript entitled “Aquatic Plant

K. M. Qaisi; L. J. Thibodeaux; K. S. Ro; K. T. Valsaraj; D. D. Adrian

1996-01-01

132

General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for

Yip

1979-01-01

133

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR AND CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and two bench-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactors were operated on municipal primary effluent over a range of mean cell residence times (MCRTs) from 2-10 d. The reactors had different turbulence levels. The root mean square velocity gradient (G) of the SMBR was 632 s-1; for the CAS reactors the G values were 72

Rion P. Merlo; R. Shane Trussell; Slawomir W. Hermanowicz; David Jenkins

2004-01-01

134

Glycerol production by anaerobic fermentation of molasses on pilot scale  

SciTech Connect

The use of sodium sulphite as a steering agent for enhancing the yield of glycerol during anaerobic ethanol fermentation is well established. Several studies have been reported in the literature using free as well as immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In these studies it was observed that a relatively high concentration of sulphite in the fermentation broth, typically 40-100 g/l, was required to obtain a commercially significant yield of glycerol on sugar fermented. However, the dosing of large quantities of sulphite generally resulted in reduced viability of the microorganisms and slow fermentations. The glycerol concentration in the fermented broth was generally observed to be in the range 20-40 g/l. The low productivity coupled with the high cost of sulfite rendered the process commercially unattractive. In order to reduce the sulphite requirement, whilst at the same time increasing the productivity, a modified vacuum fermentation was developed in the laboratories. The process was successfully estabilished on a pilot scale and typical data obtained on scaleup are reported below. 8 references.

Virkar, P.D.; Panesar, M.S.

1987-04-20

135

Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop  

SciTech Connect

We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

2011-08-01

136

Microbiological analysis of the population of extremely haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale sulfide-removing bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiopaq biotechnology for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is an efficient way to remove H2S from biogases. However, its application for high-pressure natural gas desulfurization needs upgrading. Particularly, an\\u000a increase in alkalinity of the scrubbing liquid is required. Therefore, the feasibility of sulfide oxidation into elemental\\u000a sulfur under oxygen limitation was tested at extremely haloalkaline conditions in lab-scale bioreactors

D. Y. Sorokin; P. L. F. van den Bosch; B. Abbas; A. J. H. Janssen; G. Muyzer

2008-01-01

137

Elimination and fate of selected micro-organic pollutants in a full-scale anaerobic\\/anoxic\\/aerobic process combined with membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and elimination of 19 micro-organic pollutants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a full-scale anaerobic\\/anoxic\\/aerobic-membrane bioreactor process was investigated. The investigated process achieved over 70% removal of the target EDCs and 50%–100% removal of most of the PPCPs, with influent concentration ranging from ng\\/L to ?g\\/L. Three PPCPs, carbamazepine, diclofenac and

Wenchao Xue; Chunying Wu; Kang Xiao; Xia Huang; Haidong Zhou; Hiroshi Tsuno; Hiroaki Tanaka

2010-01-01

138

Two-phase methanization of food wastes in pilot scale.  

PubMed

A 5 ton/d pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digester was constructed and tested to treat Korean food wastes in Anyang city near Seoul. The easily degradable presorted food waste was efficiently treated in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process. The waste contained in plastic bags was shredded and then screened for the removal of inert materials such as fabrics and plastics, and subsequently put into the two-stage reactors. Heavy and light inerts such as bones, shells, spoons, and plastic pieces were again removed by gravity differences. The residual organic component was effectively hydrolyzed and acidified in the first reactor with 5 d space time at pH of about 6.5. The second, methanization reactor converted the acids into methane with pH between 7.4 and 7.8. The space time for the second reactor was 15 d. The effluent from the second reactor was recycled to the first reactor to provide alkalinities. The process showed stable steady-state operation with the maximum organic loading rate of 7.9 kg volatile solid (VS)/m3/d and the volatile solid reduction efficiency of about 70%. The total of 3.6 tons presorted MSW containing 2.9 tons of food organic was treated to produce about 230 m3 of biogas with 70% (v/v) of methane and 80 kg of humus. This process is extended to full-scale treating 15 tons of food waste a day in Euiwang city and the produced biogas is utilized for the heating/cooling of adjacent buildings. PMID:10399289

Lee, J P; Lee, J S; Park, S C

1999-01-01

139

Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development  

SciTech Connect

Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

1994-11-01

140

Applying Fabric Filtration to Refuse-Fired Boilers: A Pilot-Scale Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was size...

J. D. McKenna J. C. Mycock R. L. Miller K. D. Brandt

1978-01-01

141

The Development, Test, and Evaluation of Three Pilot Performance Reference Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A set of pilot performance reference scales was developed based upon airborne Audio-Video Recording (AVR) of student performance in T-37 undergraduate Pilot Training. After selection of the training maneuvers to be studied, video tape recordings of the maneuvers were selected from video tape recordings already available from a previous research…

Horner, Walter R.; And Others

142

Estimation of soil air permeability components at a laboratory-scale pilot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil air permeability is a key parameter in the design of soil vapour extraction. The purpose of this study is to verify the applicability of different analytical solutions, developed to determine soil characteristics in field conditions, to estimate soil air permeability in a small-scale pilot, since field testing may be expensive. A laboratory tridirectional pilot and a unidirectional column were

Otmane Boudouch; Daoud Esrael; Mariem Kacem; Belkacem Benadda

2012-01-01

143

Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

1996-03-01

144

Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.  

PubMed

Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

2011-01-01

145

Nitrification performance and microbial ecology of nitrifying bacteria in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating TFT-LCD wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated nitrification performance and nitrifying community in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating TFT-LCD wastewater. For the A/O MBR system treating monoethanolamine (MEA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), no nitrification was observed, due presumably to high organic loading, high colloidal COD, low DO, and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions. By including additional A/O or O/A tanks, the A/O/A/O MBR and the O/A/O MBR were able to perform successful nitrification. The real-time PCR results for quantification of nitrifying populations showed a high correlation to nitrification performance, and can be a good indicator of stable nitrification. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of functional gene, amoA, suggest that Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like AOB seemed to be important to a good nitrification in the MBR system. In the MBR system, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like NOB were both abundant, but the low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB. PMID:22595093

Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Yi-Ju; Lee, Ya-Chin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Chang, Ming-Yu; Cheng, Sheng-Shung; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Huey; Shen, Wason; Huang, Chung Kai; Fu, Ryan; Chang, Barkley

2012-05-02

146

Multi-Scale Spatio-Temporal Modeling: Lifelines of Microorganisms in Bioreactors and Tracking Molecules in Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-based models are rigorous tools for simulating the interactions of individual entities, such as organisms or molecules within cells and assessing their effects on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. In context with bioprocess and biosystems engineering there are several interesting and important applications. This contribution aims at introducing this strategy with the aid of two examples characterized by striking distinctions in the scale of the individual entities and the mode of their interactions. In the first example a structured-segregated model is applied to travel along the lifelines of single cells in the environment of a three-dimensional turbulent field of a stirred bioreactor. The modeling approach is based on an Euler-Lagrange formulation of the system. The strategy permits one to account for the heterogeneity present in real reactors in both the fluid and cellular phases, respectively. The individual response of the cells to local variations in the extracellular concentrations is pictured by a dynamically structured model of the key reactions of the central metabolism. The approach permits analysis of the lifelines of individual cells in space and time.

Lapin, Alexei; Klann, Michael; Reuss, Matthias

147

[Non-nitrification pathway for NH4+ -N removal in pilot-scale drinking water biological processes].  

PubMed

The non-nitrification pathway for NH4+ -N removal in pilot-scale drinking water biological treatment processes and its possible mechanism were investigated through calculating N and DO stoichiometric balance. With more than 2 mg/L NH4+ -N in the influent, for the fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR), the total of NH4+ -N, NO2(-) -N, NO3(-) -N in the influent was 0.91 mg/L higher than that in the effluent, and for the biofilter, its DO consumption was 2.90 mg/L less than the stoichiometric amount. The results suggested that nitrogen loss occurred in both reactors and a part of NH4+ -N was removed through non-nitrification pathway. Because the utilization of phosphorus and organic matters was independent of nitrogen loss, the assimilation and denitrification could be excluded from the possible mechanisms. Because the very low C/N in the influent and the accumulation of NO2(-) -N in the reactors were similar with the wastewater biological processes, the "autotrophic removal of nitrogen" was regarded as the most probable non-nitrification pathway. In this mechanism, the couple of short-cut nitrification and ANAMMOX (or OLAND) leading to the transformation of NH4+ -N and NO2(-) -N into gaseous N2 was responsible for the nitrogen loss in drinking water biological processes. PMID:18637337

Yu, Xin; Ye, Lin; Li, Xu-dong; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Shi, Xu; Liu, Bo; Li, Rui-hua

2008-04-01

148

Bacterial community dynamics in full-scale activated sludge bioreactors: operational and ecological factors driving community assembly and performance.  

PubMed

The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a "structure-function" paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant ?-diversity between the bioreactors' communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A

2012-08-03

149

PILOT SCALE FIELD STUDIES OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS. (R825689C066)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract This paper discusses results from pilot scale field studies that evaluated enhanced in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents. A stimulus-response methodology for performing controlled field experiments is exemplified. The cometabolic transformatio...

150

CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

151

PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

152

Rapping Reentrainment in a Nearly Full-Scale Pilot Electrostatic Precipitator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an experimental investigation of rapping reentrainment in a nearly full-scale pilot electrostatic precipitator. The study included a fundamental examination of the mechanics of removal of dry dust by rapping and the quantificat...

H. W. Spencer

1976-01-01

153

Modeling boron rejection in pilot- and full-scale reverse osmosis desalination processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic predictive model was developed to simulate the rejection of boron by a spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane element under varying water quality and operating conditions. This model was verified with pilot-scale experiments performed at different pHs and pressures. The model was further applied to simulate boron rejection in pilot- and full-scale RO processes. Simulation results suggest that

Pranay P. Mane; Pyung-Kyu Park; Hoon Hyung; Jess C. Brown; Jae-Hong Kim

2009-01-01

154

A pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor: performance and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and tested a pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor for water treatment. The performance of the pilot-scale reactor was evaluated by monitoring the degradation efficiency of several organic pollutants and the membrane suction pressure at different operating conditions. The concentration of humic acids rather increased in the initial period of UV illumination and then decreased gradually, which could be ascribed

J. Ryu; W. Choi; K.-H. Choo

155

Reduction in toxicity of organic priority pollutants by pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static acute toxicity tests with fathead minnows,Daphnia magna, and rainbow trout were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a pilot-scale conventional wastewater treatment system in detoxifying a raw municipal wastewater that continuously received a mixture of 22 organic priority pollutants. Wastewater from the City of Cincinnati (Ohio) was added to two parallel pilot-scale (control and experimental) conventional activated-sludge wastewater treatment

William B. Horning; Ernest L. Robinson; Albert C. Petrasek

1984-01-01

156

Summary of Pilot-Scale Activities with Mercury Contaminated Sludges (U)  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW) are currently being investigated by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been chartered by the MWFA to study vitrification treatment of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot-scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. One of the streams to be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 1995 by SRTC was a mercury waste. In FY 1995, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites that have an inventory of contaminated or hazardous soil. More importantly, it was readily available for treatment. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be completed due to a reduction in funding. Since the main driver for focusing on a mercury waste stream was to determine how the mercury could be treated, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with mercury sludges performed under the guidance of SRTC is provided in this report. The studies summarized in this report include several pilot-scale vitrification demonstrations with simulated radioactive sludges that contained mercury. The pilot-scale studies were performed at the SRTC in the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS). The studies involved complete glass and offgas product characterization. Future pilot-scale studies with mercury streams will likely be performed with mercury contaminated soils, sediments, or sludges because of the need to dispose of this technically challenging waste stream. (Abstract Truncated)

Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D. H.; Ritter, J.A.; Hardy, B.J.; Jantzen, C.M.

1995-10-02

157

Control in bioreactors showing gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large-scale bioreactors gradients often occur as a result of non-ideal mixing. This phenomenon complicates design and control of large-scale bioreactors. Gradients in the oxygen concentration can be modeled with a two-compartment model of the liquid phase. Application of this model had been suggested for the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration with a batch gluconic acid fermentation process as

S. R. Weijers; G. Honderd; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1990-01-01

158

USE OF PILOT COLUMNS FOR PREDICTING FULL-SCALE GAC PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The applicability of using pilot columns to predict the full-scale performance Of GAG columns is evaluated. ilot-scale data for TOC and 1,2-dichloroethane are directly compared to full-scale data for sites at Jefferson Parish, IA and Cincinnati, OK. ilot column results for atrazi...

159

Removal of dissolved organic matter by granular-activated carbon adsorption as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis of membrane bioreactor effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on granular-activated carbon (GAC) as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluents was studied in lab- and pilot-scale columns. The pattern and efficiency of DOM adsorption and fate of the hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions were characterized, as well as their impact on organic fouling

Shirra Gur-Reznik; Ilan Katz; Carlos G. Dosoretz

2008-01-01

160

Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ?h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m?s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg?h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

2012-02-01

161

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

162

Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial liquid contained in the waste, recycling may be necessary; removal of the resulting aqueous stream at the largest specific gravity consistent with the operating safety basis ensures productive use of water. Secondly, direct modeling of a given waste dissolution must consider variations in the extent of channeling such that limits can be established on anticipated concentrations expected during the course of the retrieval. Finally, the ability to account for heterogeneous dissolution has been accounted for. Details regarding the development of the modeling strategy as well as knowledge gained regarding flowsheet development are provided. (authors)

Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S. [Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC 2100, Miami, FL, 33174 (United States)

2006-07-01

163

Multi-scale spatio-temporal modeling: lifelines of microorganisms in bioreactors and tracking molecules in cells.  

PubMed

Agent-based models are rigorous tools for simulating the interactions of individual entities, such as organisms or molecules within cells and assessing their effects on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. In context with bioprocess and biosystems engineering there are several interesting and important applications. This contribution aims at introducing this strategy with the aid of two examples characterized by striking distinctions in the scale of the individual entities and the mode of their interactions. In the first example a structured-segregated model is applied to travel along the lifelines of single cells in the environment of a three-dimensional turbulent field of a stirred bioreactor. The modeling approach is based on an Euler-Lagrange formulation of the system. The strategy permits one to account for the heterogeneity present in real reactors in both the fluid and cellular phases, respectively. The individual response of the cells to local variations in the extracellular concentrations is pictured by a dynamically structured model of the key reactions of the central metabolism. The approach permits analysis of the lifelines of individual cells in space and time.The second application of the individual modeling approach deals with dynamic modeling of signal transduction pathways in individual cells. Usually signal transduction networks are portrayed as being wired together in a spatially defined manner. Living circuitry, however, is placed in highly malleable internal architecture. Creating a homogenous bag of molecules, a well-mixed system, the dynamic behavior of which is modeled with a set of ordinary differential equations is normally not valid. The dynamics of the MAP kinase and a steroid hormone pathway serve as examples to illustrate how single molecule tracking can be linked with the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, where diffusion and reaction occur in a probabilistic manner. The problem of hindered diffusion caused by macromolecular crowding is also taken into account. PMID:20140659

Lapin, Alexei; Klann, Michael; Reuss, Matthias

2010-01-01

164

Fluorescent dissolved organic matter variations in a submerged membrane bioreactor under different sludge retention times  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of real municipal wastewater was operated in this study under various sludge retention time (SRT) in order to verify the correlations of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM) with membrane fouling. The fluorescent DOM determined by three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) under different SRT operation were

Zhiwei Wang; Shujuan Tang; Yufeng Zhu; Zhichao Wu; Qi Zhou; Dianhai Yang

2010-01-01

165

Effects of Various Backwash Scenarios on Membrane Fouling in a Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The main objective of this work was to determine the impacts of various backwash scenarios on fouling in a pilot-scale submerged\\u000a membrane bioreactor (MBR) aerobically treating domestic wastewater. A total of seven different backwash scenarios were tested.\\u000a The degree of membrane fouling was determined employing the flux-step method and using the resistance-in-series model for\\u000a each backwash scenario. Fouling rates and

N. Yigit; G. Civelekoglu; I. Harman; H. Koseoglu; M. Kitis

166

Effect of particle number density on wastewater treatment performance of a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale continuous-flow fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBBR) containing sponge particles surrounded by steel wires was operated with different particle number densities ranging from 55–440 particles l?1 liquid. COD removal performance of the system was investigated. Synthetic wastewater used throughout the studies consisted of diluted molasses, urea, K2HPO4, and MgSO4 resulting in a ratio of COD\\/N\\/P = 100\\/10\\/1. Zooglea ramigera was used

Ilgi Karapinar; Fikret Kargi

1996-01-01

167

PILOT SCALE EXPERIMENTS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes pilot plant experience with techniques with a potential for improving the performance of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) by using a novel rapping reentrainment collector and flexible steel cable (in place of solid large-diameter discharge electrodes) for bo...

168

Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and teratogenicity measurements. When specially-selected bacteria capable of utilizing (mineralizing) high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) as primary growth substrates were used in pilot-sale bioreactors (120 gal), the concentration of creosote constituents was reduced from ca. 1,000 ppm in the ground water feed (flow rate = 30 GPD) to <7 ppm in the system effluent (removal efficiency of >99%). Notably, the cumulative concentration of 8 HMS PAHs (containing 4 or more fused rings) was reduced from 368 ppm in the ground water fed to 5.2 ppm in the system effluent. Moreover, the toxicity and teratogenicity of the bioreactor effluent was significantly reduced. Biodegradation of PCP was limited (ca. 18%) due in large part to poor inoculation and a high degree of abiotic loss (bioaccumulation and adsorption). In general, field data correlated well with those obtained from bench-scale studies.

Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Ross, D.; Colvin, R.J.; Middaugh, D.P.

1993-01-01

169

Performance of a pilot?scale, three?stage constructed wetland system for domestic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of season, organic matter loadings, hydraulic conditions, recycling, and rapid drainage on water quality in a pilot?scale, three?stage subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSF CW) system. The pilot CW system consisted of a vertical flow?gravel filtration (v?GF) wetland in the first stage, a horizontal?subsurface flow (h?SSF) bed planted with Iris in the second stage, and a

Bilal Tunçsiper; Selma Ayaz; Lütfi Akça; Kemal Gunes

2009-01-01

170

PILOT SCALE PROCESS EVALUATION OF REBURNING FOR IN-FURNACE NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of coal and natural gas reburning application tests to a pilot scale 3.0 MWt furnace to provide the scaling information required for commercial application of reburning to pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Initial parametric studies had been conducted in a 2...

171

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the perforated plate configuration on bag protection and AHPC overall performance and to optimize the perforated plate design. Five different perforated plate configurations were evaluated in a coal combustion system. The AHPC performed extremely well even at a low current level (1.5-3.0 mA) and a low pulse trigger pressure of 6.5 in. W.C. (1.62 kPa), resulting in a bag-cleaning interval of over 40 min at an A/C ratio of 12 ft/min (3.7 m/min) for most of the test period. The longest bag-cleaning interval was 594 min, which is the best to date. The residual drag was reduced to the range from 0.25 to 0.35 in. H{sub 2}O/ft/min, showing an excellent bag-cleaning ability under the perforated plate configurations. The K{sub 2}C{sub i} at the current level of 3 mA was as low as 1.0, indicating excellent ESP performance. All the results are the best achieved to date.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-09-30

172

Biomass effects on oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten biomass samples from both municipal and industrial pilot and full scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (MLSS) ranging from 7.2 to 30.2gL?1 were studied at six air-flow rates (0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3, 4.4 and 6m3m?3h?1). Statistical analyses were applied to identify the relative impacts of the various bulk biomass characteristics on oxygen transfer. Of

E. Germain; F. Nelles; A. Drews; P. Pearce; M. Kraume; E. Reid; S. J. Judd; T. Stephenson

2007-01-01

173

High-solids anaerobic digestion: comparison of three pilot scales.  

