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1

Pilot-Scale Hybrid Coagulation\\/Membrane Bioreactor (HCMBR) for Textile Dyeing Wastewater Advanced Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale hybrid coagulation\\/membrane bioreactor (HCMBR) was investigated for real textile dyeing wastewater advanced treatment. Poly-aluminum chloride (PACI) was selected and used in the experiments. The HCMBR performed well in the removal of organic matter and total phosphate (TP). As compared to membrane bioreactor (MBR), HCMBR achieved much higher removal efficiencies in CODcr, UV254 and TP, due to PACI coagulation

Yan Zaisheng; Wang Shihe; Kang Xiaokun; Ma Yu

2009-01-01

2

Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

2012-01-01

3

Pilot scale study on a new membrane bioreactor hybrid system in municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A pilot scale membrane bioreactor hybrid system (MBR-HS) was evaluated for municipal wastewater treatment. This novel system comprised of a granular activated carbon-sponge fluidized bed bioreactor (GACS-FBBR) followed by a submerge membrane bioreactor (MBR) with the capacity of 2 L/min. The results indicated that the MBR-HS could effectively remove 90% DOC and 95% NH?-N. PO?-P removal efficiency was remained stable at about 70% throughout the experiment. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of activated sludge increased from 0.72 to 2.21 mg O?/g VSSh for the first 10 days and then followed by a steady stage until the end of experiment. Sludge volume index (SVI) was always below 50 mL/g, demonstrated an excellent settling properties of sludge. The system also showed an achievement in terms of low trans-membrane pressure (TMP) development rate. The TMP increasing rate was only 0.65 kPa/day, suggesting GACS-FBBR can be a promising pre-treatment for MBR. PMID:23566462

Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

2013-08-01

4

Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases. PMID:18406126

Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

2009-01-01

5

Influence of supplemental heat addition on performance of pilot-scale bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

Implementation of supplemental heat addition as a means of improving bioreactor landfill performance was investigated. The experimental work was conducted with two pilot-scale bioreactor setups (control cell and heated cell) operated for 280 days. Supplemental heat was introduced by recirculating leachate heated up to 35 °C compared to the control which used similar quantities of leachate at room temperature (21 ± 1 °C). The temporal and spatial effects of recirculating heated leachate on the landfill internal temperature were determined, and performance was assessed in terms of leachate parameters and biogas production. Recirculation of heated leachate helped establish balanced anaerobic microbial consortia that led to earlier (70 days) and greater (1.4-fold) organic matter degradation rates, as well as threefold higher methane production compared to the non-heated control. Despite the significant enhancements in performance resulting from supplemental heat addition, heated leachate recirculation did not significantly impact waste temperatures, and the effects were mainly restricted to short periods after recirculation and mostly at the upper layers of the waste. These findings suggest that improvements in bioreactor landfill performance may be achieved without increasing the temperature of the whole in-place waste, but rather more economically by raising the temperature at the leachate/waste interface which is also exposed to the maximum moisture levels within the waste matrix. PMID:23780222

Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa; Sartaj, Majid

2014-02-01

6

Performance of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) in treating bathing wastewater.  

PubMed

Bathing wastewater was treated by a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for more than 60 days. The results showed that the removal rates of main pollutants of wastewater such as COD(Cr), LAS, NH(4)(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) were above 93%, 99%, 99%, and 90%, respectively. The results of denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the bacteria were stable. The abundant nitrobacteria intercepted by the membrane led to the high removal rate of ammonia and TN. FISH and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that some specific phylogenetic group of bacteria, the Pseudomonas sp. Ochrobactrum anthropi sp. and Enterobacter sp. probably played a major role in the development of the mature biofilms, which led to the severe irreversible membrane biofouling. PMID:18359626

Xia, Siqing; Guo, Jifeng; Wang, Rongchang

2008-10-01

7

Evaluation of two pilot scale membrane bioreactors for the elimination of selected surfactants from municipal wastewaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe removal of selected surfactants, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and alkylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products were investigated using a two membrane bioreactor (MBR) with hollow fiber and plate and frame membranes. The two pilot plants MBR run in parallel to a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. A total of eight influent samples with the corresponding effluent samples were analysed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS). The results indicate that both MBR have a better effluent quality in terms of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), NH4+, concentration and total suspended solids (TSS). MBR showed a better similar performance in the overall elimination of the total nonylphenolic compounds, achieving a 75% of elimination or a 65% (the same elimination reached by CAS). LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the three systems investigated and no significant differences were observed.

González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damiá

2008-07-01

8

Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (? 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:760-764, 2014. PMID:24616386

Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

2014-05-01

9

Development of an extractive membrane bioreactor for degradation of 3 chloro-4-methylaniline: From lab bench to pilot scale  

SciTech Connect

Extractive Membrane Bioreactor (EMB) technology has been applied to an industrial wastewater containing 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, para-toluidine and methanol produced at the Hickson and Welch Ltd. production site in Castleford, UK. Successful treatment was accomplished through a step-wise approach to process development, involving selection of a suitable microbial culture, extractive membrane bioreactor operation under well-controlled laboratory conditions, and finally pilot scale-application at the production site. Three experimental steps were undertaken: (1) a microbial culture capable of degrading 3-chloro-4-methylaniline was developed in a continuous enrichment reactor; (2) the selected culture was then inoculated to a lab-scale EMB unit and adapted to the conditions of the industrial waste; and (3) finally the process was scaled-up to assess feasibility and performance at pilot-scale. At the pilot scale, 100% extraction of the target molecules contained in the industrial wastewater was achieved in a 1 m{sup 3} extractive membrane bioreactor treating 60 gld 3-chloro-4-methylaniline and 30 gld para-toluidine. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride were generated, indicating complete mineralization of 3-chloro-4-methylaniline.

Splendiani, A.; Moreira de Sa, J.A.G.C.; Jorge, R.; Nicolella, C.; Livingston, A.G.; Hughes, K.; Cook, S.

2000-03-31

10

Molecular Assessment of Inoculated and Indigenous Bacteria in Biofilms from a Pilot-Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater can occur via bacterial reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Although perchlorate reduction has been demonstrated in bacterial pure cultures, little is known about the efficacy of using perchlorate-reducing bacteria as inoculants for bioremediation in the field. A pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site in Southern California.

H. Zhang; B. E. Logan; J. M. Regan; L. A. Achenbach; M. A. Bruns

2005-01-01

11

Membrane fouling in pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

The main obstacle for wider use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is membrane fouling (i.e., deterioration of membrane permeability),which increases operating costs. For more efficient control of membrane fouling in MBRs, an understanding of the mechanisms of membrane fouling is important. However, there is a lack of information on membrane fouling in MBRs, especially information on features of components that are responsible for the fouling. We conducted a pilot-scale experiment using real municipal wastewater with three identical MBRs under different operating conditions. The results obtained in this study suggested that the food-microorganisms ratio (F/M) and membrane filtration flux were the important operating parameters that significantly influenced membrane fouling in MBRs. Neither concentrations of dissolved organic matter in the reactors nor viscosity of mixed liquor, which have been thought to have influences on fouling in MBRs, showed clear relationships with membrane fouling in this study. Organic substances that had caused the membrane fouling were desorbed from fouled membranes of the MBRs at the termination of the operation and were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. These analyses revealed that the nature of the membrane foulant changes depending on F/M. It was shown that high F/M would make the foulant more proteinaceous. Carbohydrates were dominant in membrane foulants in this study, while features of humic substances were not apparent. PMID:16173595

Kimura, Katsuki; Yamato, Nobuhiro; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

2005-08-15

12

Energy and water balances using kinetic modeling in a pilot-scale SSF bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct monitoring of bed conditions in large scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) bioreactors is difficult due to lack of reliable and affordable instrumentation. Although, relevant variables such as average bed temperature and water content can be inferred from energy and water balances, these estimations are prone to significant error since the process is complex and measured variables are extremely noisy. Hence,

J. Sebastián Lekanda; J. Ricardo Pérez-Correa

2004-01-01

13

Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.  

PubMed

A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of <0.05 (29%), <0.15 (77%) and <0.30 (95%), while addition of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved <0.05 (18%), <0.15 (63%) and <0.30 (95%). Analysis of the concentration of iron(II) in the supernatant indicated that phosphorus was mainly removed via adsorption to amorphous iron oxyhydroxides particles in both dosing scenarios. However, analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data of the reactor indicated that severe short-circuiting from the dosing point to the membrane outlet could occur when the ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. PMID:24709534

Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

2014-06-15

14

A catalytic multistage fixed-bed tower bioreactor in an industrial-scale pilot plant for alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the development of an industrial-scale, multistage fixed-bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor using the promoter mineral kissiris for industrial alcohol producing using free cells. Specifically, the authors examined the parameters needed to maintain operational stability from batch to batch for long periods. Pilot plant operations used one- and two-stage fixed-bed, 7,000-L bioreactors. Likewise a 100,000-L, multistage fixed-bed tower system containing layered kissiris confirmed the laboratory results. Compared with a continuous stirred tank fermentor (CSTF) with recycle, a 30% reduction of energy demand and 10%--20% of the production costs are obtained. The latter are attributed to the increased ethanol concentration and alcohol productivity.

Bakoyianis, V.; Koutinas, A.A. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-01-20

15

Bioaugmentation of a soil bioreactor designed for pilot-scale anaerobic bioremediation studies  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to answer the following questions: (i) can the authors realize a long-term dechlorination with a pure anaerobic strain in soil and (ii) can the authors monitor the process on an adequate scale with a controlled simulator of in situ conditions. The soil bioreactor was fed continuously with 3-chlorobenzonate (3-CB) as a model chloroaromatic compound. Bioaugmentation was carried out by inoculating Desulfomonile tiedjei in localized areas in the bioreactor. Temporal and spatial distribution of the 3-CB dechlorination activity was investigated with specific biological activity tests for approximately 4 months following the inoculation. These tests involved the minimally invasive sampling of geometrically distinct points in the reactor and their off-site handling within reconstructed microcosms, allowing the assessment of dechlorinating and methanogenic soil activities. Using autoclaved and nonautoclaved agricultural soil, the results showed a heterogeneous distribution of the dechlorination activity in the bioreactor. The autoclaved soil expressed a high microbial activity as reflected by biogas production and 3-CB dechlorination. Furthermore, durable establishment of D. tiedjei in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil was shown, although in the latter portion of the reactor the microorganism was maintained only at the top surface.