PubMed

Two experiments were undertaken in three different experimental set-ups in order to compare them: an industrial 21-m3 pilot reactor, a new 40-l laboratory pilot reactor and bmp type plasma bottles. Three consecutive batch dry digestion tests of municipal solid waste were performed under mesophilic conditions with the same feedstock in all vessels. Biogas and methane production at the end of the tests were similar (around 200 m3 CH4STP/tVS) for both pilot reactors and were different from the bottle tests. The dynamics of methane production and VFA accumulation concurred. However, the maximal levels of VFA transitory accumulation varied between reactors and between runs in a same reactor. Ammonia levels were similar in both reactors. These results show that the new reactor accurately imitates the conditions found in the larger one. Adaptation of microorganisms to the waste and operating conditions was also pointed out along the consecutive batches. Thermophilic semi-continuous tests were performed in both reactors with similar conditions. The methane production efficiencies were similar. PMID:19029716

Guendouz, J; Buffière, P; Cacho, J; Carrère, M; Delgenes, J-P

2008-01-01

174

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with

Lucila Ensuncho; Manuel Alvarez-Cuenca; Raymond L. Legge

2005-01-01

175

Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

176

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

177

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. ive reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. he soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. he pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum of...

178

Substrate removal evaluation of granular anammox process in a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process kinetics can present necessary information for granular anammox process but little study focused on the nitrogen removal kinetics of pilot-scale anammox granular process is available. In this study, the substrate removal kinetics in a pilot-scale anammox granular reactor were investigated by inoculating anammox granules in to an UASB reactor, which was then operated at different hydraulic retention times and

Shou-Qing Ni; Shihwu Sung; Qin-Yan Yue; Bao-Yu Gao

179

Fluxes and Patterns of Wall Deposits for Skim Milk in a Pilot-Scale Spray Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of wall deposits in a pilot-scale spray dryer has been studied, using skim milk, by changing the flow rate to the nozzle and measuring the resultant deposition fluxes at different positions inside the dryer. The solids concentration was maintained at 30%. The deposition was measured at three locations of the conical section and in the cylindrical section of

K. Kota; T. A. G. Langrish

2006-01-01

180

Training pilots to visualize large-scale spatial relationships in a stereoscopic display  

Microsoft Academic Search

In flying air intercepts, a fighter pilot must plan most tactical maneuvers well before acquiring visual contact. Success depends on one's ability to create an accurate mental model of dynamic 3D spatial relationships from 2D information displays. This paper describes an Air Force training program for visualizing large- scale dynamic spatial relationships. It employs a low-cost, portable system in which

Lyn Mowafy; Richard A. Thurman

1993-01-01

181

Sludge Dewatering in a Freezing Bed: A Pilot-Scale Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1986 a pilot-scale sludge freezing bed was constructed. This bed was operated over the next three years using both an aerobically and aerobically digested sludges. These tests demonstrated that both sludges can be effectively dewatered by this process....

C. J. Diener C. J. Martel

1991-01-01

182

The design of pilot scale releases of CO2 into the deep ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequestration of CO2 in the deep ocean has been proposed as a way to mitigate potential global climate change. In the past few years many laboratory and modeling studies have been performed on ocean disposal of CO2 including the assessment of its environmental impact. However, these studies must be validated\\/complemented with field studies. As a first step, pilot scale

E. Eric Adams; T. J. Herzog; Dan Golomb; Stephen M. Masutani

1997-01-01

183

Review of Semi-Pilot Scale Study on the Irradiation of Rice in Malaysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A semi-pilot scale study of milled-rice preservation using gamma irradiation project was started in 1984. The project was aimed to study the possibility of using irradiation in reducing losses during storage. Rice samples were subjected to doses ranging f...

Norimah Yusof Razley Mohamad Nordin

1986-01-01

184

PILOT-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-NOX COAL-FIRED TANGENTIAL SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirem...

185

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu\\/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the

J. T. Kelly; R. A. Brown; E. K. Chu; J. B. Wightman; R. L. Pam; E. L. Swenson; E. B. Merrick; C. F. Busch

1981-01-01

186

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE EPA OWNED BENCH SCALE PILOT PLANT FOR EVALUATING SCR DENOX CATALYSTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of EPA's bench-scale pilot plant to evaluate catalysts used in the ammonia (NH3)-based technology and process for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides. A key objective was to establish the performance of SCR catalysts on U.S. uels and...

187

Prediction of membrane fouling in the pilot-scale microfiltration system using genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, machine learning (ML) techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN) or genetic algorithm (GA) have been increasingly used to model membrane fouling and performance. In the present study, we select genetic programming (GP) for modeling and prediction of the membrane fouling rate in a pilot-scale drinking water production system. The model used input parameters for operating

Tae-Mun Lee; Hyunje Oh; Youn-Kyoo Choung; Sanghoun Oh; Moongu Jeon; Joon Ha Kim; Sook Hyun Nam; Sangho Lee

2009-01-01

188

Development of a pilot scale anaerobic digester for biogas production from cow manure and whey mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from anaerobic digestion of cow manure and whey mix. A pilot scale anaerobic digester, 128l in volume, has been developed, to operate under batch and fed-batch conditions. The versatile and unique characteristics of the instrument allowed testing the methane production directly in the farm. The digester performance was evaluated with two calibration tests, the main for

Elena Comino; Maurizio Rosso; Vincenzo Riggio

2009-01-01

189

Performance of a Pilot-Scale Biofilters and Constructed Wetland with Ornamental Plants in Greywater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially treated black water from septic tanks and grey water from households in Kuching City were polluting the Sarawak River. A pilot scale ecological sanitation was implemented where blackwater was held in septic tanks and greywater was channeled to a grease trap, biofilters and a constructed wetland before discharge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of

Teck-Yee Ling; Kasing Apun; Siti-Rubiah Zainuddin

190

Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The

Lin Wei; Lester O. Pordesimo; Agus Haryanto; James Wooten

2011-01-01

191

PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the effectiveness of a slurry-phase biodegradation process in reactor vessels to degrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants associated with contaminated soil. his evaluation is based on a 12 week pilot-scale test using five 64-L stainless st...

192

Photocatalysis with solar energy at a pilot-plant scale: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting the high reactivity of OH radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving the complete abatement and through mineralization of even less reactive pollutants. This paper reviews the use of sunlight to produce OH radicals. The experimental systems necessary for performing pilot-plant scale

Sixto Malato; Julián Blanco; Alfonso Vidal; Christoph Richter

2002-01-01

193

PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM THE DRAKE CHEMICAL SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, ...

194

PILOT SCALE STUDY ON PRETREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROIR TO LANDFILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

An out door study was under taken to pretreat the municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from an urban area on a pilot scale by windrow composting. The raw waste was put to active composting without source separation and pulverization. It was seen that, most of the organic portion of the waste were degraded within one week of active bulk composting.

Tenzin Norbu; C. Visvanathan; Ben Basnayake

195

Materials compatibility testing for a pilot-scale oxide reduction system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials compatibility tests were performed on five candidate steels for the pilot-scale oxide reduction system currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Three stainless steels (type 316L, 304, 347) and two alloy steels (2.25Cr-1Mo...

T. C. Totemeier S. D. Herrmann

2000-01-01

196

Pilot scale, alpha disassembly and decontamination facility at the Savannah River Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An alpha-contained pilot facility is being built at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for research into the disassembly and dcontamination of noncombustible, Transuranic (TRU) waste. The design and program objectives for the facility are presented along with the initial test results from laboratory scale decontamination experiments with Pu-238 and Cm-244.

Cadieux, J R; Becker, Jr, G W; Richardson, G W; Coogler, A L

1982-01-01

197

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale studies of sulfur capture in the EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process and the effect of LIMB on particulate properties and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. The sulfur capture studies showed that hydrated l...

198

Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m(2) was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted. PMID:20542632

Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M; Ortiz, Inmaculada

2010-06-09

199

Properties of Pyrolytic Chars and Activated Carbons Derived from Pilot-Scale Pyrolysis of Used Tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Meso-porous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The

S.-Q. Li; Q. Yao; S.-E. Wen; Y. Chi; J.-H. Yan

2005-01-01

200

Pilot-scale lactose hydrolysis using ?-galactosidase immobilized on cotton fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general lack of information on large scale operation of an immobilised enzyme reactor with realistic production capacity. In the current study, ?-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was immobilized on cotton fabric using glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking reagent. A pilot-scale module with a 10-l packed-bed reactor has been set up and applied to hydrolyse lactose in whole milk. Both

Xuemei Li; Quinn Z. K. Zhou; Xiao Dong Chen

2007-01-01

201

A comparison of laboratory and pilot-scale fermentations in winemaking conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of the fermenter size on alcoholic fermentation. Experiments were carried out at pilot scale,\\u000a in 100-L fermenters, and at laboratory scale, in stirred and static 1-L fermenters. Two musts, Grenache blanc and Sauvignon,\\u000a were fermented with and without the addition of solid particles from grape musts. Highly clarified must fermentation kinetics\\u000a was strongly affected by the

Erick Casalta; Evelyne Aguera; Christian Picou; Juan-Jose Rodriguez-Bencomo; Jean-Michel Salmon; Jean-Marie Sablayrolles

2010-01-01

202

Microbiological analysis of the population of extremely haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale sulfide-removing bioreactors.  

PubMed

Thiopaq biotechnology for partial sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur is an efficient way to remove H(2)S from biogases. However, its application for high-pressure natural gas desulfurization needs upgrading. Particularly, an increase in alkalinity of the scrubbing liquid is required. Therefore, the feasibility of sulfide oxidation into elemental sulfur under oxygen limitation was tested at extremely haloalkaline conditions in lab-scale bioreactors using mix sediments from hypersaline soda lakes as inoculum. The microbiological analysis, both culture dependent and independent, of the successfully operating bioreactors revealed a domination of obligately chemolithoautotrophic and extremely haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. Two subgroups were recognized among the isolates. The subgroup enriched from the reactors operating at pH 10 clustered with Thioalkalivibrio jannaschii-Thioalkalivibrio versutus core group of the genus Thioalkalivibrio. Another subgroup, obtained mostly with sulfide as substrate and at lower pH, belonged to the cluster of facultatively alkaliphilic Thioalkalivibrio halophilus. Overall, the results clearly indicate a large potential of the genus Thiolalkalivibrio to efficiently oxidize sulfide at extremely haloalkaline conditions, which makes it suitable for application in the natural gas desulfurization. PMID:18677474

Sorokin, D Y; van den Bosch, P L F; Abbas, B; Janssen, A J H; Muyzer, G

2008-08-02

203

Treatment of municipal wastewaters by the fluidized-bed bioreactor process. Final report, May 1982April 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized-bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ability of the process to treat municipal wastewater to secondary levels. Additionally, the studies evaluated the stability of the process under high

O. K. Scheible; G. M. Grey

1987-01-01

204

Scale-up studies on a defined medium process for pilot plant production of illicicolin by Gliocladium roseum.  

PubMed

Illicicolin was cultivated at the 600-L pilot scale for purposes of material generation and process development. The initial medium containing oat flour was difficult operationally as a result of excessive foaming during sterilization, so a new defined medium process (with either glucose or sucrose as the carbon source), developed at the 23-L scale, was scaled up and improved for pilot scale needs. Pilot scale media development efforts focused on exploring the highest concentration of media (1.0 x to 3.0 x) that could be cultivated at the pilot scale and not be limited by mixing or oxygen mass transfer. The process was scaled up successfully and peak titers improved 7.5-fold, from about 200 mg/L in the initial complex medium to 1500 mg/L in the final defined medium. PMID:11312705

Junker, B; Zhang, J; Mann, Z; Reddy, J; Greasham, R

205

Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater.  

PubMed

Mass transfer coefficients (k(L)a) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge were measured. Although the pilot plants differed essentially in their configurations and aeration systems, similar alpha-factors at the same MLSS concentration could be determined. A comparison of the results to the published values of other authors showed that not the MLSS concentration but rather the MLVSS concentration seems to be the decisive parameter which influences the oxygen transfer in activated sludge systems operating at a high sludge retention time (SRT). PMID:19217638

Henkel, Jochen; Lemac, Mladen; Wagner, Martin; Cornel, Peter

2009-01-29

206

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

Adamson, D.

2009-05-28

207

Scale-up from shake flasks to bioreactor, based on power input and Streptomyces lividans morphology, for the production of recombinant APA (45/47 kDa protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Culture conditions in shake flasks affect filamentous Streptomyces lividans morphology, as well the productivity and O-mannosylation of recombinant Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein (known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to scale up from previous reported shake flasks to bioreactor, data from the literature on the effect of agitation on morphology of Streptomyces strains were used to obtain gassed volumetric power input values that can be used to obtain a morphology of S. lividans in bioreactor similar to the morphology previously reported in coiled/baffled shake flasks by our group. Morphology of S. lividans was successfully scaled-up, obtaining similar mycelial sizes in both scales with diameters of 0.21 ± 0.09 mm in baffled and coiled shake flasks, and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in the bioreactor. Moreover, the specific growth rate was successfully scaled up (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 h(-1), for bioreactors and flasks, respectively), and the recombinant protein productivity measured by densitometry, as well. More interestingly, the quality of the recombinant glycoprotein measured as the amount of mannoses attached to the C-terminal of APA was also scaled- up; with up to five mannose residues in cultures carried out in shake flasks; and six in the bioreactor. However, final biomass concentration was not similar, indicating that although the process can be scaled-up using the power input, others factors like oxygen transfer rate, tip speed or energy dissipation/circulation function can be an influence on bacterial metabolism. PMID:23475258

Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Espitia, Clara; Servín-González, Luis; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

2013-03-10

208

Gas-inducible product gene expression in bioreactors.  

PubMed

Inducible transgene expression technologies are of unmatched potential for biopharmaceutical manufacturing of unstable, growth-impairing and cytotoxic proteins as well as conditional metabolic engineering to improve desired cell phenotypes. Currently available transgene dosing modalities which rely on physical parameters or small-molecule drugs for transgene fine-tuning compromise downstream processing and/or are difficult to implement technologically. The recently designed gas-inducible acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (AIR) technology takes advantage of gaseous acetaldehyde to modulate product gene expression levels. At regulation effective concentrations gaseous acetaldehyde is physiologically inert and approved as food additive by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). During standard bioreactor operation, gaseous acetaldehyde could simply be administered using standard/existing gas supply tubing and eventually eliminated by stripping with inducer-free air. We have determined key parameters controlling acetaldehyde transfer in three types of bioreactors and designed a mass balance-based model for optimal product gene expression fine-tuning using gaseous acetaldehyde. Operating a standard stirred-tank bioreactor set-up at 10 L scale we have validated AIR technology using CHO-K1-derived serum-free suspension cultures transgenic for gas-inducible production of human interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Gaseous acetaldehyde-inducible IFN-beta production management was fully reversible while maintaining cell viability at over 95% during the entire process. Compatible with standard bioreactor design and downstream processing procedures AIR-based technology will foster novel opportunities for pilot and large-scale manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:15885616

Weber, Wilfried; Rimann, Markus; de Glutz, François-Nicolas; Weber, Eric; Memmert, Klaus; Fussenegger, Martin

2005-05-01

209

Large-scale data mining pilot project in human genome  

SciTech Connect

This whitepaper briefly describes a new, aggressive effort in large- scale data Livermore National Labs. The implications of `large- scale` will be clarified Section. In the short term, this effort will focus on several @ssion-critical questions of Genome project. We will adapt current data mining techniques to the Genome domain, to quantify the accuracy of inference results, and lay the groundwork for a more extensive effort in large-scale data mining. A major aspect of the approach is that we will be fully-staffed data warehousing effort in the human Genome area. The long term goal is strong applications- oriented research program in large-@e data mining. The tools, skill set gained will be directly applicable to a wide spectrum of tasks involving a for large spatial and multidimensional data. This includes applications in ensuring non-proliferation, stockpile stewardship, enabling Global Ecology (Materials Database Industrial Ecology), advancing the Biosciences (Human Genome Project), and supporting data for others (Battlefield Management, Health Care).

Musick, R.; Fidelis, R.; Slezak, T.

1997-05-01

210

MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pope, J.R. [Elizabethtown Gas Co., Union, NJ (United States); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Jerger, D.E. [OHM Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

211

Prefermentation to overcome nutrient limitations in food processing wastewater: Comparison of pilot- and bench-scale systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench- and a pilot-scale anaerobic\\/aerobic system were evaluated for the treatment of high strength tomato-processing wastewater. The pilot-scale anaerobic tank achieved better prefermentation of organic carbon and nitrogen than the bench-scale system, although overall system performance was comparable with more than 99% SBOD removal and 97% SCOD removal. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature effects were studied in the

Zhongda Xu; George Nakhla

2007-01-01

212

Vermicomposting of sludges from paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia andrei: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of sludges from a paper mill mixed with cattle manure in a six-month pilot-scale experiment. Initially, a small-scale laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms in the different substrates tested. In the pilot-scale experiment, the number of earthworms increased between 22- and 36-fold and total biomass increased

C. Elvira; L. Sampedro; E. Benítez; R. Nogales

1998-01-01

213

INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

2011-01-24

214

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

1981-08-01

215

Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel.  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described.

Herrmann, S. D.

1999-06-08

216

Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

2006-08-01

217

Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid using starch wastewater as raw material.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop a cost-effective pilot-scale fermentation process for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis using starch wastewater. A temperature range of 30-37 degrees C, and an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) higher than 30,000 mg/L, were optimal for growth and lipid synthesis in flask culture. Cultivation in a 5-L fermenter yielded more than 60 g/L biomass with a 30% (w/w) lipid content after 60 h. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid in a 300-L fermenter using starch wastewater without sterilization and pH adjustment yielded 40 g/L biomass and 35% lipid content with 80% COD degradation after only 30-40 h of cultivation. Transesterification experiments demonstrated that lipids can be used for biodiesel production. PMID:20371176

Xue, Feiyan; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

2010-04-03

218

Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

1997-10-01

219

Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

1996-07-01

220

Enzyme-aided Fractionation of Brewer’s Spent Grains in Pilot Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an important coproduct of the brewing industry and is generally used in animal feed. Recently, there has been considerable research into the use of enzymes to convert BSG into more value-added products. In this study, the efficiency of enzymatic fractionation of freshly produced BSG was studied in pilot scale. Carbohydrateand protein-degrading enzymes were applied sequentially

P. Forssell; J. Treimo; V. G. H. Eijsink; C. B. Faulds; S. Collins; H. A. Schols; S. W. A. Hinz; O. Myllymaki; T. Tamminen; J. Zoldners; K. Viljanen; K. W. Waldron; J. Buchert

2011-01-01

221

Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and\\u000a COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic\\u000a biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced\\u000a by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA\\/SCOD???0.5) and

Roland D. Cusick; Bill Bryan; Denny S. Parker; Matthew D. Merrill; Maha Mehanna; Patrick D. Kiely; Guangli Liu; Bruce E. Logan

2011-01-01

222

Pilot scale-SOâ control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SOâ control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SOâ. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream

M. J. Pliat; James M. Wilder

2007-01-01

223

Pilot-scale tests to optimize the treatment of net-alkaline mine drainage.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale plant consisting of an oxidation basin (OB), a neutralization basin (NB), a reaction basin (RB), and a settling basin (SB) was designed and built to conduct pilot-scale experiments. With this system, the effects of aeration and pH on ferrous oxidation and on precipitation of the oxidized products were studied systemically. The results of pilot-scale tests showed that aeration at 300 L/min was optimum for oxidation of Fe(II) in the OB, and the efficiency of oxidation of Fe(II) increased linearly with increasing retention time. However, Fe(II) was still present in the subsequent basins-NB, RB, and SB. Results from pilot-scale tests in which neutralization was excluded were used to obtain rate constants for heterogeneous and homogeneous oxidation. Oxidation of Fe(II) reached almost 100% when the pH of the mine drainage was increased to more than 7.5, and there was a linear relationship between total rate constant, log (K(total)), and pH. Absorbance changes for samples from the NB under different pH conditions were measured to determine the precipitation properties of suspended solids in the SB. Because ferrous remained in the inflow to the SB, oxidation of Fe(II) was dominant initially, resulting in increased absorbance, and the rate of precipitation was slow. However, the absorbance of the suspension in the SB rapidly dropped when pH was higher than 7.5. PMID:21046432

Jang, Min; Kwon, Hyunho

2010-11-03

224

Concentration of passion fruit juice on an industrial pilot scale using osmotic evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic evaporation to concentrate clarified passion fruit juice was tried out on an industrial scale. A pilot plant that was equipped with a module containing 10.2 m2 of polypropylene hollow fibres was used to concentrate passion fruit juice up to a total soluble solids (TSS) content higher than 60 g\\/100 g at 30°C. Tangential velocity, temperature and concentration of solutions

F Vaillant; E Jeanton; M Dornier; G. M O’Brien; M Reynes; M Decloux

2001-01-01

225

Pilot plant scale reactive dyes degradation by solar photo-Fenton and biological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar photo-Fenton reactions as a stand-alone process and as a pre-treatment of an aerobic biological treatment for Procion Red H-E7B and Cibacron Red FN-R reactive dyes degradation have been carried out at pilot plant scale. Photo-Fenton oxidation was conducted using a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) solar photo-reactor and the biological treatment was carried out with an Immobilised Biomass Reactor (IBR).

Julia García-Montaño; Leonidas Pérez-Estrada; Isabel Oller; Manuel I. Maldonado; Francesc Torrades; José Peral

2008-01-01

226

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates

Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar; M. Shanmugaprakash; J. Aravind; S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

2012-01-01

227

Pilot Scale Ex-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effectiveness of ex situ electrokinetic remediation (EKR) in treating actual As-contaminated soil was evaluated at a pilot scale (1 m [W] × 1 m [L] × 1.5 m [H]). Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hydroxide as the catholyte and anolyte, respectively, were circulated to enhance the desorption of As. Two types of soil were collected from a real contaminated agricultural area: silty

Young-Hyun Kim; Do-Hyung Kim; Hong-Bae Jung; Bo-Ram Hwang; Sung-Hwan Ko; Kitae Baek

2012-01-01

228

Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the

Marco S. Lucas; José A. Peres; Bing Yan Lan; Gianluca Li Puma

2009-01-01

229

Pilot-scale Study on Enhanced Coagulation Treatment of the Micro-polluted Reservoir Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the characteristics of raw water of the micro-polluted reservoir, jar-test and pilot scale experiments were employed respectively for water treatment. The results showed that the particles with large size decreased when ozone pre-oxidation was applied, meanwhile, the organic matters with unsaturated chemical bonds decreased obviously. Moreover, the treatment efficiency of HPAC was better than which of traditional PAC

Liu Qi-feng; Zhou Xin-tao; Li Zai-dong; Zhan Zhi-gang

2012-01-01

230

Pilot-scale study of efficient coagulation sedimentation of micro-polluted water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot-scale study is based on an efficient coagulation sedimentation process technology used for micro-polluted water treatment of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal(BHGC). The best coagulant among PAC, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 and its optimal dosage were studied in coagulation sedimentation jar test. The best coagulant was PAC, and its optimal dosage was 40 mg\\/L. The coagulation sedimentation jar test showed that the

Liang Shen; Li Cheng; Heli Wang; Xinying Lian; Jingxian Qi

2010-01-01

231

Pilot-scale production of carboxymethylcellulase from rice hull by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DL3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal conditions for pilot-scale production of the carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DL-3 were investigated. The best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of CMCase by B. amyloliquefaciens DL-3 were found to be rice hull and peptone and their optimal concentrations were 5.0 and 0.20% (w\\/v), respectively. Optimal\\u000a temperature and initial pH for the production of CMCase were 37°C

Kang-Ik Jo; You-Jung Lee; Bo-Kyung Kim; Bo-Hwa Lee; Chung-Han Chung; Soo-Wan Nam; Sung-Koo Kim; Jin-Woo Lee

2008-01-01

232

Pilot-scale Studies of Different Covers on Unoxidised Sulphiderich tailings, Northern Sweden: Oxygen Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of five cover systems to decrease oxygen intrusion into sulphide-rich tailings was studied in pilot-scale test cells (5x5x3 m 3 ). The covers consisted of clayey till, sewage sludge, fine-grained apatite concentrate or Trisoplast (a mixture of a polymer, bentonite and tailings sand) as sealing layers and unspecified till as protective cover. In one reference cell, tailings were

Lena Alakangas; Angela Lundberg; Björn Öhlander

233

Biological nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate in a pilot scale suspended carrier biofilm process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate from a municipal landfill receiving both household and industrial waste was treated in pilot scale suspended carrier biofilm reactors for removal of nitrogen and organic matter. Nitrification was studied in two parallel aerated reactors, filled to 60% (v\\/v) with two different models of carrier media with specific surface areas of 210 and 390m2\\/m3 media, respectively. Denitrification was carried out

U Welander; T Henrysson; T Welander

1998-01-01

234

Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste,\\u000a and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37?C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including\\u000a blood, represent 70–80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential\\u000a from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300

Mats Edström; Åke Nordberg; Lennart Thyselius

2003-01-01

235

Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction\\/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with

Meiying Xu; Wei-Min Wu; Liyou Wu; Zhili He; Joy D Van Nostrand; Ye Deng; Jian Luo; Jack M Carley; Matthew A. Ginder-Vogel; Terry J Gentry; Baouhua Gu; David B Watson; Philip M Jardine; Terence L Marsh; James M Tiedje; Terry Hazen; Craig S Criddle; Jizhong Zhou; J Zhou

2010-01-01

236

Pilot-Scale Performance of Iron and Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale performance in reducing excess iron and arsenic from contaminated groundwater has been systematically reported. Here, a double column unit, the first packed with ?-MnO2 and the second with crystalline FeOOH (goethite vari- ety), with filters attached to the outlet of hand-pump tube-wells has been used in the field. Results showed that the filters generate 10,000 to 15,000 BV and

Biswaranjan Manna; Uday Chand Ghosh

2005-01-01

237

Pilot-scale production of dicesium hexachloroplutonate (CsPuCl) and filtrate recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Plant is introducing the use of dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) into the Molten Salt Extraction Process (MSE). DCHP (CsPuCl) extracts americium from molten plutonium metal into a molten calcium chloride matrix. The DCHP is produced by precipitating plutonium (IV) from hydrochloric acid with cesium chloride. Before production of the DCHP began, we performed a pilot-scale test to determine

A. C. Muscatello; J. R. Stevens; M. E. Killion; J. D. Valdez; R. L. Ames

1989-01-01

238

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION ; PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING\\/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing\\/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to

SPRITZER. M; G HONG

2005-01-01

239

Pilot-scale verification of a computer-based simulation for fractional protein precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and experimental verification at pilot scale of a suite of models for the batch precipitation by two-cut ammonium sulphate salting-out of total protein and alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast homogenate is presented. The model consists of two elements: protein and enzyme solubility prediction and precipitate phase particle property prediction. An isotherm-based approach has been used successfully to describe solubility

A. I. Clarkson; M. Bulmer; N. J. Titchener-Hooker

1996-01-01

240

Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N\\/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide

Hideki Namba; Okihiro Tokunaga; Shoji Hashimoto; Tadashi Tanaka; Yoshimi Ogura; Yoshitaka Doi; Shinji Aoki; Masahiro Izutsu

1995-01-01

241

Dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane to toluene in a pilot-scale membrane reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale fixed-bed membrane reactor, containing a catalyst in the shell and a membrane sealed in the centre to remove H2 in situ, was used to improve the efficiency of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation to toluene. A sulphidedPt\\/Al2O3 catalyst and a tubular palladium silver (Pd77Ag23) membrane with 0.1 mm wall thickness, both commercially available, were employed. Experiments with the membrane reactor in

Jawad K. Ali; Alfons Baiker

1997-01-01

242

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a pilot-scale annular bubble column photocatalytic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of an 18-l pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor has been investigated using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) approach. The granular Eulerian model was used to describe the multiphase flow system. Solid recirculation was predicted while liquid velocity vectors were influenced by the gas flow. The companion radiation transport equation was iteratively solved using a finite-volume-based discrete ordinate method. The first-order

V. K. Pareek; S. J. Cox; M. P. Brungs; B. Young; A. A. Adesina

2003-01-01

243

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with an aliginate-filled pore space. This support matrix showed superior mechanical properties along with retaining the unique adsorptive characteristics of the chitosan. Adsorption of the o-quinone product by the chitosan reduced tyrosinase inactivation that is normally observed for this enzyme under these conditions. This approach allowed reuse of the enzyme in repeated batch applications. For the bench scale reactor (1.2-l capacity) more than 92% of the phenol could be removed from the feed water using an immobilized enzyme volume of 18.5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 150 min. Removal rates decreased with subsequent batch runs. For the pilot scale fluidized bed (60 l), 60% phenol removal was observed with an immobilized enzyme volume of 5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 7 h. Removal decreased to 45% with a repeat batch run with the same immobilized enzyme. PMID:15765216

Ensuncho, Lucila; Alvarez-Cuenca, Manuel; Legge, Raymond L

2005-03-12

244

Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

2003-01-01

245

Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

Erickson, Daniel Thomas

246

Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immob...

L. E. Thompson T. D. Powell J. S. Tixier M. C. Miller P. C. Owczarski

1993-01-01

247

Using Pilot-Scale Investigations to Estimate the Remaining Geosmin and MIB Removal Capacity of Full-Scale GAC-Capped Drinking Water Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot tests were conducted to investigate the removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by new and semi-exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) extracted from full-scale filters located in the City of Toronto's drinking water treatment facilities. Four pilot filters containing core-sampled GAC and new sand were fed with settled water from a full-scale plant and operated under conditions similar to those

Souleymane Ndiongue; William B. Anderson; Abhay Tadwalkar; John Rudnickas; Margaret Lin; Peter M. Huck

2006-01-01

248

Characterization of microbial communities in a pilot-scale constructed wetland using PLFA and PCR-DGGE analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to determine microbial communities and predominant microbial populations in water samples collected from a pilot-scale constructed wetland system. This pilot-scale constructed wetland system consists of three types: subsurface-flow (SSF), surface-flow (SF) and a floating aquatic plant (FAP) system. Analysis of PLFA

Guang Jin; Timothy R. Kelley

2007-01-01

249

Case history of a pilot-scale acidic in situ uranium leaching experiment. Report of investigations\\/1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines assisted the Rocky Mountain Energy Co. in a pilot-scale in situ leaching experiment at Casper, Wyo., to determine if sulfuric acid can be used as a cost-effective alternative lixiviant (leachant) for uranium in situ leaching. This experiment, which lasted more than 2 years, is the first fully documented pilot-scale operation in which the leaching-restoration cycle was

M. T. Nigbor; W. H. Engelmann; D. R. Tweeton

1982-01-01

250

Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

Jankura, B.J.

1996-01-01

251

Pilot-scale treatment of RDX-contaminated soil with zerovalent iron.  

PubMed

Soils in Technical Area 16 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are severely contaminated from past explosives testing and research. Our objective was to conduct laboratory and pilot-scale experiments to determine if zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) could effectively transform RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in two LANL soils that differed in physicochemical properties (Soils A and B). Laboratory tests indicated that Soil A was highly alkaline and needed to be acidified [with H2SO4, Al2(SO4)3, or CH3COOH] before Fe(0) could transform RDX. Pilot-scale experiments were performed by mixing Fe(0) and contaminated soil (70 kg), and acidifying amendments with a high-speed mixer that was a one-sixth replica of a field-scale unit. Soils were kept unsaturated (soil water content = 0.30-0.34 kg kg(-1)) and sampled with time (0-120 d). While adding CH3COOH improved the effectiveness of Fe(0) to remove RDX in Soil A (98% destruction), CH3COOH had a negative effect in Soil B. We believe that this difference is a result of high concentrations of organic matter and Ba. Adding CH3COOH to Soil B lowered pH and facilitated Ba release from BaSO4 or BaCO3, which decreased Fe(0) performance by promoting flocculation of humic material on the iron. Despite problems encountered with CH3COOH, pilot-scale treatment of Soil B (12 100 mg RDX kg(-1)) with Fe(0) or Fe(0) + Al2(SO4)3 showed high RDX destruction (96-98%). This indicates that RDX-contaminated soil can be remediated at the field scale with Fe(0) and soil-specific problems (i.e., alkalinity, high organic matter or Ba) can be overcome by adjustments to the Fe(0) treatment. PMID:14535313

Comfort, S D; Shea, P J; Machacek, T A; Satapanajaru, T

252

Standardizing the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) rotation scale with computerized technology: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) Rating Manual includes a rotation scale to measure the angle or tilt of objects, such as a tree or a person, in drawings. Rotation has been shown to be an important criterion in distinguishing certain patient groups, such as schizophrenia and organic brain disorders. However, this FEATS scale has been traditionally difficult to

Donald C. Mattson

2011-01-01

253

Comparison of lab-scale and pilot-scale hybrid anaerobic solid–liquid systems operated in batch and semi-continuous modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrid anaerobic solid–liquid (HASL) system was developed for food waste bioconversion. Lab-scale and pilot-scale HASL systems were operated in batch and semi-continuous modes. High efficiencies for conversion of food waste into biogas were shown for both the lab-scale and pilot-scale HASL systems. Semi-continuous mode of HASL system was more effective than batch process. Methane production was 0.49ll?1day?1 and 0.71ll?1day?1

J. Y. Wang; H. Zhang; O. Stabnikova; J. H. Tay

2005-01-01

254

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2007-01-09

255

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24 inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2006-11-08

256

Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water. PMID:21838294

Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y

2011-08-30

257

A pilot-scale trial of an improved galvanic deoxidation process for refining molten copper  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory-scale galvanic deoxidation technology developed by earlier workers has been improved, with the aim of developing a prototype pilot-scale deoxidation unit. Each deoxidation cell consists of a one end-closed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube coated with a Ni-YSZ cermet anode on the inner walls. The YSZ tube is immersed, with its closed end in the metallic melt, and an oxygen-chemical-potential gradient across the tube is established by passing a reducing gas through the tube. The melt is then deoxidized by short circuiting it with the anode. Through laboratory experimentation, the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface adhesion was identified to be an important factor in obtaining enhanced deoxidation kinetics. The kinetics of oxygen removal from the melt was increased by an order of magnitude with an improved anode/electrolyte interface. A pilot-scale refining unit consisting of 53 cells with the improved anode/electrolyte interface was manufactured, and a field evaluation of the galvanic deoxidation of copper was conducted. The deoxidation-process model was modified to include multiple deoxidation cells, which were required for the pilot-scale trials, and to analyze the effect of electrolyte/electrode adhesion on deoxidation kinetics. Preliminary studies on process component lifetimes were conducted by investigating the thermal cycling, corrosion behavior of the electrolyte, and stability of the cermet anode structure. Based on the results of the field trial and the analyses of the process component lifetime, future work needed toward commercializing the technology is discussed.

Soral, P.; Larson, H.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Pal, U. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Mfg. Engineering; Schroeder, B. [Reading Tube Corp., PA (United States)

1999-04-01

258

Influence of mixed liquor properties and aeration intensity on membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor at high mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of 195 days of pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) experiments on settled municipal wastewater. Short-term and long-term thickening experiments were performed at a constant membrane flux of 30L\\/(m2h) to determine the impact of the following mixed liquor properties: colloidal material, soluble COD, soluble microbial products, extracellular polymeric substances, and viscosity along with aeration intensity on

R. Shane Trussell; Rion P. Merlo; Slawomir W. Hermanowicz; David Jenkins

2007-01-01

259

Effect of the concentration of suspended solids on the enzymatic activities and biodiversity of a submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater in order to study the influence\\u000a of the variations in the concentration of volatile suspended solids (VSS) on the enzymatic activities (acid and alkaline phosphatases,\\u000a glucosidase, protease, esterase, and dehydrogenase) and biodiversity of the bacterial community in the sludge. The influence\\u000a of VSS concentration was evaluated in

M. Molina-Muñoz; J. M. Poyatos; R. Vílchez; E. Hontoria; B. Rodelas; J. González-López

2007-01-01

260

Characterization of oxygen transfer in miniature and lab-scale bubble column bioreactors and comparison of microbial growth performance based on constant k(L)a.  

PubMed

This work describes the engineering characterization of miniature (2 mL) and laboratory-scale (100 mL) bubble column bioreactors useful for the cultivation of microbial cells. These bioreactors were constructed of glass and used a range of sintered glass gas diffusers with differently sized pores to disperse humidified air within the liquid biomedium. The effect of the pressure of this supplied air on the breakthrough point for gas diffusers with different pore sizes was examined and could be predicted using the Laplace-Young equation. The influence of the superficial gas velocity (u(g)) on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) was determined, and values of up to 0.09 s(-1) were observed in this work. Two modeling approaches were considered in order to predict and provide comparison criteria. The first related the volumetric power consumption (P/V) to the k(L)a and a good correlation was obtained for differently sized reactors with a given pore size, but this correlation was not satisfactory for bubble columns with different gas diffusers. Values for P/V ranged from about 10 to 400 W.m(-3). Second, a model was developed predicting bubble size (d(b)), bubble rising velocity (u(b)), gas hold-up (phi), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (k(L)), and thus the k(L)a using established theory and empirical correlations. Good agreement was found with our experimental data at different scales and pore sizes. Values for d(b) varied from 0.1 to 0.6 mm, and k(L) values between 1.7 and 9.8 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) were determined. Several E. coli cultivations were performed in the miniature bubble column at low and high k(L)a values, and the results were compared to those from a conventional stirred tank operated under identical k(L)a values. Results from the two systems were similar in terms of biomass growth rate and carbon source utilization. PMID:16080699

Doig, Steven D; Ortiz-Ochoa, Kenny; Ward, John M; Baganz, Frank

261

Piloting the perinatal obsessive-compulsive scale (POCS): development and validation.  

PubMed

Onset/worsening of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during the perinatal period are frequently seen clinically. No specific tool assessing the unique content, context, severity, and onset of perinatal OCD exists. A self-report scale of perinatal obsessions and compulsions, the Perinatal Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (POCS), was developed and validated. A total of 162 women (67 pregnant, 95 postpartum) participated in this pilot study. They completed the POCS as well as the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). The POCS has good construct validity, reflected by representative items, high internal consistency, good concurrent validity and discriminative capacity. The most common obsessions were fear of having an unhealthy baby at birth, contamination, the baby being taken away, and infant death. Behavioral compulsions such as repeating rituals, asking for reassurance, checking, and cleaning mirrored these obsessions. The POCS helps clinicians detect perinatal OCD while giving perinatal women an opportunity to openly discuss socially sensitive issues. PMID:21824744

Lord, Catherine; Rieder, Amber; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

2011-07-19

262

Training pilots to visualize large-scale spatial relationships in a stereoscopic display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In flying air intercepts, a fighter pilot must plan most tactical maneuvers well before acquiring visual contact. Success depends on one's ability to create an accurate mental model of dynamic 3D spatial relationships from 2D information displays. This paper describes an Air Force training program for visualizing large- scale dynamic spatial relationships. It employs a low-cost, portable system in which the helmet-mounted stereoscopic display reveals the unobservable spatial relationships in a virtual world. We also describe recent research which evaluated the training effectiveness of this interactive three-dimensional display technology. Three display formats have been tested for their impact on the pilot's ability to encode, retain and recall functionally relevant spatial information: (1) a set of 2D orthographic plan views, (2) a flat panel 3D perspective rendering and, (3) the 3D virtual environment. Trainees flew specified air intercepts and reviewed the flights in one of the display formats. Experts' trajectories were provided for comparison. After training, flight performance was tested on a new set of scenarios. Differences in pilots' performances under the three formats suggest how virtual environment displays can aid people learning to visualize 3D spatial relationships from 2D information.