Fantroussi, S.E. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Unit of Bioengineering] [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Unit of Bioengineering; [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium); Belkacemi, M.; Naveau, H.; Agathos, S.N. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Unit of Bioengineering] [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Unit of Bioengineering; Top, E.M. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Lab. of Microbial Ecology] [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Lab. of Microbial Ecology; Mahillon, J. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Lab. of Microbial Genetics] [Univ. Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Lab. of Microbial Genetics

1999-09-01

16

Biohydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation with a pilot-scale bioreactor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale study of biohydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 1.48m3) for over 200 days. The hydrogen bio-producing reactor (HBR) system was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.11–85.57kgCOD\\/m3reactor\\/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. Both biogas and hydrogen yields increased with OLR at the

Nanqi Ren; Jianzheng Li; Baikun Li; Yong Wang; Shirui Liu

2006-01-01

17

Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.  

PubMed

A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in PMID:24520735

Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

2013-09-01

18

Molecular assessment of inoculated and indigenous bacteria in biofilms from a pilot-scale perchlorate-reducing bioreactor.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater can occur via bacterial reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Although perchlorate reduction has been demonstrated in bacterial pure cultures, little is known about the efficacy of using perchlorate-reducing bacteria as inoculants for bioremediation in the field. A pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site in Southern California. The bioreactor was inoculated with a field-grown suspension of the perchlorate-respiring bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. strain KJ and fed groundwater containing indigenous bacteria and a carbon source amendment. Because the reactor was flushed weekly to remove accumulated biomass, only bacteria capable of growing in biofilms in the reactor were expected to survive. After 26 days of operation, perchlorate was not detected in bioreactor effluent. Perchlorate remained undetected by ion chromatography (detection limit 4 mug L(-1)) during 6 months of operation, after which the reactor was drained. Plastic medium was subsampled from top, middle, and bottom locations of the reactor for shipment on blue ice and storage at -80 degrees C prior to analysis. Microbial community DNA was extracted from successive washes of thawed biofilm material for PCR-based community profiling by 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). No DNA sequences characteristic of strain KJ were recovered from any RISA bands. The most intense bands yielded DNA sequences with high similarities to Dechloromonas spp., a closely related but different genus of perchlorate-respiring bacteria. Additional sequences from RISA profiles indicated presence of representatives of the low G+C gram-positive bacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were also used to examine biofilms using genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA probes. FISH was more sensitive than RISA profiling in detecting possible survivors from the initial inoculum. FISH revealed that bacteria hybridizing to Dechlorosoma probes constituted <1% of all cells in the biofilms examined, except in the deepest portions where they represented 3-5%. Numbers of bacteria hybridizing to Dechloromonas probes decreased as biofilm depth increased, and they were most abundant at the biofilm surface (23% of all cells). These spatial distribution differences suggested persistence of low numbers of the inoculated strain Dechlorosoma sp. KJ in parts of the biofilm nearest to the plastic medium, concomitant with active colonization or growth by indigenous Dechloromonas spp. in the biofilm exterior. This study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc analysis of frozen biofilms following completion of field remediation studies. PMID:16003477

Zhang, H; Logan, B E; Regan, J M; Achenbach, L A; Bruns, M A

2005-04-01

19

Critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place during the long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) in a long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Steady filtration under high flux (30 L\\/(m2 h)) was successfully achieved due to effective membrane fouling control by sub-critical flux operation and chemical CIP with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in both trans-membrane pressure (TMP) controlling mode (cleaning with high concentration

Chun-Hai Wei; Xia Huang; Roger Ben Aim; Kazuo Yamamoto; Gary Amy

2011-01-01

20

A zero-dimensional biofilm model for dynamic simulation of moving bed bioreactor systems: Model concepts, Peterson matrix, and application to a pilot-scale plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zero-dimensional (0D) biofilm model for dynamic simulation of biological wastewater treatment systems is proposed and applied to a pilot-scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR). The model, written in Peterson matrix format, does not describe biofilm structure in any form. Biochemical conversions in the model are based on the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Diffusional mass transport limitations are taken

M. Plattes; E. Henry; P. M. Schosseler

2008-01-01

21

Properties of bacterial cellulose produced in a pilot-scale spherical type bubble column bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saccharogenic liquid obtained by the enzymatic saccharification of food wastes was used as a medium for production of\\u000a bacterial cellulose (BC). The enzymatic saccharification of food wastes (SFW) was carried out by the cultivation supernatant\\u000a of Trichoderma inhamatum KSJ1. 5.6 g\\/L of BC was produced in a new modified 50 L bubble column bioreactor by Acetobacter xylinum KJ1. The

Chang Nam Choi; Hyo Jeong Song; Myong Jun Kim; Mi Hwa Chang; Seong Jun Kim

2009-01-01

22

Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest\\u000a during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed.\\u000a Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes\\u000a have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives

Naomi J. McSweeney; Jason J. Plumb; Amanda L. Tilbury; Hugh J. Nyeboer; Matt E. Sumich; Anthony J. McKinnon; Peter D. Franzmann; David C. Sutton; Anna H. Kaksonen

2011-01-01

23

Pilot-scale temperate-climate treatment of domestic wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR).  

PubMed

A pilot-scale staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) was operated continuously for 485 days, without chemical cleaning of membranes, treating primary-settled domestic wastewater with wastewater temperature between 8 and 30°C and total hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 4.6 and 6.8h. Average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) removals averaged 81% and 85%, respectively, during the first winter at 8-15°C before full acclimation had occurred. However, subsequently when fully acclimated, summer and winter COD removals of 94% and 90% and BOD5 removals of 98% and 90%, respectively, were obtained with average effluent COD never higher than 23 mg/L nor BOD5 higher than 9 mg/L. Operational energy requirement of 0.23 kW h/m(3) could be met with primary and secondary methane production, and could be reduced further through hydraulic change. Biosolids production in all seasons averaged 0.051 g volatile suspended solids per g COD removed. PMID:24632631

Shin, Chungheon; McCarty, Perry L; Kim, Jeonghwan; Bae, Jaeho

2014-05-01

24

Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-11-26

25

Feasibility and simulation model of a pilot scale membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and reuse from Chinese traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The lack and pollution of water resource make wastewater reuse necessary. The pilot scale long-term tests for submerged membrane bioreactor were conducted to treat the effluents of anaerobic or aerobic treatment process for the high-strength Chinese traditional medicine wastewater. This article was focused on the feasibility of the wastewater treatment and reuse at shorter hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.0, 3.2 and 2.13 h. MLSS growth, membrane flux, vacuum values and chemical cleaning periods were also investigated. The experimental results of treating two-phase anaerobic treatment effluent demonstrated that the CODfilt was less than 100 mg/L when the influent COD was between 500-10000 mg/L at HRT of 5.0 h, which could satisfy the normal discharged standard in China. The experimental results to treat cross flow aerobic reactor effluent demonstrated that the average value of CODfilt was 17.28 mg/L when the average value of influent COD was 192.84 mg/L at HRT of 2.13 h during 106 d, which could completely meet the normal standard for water reuse. The maximum MLSS and MLVSS reached 24000 and 14500 mg/L at HRT of 3.2 h respectively. Membrane flux had maximal resume degrees of 94.7% at vacuum value of 0.02 MPa after cleaning. Chemical cleaning periods of membrane module were 150 d. A simulation model of operational parameters was also established based on the theory of back propagation neural network and linear regression of traditional mathematical model. The simulation model showed that the optimum operational parameters were suggested as follows: HRT was 5.0 h, SRT was 100 d, the range of COD loading rate was between 10.664-20.451 kg/(m3xd), the range of MLSS was between 7543-13694 mg/L. PMID:17915718

Ren, Nan-qi; Yan, Xian-feng; Chen, Zhao-bo; Hu, Dong-xue; Gong, Man-li; Guo, Wan-qian

2007-01-01

26

Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20 m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71 days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production. PMID:23489568

Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

2013-10-01

27

Modelling of long-term simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SNDN) performance of a pilot scale membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Nutrient removal capability of the MBR process has attracted more attention than organics removal in the past few years. Apart from the conventional schemes for nitrogen removal in MBR process, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SNDN) requires the most attention for further research. In order to fully understand the fundemantals and mechanism of SNDN in MBRs, a pilot plant was set up. A mathematical model was adopted for investigation and calibration against the observed values. This paper reports a study focusing on evaluating major mechanisms that govern nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in membrane bioreactors. Two items need to be emphasized in this evaluation: (i) an MBR is basically regarded as an activated sludge process-a suspended growth bioreactor with total biomass recycle and substantially higher biomass concentration; (ii) in this context an AS model, namely ASM1R modified for endogenous respiration, is used for dynamic modelling and calibration of experimental results. The impact of diffusion through biomass which obviously exerts a significant effect on system performance and denitrification is evaluated with success using the adopted model by means of switch functions that regulate nitrification-denitrification with respect to dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid. PMID:18547937