Mowafy, Lyn; Thurman, Richard A.

1993-09-01

263

Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2009-04-15

264

Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized.

Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

1991-01-01

265

Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

Duignan, M.R.

2000-06-27

266

Production of Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell culture provides a viable alternative over whole plant cultivation for the production of useful phytochemicals.\\u000a In order to successfully cultivate the plant cells at large scale, some engineering parameters such as cell aggregation, mixing,\\u000a aeration and shear sensitivity are taken into account for selection of a suitable bioreactor. Increased productivity in a\\u000a bioreactor can be achieved by selection

Saurabh Chattopadhyay; A. K. Srivastava; V. S. Bisaria

267

Oxygen transfer and scale-up in bioreactors using hydro-ejectors for gas-liquid contacting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonly used scale-up criteria are investigated for their applicability in the case of hydro-ejector reactors. In combination with the liquid jet momentum, which characterizes the hydro-ejector, a scale-up correlation with the oxygen transfer rate as scale-up criterion is proposed, independent of the type of hydro-ejector and the reactor configuration. The results with regard to the power input are compared

A. Orfaniotis; M. Lalane; N. Doubrovine; C. Fonade; B. Mayr; A. Moser

1996-01-01

268

Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

2010-09-29

269

Removal of indicator bacteriophages from municipal wastewater by a full-scale membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge process: implications to water reuse.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of a full scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) in the removal of bacteriophages and bacterial fecal indicators from municipal wastewater was compared with that obtained by conventional activated sludge process (CASP). Somatic coliphages (SOMCPH) and F-RNA specific bacteriophages (FRNAPH) were always detected in the pre-treated effluent (mean: 6Log10), while phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis were not always present (mean: 3.9Log10). The MBR process was able to achieve respectively 2.7 and 1.7Log10 higher reductions of SOMCPH and FRNAPH compared to CASP (significant differences: P<0.05). SOMCPH were found to be the most suitable indicators for assessing MBR performance, since they showed greater resistance to biofiltration than FRNAPH and a more regular distribution in pre-treated effluent than BFRAGPH. Moreover, since the traditional bacterial indicators were almost totally removed by biofiltration, SOMCPH proved to be the best indicators to evaluate the microbiological risk when MBR effluent is discharged into natural waters or reused. PMID:23266855

De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella; Leoni, Erica; Zanetti, Franca

2012-12-03

270

Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales  

SciTech Connect

Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

2011-05-01

271

Applying fabric filtration to coal fired industrial boilers. A pilot scale investigation. Final report, Jun 1974Apr 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a pilot scale investigation to determine the technoeconomic feasibility of applying a fabric filter dust collector to coal fired industrial boilers. The pilot facility, on a slip stream of a 60,000 lb\\/hr boiler, was capable of handling 11,000 acfm at an air-to-cloth (A\\/C) ratio of 6\\/1. Filter media evaluated were Nomex felt, Teflon felt (two

J. D. McKenna; J. C. Mycock; W. O. Lipscomb

1975-01-01

272

Ammonia removal from wastewaters using natural Australian zeolite. 2. Pilot-scale study using continuous packed column process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale process was designed and operated to investigate the continuous removal of ammonia from sewage using natural zeolite from Australia. The process consisted of a fixed-bed ion-exchange system operated in the downflow mode. Evaluation of the pilot process was initially undertaken for ammonia removal from tap water spiked with ammonium chloride to provide performance data in the absence of

EMMA L. COONEY; NICHOLAS A. BOOKER; DAVID C. SHALLCROSS; GEOFFREY W. STEVENS

1999-01-01

273

Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.  

PubMed

The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

2009-06-01

274

Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building`s quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility.

Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

1995-01-01

275

Performance of a pilot-scale, three-stage constructed wetland system for domestic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of season, organic matter loadings, hydraulic conditions, recycling, and rapid drainage on water quality in a pilot-scale, three-stage subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSF CW) system. The pilot CW system consisted of a vertical flow-gravel filtration (v-GF) wetland in the first stage, a horizontal-subsurface flow (h-SSF) bed planted with Iris in the second stage, and a vertical-subsurface flow (v-SSF) bed vegetated with Phragmites in the third stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of these CW systems to remove organic matter from domestic wastewater on a pilot-scale three-stage SSF CW system. Comparisons of average influent and effluent concentrations showed that the multistage system could effectively reduce total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels in effluent by as much as 98% and total organic carbon (TOC) by as much as 79%. Contributions of the first, second and third stages to the overall treatment were approximately 10%, 45% and 45%, respectively. The average TSS, COD, and TOC concentrations were reduced in the entire CW system by 70%, 80% and 90%, respectively. The BOD and TOC removal efficiencies displayed seasonal variations with average removals generally increasing in warmer seasons. Our results also demonstrate that there were strong correlations between removal efficiencies and loading rates. Average removals decreased with an increase in the hydraulic retention time (HRT). The rapid drainage and recycling operation increased the efficiency of BOD removal only. PMID:19947149

Tunçsiper, Bilal; Ayaz, Selma; Akça, Lütfi; Gunes, Kemal

2009-10-01

276

Pilot-scale fluoride-containing wastewater treatment by the ballasted flocculation process.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale ballasted flocculation system was used to remove fluoride from one type of industrial wastewater. The system included the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using calcium hydroxide followed by coagulation sedimentation. Calcium fluoride was recycled as nuclei for enhancing CaF2 precipitation and as a ballasting agent for improving fluoride removal and flocculation efficiency. Factors affecting fluoride and turbidity removal efficiencies, including pH in the CaF2-reacting tank and coagulation-mixing tank, sludge recycling ratio, and dosages of FeCl3 and polyacrylamide (PAM), were investigated in the pilot-scale system. The recycled CaF2 precipitates improved CaF2 formation kinetics, enhanced fluoride removal and flocculation performance. Under the optimized condition, the ballast flocculation process reduced fluoride concentration from 288.9 to 10.67 mg/L and the turbidity from 129.6 NTU to below 2.5 NTU. PMID:23823549

Wang, Bin-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Zhu, Jia; Shen, Ji-Min; Han, Ying

2013-01-01

277

Bench- and pilot-scale sludge electrodewatering in a diaphragm filter press.  

PubMed

Electrodewatering is a technique in which pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved solid/liquid separation and hence increased filter cake dry matter contents. In order to be energy efficient, it is shown that sludge should be dewatered by pressure dewatering to a high extent prior to electric field application, and a sufficient contact time for the electric field must be guaranteed. In order to realize these goals, a bench- and pilot-scale diaphragm filter press suited for electrodewatering were constructed for treatment of sewage and other types of sludges. It was shown that electrodewatering of sludge is a feasible technique, especially for biological sludge types. Other types of sludge are less suited for electrodewatering because of the restricted improvements that can be realized in cake dry matter content and the high electric energy consumption. Furthermore, it was shown in pilot-scale tests that the use of a diaphragm filter press with electrodewatering facilities was very well suited to deliver dry filter cakes of sewage sludge at a moderate energy consumption. Depending on local market prices for investment, operating and sludge disposal costs, this technology may therefore lead to important savings in the sludge management process. PMID:17163042

Saveyn, H; Van der Meeren, P; Pauwels, G; Timmerman, R

2006-01-01

278

Pilot scale recovery of recombinant annexin V from unclarified escherichia coli homogenate using expanded bed adsorption.  

PubMed

Expanded bed adsorption is a new downstream processing technique forcapture of proteins directly from unclarified feedstocks. Expanded bed adsorption reduces the number of operations in purification processes by combining clarification, concentration, and capture into one operation. It is based on stable fluidization and uses adsorbent particles with well-defined size and density distributions, together with columns designed to giveeven liquid flow distribution. The bed expands as the adsorbent particles are lifted by an upward liquid flow through the column. The behavior of the expanded bed is similar to a packed chromatography bed due to very little back-mixing of the adsorbent particles. The major benefit of using anexpanded bed is that adsorption can be carried out with unclarified feedstocks; there is no need for centrifugation or filtration to remove cells and debris. When the feedstock is applied, the target protein is captured by the adsorbent while cells and debris pass through the column unhindered. Washing is performed with the bed in an expanded mode, followed by elution of bound protein in a sedimented mode with downward flowDescribed in this article is the use of expanded bed adsorption for pilot scale recovery of recombinant human placental annexin V from an Escherichia coli ho mogenate. The description includes the whole procedure, from small-scale method optimization to pilot scale. The recovery of annexin V was approximately 95% at both lab scale and pilot scale. During the trials, it was discovered that the expanded bed was affected by the biomass content and viscosity of the homogenate. The upper limits for these parameters were therefore investigated further. For the E. coli used in the application described here, homogenates with biomass dry weightup to 5% and viscosities up to 10 mPa s (at a shear rate of 1 s(-1)) worked best. It was, however, feasible to use homogenates with dry weight up to 7-8% and viscosities up to 50 mPa s (1 s(-1)). (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618910

Barnfield Frej, A K; Hjorth, R; Hammarström, A

1994-10-01

279

Anaerobic digestion of total raw olive-oil wastewater in a two-stage pilot-plant (up-flow and fixed-bed bioreactors)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of total raw olive-oil wastewater in a two-stage pilot-plant with reactors connected in series. Two different types of anaerobic digesters were used, an up-flow type and a fixed-bed type. The main pupose of the study was to evaluate the performance of an up-flow-type reactor working in series with a fixed-bed-type reactor,

D. Dalis; K. Anagnostidis; A. Lopez; I. Letsiou; L. Hartmann

1996-01-01

280

Bioreactors with Substance Injection Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with substance injection capability. In one embodiment, the bioreactor includes a first substrate having a first surface, an opposite second surface and edges. The bioreactor further includes a second substrate having a first surface and an o...

C. P. Lin F. Haselton F. J. Baudenbacher J. P. Wikswo

2003-01-01

281

Simulation of carbon degradation in a rotary drum pilot scale composting process.  

PubMed

This paper studies the simulation of carbon degradation in pilot scale solid waste composting processes using first-order kinetic models previously calibrated by laboratory experiments at different temperatures. Different solid biowastes (olive mill waste, winery waste, sewage sludge and reed biomass) were used. Three mixtures were prepared from combinations of the materials listed above, and they were used in both the laboratory kinetic experiments and the pilot scale composting experiments. Lab experiments were conducted in small reactors with temperature (T) control and forced aeration of the solid mixture. Each biowaste mixture was treated at four different temperatures, 25, 40, 50 and 60 °C, with controlled moisture; the carbon (C) concentration of the samples was measured weekly. Two different kinetic models were used to fit the carbon mineralisation curves: the 2C model, which considers two organic fractions (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), and the 3C model, which considers three fractions (easily biodegradable, slowly biodegradable and non-biodegradable). In both cases, the kinetic rate constants were calculated by mathematical fitting. The influence of temperature on the rate constants was also studied for both models using a T-dependent equation. The theoretical k(T) curves showed classical shapes, and the temperatures for optimum k values and thermal inactivation were obtained. Once the C degradation rate constants and their T dependence equations were available, it was possible to simulate the evolution of C degradation in an actual pilot scale rotary drum composting process under varying temperatures and using the same biowaste mixtures. The comparison between the theoretical profiles and the experimental data showed that the thermophilic stage could be accurately simulated; however, errors and lower levels of model accuracy occurred when the maturation stage was simulated. The simulation was valid for all of the viewed biowaste mixtures. The 2C and 3C simulation profiles were quite similar in all cases for much of the process duration; the differences between the profiles only occurred after the end of the thermophilic stage. It was concluded that the 2C model would be only valid for shorter experimental periods, until the readily biodegradable carbon fraction was removed, while the 3C model reproduced the subsequent degradation in the maturation stage more closely. PMID:22595131

Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez Mayor, L; Rodríguez Romero, L; Fernández, F J

2012-05-16

282

Process improvement for semipurified oleosomes on a pilot-plant scale.  

PubMed

Semipurified oleosomes were isolated on a pilot-plant scale using improved-process extraction conditions. The improved process consisted of continuous centrifugation in a three-phase decanter with recirculation of slurry until most of the oleosomes were recovered. Oleosome fractionation, oleosin identification, and isoflavone and saponin mass distributions and recoveries were investigated. The improved pilot-plant oleosome extraction process was achieved in 8 h. A total of 91%± 1% of soybean oil was recovered as intact oleosomes. The oil content of the aqueous supernatant and the residue fractions were low at 2% and 3%, respectively. The aqueous supernatant fraction contained 40% total soybean protein. About 76% of the proteins present in the oleosome fraction were soybean storage proteins. Washing the semipurified oleosomes with a 0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.6 containing 0.4 M sucrose, and 0.5 M NaCl resulted in the recovery of the associated storage proteins. The recovery of these proteins in addition to the protein in aqueous supernatant accounted for 79% of the total soybean storage proteins fractionated by this process. Oleosins were detected at 17 and 18 kDa. Isoflavones and saponins partitioned into the oleosome, aqueous supernatant, and residue fractions at different ratios with the majority, about 82 and 63 mole%, respectively, in oleosome and aqueous supernatant fractions, making these fractions an attractive source for phytochemicals. PMID:22417483

Kapchie, Virginie N; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Hui; Murphy, Patricia A

2011-08-01

283

Validation of a model for process development and scale-up of packed-bed solid-state bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have validated our previously described model for scale-up of packed-bed solid-state fermenters (Weber et al., 1999) with experiments in an adiabatic 15-dm3 packed-bed reactor, using the fungi Coniothyrium minitans and Aspergillus oryzae. Effects of temperature on respiration, growth, and sporulation of the biocontrol fungus C. minitans on hemp impregnated with a liquid medium were determined in independent experiments, and

Frans J. Weber; Jaap Oostra; Johannes Tramper; Arjen Rinzema

2002-01-01

284

OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

285

Bioreactors for Bioartificial Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the design of bioreactors constituting the core of some bioartificial organs is discussed. Initially, the\\u000a problem of cell sourcing is shortly addressed. Then, criteria and limitations to current bioreactor design for bioartificial\\u000a organs are presented. Design equations are separately obtained and discussed for bioreactors implanted in extravascular body\\u000a compartments or connected to the blood circulation of the

G. Catapano

286

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

287

Bioreactors and Bioseparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.

Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

288

Evaluation of pilot-scale in-vessel composting for food waste treatment.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to evaluate the performance of pilot-scale in-vessel composting for food wastes treatment. The composting plant was installed with 324 m3 of the composting bay volume and 14,000 kg/day of the composting material flow rate. The evaluations studied included the operational indices, the compost maturity indices, and the quality of the final compost. Blowers of this system were useful in maintaining aerobic condition (over 6% oxygen concentration in off-gas) through the entire compost bay. The levels of indices evaluated remained constant in the final part of composting. The final compost was satisfactory for its agricultural application. It was revealed in this study that bulk density bore a linear relation to moisture content during composting, and the final compost without bulking agent showed negative correlation between heavy metal and organic matters content. PMID:18023532

Kim, Joung-Dae; Park, Joon-Seok; In, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Daekeun; Namkoong, Wan

2007-10-13

289

Pilot-scale HCl control by dry alkaline injection for emissions from refuse incinerators. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

One method of removing the HCl in an exhaust-gas stream is to directly inject finely divided sorbent particles into the gas stream upstream from particulate collection equipment, allowing enough time for the HCl to react with the sorbent in the duct. The study proposed to provide data on HCl removal from a simulated incinerator exhaust stream as a function of the in-duct reaction/residence time, the reaction temperature, and the sorbent-to-gas ratio. A 500-acfm pilot-scale HCl control system utilizing dry powdered sorbent was tested at the University of Washington. Powdered alkaline reagents including sodium bicarbonate and calcium hydroxide were injected into boiler flue gas spiked with hydrogen chloride gas. The acid gas reacts with the injected sorbent in a 20-inch diameter by 26-foot high vertical, down-flow vessel. HCl removal efficiency was measured as a function of sorbent stoichiometry, gas residence time in reactor, and reaction temperature.

Moore, D.; Pilat, M.

1988-11-08

290

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

SciTech Connect

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

291

Design and analysis of a pilot scale biofiltration system for odorous air  

SciTech Connect

Three pilot-scale biofilters and necessary peripheral equipment were built to clean odorous air from the pit of a swine gestation building at North Carolina State University. A computer measured temperatures, flow rates, and pressure drops. It also controlled and measured the moisture content of a biofilter medium comprised of a 3:1 mixture of yard waste compost to wood chips mixture (by volume). The system was evaluated to ensure that the biofilters would be useful for performing scientific experiments concerning the reduction of swine odor on future research projects. The capability of the biofilters to remove odor was measured using a cotton swatch absorption method and an odor panel. The average odor reductions measured by odor intensity, irritation intensity, and unpleasantness for five tests were 61%, 58%, and 84%, respectively. No significant differences in odor reduction performance were found between the biofilters.

Classen, J.J.; Young, J.S.; Bottcher, R.W.; Westerman, P.W.

2000-02-01

292

Pilot scale evaluation of peroxone for treatment of contaminated groundwater. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are treatment processes that rely on the hydroxyl radical to destroy contaminants in polluted waters. Peroxone is an advanced oxidation process that utilizes the reaction of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals without the requirement of ultraviolet light. The USAE Waterways Experiment Station (WES) evaluated the use of peroxone at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) for treatment of groundwater contaminated with diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) and low levels of pesticides. This evaluation was performed at RMA using a pilot scale treatment system. Results indicate that DIMP was easily oxidized to below detection limit levels. Optimization of the process indicated that a 250 m1/1 hydrogen peroxide dose in four columns plumbed in series that were all sparged with 2.2% ozonated air at a rate of 2.5 scfm.

Zappi, M.; Swindle, R.; Harvey, S.; Morgan, R.; Strang, D.

1994-12-31

293

Pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of screenings from wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The anaerobic digestion of screenings from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied in a 90 L pilot-scale digester operated at 35 degrees C under semi-continuous conditions. In the first 4 weeks, a dry solids residence time of 28 days was applied, but the installation of inhibitory conditions was observed. Feeding was therefore suspended for 4 weeks to allow the digester to recover from inhibition, and then progressively increased up to a constant load of 6 kg of raw waste per week, corresponding to an average residence time of about 35 days of dry solids. At this stage, biogas production stabilized between 513 and 618 Nl/kg VS(added) per week, with methane contents around 61% v/v. The results of this work thereby supported the feasibility of (co-)digestion as a potential alternative treatment of screenings from municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:20655208

Le Hyaric, Ronan; Canler, Jean-Pierre; Barillon, Bruno; Naquin, Pascale; Gourdon, Rémy

2010-07-22

294

Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized.

Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

1991-12-31

295

HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

1996-04-01

296

Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

2011-03-05

297

Pilot-scale tests of tuff gravel flow diversion barriers for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This project conducts pilot-scale tests on potential sand/tuff gravel barrier designs and materials by measuring their hydraulic and barrier properties for use in modeling and final designs of possible diversion barriers at Yucca Mountain. The use of rubble composed of crushed paintbrush tuff (referred to as tuff gravel) in an engineered barrier around the waste packages can provide superior performance capabilities in a geologic repository located in the vadose zone. The effectiveness of unsaturated gravel as an hydraulic barrier to inflow of water from the surrounding environment is referred to by various names, e.g., diversion barrier, capillary barrier, or Richard`s barrier. A gravel barrier can also function as a diffusion barrier to the transport of ionic contaminants away from waste packages. Preliminary studies on tuff gravel and other gravel barriers have demonstrated their performance under a wide range of conditions anticipated in disposal scenarios.