Sarioglu, M; Insel, G; Artan, N; Orhon, D

2008-01-01

28

Start-up period investigation of pilot-scale submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) treating raw municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) is a new hybrid technology for wastewater treatment employing electrical field and microfiltration in a nutrient-removing activated sludge process. A pilot SMEBR system was located at the wastewater treatment plant in the City of l'Assomption (Quebec, Canada) with the objective of investigating the start-up period performance under variable organic loadings and environmental conditions with respect to effluent quality, membrane fouling, and sludge properties. The pilot SMEBR facility was fed with the raw de-gritted municipal wastewater. At steady state operation, the removal efficiencies of ammonia (as NH3(+)-N), phosphorus (as PO4(3-)-P), and COD were 99%, 99%, and 92%, respectively. No substantial increase in the monitored transmembrane pressure as 0.02kPad(-1) was reported. The time necessary to filter 100mL of the sludge sample has decreased by 78% after treatment whilst the sludge volume index averaged 119mLg(-1). Energy requirements were in the range of 1.1-1.6kWhm(-3) of wastewater. It was concluded that the SMEBR is a very competitive technology when compared to conventional membrane systems as it can enhance treatment performance to an appreciable extent, remove phosphorus and reduce fouling. PMID:24290298

Hasan, Shadi W; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2014-02-01

29

Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate. PMID:24569290

Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Li, Mingyue; Xu, Jianguo

2014-01-01

30

HPLC screening of natural vitamin E from mediterranean plant biofactories--a basic tool for pilot-scale bioreactors production of alpha-tocopherol.  

PubMed

The study was performed in order to investigate a simple, efficient, reliable and rapid method of extracting and quantifying natural vitamin E for pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) as well as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Lyophilized Corylus avellana L. nut samples were powdered by high-speed milling with Waring blender for 40 s. alpha-Tocopherol was extracted from the nut tissue powder using dehydrated hexane fortified with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, co-antioxidant). The rate of alpha-tocopherol accumulation showed differences among nut samples collected in different areas of Italy. Sarda Piccola nut biofactory contained higher amount (81.17 microg/g d.w) of alpha-tocopherol than other-local eleven Italian cultivar nuts. These results provide insight into the biofactory basis for alpha-tocopherol accumulation in hazelnut and give the suitable cultivar tissues to establish pilot-scale bioreactors production of natural bioactive vitamin E. PMID:16323280

Sivakumar, G; Bacchetta, L; Gatti, R; Zappa, G

2005-11-01

31

PILOT TESTING OF A BIOREACTOR FOR PERCHLORATE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater at the Crafton-Redlands site in Redlands, California is contaminated with perchlorate in addition to chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are removed from extracted groundwater using granular activated carbon, which is ineffective for perchlorate removal. Side-by-side pilot-scale bioreactors for perchlorate removal from extracted groundwater were tested at the site. Preliminary results showed that perchlorate was consistently removed from groundwater

Patrick Evans; Allyson Chu; Stephen Liao; Mieko Moody; Booki Min; Bruce Logan

2002-01-01

32

Comparison between a fixed bed hybrid membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) was developed, by adding biofilm support media into a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR), and operated in parallel with a CMBR. Results showed that effluent quality was significantly better with the HMBR. The removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5, NH4(+)-N and TN with the HMBR were 84%, 98%, 97% and 75%, respectively, as compared to 80%, 96%, 93% and 38% with the CMBR. There were no differences in phosphorus removal. The membrane fouling rate in the HMBR was on average only 57% of that in the CMBR. The lower concentration of colloidal biopolymer clusters in the HMBR sludge, probably due to their retention by the biofilm, could be partially responsible for this difference. Filterability and settleability of the sludge were also better in the HMBR. Consequently, it is concluded that the addition of fixed support media for biofilm growth can improve the performance of CMBRs. PMID:24291797

Rodríguez-Hernández, L; Esteban-García, A L; Tejero, I

2014-01-01

33

Microbial community structure and dynamics in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor aerobically treating domestic wastewater under real operation conditions.  

PubMed

A pilot scale submerged ultra-filtration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater over 9 months of year 2006 (28th March to 21st December). The MBR was installed at a municipal wastewater facility (EMASAGRA, Granada, Spain) and was fed with real wastewater. The experimental work was divided in 4 stages run under different sets of operation conditions. Operation parameters (total and volatile suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration) and environmental variables (temperature, pH, COD and BOD(5) of influent water) were daily monitored. In all the experiments conducted, the MBR generated an effluent of optimal quality complying with the requirements of the European Law (91/271/CEE 1991). A cultivation-independent approach (polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-TGGE) was used to analyze changes in the structure of the bacterial communities in the sludge. Cluster analysis of TGGE profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure related to variations of the operation parameters and environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that temperature, hydraulic retention time and concentration of volatile suspended solids were the factors mostly influencing community structure. 23 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, allowing gaining insight into the identities of predominantly present bacterial populations in the sludge. Retrieved partial 16S-rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to the alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria classes. The community established in the MBR in each of the four stages of operation significantly differed in species composition and the sludge generated displayed dissimilar rates of mineralization, but these differences did not influence the performance of the bioreactor (quality of the permeate). These data indicate that the flexibility of the bacterial community in the sludge and its ability to get adapted to environmental changes play an important role for the stable performance of MBRs. PMID:19394070

Molina-Muñoz, M; Poyatos, J M; Sánchez-Peinado, M; Hontoria, E; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

2009-06-15

34

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A TWO-STAGE METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR FOR BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

BioTrol, Inc., developed a two-stage, methanotrophic, bioreactor system for remediation of water contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated, volatile, aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first stage was a suspended-growth culture vessel with a bubbleless methane tran...