Conca, J. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M.; Kessler, J. [INTERA Sciences, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

298

Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas. PMID:19620003

Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

2009-07-19

299

Pilot-Scale Testing of a Rotary Microfilter with Irradiated Filter Disks and Simulated SRS Waste  

SciTech Connect

The processing rate of the Actinide Removal Project (ARP) is limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation process. If the Department of Energy, DOE, could identify and develop a solid- liquid separation technology with a higher filter flux, they could increase the throughput of the Actinide Removal Project and complete treating that fraction of the waste stream in a shorter time, with a significant reduction in life-cycle cost. Savannah River Technology Center personnel identified the rotary microfilter as a technology that could significantly increase filter flux, with improvements of as much as 10X over the 0.5 micron crossflow filter and 5X over the 0.1 micron crossflow filter. The Savannah River Technology Center received funding from the DOE-HQ, Office of Cleanup Technologies, to evaluate and develop the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at the Savannah River Site. The authors performed pilot-scale simulant filtration tests with irradiated filter disks. They employed three types of filter disks for the tests (0.5 m stainless steel, 0.1 m stainless steel, and 0.1 m ceramic/stainless steel). They analyzed the filter's structural material, Ryton(R) for hardness, and irradiated the entire disk with an estimated 2.5-5 year (83-165 MRad) radiation dose. They measured the hardness of the Ryton(R) after the irradiation of the disk. Following irradiation, they placed the filters in the pilot-scale rotary microfilter unit and tested them with feed slurries containing 0.29 and 4.5 wt per cent solids.

POIRIER, MICHAELR.

2004-01-20

300

Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

1987-05-01

301

Results of field demonstrations of a newly developed pilot-scale debris washing system  

SciTech Connect

Numerous hazardous waste sites in the United States are littered with metallic, masonry, and other solid debris that may be contaminated with hazardous chemicals [for example, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, lead, or other metals]. Although the majority of the debris at Superfund Sites has no potential for reuse, decontaminated debris could either be returned to the site as clean fill (rather than being transported offsite to a hazardous waste landfill) or, in the case of metallic debris, it could be sold to a metal smelter. Previous phases of this project have involved the development of a technology specifically for performing on-site decontamination of debris. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale versions of a debris washing system (DWS) have been designed and constructed. The DWS entails the application of an aqueous solution during a high-pressure spray cycle, followed by a turbulent wash cycle. The aqueous cleaning solution is recovered and reconditioned for reuse concurrently with the actual debris-cleaning process, which minimizes the quality of process water required to clean the debris. This paper presents the results of bench-scale studies and the results obtained during two field demonstrations of the DWS. 5 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Dosani, M.A.; Taylor, M.L.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Barkley, N.P. (Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1992-11-01

302

Investigation of performance, noise and detectability characteristics of small-scale remotely piloted vehicle /RPV/ propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several small-scale propeller configurations, applicable to a conceptual remotely piloted vehicle, were tested under static and simulated forward flight conditions in a wind tunnel to determine their performance, acoustic, and detectability characteristics. The propellers tested had tractor, pusher, and ducted configurations, designed to develop 4 thrust horsepower at a cruise speed of 75 knots at 4000 ft altitude and 95 F. The acoustic data were used to determine the slant range and altitude of no detection of each propeller configuration. The acoustic and detectability characteristics of small-scale propellers were found to be significantly different from those of the large-scale propellers; this is explained by low disk loading or the low operating Reynolds numbers of the propellers. An increase in forward velocity caused a significant drop in SPLs at higher harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Tip speed had a strong effect on noise and detectability in forward flight: most of the propellers were detected at either the first or second harmonic of their blade passage frequency. Three-bladed propellers were generally less detectable than twoor four-bladed propellers for most of the forward velocities. Finally, ducted and pusher propeller configurations were more detectable and less efficient than their free and tractor counterparts.

Janakiram, D. S.; Scruggs, B. W.

1981-10-01

303

Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Pilot-Scale Warehouses Treated with B-Cyfluthrin: Are Residual Insecticides and Trapping Compatible?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...

304

Solid-state anaerobic digestion of unsorted municipal solid waste in a pilot-plant scale digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) was carried out in a pilot-scale reactor to study anaerobic fermentation as it happens in a sanitary landfill. The reactor was not inoculated and the MSW used was taken from the COGERSA landfill site in Asturias, Spain. The experiments were performed in an opaque PVC reactor at 36 ± 1 °C. Water

J. Rodriguez-Iglesias; L. Castrillón; E. Marañón; H. Sastre

1998-01-01

305

DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

306

Pilot Scale Bioremediation of Creosote-Contaminated Soil—Efficacy of Enhanced Natural Attenuation and Bioaugmentation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the efficacy of bioremediation strategies (enhanced natural attenuation with nitrate and phosphate addition [ENA] and bioaugmentation) for the remediation of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 ± 1286 mg kg of the 16 EPA priority PAHs) was investigated at pilot scale. Bioaugmentation of creosote-contaminated soil with freshly grown or freeze dried Mycobacterium sp. strain 1B (a PAH degrading microorganism) was

Albert L. Juhasz; Natasha Waller; Chris Lease; Richard Bentham; Richard Stewart

2005-01-01

307

[Preparation of flavonol glycoside reference standard series from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim using pilot-scale preparative high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

Icariin and epimedins A, B, C are a series of active flavonol glycoside in Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. A pilot-scale preparative high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to purify the four flavonol glycosides as reference standards from the crude extract of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. After the crude extract containing approximately 20% flavonols was enriched using macropore resin, the obtained target fractions were subjected to pilot-scale preparative HPLC purification. With the aid of a self-packed pilot-scale preparative column (220 mm x 77 mm, 10 microm), the 4 target compounds were separated well within 35 min in a single chromatographic run by the elution with acetonitrile-water (26:74 or 30:70, v/v). By repetitive injection of the enriched target fraction onto the preparative column, 33 g icariin as well as 4.6 g epimedin C, 3.7 g epimedin B, and 0.6 g epimedin A were obtained from 300 g crude extract. The purities of all products were greater than 98%. This pilot-scale preparative HPLC technique and the two step separation technology for 4 target compounds are quite useful for the production of the reference standard series with good purity like icariin, epimedins A, B, C standards due to its high performance, rapid separation and more amounts of products obtained. PMID:22233086

Gao, Mingzhe; Wang, Li; Peng, Jie; Xiao, Hongbin

2011-09-01

308

SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF TRACE METALS IN FLUE GAS PARTICULATE FROM A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The distributions of nine trace metals in flue gas particulate by particle size range were determined as part of a pilot-scale hazardous waste incineration test program. hese tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incinerator system at the U.S. EPA's Incineration Research Facili...

309

Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the

310

Pilot-scale multi-stage multi-feeding continuous ethanol fermentation using non-sterile cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Non-aseptic fermentation of a 28 brix cane molasses solution was successfully carried out in a pilot-scale 5-stage multi-feeding continuous system for 30 days. The effluent ethanol concentration, overall volumetric productivity and sugar conversion yield averaged 8.54 % (v\\/v), 5.35 g\\/L-hr and 92.4 % of theoretical, respectively.

H. C. Chen; D. G. Mou

1990-01-01

311

Removal and Destruction of Organic Contaminants in Water Using Adsorption, Steam Regeneration, and Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Pilot-Scale Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this pilot-scale study is to investigate the technical feasibility of the removal and destruction of organic contaminants in water using adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation. The process consists of two consecutive operational steps: (1) removal of organic contaminants using fixed-bed adsorption; and (2) regeneration of spent adsorbent using photocatalysis or steam, followed by decontamination of steam condensate

Rominder P. S. Suri; Junbiao Liu; John C. Crittenden; David W. Hand

1999-01-01

312

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. he technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with microorganisms to enhance the...

313

NON-INVASIVE AND CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF A PILOT-SCALE TRICKLING FILTER: WEIGHT, OFF GAS AND HYDRAULIC CHARACTERIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale trickling filter has been constructed in order to collect experimental data on a fully characterized biofilm system for the selection, development, calibration and corroboration of mathematical models which describe such a system's dynamic behavior. The design of the unit was made such that it allows a full characterization of the relevant model parameters, and an easy monitoring of

H. Vanhooren; G. Boeije; F. Accoe; P. A. Vanrolleghem

1999-01-01

314

PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA?s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

315

PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

316

A PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE PRECURSORS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF MIXED BROMO-CHLORO DIOXINS AND FURANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of experiments in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected fly-ash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products...

317

Pilot-scale On-farm Pretreatment of Perennial Grasses with Dilute Acid and Alkali for Fuel Ethanol Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated with sulfuric acid or calcium hydroxide 50 g/kg DM at both the laboratory (250 g DM) and pilot-scale (250 kg DM) and anaerobically stored for two durations, 60 and 180 days. Pretreated and untreated samp...

318

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. he waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. olume I give...

319

Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass yielded the lowest tar concentration (1.6 g/Nm 3). High-temperature and low-pressure conditions achieved the highest carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies of 91 and 94%, respectively. In addition, a relatively new method for monitoring hydrodynamic conditions in fluidized bed reactors using high-frequency bed pressure fluctuation measurement was demonstrated. This method proved capable of being used as a fluidized bed diagnostic method under reactive conditions.

Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

320

Pilot-scale production of d- p-hydroxyphenylglycine from dl-5- p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin by Burkholderia cepacia JS-02  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 50L pilot scale reactor d-p-hydroxyphenylglycine (d-HPG) is produced enzymatically from dl-5-p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin (dl-HPH) with the resting cells of Burkholderia cepacia JS-02, requiring only corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source instead of the expensive yeast extract or peptone required by other strains. Both the fermentation process for preparing resting cells and the bioconversion were optimized in 5L bench scale

Min Jiang; Longan Shang; Ping Wei; Ronghua Yu; Ning Shen; Pingkai Ouyang; Ho Nam Chang

2007-01-01

321

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

Charles L. Cooney

1983-01-01

322

Bioreactors: design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

C. L. Cooney

1983-01-01

323

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

324

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION  

SciTech Connect

Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

2000-12-01

325

Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

1985-10-01

326

[Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].  

PubMed

In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China. PMID:23745404

Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-03-01

327

Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.  

PubMed

Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species. PMID:16259427

Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

2005-09-01

328

Personal abilities in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. A pilot study using the existence scale.  

PubMed

Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives. PMID:17634892

Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul

2007-01-01

329

Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

1991-01-01

330

Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

1991-12-31

331

Development and demonstration of a pilot-scale debris washing system  

SciTech Connect

Metallic, masonry, and other solid debris that may be contaminated with hazardous chemicals litter numerous hazardous waste sites in the US. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, lead or other metals are some of the contaminants fo concern. In some cases, cleanup standards have been established (e.g., 10 {mu}g PCBs/100 cm{sup 2} for surfaces to which humans may be frequently exposed). Decontaminated debris could be either returned to the site as clean fill or, in the case of metallic debris, sold to a metal smelter. This project involves the development and demonstration of a technology specifically for performing on-site decontamination of debris. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale versions of a debris washing system (DWS) have been designed, constructed, and demonstrated. The DWS entails the application of an aqueous solution during a high-pressure spray cycle, followed by turbulent wash and rinse cycles. The aqueous cleaning solution is recovered and reconditioned for reuse concurrently with the debris-cleaning process, which minimizes the quantity of process water required to clean the debris.

Taylor, M.L. (IT Environmental Programs, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Barkley, N.P. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1991-04-01

332

Development and demonstration of a pilot-scale debris washing system  

SciTech Connect

Metallic, masonry, and other solid debris that may be contaminated with hazardous chemicals litter numerous hazardous waste sites in the United States. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), pesticides, lead or other metals are some of the contaminants of concern. In some cases cleanup standards have been established (e.g., 10 micrograms PCB's/100 sq cm for surfaces to which humans may be frequently exposed). Decontaminated debris could be either returned to the site as 'clean' fill, or, in the case of the metallic debris, sold to a metal smelter. The project involves the development and demonstration of a technology specifically for performing on-site decontamination of debris. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale versions of a debris washing system (DWS) have been designed, constructed and demonstrated. The DWS entails the application of an aqueous solution during a high-pressure spray cycle, followed by turbulent wash and rinse cycles. The aqueous cleaning solution is recovered and reconditioned for reuse concurrently with the debris-cleaning process, which minimizes the quantity of process water required to clean the debris.

Taylor, M.L.; Barkley, N.P.

1991-01-01

333

Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.  

PubMed

Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 ?g/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 ?g Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale. PMID:23089728

Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

2012-10-23

334

Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.  

PubMed

A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters. PMID:16401574

Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

2006-01-01

335

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

336

Pilot-scale production of fuel ethanol from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess to produce ethanol from food waste at laboratory, semipilot and pilot scales. Laboratory tests demonstrated that ethanol fermentation with reducing sugar concentration of 200 g/L, inoculum size of 2 % (Initial cell number was 2 × 10? CFU/mL) and addition of YEP (3 g/L of yeast extract and 5 g/L of peptone) was the best choice. The maximum ethanol concentration in laboratory scale (93.86 ± 1.15 g/L) was in satisfactory with semipilot scale (93.79 ± 1.11 g/L), but lower than that (96.46 ± 1.12 g/L) of pilot-scale. Similar ethanol yield and volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.47 ± 0.02 g/g, 1.56 ± 0.03 g/L/h and 0.47 ± 0.03 g/g, 1.56 ± 0.03 g/L/h after 60 h of fermentation in laboratory and semipilot fermentors, respectively, however, both were lower than that (0.48 ± 0.02 g/g, 1.79 ± 0.03 g/L/h) of pilot reactor. In addition, simple models were developed to predict the fermentation kinetics during the scale-up process and they were successfully applied to simulate experimental results. PMID:23010725

Yan, Shoubao; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao

2012-09-21

337

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperatuare is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of tow hgih-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide.

SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

338

PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2 area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales (e.g., provinces/states), what factors constrain effective implementation? First, high tra

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

2009-09-01

339

Optimizing of Bioreactor Heat Supply and Material Feeding by Numerical Calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell culture at large scale normally uses stirred structure. And the situation of temperature field distribution is very important to the cell culture at large scale. Some cells are very sensitive to the circumstances. The local temperature is too high or too low all influences the cell survival and low the cell quantity at unit volume. This paper simulates the temperature field under three different heating conditions. Then analysis and contrast the simulation results. The mixed situation in bioreactor is extremely significant for nutrition transmit. Usually, use ways to measure the average mixture time in bioreactor, and improve the mixture circumstance in the bioreactor through stirred impeller and bioreactor structure change. This paper adopts numerical calculation method to investigate the flow field in bioreactor. It gets the mixture time of bioreactor through virtual tracer in simulate flow field and detects the tracer density time variation curve in the bioreactor.

Zhou, Zhiwei; Song, Boyan; Zhu, Likuan; Li, Zuntao; Wang, Yang

340

Formation, physical characteristics and microbial community structure of aerobic granules in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for real wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, aerobic granular sludge was successfully developed in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) installed on site to treat real wastewater using traditional activated sludge as inoculum. Compared with 1 or 2 months required by lab-scale reactor for aerobic granulation, it took about 400 days for activated sludge to transform into granule-dominant sludge in the pilot-scale SBR on

Yong-Qiang Liu; Benjamin Moy; Yun-Hua Kong; Joo-Hwa Tay

2010-01-01

341

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperature is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of two high-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide. The economics for plants processing 40 tpd sewage sludge solids augmented with grease trap waste are favorable over a significant range of cost parameters such as sludge disposal credit and capital financing. Hydrogen production costs for SWPO plants of this size are projected to be about $3/GJ or less. Economics may be further improved by future developments such as pumping of higher solids content sludges and improved gasifier nozzle designs to reduce char and improve hydrogen yields. The easiest market entry for SWPO is expected to be direct sales to municipal wastewater treatment plants for use with sewage sludge in conjunction with trap grease, as both of these wastes are ubiquitous and have reasonably well-defined negative value (i.e., the process can take credit for reduction of well-defined disposal costs for these streams). Additionally, waste grease is frequently recovered at municipal wastewater treatment plants where it is already contaminated with sewage. SWPO should also be favorable to other market applications in which low or negative value, high water content biomass is available in conjunction with a low or negative value fuel material. For biomass slurries primary candidates are sewage sludge, manure sludge, and shredded and/or composted organic municipal solid waste (MSW) slurries. For the high heating value stream primary candidates are trap grease, waste plastic or rubber slurries, and coal or coke slurries. Phase II of the SWPO program will be focused on verifying process improvements identified during Phase I, and then performing extended duration testing with the GA pilot plant. Tests of at least 1

SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

342

Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test. Hanford Grout Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

1992-12-01

343

PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

2011-08-02

344

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

345

Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

2001-03-01

346

The evaluation of dioxin emissions from pilot scale incineration of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Formation of the dioxins was investigated in case of two fuel types (kerosene-dichlorobenzene and kerosene-dichloroethane) on a pilot scale liquid waste incinerator. It was determined the effect of the molecule structure (aromatic, aliphatic) and Cl content (1, 3 and 6%) of the liquids and the combustion parameters (O2 content, residence time and temperature). In some experiments particulate matters (fly ash and soot) were injected. The measured dioxin concentrations ranged up to 160 ng/Nm3 or till 10 ng/Nm3 TEQ, except at addition of soot where extremely high dioxin concentrations (up to 750 ng/Nm3, or 30 ng/Nm3 TEQ) were measured. Main conclusions of the experiment are: The incineration of aromatic chlorinated products produce almost 10 times higher dioxin concentrations than the aliphatic ones. A relatively low dioxin concentration is caused at low (1 to 3%) feed Cl contents while over a threshold value of more than 3% Cl intensifies sharply the dioxin formation. The dioxin generation can be characterized with concentrations measured at 600-650 degrees C. Dioxin toxicity reduction occurs when cooling down to 200-250 degrees C. Changes between these sampling temperatures can be explained mostly by sorption phenomena occurring between dioxin content of flue gases and solid deposits. PMID:10943436

Miháltz, P; Pál, F; Siska, J; Duchateau, F

2000-07-01

347

Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.  

PubMed

The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

2011-04-01

348

Quality and quantity of leachate in aerobic pilot-scale landfills.  

PubMed

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3(-)-N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3(-) concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor. PMID:16788857

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

349

Kinetic evaluation and performance of pilot-scale fed-batch aerated lagoons treating winery wastewaters.  

PubMed

Winery wastewater was treated in two pilot-scale aerated lagoons operating in fed-batch mode. A first lagoon of 27.2m(3) working volume was gradually filled with wastewater with an average COD content of 8700mg/L. Given that with the flow-rate used (790L/day) this first lagoon completed its working volume after 30days of starting, part of the liquid contained in the first lagoon was transferred to another adjacent second lagoon of 10.8m(3) working volume. Therefore, the experiment continued in the second lagoon for another additional 24days using an influent with a COD content of 18,700mg/L at a flow-rate of 170L/day. After the 21st day, a maximum COD removal efficiency of 91% was achieved, and this value was maintained virtually constant until the end of the experiments. A mathematical model based on three differential equations solved simultaneously allowed the kinetic parameters of the system to be obtained. PMID:20097559

Montalvo, S; Guerrero, L; Rivera, E; Borja, R; Chica, A; Martín, A

2010-01-25

350

Pilot-Scale Test of Counter-Current Ion Exchange (CCIX) Using UOP IONSIV IE-911  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test of a moving-bed configuration of a UOP IONSIV? IE-911 ion-exchange column was performed over 17 days at Severn Trent Services facilities. The objectives of the test, in order of priority, were to determine if aluminosilicate precipitation caused clumping of IE-911 particles in the column, to observe the effect on aluminum-hydroxide precipitation of water added to a simulant-filled column, to evaluate the extent of particle attrition, and to measure the expansion of the mass-transfer zone under the influence of column pulsing. The IE-911 moved through the column with no apparent clumping during the test, although analytical results indicate that little if any aluminosilicate precipitated onto the particles. A precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was not produced when water was added to the simulant-filled column, indicating that this upset scenario is probably of little concern. Particle-size distributions remained relatively constant with time and position in the column, indicating that particle attrition was not significant. The expansion of the mass-transfer zone could not be accurately measured because of the slow loading kinetics of the IE-911 and the short duration of the test; however, the information obtained indicates that back-mixing of sorbent is not extensive.