35

Effectiveness of heat treatment to protect introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predatory microorganisms in a pilot-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation of bioreactor systems with pre-cultured bacteria has proven difficult because inoculated bacteria are easily eliminated by predatory eukaryotic-microorganisms. Here, we demonstrated an intermediate thermal treatment was effective for protecting introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predators and consequently allowed the inoculated bacteria to survive longer in a denitrification reactor. PMID:23810658

Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Miyahara, Morio; Yamada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Akira; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Endo, Ginro

2013-12-01

36

Pilot-scale production of bacterial cellulose by a spherical type bubble column bioreactor using saccharified food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial cellulose (BC) was produced by Acetobacter xylinum KJ1 in a modified airlift-type bubble column bioreactor, which had a low shear stress and high oxygen transfer rate (k\\u000a L\\u000a a). Saccharified food wastes (SFW) were used as the BC production medium due to its low cost. An aeration rate of 1.2 vvm\\u000a (6 L\\/min) was tentatively determined as the optimal

Hyo-Jeong Song; Hongxian Li; Jin-Ho Seo; Myong-Jun Kim; Seong-Jun Kim

2009-01-01

37

Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a

R. K. Dereli; D. R. Urban; B. Heffernan; J. A. Jordan; J. Ewing; G. T. Rosenberger; T. I. Dunaev

2012-01-01

38

CONSTRUCTION OF A PILOT-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION BIOREACTOR WITH FORCED AERATION AND INTERMITTENT AGITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 , O. F. von Meien Abstract. Solid-state fermentation involves the cultivation of microorganisms within a bed of moist solid particles, with the inter-particle spaces within the bed being occupied by a continuous gas phase. This fermentation technique is potentially superior to submerged-liquid fermentation for the production of selected microbial products. However, the application of this technology at large scale

D. A. Mitchell; N. Krieger

39

Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method  

PubMed Central

Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to the study of bacterial populations of anaerobic treatment systems.

Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

1992-01-01

40

Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were

Ahmed Eldyasti; Nabin Chowdhury; George Nakhla; Jesse Zhu

2010-01-01

41

Approaching chlorpyrifos bioelimination at bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one of the most commonly applied insecticides for control of pests and insects. The inappropriate use of this kind of chemicals has caused heavy contamination of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems thus representing a great environmental and health risk. The main purpose of this work is to investigate novel microbial agents (Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously obtained consortium LB2) with the ability to degrade CP from polluted effluents. This goal was achieved by operating at different lab scales (flask and bioreactor) and operation modes (batch and fed-batch). Very low degradation and biomass levels were detected in cultures performed with the consortium LB2. In contrast, near complete CP degradation was reached by P. stutzeri at the optimal conditions in less than 1 month, showing a depletion rate of 0.054 h(-1). The scale-up at bench scale stirred tank bioreactor allowed improving the specific degradation rate in ten folds and total CP degradation was obtained after 2 days. Moreover, biomass and biodegradation profiles were modelled to reach a better characterization of the bioremediation process. PMID:23277272

Moscoso, F; Teijiz, I; Deive, F J; Sanromán, M A

2013-09-01

42

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a pilot-scale moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater: model concepts and the use of respirometry for the estimation of kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

A model for the simulation of a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Respirometry was used for the estimation of kinetic parameters. The resulting respirograms featured the typical endogenous and exogenous respiration phases and the respirogram shapes were as expected from analogous respirometry with activated sludge. The estimated parameter set was used for modelling and simulation of the pilot-scale MBBR. The main proportion of biomass in the MBBR was found to be attached as biofilm on the carrier elements (4.1 -4.6 g dm-3) and only a small amount was suspended in the bulk liquid (0.15gdm(-3)). Attachment and detachment rates were estimated to be 4.8-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) 1for attachment and 6.5-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) for detachment. The biofilm age was estimated to be 1.8-2.7d. The model was used to predict effluent quality parameters and a good fit of the simulated data to the measured data originating from a four-days-long measurement campaign was obtained. PMID:17547000

Plattes, M; Fiorelli, D; Gillé, S; Girard, C; Henry, E; Minette, F; O'Nagy, O; Schosseler, P M

2007-01-01

43

Scale-up of human embryonic stem cell culture using a hollow fibre bioreactor.  

PubMed

The commercialisation of human embryonic stem cell derived cell therapies for large patient populations is reliant on both minimising expensive and variable manual-handling methods whilst realising economies of scale. The Quantum Cell Expansion System, a hollow fibre bioreactor (Terumo BCT), was used in a pilot study to expand 60 million human embryonic stem cells to 708 million cells. Further improvements can be expected with optimisation of media flow rates throughout the run to better control the cellular microenvironment. High levels of pluripotency marker expression were maintained on the bioreactor, with 97.7 % of cells expressing SSEA-4 when harvested. PMID:22983716

Roberts, Iwan; Baila, Stefano; Rice, R Brent; Janssens, Michiel Etienne; Nguyen, Kim; Moens, Nathalie; Ruban, Ludmila; Hernandez, Diana; Coffey, Pete; Mason, Chris

2012-12-01

44

Performance assessment of a pilot-size vacuum rotation membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the suitability and performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR). Huber vacuum rotation membrane (VRM 20/36) bioreactor was installed at the Sharjah sewage treatment plant (STP) in the United Arab Emirate for 12 months. The submerged membranes were flat sheets with a pore size of 0.038 ?m. The VRM bioreactor provided a final effluent of very high quality. The average reduction on parameters such as COD was from 620 to 3 mg/l, BOD from 239 to 3 mg/l, Ammonia from 37 to 2 mg/l, turbidity from 225NTU to less than 3NTU, and total suspended solids from 304 mg/l to virtually no suspended solids. The rotating mechanism of the membrane panels permitted the entire membrane surface to receive the same intensive degree of air scouring, which lead to a longer duration. The MBR process holds a promising future because of its smaller footprints in contrast to conventional systems, superior effluent quality, and high loading rate capacity.

Alnaizy, Raafat; Aidan, Ahmad; Luo, Haonan

2011-12-01

45

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

46

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

47

Pilot Scale Synthesis of TATB.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processes developed by Mason and Hanger for the pilot scale production of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) are described. 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) was nitrated to form 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TCTNB) and then aminated to T...

W. T. Quinlin Z. L. Estes V. H. Evans C. L. Schaffer

1976-01-01

48

Pilot Scale Treatment of Wine Stillage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilot and laboratory scale studies were run on aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment of winery stillage over a two year period. The pilot scale studies included work with aerobic lagoons and anaerobic packed towers. Laboratory systems studied were ae...

E. D. Schroeder

1975-01-01

49

Pilot scale thermolysis of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process of thermolysis of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a pilot scale reactor and the results are compared with others obtained under laboratory conditions (semi-pilot scale). The aim of this study was to get the energetic valorisation of the products. Owing to the specific characteristics of the plant, two products were obtained from

M. E. Sánchez; M. J. Cuetos; O. Martínez; A. Morán

2007-01-01

50

Engineering an Innovative Bioreactor with Existing Lagoon System for Dairy Wastewater Treatment\\/Reuse - A Pilot Plant Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of a large dairy farm (60 acres of land with 1,600 livestock) located on the island of Oahu, Hawaii is investigated for potential integration of the existing lagoon system with cost effective pretreatment unit process. Based on the laboratory study, a pilot plant has been installed two 10 m3 of anaerobic bioreactor. Two layers of media \\

Eulsaeng Cho; P. Y. Yang

51

Dynamic Single-Use Bioreactors Used in Modern Liter- and m(3)- Scale Biotechnological Processes: Engineering Characteristics and Scaling Up.  

PubMed

During the past 10 years, single-use bioreactors have been well accepted in modern biopharmaceutical production processes targeting high-value products. Up to now, such processes have mainly been small- or medium-scale mammalian cell culture-based seed inoculum, vaccine or antibody productions. However, recently first attempts have been made to modify existing single-use bioreactors for the cultivation of plant cells and tissue cultures, and microorganisms. This has even led to the development of new single-use bioreactor types. Moreover, due to safety issues it has become clear that single-use bioreactors are the "must have" for expanding human stem cells delivering cell therapeutics, the biopharmaceuticals of the next generation. So it comes as no surprise that numerous different dynamic single-use bioreactor types, which are suitable for a wide range of applications, already dominate the market today. Bioreactor working principles, main applications, and bioengineering data are presented in this review, based on a current overview of greater than milliliter-scale, commercially available, dynamic single-use bioreactors. The focus is on stirred versions, which are omnipresent in R&D and manufacturing, and in particular Sartorius Stedim's BIOSTAT family. Finally, we examine development trends for single-use bioreactors, after discussing proven approaches for fast scaling-up processes. PMID:23609177

Löffelholz, Christian; Kaiser, Stephan C; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

2014-01-01

52

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application\\u000a of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has\\u000a also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale.\\u000a A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized,

P. R. Norris; N. P. Burton; N. A. M. Foulis

2000-01-01

53

Enhanced production of carboxymethylcellulase of a marine microorganism, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis A-53 in a pilot-scaled bioreactor by a recombinant Escherichia coli JM109/A-53 from rice bran.  

PubMed

A gene encoding the carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) of a marine bacterium, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis A-53, was cloned in Escherichia coli JMB109 and the recombinant strain was named as E. coli JMB109/A-53. The optimal conditions of rice bran, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium for cell growth, extracted by Design Expert Software based on response surface methodology, were 100.0 g/l, 7.5 g/l, and 7.0, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 100.0 g/l, 7.5 g/l, and 8.0. The optimal temperatures for cell growth and the production of CMCase by E. coli JM109/A-53 were found to be and 40 and 35 °C, respectively. The optimal agitation speed and aeration rate of a 7 l bioreactor for cell growth were 400 rpm and 1.5 vvm, whereas those for production of CMCase were 400 rpm and 0.5 vvm. The optimal inner pressure for cell growth was 0.06 MPa, which was the same as that for production of CMCase. The production of CMCase by E. coli JM109/A-53 under optimized conditions was 880.2 U/ml, which was 2.9 times higher than that before optimization. In this study, rice bran and ammonium chloride were developed as carbon and nitrogen source for production of CMCase by a recombinant E. coli JM109/A-53 and the productivity of E. coli JM109/A-53 was 5.9 times higher than that of B. subtilis subp. subtilis A-53. PMID:23334472

Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Bo-Hwa; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Jin-Woo

2013-05-01

54

Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

2008-03-01

55

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

56

Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.  