Wester, Dennis W; Leugemors, Robert K; Taylor, Paul W

2001-09-24

351

Stability and maturity of thickened wastewater sludge treated in pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Thickened wastewater activated sludge was treated in 13 pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands of various configurations that operated continuously for three years in North Greece. Sludge was loaded for approximately 2.5 years, and the beds were left to rest for the remaining period. Three different sludge loading rates were used that represented three different population equivalents. Residual sludge stability and maturity were monitored for the last year. Sludge was regularly sampled and microbial respiration activity indices were measured via a static respiration assay. The phytotoxicity of sludge was quantified via a seed germination bioassay. Measurements of total solids, organic matter, total coliforms, pH and electrical conductivity were also made. According to microbial respiration activity measurements, the sludge end-product was classified as stable. The germination index of the final product exceeded 100% in most wetland units, while final pH values were approximately 6.5. The presence of plants positively affected the stability and maturity of the residual sludge end-product. Passive aeration did not significantly affect the quality of the residual sludge, while the addition of chromium at high concentrations hindered the sludge decomposition process. Conclusively, sludge treatment wetlands can be successfully used, not only to dewater, but also to stabilize and mature wastewater sludge after approximately a four-month resting phase. PMID:22027385

Stefanakis, Alexandros I; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

2011-10-12

352

Pilot-scale pressurized base hydrolysis of HMX plastic-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale, pressurized, base hydrolysis reactor has been designed and its construction is nearly completed. Up to 120 L of 1--6 M NaOH aqueous solutions will convert as much as 25 kg of consolidated, explosive pieces to non-energetic compounds. Temperatures approaching 155 C in the pressurized unit will reduce reaction times significantly for the destruction of plastic-bonded explosives compared to previous atmospheric-pressure reactors. The hydrolysis effluent is then pumped into a holding tank where it is fed into a hydrothermal oxidation reactor for complete destruction to non-hazardous products. The hydrothermal unit operates at 480 C and 100 MPa and hydrogen peroxide fed into the reactor at two points will ensure complete destruction of all organic species and nitrogen-containing salts. The entire system is comprised of eight major components and is assembled on five separate and transportable skids. Following construction and preliminary testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the unit will be shipped to the Pantex Plant where it will be used for continuous demilitarization activities.

Larson, S.A.; Brewer, G.R.; Harradine, D.M.; Polston, C.E.; Le, L.A.; Bishop, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Flesner, R.L.

1998-12-31

353

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

SciTech Connect

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15

354

A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite.  

PubMed

MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4 x H2O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate (L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and heavy metals, last product MnSO4 x H2O was obtained which quality could reach China GB1622-86, the industry grade standards. PMID:16313012

Su, Shi-jun; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Liu, Yong-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju; Jin, Yan

2005-01-01

355

Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis  

PubMed Central

This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year.

Cantafio, A. W.; Hagen, K. D.; Lewis, G. E.; Bledsoe, T. L.; Nunan, K. M.; Macy, J. M.

1996-01-01

356

Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft/sup 2/ area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI <1). UF operates at a 100 GFD (gallons/ft/sup 2//day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs.

Kessler, J.L.

1984-09-25

357

Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis.  

PubMed

This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year. PMID:16535401

Cantafio, A W; Hagen, K D; Lewis, G E; Bledsoe, T L; Nunan, K M; Macy, J M

1996-09-01

358

Impurity evaluation of fused lithium chloride salt for a pilot-scale oxide reduction.  

SciTech Connect

The inorganic and physical chemistry of reactants (e.g., impurities) produced during the reduction of spent light water reactor fuel in a hot cell has been analyzed. Two source terms were identified that influence the composition and quantity of these impurities in the salt matrix. One source comes from the reduction process, which occurs between the fuel and the Li/LiCl salt matrix, and the other from chemical reactions that occur between the hot cell atmosphere and the salt matrix. The spent-fuel-oxide chemistry and energy of formation for the reactants were evaluated. Most of the rare-earth-oxide reactions were not thermodynamically feasible with molten lithium, except when nitrogen was present during the reduction process. A model of the reaction at a vapor-liquid interface was developed and applied to the pilot-scale oxide reduction device design. A predominance diagram for the Li-O-N reactions was constructed to determine the possible reactions during operation of the device, and from these results, the mass accumulation was determined from hot cell conditions.

Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; King, R. W.; Engineering Division

1999-12-01

359

Pilot scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with biodiesel waste glycerin.  

PubMed

The effect on process performance of adding increasing proportions of biodiesel waste glycerin (BWG) to municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) was studied using two 1300 L pilot-scale digesters under mesophilic conditions at 20 days SRT. The highest proportion of BWG that did not cause a process upset was determined to be 23% and 35% of the total 1.04 kg VS/(m(3)d) and 2.38 kg COD/(m(3)d) loadings, respectively. At this loading, the biogas and methane production rates in the test digester were 1.65 and 1.83 times greater than of those in the control digester which received only MWS, respectively. The COD and VS removal rates at this loading in the test digester were 1.82 and 1.63-fold those of the control digester, respectively. Process instability was observed when the proportion of BWG in the test digester feed was 31% and 46% of the 1.18 kg VS/(m(3)d) and 2.88 kg COD/(m(3)d) loadings, respectively. PMID:23428817

Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D; Malik, Shahid; Katalambula, Hassan

2013-01-29

360

Two-step pilot-scale biofilter system for the abatement of food waste composting emission.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale two-step biofilter system was evaluated in treating food waste composting emission for 220 days. Wood chips were packed at the bottom section while mixture of rock wool and earthworm compost (6% w/v) was packed at the top section. Inlet ammonia concentration was found to be dominant and intermittent. The overall ammonia removal of over 98% was achieved, 70% of which was removed in the wood chip section. The highest ammonia elimination capacity was determined to be 39.43 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h at 99.5% removal efficiency. From biodegradation kinetic analysis, the maximum removal rate, V(m), of the wood chip section was determined to be 200 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and the saturation constant, K(s), 180 mg/m(3). For the rock wool-earthworm cast mixture section, the V(m) was 87 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and K(s) was 87 mg/m(3). Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide and most trace compounds were achieved by the biofilter. Highest hydrogen sulfide elimination rate was 0.22 g-H(2)S/m(3)/h. The biofilter was optimized from 24 to 16 s EBRT with resulting low average pressure drops of 16 and 29 mm H(2)O/m, respectively. PMID:18273747

Galera, Melvin Maaliw; Cho, Eulsaeng; Kim, Yekyung; Farnazo, Danvir; Park, Shin-Jung; Oh, Young-Sook; Park, Jae Kyu; Chung, Wook-Jin

2008-03-01

361

Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect

A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2007-10-15

362

Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m(2)/d, 97/112 mg/m(2)/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m(2)/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique. PMID:21840095

Seeger, Eva M; Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga; Grathwohl, Peter; Kaestner, Matthias

2011-08-12

363

Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.  

PubMed

This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500kg of shredded waste tires in 100h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5±0.3, 42.6±0.1 and 16.9±0.3wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1±40.0kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. PMID:23995560

Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

2013-08-08

364

Mesophilic biomethanation and treatment of poultry waste-water using pilot scale UASB reactor.  

PubMed

The feasibility of applying the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment for poultry waste (faeces) water was examined. A continuous-flow UASB pilot scale reactor of 3.50 L capacity using mixed culture was operated for 95 days to assess the treatability of poultry waste-water and its methane production. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed was found to be 78% when organic loading rate (OLR) was 2.9 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 13.2 hr. The average biogas recovery was 0.26 m3 CH4 kg COD with an average methane content of 57% at mean temperature of 30 degrees C. Data indicate more rapid methanogenesis with higher loading rates and shorter hydraulic retention times. At feed concentration of 4.8 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), anaerobic digestion was severely retarded at all hydraulic retention time tested. This complication in the reactor operations may be linked to build-up of colloidal solids often associated with poultry waste water and ammonia toxicity. Isolates from granular sludge and effluent were found to be facultative anaerobes most of which were Pseudomonas genera. PMID:12180651

Atuanya, Ernest I; Aigbirior, Moses

2002-07-01

365

Pilot-scale resin adsorption as a means to recover and fractionate apple polyphenols.  

PubMed

The purification and fractionation of phenolic compounds from crude plant extracts using a food-grade acrylic adsorbent were studied at pilot-plant scale. A diluted apple juice concentrate served as a model phenolic solution for column adsorption and desorption trials. Phenolic concentrations were evaluated photometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and by HPLC-DAD. Recovery rates were significantly affected by increasing phenolic concentrations of the feed solutions applied to the column. In contrast, the flow rate during column loading hardly influenced adsorption efficiency, whereas the temperature and pH value were shown to be crucial parameters determining both total phenolic recovery rates and the adsorption behavior of individual polyphenols. As expected, the eluent composition had the greatest impact on the desorption characteristics of both total and individual phenolic compounds. HPLC analyses revealed significantly different elution profiles of individual polyphenols depending on lipophilicity. This technique allows fractionation of crude plant phenolic extracts, thus providing the opportunity to design the functional properties of the resulting phenolic fractions selectively, and the present study delivers valuable information with regard to the adjustment of individual process parameters. PMID:20476784

Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Stanley, Roger A; Saleh, Zaid S

2010-06-01

366

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds.  

PubMed

French legislation requires the control of private on-site sanitation systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic tanks to be treated. Nevertheless, large wastewater treatment plants are not systematically able to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural zone to avoid too long transportation. The study concerns both the feasibility of sludge reed beds devoted to the treatment of septage and the assessment of a simultaneous treatment with aerated sludge. The experiments have been carried out on eight pilot-scale drying reed beds (2 m(2)) planted with Phragmites australis. Two filtration layers of either vegetal compost or sand were tested. The study is focused on the commissioning period (first vegetative year) with a loading rate of 30 kg SS m(-2) yr(-1). According to these operational conditions, dewatering efficiencies reached approx. 30% DM during summer but less than 20% DM in winter for each filtration layer and sludge. High removal efficiencies, with an average of 96%, 92% and 89% for SS, COD and TKN respectively, were achieved with septage whereas they were lower for the mixture of aerated sludge and septage. The dewaterability of septage and its filtration behaviour were assessed by several parameters (Capillary Suction Time, bound water) which may be some interesting tools for an optimised loading strategy. PMID:19657159

Troesch, S; Liénard, A; Molle, P; Merlin, G; Esser, D

2009-01-01

367

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

368

Fate of ochratoxin A content in Argentinian red wine during a pilot scale vinification.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the fate of ochratoxin A (OTA) content from must to wine during the red wine making process in a pilot scale vinification. The study was done using musts obtained from two red grape varieties (Bonarda and Tempranillo) artificially contaminated with two OTA levels. A duplicate set of tanks of 100 I each was established for each must (Bonarda and Tempranillo). The fermentations were initiated by inoculation of two Saccharomyces spp. strains having different fermentation performance. The must from the Tempranillo variety was spiked with 6 microg/I of OTA while that from the Bonarda variety with 0.3 microg/I of the toxin. Samples were collected at different stages of the process. Performance of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations was monitored. Titratable and volatile acidity, pH, ethanol, sugar and SO2 concentrations were determined following standard methods proposed by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV). OTA analysis was done by HPLC. Detection and quantification limits were 0.01 and 0.1 ng/ml, respectively. The OTA levels during the vinification trials dropped to an average of about 86.5%. The type of Saccharomyces strains used showed no effect on toxin reduction. PMID:20085189

Ponsone, M L; Chiotta, M L; Combina, M; Dalcero, A M; Chulze, S N

369

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16

370

Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant. PMID:23505813

John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

2011-10-01

371

Pilot-scale anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in upflow anaerobic sludge bed and anaerobic baffled reactors at ambient temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiencies of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) were compared for the treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures. Two pilot-scale anaerobic biological reactors were operated for about two years at ambient conditions at psychrophilic and\\/or sub-mesophilic temperatures. The average total chemical oxygen demand removal was 56 and 58% in the UASB

Selma Ç. Ayaz; Lütfi Akça; Özgür Akta?; Nur F?nd?k; ?zzet Öztürk

2012-01-01

372

Performance of a pilot-scale cross-flow rotating packed bed in removing VOCs from waste gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the feasibility of applying a pilot-scale cross-flow rotating packed bed (RPB) to absorb volatile organics compounds (VOCs) from waste gas streams. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as a model VOC herein. The overall volumetric gas-side mass transfer coefficient (KGa) was determined at various values of operating parameters including rotor speed, gas flow rate and liquid flow rate.

Chia-Chang Lin; Tzu-Ying Wei; Shu-Kang Hsu; Wen-Tzong Liu

2006-01-01

373

The treatment of sulfate-rich wastewater using an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm pilot-scale reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results from 92cycles of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor containing biomass immobilized on inert support (mineral coal) applied for the treatment of an industrial wastewater containing high sulfate concentration. The pilot-scale reactor, with a total volume of 1.2m3, was operated at sulfate loading rates ranging from 0.15 to 1.90kgSO42?\\/cycle (48h — cycle) corresponding to sulfate

Arnaldo Sarti; Ariovaldo J. Silva; Marcelo Zaiat; Eugenio Foresti

2009-01-01

374

Inoculation of granular activated carbon with s-triazine-degrading bacteria for water treatment at pilot-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial strains (SL1: Rhodococcus rhodochrous; WT1: Acinetobacter junii) capable of biodegrading atrazine and simazine in surface water were inoculated into pilot-scale fixed beds of granular activated carbon (GAC, 1 m depth, 15 min empty bed contact time, EBCT). River water was screened, clarified, ozonated and spiked with atrazine and simazine (post-ozonation concentration 0.5–15 ?g l?1 of each s-triazine) before entering

Stephanie J. Feakin; Brian Gubbins; Iona McGhee; Liz J. Shaw; Richard G. Burns

1995-01-01

375

Pilot-scale validation of the kinetics of SO 2 absorption into sulphuric acid solutions containing hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur dioxide removal efficiencies were measured in a pilot-scale column packed with Pall plastic rings, at 20°C and atmospheric pressure, with sulphuric acid solutions (1.2–6.6M) containing hydrogen peroxide (0.13–0.83M) as the scrubbing liquid, for different sulphur dioxide partial pressures in the range of 100–500Pa in the inlet air.A mathematical model previously developed to interpret laboratory experiments was adapted and used

Sandrine Colle; Jacques Vanderschuren; Diane Thomas

2004-01-01

376

Monomer composition and sequence of sodium alginate extracted at pilot plant scale from three commercially important seaweeds from Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine waters of the Baja California peninsula (Mexico) are a rich source of brown seaweeds with a great potential for\\u000a exploitation. For that reason, Sargassum sinicola, Eisenia arborea, and Macrocystis pyrifera collected from different locations were subjected to extraction of sodium alginate using a pilot-plant scale process developed\\u000a in our facilities. The composition and sequence parameters of the recovered

Jesús Iván Murillo-Álvarez; Gustavo Hernández-Carmona

2007-01-01

377

N 2O and NO emissions from co-firing MSW with coals in pilot scale CFBC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW) with bituminous coal and anthracite was conducted using pilot scale circulating fluidized-bed combustion. Both N2O and NO emissions from co-firing MSW with bituminous coal are higher than those obtained from co-firing with anthracite. N2O decreases significantly, whereas NO rises with the increase of Ca\\/(S+0.5Cl) molar ratios. Increasing the co-firing rates leads to the reduction of

Zhiwei Li; Qinggang Lu; Yongjie Na

2004-01-01

378

Pilot-scale development of a low-NOX coal-fired tangential system. Final report Sep 78Feb 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 293 kWt (1 million Btu\\/hr) pilot-scale facility was used to develop a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired tangential system. Conventional tangential system burner and vortex characterization tests defined the major system design requirements for a low-NOx system. Given these requirements, a burner concept was developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into

J. T. Kelly; R. A. Brown; E. K. Chu; J. B. Wightman; R. L. Pam

1981-01-01

379

Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer\\u000a was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these\\u000a materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer\\u000a were expected to be in the

K. Kota; T. A. G. Langrish

2007-01-01

380

Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal–water slurry fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal–water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of

Irene G Nodelman; Sarma V Pisupati; Sharon Falcone Miller; Alan W Scaroni

2000-01-01

381

Pilot-scale Studies of Different Covers on Unoxidised Sulphiderich Tailings in Northern Sweden: the Geochemistry of Leachate Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Leachate water quality from covered and uncovered unoxidised sulphide-rich tailings in six pilot-scale (5x5x3 m3) test cells was monitored during 2004 and 2005. The covers consisted of a layer of clayey till, sewage sludge, apatite or\\u000a Trisoplast (a commercial mixture of tailings, bentonite, and a polymer). All layers were protected by an unspecified till\\u000a except in one reference cell, where

Lena Alakangas; Björn Öhlander

2006-01-01

382

A pilot-scale comparison of granular media filtration and low-pressure membrane filtration for seawater pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of a long-term comparative pilot-scale study on seawater pretreatment for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. A conventional granular media filtration pretreatment (CPP) and a low-pressure membrane filtration pretreatment (MPP) were operated sideby- side at a site located on the Mediterranean Sea. This study showed that the SDIs after microfiltration were lower than the ones obtained after

P.-J. Remize; J.-F. Laroche; J. Leparc; J.-C. Schrotter

2009-01-01

383

Pilot scale treatment of textile wastewater by combined process (fluidized biofilm process–chemical coagulation–electrochemical oxidation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of pilot scale combined process of fluidized biofilm process, chemical coagulation and electrochemical oxidation for textile wastewater treatment was studied. In order to enhance biological treatment efficiency, two species of microbes, which can degrade textile wastewater pollutants efficiently, were isolated and applied to the system with supporting media. FeCl3·6H2O, pH 6 and 3.25×10?3mol\\/l were determined as optimal chemical

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jinwon Lee; Eung-Bai Shin; Sangyong Kim

2002-01-01

384

Viability of a low-pressure nanofilter in treating recycled water for water reuse applications: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a low-pressure nanofiltration (NF) membrane for treating recycled water for indirect potable water reuse applications. In particular, the tradeoffs in choosing low-pressure NF over reverse osmosis (RO) were investigated including whether or not significantly lowering operating pressures/costs would result in diminished permeate water quality. A NF membrane (Dow/Filmtec NF-4040) with high permeate productivity was selected for pilot-scale testing over a period of 1200h at a water reuse facility employing conventional RO membranes for treating tertiary treated wastewater effluent prior to aquifer recharge. The novel application of an NF membrane in treating wastewater effluent for water reuse applications permitted a comprehensive screening of NF permeate water quality and allowed for the investigation of trace organic contaminant rejection on pilot scale with environmentally relevant feed water concentrations. Results from pilot-scale testing highlighted the selectivity of NF membranes in removing organic solutes present in wastewater effluents at the parts-per-trillion level. While operating pressures were by a factor of 2-3 lower than conventional RO membranes, and bulk and trace organic rejection generally exceeded 90 percent, not surprisingly, the rejection of monovalent ions such as nitrate was poor. The poor-to-moderate rejection of monovalent ions, however, resulted in lowered brine stream total dissolved solids concentration and sodium adsorption ratio as compared with the brine stream of conventional RO membranes, which may be beneficial for brine disposal strategies. PMID:17582458

Bellona, Christopher; Drewes, Jörg E

2007-05-24

385

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry.

Cooney, Charles L.

1983-02-01

386

Detailed project plan: Design, construction and operation of pilot scale Charfuel{reg_sign} process. Topical report, Task 2  

SciTech Connect

In this project, a pilot-scale facility for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal will be designed, built and operated to demonstrate the integrated operation of critical components of the CHARFUEL process and to obtain scale-up data for subsequent demonstration facility for the production of a clean coal slurry fuel. This report presents project plans which includes detailed construction plan; procurement of materials and equipment; construction, test and start-up; potential problems and solutions during operations; data collection and analysis; and feasibility analysis.

Not Available

1993-09-01

387

Pilot-scale Tests to Vitrify Korean Low-Level Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Korea is under preparation of its first commercial vitrification plant to handle LLW from her Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The waste streams include three categories: combustible Dry Active Wastes (DAW), borate concentrates, and spent resin. The combustible DAW in this research contains vinyl bag, paper, and protective cloth and rubber shoe. The loaded resin was used to simulate spent resin from NPPs. As a part of this project, Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) has tested an operation mode utilizing its pilot-scale plant and the mixed waste surrogates of resin and DAW. It has also proved, with continuous operation for more than 100 hours, the consistency and operability of the plant including cold crucible melter and its off-gas treatment equipment. Resin and combustible DAW were simultaneously fed into the glass bath with periodic addition of various glass frits as additives, so that it achieved a volume reduction factor larger than 70. By adding various glass frits, this paper discusses about maintaining the viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass bath within their operable ranges, but not about obtaining a durable glass product. The operating mode starts with a batch of glass where a titanium ring is buried. When the induced power ignites the ring, the joule heat melts the surrounding glass frit along with the oxidation heat of titanium. As soon as the molten bath is prepared, in the first stage of the mode, the wastes consisting of loaded resin and combustible DAW are fed with no or minimum addition of glass frits. Then, in the second stage, the bath composition is kept as constant as possible. This operation was successful in terms of maintaining the glass bath under operable condition and produced homogeneous glass. This operation mode could be adapted in commercial stage.

Choi, K.; Kim, C.-W.; Park, J. K.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M.-J.; Brunelot, P.; Flament, T.

2002-02-26

388

Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNO{sub 3}), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with outside dimensions of 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m (4 x 4 x 4 ft) operated in an up-flow mode. The units were configured in parallel during the first eight months and then reconfigured to two parallel systems of two units in series. Air flux values ranged from 0.29 to 1.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per min. Inlet total petroleum hydrogen hydrocarbon (TPH{sub gas}) concentrations ranged from 310 to 2,700 mg/m{sup 3}. The average empty bed contact time was 2.2 min. Following start-up, performance of the individual biofilters varied considerably for a seven-month period. The principal factor affecting performance appeared to be bed moisture content. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals reached 90% for short periods in one unit, and BTEX removals were typically above 90%. Drying resulted in channeling and loss of bed activity. Management of bed moisture content improved over the study period, and recovery of system performance was achieved without replacement of bed media. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals exceeded 90% during the final 50 days of the study.

Wright, W.F.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Romstad, K. [Environmental Resolutions, Inc., Novato, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

389

A pilot scale ultrasonic system to enhance extraction processes with dense gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of dense gases (supercritical fluids) as extracting agents has been attracting wide interest for years. In particular, supercritical carbon dioxide is considered nowadays as a green and very useful solvent. Nevertheless, the extraction process has a slow dynamics. Power ultrasound represents an efficient way for accelerating and enhancing the kinetics of the process by producing strong agitation and turbulence, compressions and decompressions, and heating in the media. For this purpose, a device prototype for using ultrasound in supercritical media was developed, tested and validated in extraction processes of oil from grounded almonds (55% oil content, wet basis and 3-4 mm particle size) in a 5 L extraction unit. An amount of 1500 g of grounded almonds was placed in a cylindrical basket during the trials inside the dense gas extractor (DGE) where solvent was introduced at different flow rates, pressures and temperatures. In all cases the ultrasonic energy confirmed the enhancement and acceleration of the almond oil extraction kinetics using supercritical CO2. Presently the power ultrasound effect in such a process is being deeply analyzed in a 5 L extraction unit before scaling-up a new ultrasonic system. This technology, still under development, has been designed for a bigger dense gas pilot-plant consisting of two extractors (20 L capacity), two separation units and has the possibility of operating at a pressure up to 50 MPa. The goal of this work is to study the effect of high-power ultrasound coupled to dense gas extraction inside the basket with the product, and to present a prototype for the use of power ultrasound in extraction processes with dense gases inside a new 20 L extractor unit.

Riera, E.; Blasco, M.; Tornero, A.; Casas, E.; Roselló, C.; Simal, S.; Acosta, V. M.; Gallego-Juárez, J. A.

2012-05-01

390

[Efficient purification of recombinant human NDPK-A in pilot-scale].  

PubMed

To purify recombinant human nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (rhNDPK-A) efficiently in pilot scale, cells of rhNDPK-A producing E. coli were homogenized by high pressure under 4 degrees C, 950 Pa. The insoluble debris was removed by microfiltration and the soluble portion was concentrated by ultrafiltration. The resulted crude sample was loaded on DEAE-sepharose Fast Flow. The target fraction was collected and then load on Cibacron Blue 3GA Sepharose CL-4B. Eluted with buffer containing ATP from the AC column, rhNDPK-A was polished with ultrafiltration. The results showed that after homogenized 2 rounds, 1500g cells of E. coli brought crude sample containing 47.6g NDPK-A. Treated with microfiltration and ultrafiltration, 27.3g of NDPK-A were recovered from this bacteria homogenate. After 2-step purification with column chromatography and then polished with ultrafiltration, 17.2 g rhNDPK-A were collected with purity of 96.3%. The recovery of the whole purification process was 36.2%, and the productivity of rhNDPK-A was 1.15 g per 100 g wet cells. Comparing the recovery of each purification step, it was found that the recovery of polish is higher than that of affinity chromatography, which is higher than that of ion exchange chromatography. The limit step was the process of sample pretreatment among the 4 purification steps. Combine with the fermentation results reported before, it was deduced that the productivity of rhNDPK-A was 510 mg/L. In conclusion, an easily controlled purification condition with high yield provides material for the translation researches of NDPK; In addition, it was suggested the crucial step determine the recovery of non-secretive recombinant proteins might be the process of sample pretreatment, not be the process of column chromatography. PMID:17578003

Xiong, Sheng; Qian, Chui-Wen; Guo, Chao-Wan; Huang, Li; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Mei-Ying; Wang, Yi-Fei

2007-05-01

391

Pilot-Scale for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation-Based Desalination Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small pilot plant for direct contact membrane distillation- (DCMD) based desalination was built and operated successfully on a daily basis at United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut, for 3 months. The operation employed hot brine...

K. K. Sirkar L. Song

2009-01-01

392

Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

Jankura, B.J.

1995-11-01

393

Experimental investigation of orbitally shaken bioreactor hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing interest in the use of orbitally shaken bioreactors for mammalian cells cultivation raises challenging hydrodynamic issues. Optimizations of mixing and oxygenation, as well as similarity relations between different culture scales are still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relation between the shape of the free surface, the mixing process and the velocity fields, using specific image processing of high speed visualization and Laser Doppler velocimetry. Moreover, similarity parameters were identified for scale-up purposes.

Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

2010-11-01

394

Process modeling of hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste to form high solids slurries in a pilot scale system  

SciTech Connect

Two models are developed for characterizing the hydrothermal decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a pilot scale facility. The process modeled involves the use of high pressure steam to directly heat surrogate MSW, newspaper, to temperatures and pressures where decomposition reactions breakdown the organic matter to form a coal like solid having properties which make it suitable as a feedstock for a commercial gasifier. One model uses the ASPEN steady-state simulator. This model is only capable of computing a limited number of process variables. To more adequately deal with the transient behavior of the inherently batch process a second transient model is formulated. The model allows important process temperatures, pressures, gas flows and compositions to be calculated as a function of time. The model has been used to scope possible operating scenarios for proposed pilot scale experiments and these results are presented. Based on computed results a recommendation is made that the first pilot experiment use a dampened feed material containing a water-to-dry newspaper ratio of 0.5 to 1. The transient model predicts that this will result in a slurry product in the reactor vessel after cooldown containing 57 wt.% water.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-02-16

395

Fate of endocrine disrupting compounds in membrane bioreactor systems.  

PubMed

Yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrum-mass spectrum (LC-MS-MS) analysis were performed to investigate the fate of active and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in 3 pilot-scale and 2 lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems. Compared with the overall estrogenicities of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents from references, the MBR systems studied have relatively good performance in the removal of estrogenicity. Estrone (E1) was removed with relatively high efficiency (80.2-91.4%), but 17beta-estradiol (E2) was removed with moderate efficiency (49.3-66.5%) by the MBRs. However, the experimental results indicated that after the treatment by MBR, substantial amounts of E1, estrone-3-sulfate (E1-3S), estrone-3-glucuronide (E1-3G), and 17beta-estradiol-glucuronides (E2-G) passed through treatment systems and entered into the aquatic environment. The reduction in the levels of overall equivalent E1 (68.4%) and that of overall equivalent E2 (80.8%) was demonstrated for the pilot-scale MBR-B. For alkylphenol compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) was removed well with a removal efficiency of 68.9 -90.1%, but 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) concentration was amplified (removal efficiency of -439.5 to -161.1%) after MBR treatment which could be caused by the transformation of its parent compounds, nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs). The amounts of adsorbed estrogens per kg dry mass was relatively low, due to short hydraulic retention time and high mixed liquor suspended solids in MBRs, compared to that in STPs. PMID:17612196

Hu, J Y; Chen, X; Tao, G; Kekred, K

2007-06-01

396

Assessment of syngas composition variability in a pilot-scale downdraft biomass gasifier by an extended equilibrium model.  

PubMed

A new simplified approach based on equilibrium modeling is proposed in this work to describe the correlations among syngas species experimentally observed in a pilot scale downdraft biomass gasifier operated with different feedstocks (biomass pellets and vine prunings). The modeling approach is based on experimental evidence on the presence of devolatilization products in the syngas and fluctuations of syngas composition during stationary operation, accounted for by introducing two empirical parameters, a by-pass index and a permeability index. The simplified model correctly reproduces the correlations among the main syngas species (including methane and ethylene) resulting from experimental data of pilot tests with different feedstocks and under a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:23672938

Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

2013-04-21

397

Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II  

SciTech Connect

A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

R. A. Christini

1999-12-30

398

A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.  

PubMed

This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef. PMID:17067125

Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

2006-09-01

399

Tryptophan over-producing cell suspensions of Catharanthus roseus (L) G. Don and their up-scaling in stirred tank bioreactor: detection of a phenolic compound with antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

Five cell suspension lines of Catharanthus roseus resistant to 5-methyl tryptophan (5-MT; an analogue of tryptophan) were selected and characterized for growth, free tryptophan content and terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulation. These lines showed differential tolerance to analogue-induced growth inhibition by 30 to 70 mg/l 5-MT supplementation (LD(50) = 7-15 mg/l). Lines P40, D40, N30, D50 and P70 recorded growth indices (i.e. percent increment over the initial inoculum weight) of 840.9, 765.0, 643.9, 585.7 and 356.5 in the absence and, 656.7, 573.9, 705.8, 489.0 and 236.0 in the presence of 5-MT after 40 days of culture, respectively. A corresponding increment in the free tryptophan level ranging from 46.7 to 160.0 ?g/g dry weight in the absence and 168.0 to 468.0 ?g/g dry weight in the presence was noted in the variant lines. Higher tryptophan accumulation of 368.0 and 468.0 g/g dry weight in lines N30 and P40 in 5-MT presence also resulted in higher alkaloid accumulation (0.65 to 0.90 % dry weight) in them. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the crude alkaloid extracts of the selected lines did not show the presence of any pharmaceutically important monomeric or dimeric alkaloids except catharanthine in traces in the N30 line that was also unique in terms of a chlorophyllous green phenotype. The N30 line under optimized up-scaling conditions in a 7-l stirred tank bioreactor using Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2 mg/l ?-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.2 mg/l kinetin attained 18-folds biomass accumulation within 8 weeks. Interestingly, the cell biomass yield was enhanced to 30-folds if 30 mg/l 5-MT was added in the bioreactor vessel one week prior to harvest. Crude alkaloid extract of the cells grown in shake flask and this bioreactor batch also showed the formation of yellow-coloured crystals which upon (1)HNMR and ESI-MS analysis indicated a phenolic identity. This crude alkaloid extract of bioreactor-harvested cells containing this compound at 50 ?g/ml concentration registered 65.21, 17.75, 97.0, 100 % more total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, total phenolic content, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power, respectively, when compared with that of extracts of cells grown in shake flask cultures. The latter, however, showed 57.47 % better radical scavenging activity (DPPH) than the bioreactor-harvested cells. PMID:22678752

Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay K; Masood, Nusrat; Luqman, Suaib; Shanker, Karuna

2012-06-08

400

Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter was significantly high and proper treatment will be necessary before discharging the lysimeter leachate into the water bodies. PMID:22464865

Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

2012-03-30

401

Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG. PMID:22925866

Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

2012-01-01

402

Removal of MS2, Q? and GA bacteriophages during drinking water treatment at pilot scale.  

PubMed

The removal of MS2, Q? and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Q? and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Q? surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Q? bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than 1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of bacteriophages removal showed significant differences, especially for GA bacteriophage. These results could provide recommendations for drinking water suppliers in terms of selection criteria for membranes. MS2 bacteriophage is widely used as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses in Europe and the United States. In this study, the choice of MS2 bacteriophage as the best surrogate to be used for assessment of the effectiveness of drinking water treatment in removal of pathogenic waterborne viruses in worst conditions is clearly challenged. It was shown that GA bacteriophage is potentially a better surrogate as a worst case than MS2. Considering GA bacteriophage as the best surrogate in this study, a chlorine disinfection step could guaranteed a complete removal of this model and ensure the safety character of drinking water plants. PMID:22421032

Boudaud, Nicolas; Machinal, Claire; David, Fabienne; Fréval-Le Bourdonnec, Armelle; Jossent, Jérôme; Bakanga, Fanny; Arnal, Charlotte; Jaffrezic, Marie Pierre; Oberti, Sandrine; Gantzer, Christophe

2012-03-03

403

Pilot Scale Production of Highly Efficacious and Stable Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Candidates  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. Principal Finding In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7–10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30–43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37°C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4°C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and non-human primates. Conclusion These results provide valuable information supporting the current cell-based serum-free EV71 vaccine candidate going into human Phase I clinical trials.

Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

2012-01-01

404

Microbially mediated attenuation potential of landfill bioreactor systems.  

PubMed

The origin and fate of landfill leachate and gas constituents generated during the sequential phases of solid waste transformation and stabilization are emphasized within the perspective of the in situ processes of microbially mediated attenuation. The fundamental biochemical and physicochemical reaction mechanisms are presented in terms of their spatial and temporal dimensions and their significance for transformation of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste constituents. Supporting information from laboratory, pilot-scale and full-scale applications is used as a basis for interpretive analysis and for providing operational guidance and promoting future developments. The diversity, domains, and functional interdependence of the acidogenic, methanogenic, sulfate and nitrate reducing, nitrifying and denitrifying, and methanotrophic consortia are addressed in order to reveal opportunities for landfill process modifications and associated operational optimization. Controlled attenuation, linked with operational and regulatory realities, are used to suggest innovative landfill configurations involving prospective compartmentalization and integrated waste loading, dedicated treatment zones for in situ transformation of waste and leachate constituents with associated gas capture, control and utilization. Monitoring requirements are emphasized to provide guidance and feedback for operational control and environmental compliance. Finally, technology needs for establishing a more unified approach to the development and management of bioreactor landfills are presented. PMID:11381998

Pohland, F G; Kim, J C

2000-01-01

405

Membrane bioreactor process for removing biodegradable organic matter from water.  

PubMed

This research investigated a membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for removing biodegradable organic matter (BOM) and trihalomethane (THM) precursors from pre-ozonated water. Bench-scale and mini-pilot-scale MBR experiments were conducted using powdered activated carbon (PAC) and acclimated biomass. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed through a combination of adsorption and biodegradation mechanisms, and the initial DOC removals depended on carbon dose, while steady-state removals were in the 20-60 percent range under various operating conditions. Both assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and total aldehydes were mostly removed to near detection limits and were not affected by PAC dosage. The AOC(NOX) removals were significantly higher than AOC(P17) or total AOC removals probably because the MBR microbial consortium was closer in characteristics to Aquaspirillum NOX than to Pseudomonas fluorescens (P17). The DOC was used instead of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) as a parameter for evaluating disinfection byproduct formation and bacterial regrowth potentials because BDOC assays did not yield consistent and conclusive results due to analytical difficulties. The removals of THM precursors were high when PAC was added; however, steady-state removals were a function of operating conditions and PAC dosage. Addition of PAC enhanced DOC removals and membrane permeate fluxes. Furthermore, pre-ozonation reduced membrane fouling and enhanced membrane permeate flux. PMID:17643469

Williams, Mark D; Pirbazari, Massoud

2007-06-12

406

Removal of heavy metals in an abandoned mine drainage via ozone oxidation: a pilot-scale operation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ozone oxidation of dissolved heavy metals in an abandoned mine drainage (AMD) by conducting a pilot-scale operation at two different ozone doses of 7.5 and 24.0 g O(3)/h into an ozone reactor. A portion of the abandoned mine drainage near the Jungam Mine in Samchuck, Korea was pumped into this pilot-scale plant and used as an influent for the ozone oxidation. Some possible precipitates of metal oxides and hydroxides that resulted from the pilot-scale ozone oxidation of the dissolved Fe and Mn ions in the AMD (with a hydraulic retention time of 106 seconds in the ozone reactor) were effectively removed via sand filtration. A six-hour ozone oxidation with an ozone dose of 24.0 g O(3)/h and subsequent sand filtration, before backwashing the sand filter bed, can meet Korean drinking water quality standards (less than 0.3 mg/L) for Fe and Mn in the sand filter effluent under the operating conditions that were used in this study. The SO(4)(-2) concentrations and alkalinities of the influents were not affected by the ozone oxidation. The pH values of the influents were neutral or slightly alkaline, and after the six-hour oxidation, increased very slightly. These experiment results show that the ozone oxidation of dissolved heavy metals and the subsequent sand filtration of metal precipitates are desirable alternatives to removing heavy metals in an abandoned mine drainage. PMID:21045339

Seo, S H; Sung, B W; Kim, G J; Chu, K H; Um, C Y; Yun, S L; Ra, Y H; Ko, K B

2010-01-01

407

Pilot-scale electrokinetic movement of HCB and Zn in real contaminated sediments enhanced with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

This study deals with the efficiency of a pilot-scale electrokinetic (EK) treatment on real aged sediments contaminated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Zn. A total of 0.5m(3) of sediments were treated under a constant voltage in a polyvinyl chloride reactor. The changes of sediment pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic content (OC), the transport of contaminants in sediments and the consumption of electric energy were evaluated. After 100 d processing, sediment pH slightly increased compared with the initial values, particularly in the bottom layer close to cathodic section, while sediment EC in most sections significantly decreased. Sediment OC in all sections increased, which implied that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was successfully penetrated across sediments by electroosmosis. Significant movement of contaminants was observed across sediments with negligible removals. Both HCB and Zn generally moved from sections near anode and accumulated near cathode. Upon the completion of treatment, the electric energy consumption was calculated as 563 kWhm(-3). This pilot-scale EK test indicates that it is difficult to achieve great removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), or HOCs and heavy metal mixed contaminants, by EK treatment in large scale with the use of HPCD. PMID:19560795

Li, Taiping; Yuan, Songhu; Wan, Jinzhong; Lin, Li; Long, Huayun; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Xiaohua

2009-06-27

408

Pilot-scale washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and process water recycling.  

PubMed

Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated garden soil (5249, 3348 and 20.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) rich with fines and organic matter was washed with a solution of 120 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil in a pilot-scale remediation plant operating in a batch (60 kg of soil) mode. After soil washing, the solid phase and used washing solution were separated in a chamber filter press. A base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) was used to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling from used washing solution and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, for cleansing and recycling the process water, which was used for rinsing the soil solid phase in the press. On average (5 batches), 75%, 26% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, was removed from the soil, 71% of EDTA was recycled and no waste water was generated. The variable costs of the novel remediation process (materials, energy but not labour) amounted to 66 € t(-1) of remediated soil. The results of the pilot-scale testing indicate that scaling-up the process to a commercial level is technically and economically feasible. PMID:23347619

Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

2013-01-22

409

Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)  

SciTech Connect

Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

1999-02-01

410

Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO??) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO??? and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (?250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO?? reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO?? reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO?? in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO?? of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO?? and NO?? reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO?? and NO?? degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. PMID:22015922

Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

2011-11-06

411

Ammonia removal from wastewaters using natural Australian zeolite. 2. Pilot-scale study using continuous packed column process  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale process was designed and operated to investigate the continuous removal of ammonia from sewage using natural zeolite from Australia. The process consisted of a fixed-bed ion-exchange system operated in the downflow mode. Evaluation of the pilot process was initially undertaken for ammonia removal from tap water spiked with ammonium chloride to provide performance data in the absence of competing cations. The performance of the pilot process was then assessed using sewage as feed. Breakthrough curves were constructed for a range of treatment flow rates. Existing models for packed bed performance were shown to be able to predict the breakthrough behavior of the process. The results of a study are presented that show that Australian natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, may be successfully employed in a fixed-bed ion-exchange process to achieve high ammonia removal efficiencies from aqueous solution at rates commensurate with sand filtration. The rate of uptake of ammonium by the zeolite is sufficient to support a continuous high rate process.

Cooney, E.L.; Booker, N.A.; Shallcross, D.C.; Stevens, G.W.

1999-10-01

412

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

413

Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological\\u000a facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs,\\u000a vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production\\u000a bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use

Regine Eibl; Stephan Kaiser; Renate Lombriser; Dieter Eibl

2010-01-01

414

Impact of colloidal and soluble organic material on membrane performance in membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two parallel membrane bioreactors (2m3 each) were operated over a period of 2 years. Both pilots were optimised for nitrification, denitrification, and enhanced biological phosphorous elimination, treating identical municipal wastewater under comparable operating conditions. The only constructional difference between the pilots was the position of the denitrification zone (pre-denitrification in pilot 1 and post-denitrification in pilot 2). Despite identical modules

S. Rosenberger; C. Laabs; B. Lesjean; R. Gnirss; G. Amy; M. Jekel; J.-C. Schrotter

2006-01-01

415

Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

1996-03-01

416

In-Situ Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Pilot-Scale Treatability Test at the 300 Area, Hanford Site - 8187  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the pilot-scale treatability test that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of using a polyphosphate injection approach to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ within the 300 Area aquifer at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Primary test objectives were to assess 1) direct treatment of available uranium contributing to the groundwater plume through precipitation of the uranyl phosphate mineral autunite, and 2) emplacement of secondary-treatment capacity via precipitation of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite, which acts as a long-term sorbent for uranium.

Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

2008-06-02

417

Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

Duignan, M.R.

2000-07-27

418

Neurotoxin formation from pilot-scale incineration of synthetic ester turbine lubricants with a triaryl phosphate additive.  

PubMed

The high-temperature combustion of synthetic ester turbine engine lubricants has been performed by diluting the lubricant 5, 15, or 25% in diesel fuel and burning the mixture in a pilot-scale boiler facility. The effluent gas from this combustion system was carefully monitored for the formation of a potent neurotoxin, trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP). Although TMPP was not detected in the gaseous effluent, elevated levels of the neurotoxin were found in scrapings from the inside of the boiler system. Because of the extreme toxicity of this compound, significant dermal exposure could be a potential risk to incinerator operation and maintenance personnel. PMID:8783815

Rubey, W A; Striebich, R C; Bush, J; Centers, P W; Wright, R L

1996-01-01

419

Adaptive control of anaerobic digestion processes-a pilot-scale application.  

PubMed

A simple adaptive control algorithm, for which theoretical stability and convergence properties had been previously demonstrated, has been successfully implemented on a biomethanation pilot reactor. The methane digester, operated in the CSTR mode was submitted to a shock load, and successfully computer controlled during the subsequent transitory state. PMID:18584606

Renard, P; Dochain, D; Bastin, G; Naveau, H; Nyns, E J

1988-03-01

420

PILOT-SCALE FIELD TESTS OF HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of using a 5100 cu m/hr mobile pilot plant to evaluate the effectiveness and economics of applying high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) to particulate emission control. A 4-1/2 month test program was conducted at a Pennsylvania sintering plant to char...

421

Long-term operation of slurry bioreactor for decomposition of food wastes.  

PubMed

A pilot scale slurry bioreactor was used for the treatment of food wastes. Food wastes were continuously added (750 g wet weight per day) into the reactor and successfully decomposed to inorganic carbon without intermittent removal of suspended solids. During operation for 90 days, 91% reduction of food wastes was achieved. Microorganisms actively grew during the initial 20 days of operation, and reached a stationary phase with a cell concentration of around 5 x 10(10) cells ml(-1), which indicated that food waste was utilized as a respiratory substrate during this phase. Using data for time variation of dissolved oxygen, the oxygen requirement for decomposition of food wastes was estimated to be 5.0 g O2 g(-1) dry weight of food wastes. PMID:12137262

Park, Jong Ik; Yun, Yeoung-Sang; Park, Jong Moon

2002-08-01

422

Critical review of membrane bioreactor models--part 1: biokinetic and filtration models.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can significantly benefit from mathematical modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on modelling MBR biokinetics and filtration is critically reviewed. It was found that models cover the wide range of empirical to detailed mechanistic descriptions and have mainly been used for knowledge development and to a lesser extent for system optimisation/control. Moreover, studies are still predominantly performed at lab or pilot scale. Trends are discussed, knowledge gaps identified and interesting routes for further research suggested. PMID:22721681

Naessens, W; Maere, T; Nopens, I

2012-05-25

423

Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B  

PubMed Central

The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m2 area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFN? and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated.

2013-01-01

424

Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.  

PubMed

The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m² area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFN? and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated. PMID:23458578

Zayas, Caridad; González, Domingo; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Lastre, Miriam; González, Elizabeth; Romeu, Belkis; Cuello, Maribel; Balboa, Julio; Cabrera, Osmir; Guilherme, Luisa; Pérez, Oliver

2013-02-25

425

UV disinfection of treated wastewater in a large-scale pilot plant and inactivation of selected bacteria in a laboratory UV device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of UV disinfection of unfiltered and filtered secondary wastewater effluent, using a large-scale pilot system, and the inactivation of six bacterial species in a laboratory UV-device have been studied. Pilot plant studies revealed low levels of coliforms and streptococci (3 logarithmic units reduction) when a wastewater UV transmission of 45% and an average effective UV dose of 100 mW

Abdennaceur Hassen; Meryem Mahrouk; Hadda Ouzari; Mohamed Cherif; Abdellatif Boudabous; Jean Jacques Damelincourt

2000-01-01

426

Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

PubMed Central

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil.

Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

2011-01-01

427

CO2 monitoring at the pilot-scale CO2 injection site in Nagaoka, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot-scale CO2 sequestration project supported by the Japanese Government (METI) has been conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in co-operation with Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA). The test site is located at the South Nagaoka gas field operated by Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd. in Nagaoka city, Niigata Prefecture, 200 km north of Tokyo. The targeted layer for the CO2 injection is a thin permeable zone intercalated in a 60 m thick sandstone bed of early Pleistocene age, which lies about 1,100 m below the ground surface. One injection well (IW-1) and three observation wells (OB-2, -3, -4) were drilled at the site. The CO2 injection started on 7 July 2003 and ended on 11 January 2005 with the total injected amount of 10,400 tonnes within eighteen months. Purchased CO2 of 99.9 % pure was injected in the supercritical state at the rate of 20-40 tonnes per day. A series of time-lapse CO2 monitoring consisted of geophysical well logging and cross-well seismic tomography has been performed at the injection site and the results provide valuable insight into the CO2 movement in the sandstone reservoir. Time-lapse well loggings of induction, gamma ray, neutron and sonic were performed almost once a month to monitor CO2 breakthrough at the three observation wells. On 10 March 2004, a breakthrough was first detected at OB-2, 40 m apart from the injection well, after the cumulative injection of 4,000 tonnes. As an evidence of CO2 breakthrough changes appeared in results of sonic, induction and neutron logs. The sonic P-wave velocity decreased significantly up to 23% after the breakthrough, and then results of sonic logging showed the CO2-bearing zone getting wider during the injection of CO2. Differences appeared also in widths of CO2-bearing zone of induction and neutron logs. On 16 July 2004, another breakthrough of CO2 was detected at OB-4 of 60 m away from the injection well as changes in sonic and neutron logs. No sign of CO2 breakthrough has been confirmed at OB-3 of 120m from the injection well. The crosswell seismic tomography was conducted between OB-2 and OB-3 in a distance of 160 m to monitor the injected CO2. The baseline survey was conducted in February 2003 prior to the start of CO2 injection. The monitoring surveys were carried out four times in January, July, November 2004 and July 2005 after 3,200, 6,200, 8,900 and 10,400 tonnes of CO2 was injected, respectively. Difference tomograms obtained by subtracting each monitor velocity from the baseline velocity were generated. Each difference tomogram shows an outstanding area of velocity decrease around the injection well, indicating the distribution of injected CO2 within the sandstone reservoir. As the amount of injected CO2 increased, the low velocity zone expanded preferentially to the formation up-dip direction in the reservoir. The monitoring at Nagaoka will be continued till 2007 for more understanding of CO2 behaviors in the reservoir after the completion of the injection.

Tanase, D.; Xue, Z.; Watanabe, J.; Saito, H.

2005-12-01

428

Pilot-Scale TRUEX Flowsheet Testing for Separation of Actinides and Lanthanides from Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Advanced aqueous separation processes are being developed for the recycling of used nuclear fuel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) Process is being developed as part of these advanced separations processes for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from the used nuclear fuel. Testing of a TRUEX flowsheet has been performed using a thirty stage, 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. This testing was performed using a non-radioactive feed surrogate and data were collected and analyzed to evaluate removal efficiencies of the lanthanides, mass transfer efficiency of the lanthanides in the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet, and the temperature profile of the process solutions throughout the centrifugal contactor pilot plant. Results indicate >99.9% separation for all lanthanides and mass transfer efficiencies typically ranging from 85% to 100%. Solution temperatures for each contactor stage, as well as general process performance, are also described.

Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz; Jamie Warburton

2010-01-01

429

Performance evaluation of the pilot-scale, double-shell tank ventilation system using simulated aerosol streams  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste slurries are currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The slurries that are being stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) are various mixtures of radioactive solids, liquids, and aqueous wastes. The tanks must be maintained at a negative pressure relative to atmospheric pressure to safeguard against pressurization and the subsequent leakage of entrained radioactive aerosols to the environment. A ventilation system must be capable of withdrawing the total volume of off gas generated from the tanks while maintaining the tanks at a negative pressure. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has identified a need to improve the efficiency of the ventilation system being used on the tank farms to meet the more restrictive release limits for radioactive isotopes. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) has been contracted by WHC to design the new ventilation system for the existing tank farms. WHC contracted the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to fabricate and test the prototypic pilot-scale design prior to finalizing the design of the ventilation system. The PNL has conducted tests to determine (1) the effectiveness of the system for removal of vapors condensable at 35{degrees}F, (2) the effectiveness for removal of soluble and insoluble aerosols, and (3) the life span of the mist eliminators to be used in the new system. The results of extensive testing of the pilot-scale system with condensables and both soluble and insoluble aerosols are presented in this report. 7 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

Brouns, T.M.; Peterson, M.E.

1989-12-01

430

Pilot-scale studies on the effect of bromine addition on the emissions of chlorinated organic combustion by-products.  

PubMed

The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). This phenomenon appears to be sensitive to temperature and combustion conditions. This paper reports on a study to evaluate the emissions of organic combustion by-products while varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) are being fed into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. The surrogate waste was fed at a constant molar halogen input rate, with varying Br/Cl molar ratios. In these tests, an approximately 30% decrease in the total PCDD/F concentrations due to the addition of Br was observed. This decrease appears to be a decrease only in the chlorinated dioxin and furan species; other halogenated dioxins and furans were formed instead. PCDD/F homologue distribution shifted towards the higher chlorinated species. Perhalogenated or nearly perhalogenated mixed bromo-chloro furans were also observed in quantities that could potentially account for the observed decrease in PCDDs/Fs. This research illustrates the need for careful trial burn planning if Br will be present in the facility's feed-stock during normal operation. PMID:12099495

Lemieux, P M; Stewart, E S; Ryan, J V

2002-01-01

431

Treatment of coke wastewater in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) at pilot plant scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coke wastewater is a highly toxic industrial effluent which is usually treated by a combination of physico-chemical and biological treatments. With the aim of completing prior studies carried out in CSTR, in this work we studied the treatment of coke wastewater in a pilot plant equipped with a 400L stripping tank, a 350L neutralization\\/homogenization tank and a 6m high 1500L

E. Marañón; I. Vázquez; J. Rodríguez; L. Castrillón; Y. Fernández; H. López

2008-01-01

432

Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.; Lappin, A.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Westerman, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Tong, X.; Black, J.N.P.; Grbic-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Vreeland, R.E. (West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Biology); Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United Stat

1991-01-01

433

Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient HâO and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also

L. H. Brush; M. A. Molecke; A. R. Lappin; R. E. Westerman; X. Tong; J. N. P. Black; D. Grbic-Galic; R. E. Vreeland; D. T. Reed

1991-01-01

434

A next generation, pilot-scale continuous sterilization system for fermentation media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new continuous sterilization system was designed, constructed, started up, and qualified for media sterilization for secondary metabolite cultivations, bioconversions, and enzyme production. An existing Honeywell Total Distributed Control 3000-based control system was extended using redundant High performance Process Manager controllers for 98 I\\/O (input\\/output) points. This new equipment was retrofitted into an industrial research fermentation pilot plant, designed and

B. Junker; M. Lester; T. Brix; D. Wong; J. Nuechterlein

2006-01-01

435

Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

2013-01-01

436

Pilot-scale process sensitivity studies for the scaleup of a fungal fermentation for the production of pneumocandins.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Glarea lozoyensis produces a novel, pharmaceutically important pneumocandin (B(0)) that is used to synthesize a lipopeptide which demonstrates cidal activity against clinically relevant pathogens. A range of unwanted pneumocandin analogs are also produced by the organism. To maintain the unwanted impurities to acceptable levels upon scaleup, a good understanding of the impact of chemical and physical environment on the cell physiology is required, which benefits downstream processing. Pilot-scale studies were performed to determine the impact of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and carbon dioxide on the process. Experiments included multiple fermenters (up to seven) at 0.07 and 0.8 m(3) scale using single source medium sterilization and inoculum. Gas blending was used to separate effects of dissolved oxygen from agitation. The process was significantly influenced by dissolved oxygen level. The critical dissolved oxygen tension (C(crit)) for growth was below 2% air saturation. The C(crit) for production of pneumocandin B(0) was 20% air saturation, with a significant reduction of the specific production rate below this value. In contrast, low dissolved oxygen levels produced a substantial increase of pneumocandins B(1), B(5), and E(0), while high dissolved oxygen levels produced a disproportionate increase of D(5). This sensivity to dissolved oxygen was independent of agitation within a power range of 2-15 kW/m(3). Broth viscosity was impacted below 10% dissolved oxygen, suggesting an effect on morphology. The process was shown to be sensitive to temperature but relatively insensitive to pH and carbon dioxide (in the exhaust gas) within the ranges studied. This scaledown analysis explained phenomena seen at pilot scale and helped define operating boundary conditions for successful scale up to 19 m(3). PMID:11920443

Pollard, D J; Kirschner, T F; Hernandez, D; Hunt, G; Olewinski, R; Salmon, P M

2002-05-01

437

Isolation of hemoglobin from bovine erythrocytes by controlled hemolysis in the membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this work, we describe an optimized procedure based on gradual hemolysis for the isolation of hemoglobin derived from bovine slaughterhouse erythrocytes in a membrane bioreactor. The membrane bioreactor system that provided high yields of hemoglobin (mainly oxyhemoglobin derivate) and its separation from the empty erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) was designed at a pilot scale. Ten different concentrations of hypotonic media were assessed from the aspect of the extent of hemolysis, hematocrit values of the erythrocyte suspensions, cell swelling, and membrane deformations induced by decreased salt concentration. Effective gradual osmotic hemolysis with an extent of hemolysis of 88% was performed using 35 mM Na-phosphate/NaCl buffer of pH 7.2-7.4. Under these conditions most of the cell membranes presented the appearance of the normal ghosts under phase contrast microscope. The hemoglobin purity of >80% was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Kinetic studies showed that maximal concentration of hemoglobin was reached after 40 min, but the process cycle at which recovery of 83% was achieved lasted for 90 min. The dynamics of both steps, (1) transport through the membrane of erythrocytes during process of hemolysis and (2) transport through the reactor filters, were evaluated. PMID:22252906

Stojanovi?, Radoslava; Ili?, Vesna; Manojlovi?, Verica; Bugarski, Diana; Devi?, Marija; Bugarski, Branko

2012-01-18

438

HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an aeroderivative turbine. The overall system design can be very similar to that of a typical pulverized coal-fired boiler system, except that ceramics and alloys are used to carry the very high-temperature air rather than steam. This design makes the combined-cycle system especially suitable as a boiler-repowering technology. With the use of a gas-fired duct heater, efficiencies of 55% can be achieved, leading to reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions of 40% as compared to today's coal-fired systems. On the basis of work completed to date, the high-temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) concept appears to offer a higher-efficiency technology option for coal-fired power generation systems than conventional pulverized coal firing. Concept analyses have demonstrated the ability to achieve program objectives for emissions (10% of New Source Performance Standards, i.e., 0.003 lb/MMBtu of particulate), efficiency (47%-55%), and cost of electricity (10%-25% below today's cost). Higher-efficiency technology options for new plants as well as repowering are important to the power generation industry in order to conserve valuable fossil fuel resources, reduce the quantity of pollutants (air and water) and solid wastes generated per MW, and reduce the cost of power production in a deregulated industry. Possibly more important than their potential application in a new high-temperature power system, the RAH panel and convective air heater tube bank are potential retrofit technology options for existing coal-fired boilers to improve plant efficiencies. Therefore, further development of these process air-based high-temperature heat exchangers and their potential for commercial application is directly applicable to the development of enabling technologies in support of the Vision 21 program objectives. The objective of the work documented in this report was to improve the performance of the UTRC high-temperature heat exchanger, demonstrate the fuel flexibility of the slagging combustor, and test methods for reducing corrosion of brick and castable refractory in such combustion environments. Specif

Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

1999-12-01

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