PubMed

Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg [Formula: see text] -N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg [Formula: see text] -N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg [Formula: see text] -N/(L.h). PMID:24862952

Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

2014-09-01

57

Study on hydraulic characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic characteristics in a membrane bioreactor are of significance for retarding membrane fouling and maintaining stable operation. Cross flow velocity along the membrane surface and its effect on transmembrane pressure change were experimentally investigated using two pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors. A simulation model for calculating cross flow velocity was then developed. Cross flow velocity was a function of aeration intensity.

Rui Liu; Xia Huang; Chengwen Wang; Lvjun Chen; Yi Qian

2000-01-01

58

Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5?×?10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass. PMID:24061414

Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

2013-11-01

59

[Pilot scale research on impacts of leachate recirculation on its ultimate treatment].  

PubMed

Two pilot scale simulated columns, with and without leachate recirculation, were erected to study impacts of leachate recirculation of traditional anaerobic bioreactor landfill on leachate ultimate treatment methods. The results indicate that recirculation can remove organic pollutants visibly, but it isn't effective to inbiodegradable components, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. After recircualted for 44 weeks, test column has a BODs removal ratio of 98.5%. BOD5/COD value of outflow is only 0.07. BOD5/TN and BOD5/TP are 0.13 and 11 respectively, which are much lower than the adequate value for anaerobic microorganisms. It's difficult to treat this kind of leachate by traditional biological methods. When a bioreactor landfill is being designed, leachate characteristics after recirculated should be well considered and adequate leachate treatment, landfill and recirculation schemes should be chosen to take full advantage of waste stack decontamination effects. PMID:16921969

Deng, Zhou; Jiang, Jian-guo; Huang, Zhong-lin; Feng, Xiang-ming; Zhou, Sheng-yong; Yang, Guo-dong

2006-06-01

60

Correlation between microbial community structure and biofouling in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor with synthetic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane biofouling was investigated in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to determine how microbial community structure influences the fouling process and the potential for quorum sensing. Differences in microbial communities of the mixed liquor and the membrane fouling layer were evaluated using pyrosequencing. During continuous MBR operation, macroscopic engineering parameters such as total cell concentration and organic removal rate were

SooYeon Lim; Seil Kim; Kyung-Min Yeon; Byoung-In Sang; Jongsik Chun; Chung-Hak Lee

61

Power consumption and maximum energy dissipation in a milliliter-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions of a milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 12 mL) with a gas-inducing impeller. A standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 1,200 mL) with Rushton turbines was used as reference. The measured power characteristics (Newton number as function of Reynolds number) were the same on both scales. The changeover between laminar and turbulent flow regime was observed at a Reynolds number of 3,000 with the gas-inducing stirrer on a milliliter-scale. The Newton number (power number) in the turbulent flow regime was 3.3 on a milliliter-scale, which is close to values reported for six-blade Rushton turbines of standard bioreactors. Maximum local energy dissipation (epsilon(max)) was measured using a clay/polymer flocculation system. The maximum local energy dissipation in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared with the laboratory-scale stirred tank at the same mean power input per unit mass (epsilon(ø)), yielding epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) approximately 10 compared with epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) approximately 16. Hence, the milliliter-scale stirred tank reactor distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. These results are in good agreement with literature data, where a decreasing epsilon(max)/epsilon(ø) with increasing ratio of impeller diameter to reactor diameter is found (d/D = 0.7 compared with d/D = 0.4). Based on these data, impeller speeds can now be easily adjusted to achieve the same maximum local energy dissipation at different scales. This enables a more reliable and robust scale-up of bioprocesses from milliliter-scale to liter-scale reactors. PMID:19941326

Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

2010-01-01

62

Long-term monitoring of a full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor—Characterisation of foulants and operational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For approximately 2 years the large full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor (MBR) in Kaarst\\/Germany has been monitored and sampled. In addition to operational data for the membrane and the bioreactor and an expanded set of water and sludge quality parameters, analytical data for dissolved and colloidal substances were collected and analysed. For the first time a complete dataset on the occurrence

Sven Lyko; Thomas Wintgens; Djamila Al-Halbouni; Sven Baumgarten; Daniela Tacke; Kinga Drensla; Andreas Janot; Wolfgang Dott; Johannes Pinnekamp; Thomas Melin

2008-01-01

63

The influence of impeller type in pilot scale xanthan fermentations  

PubMed

The rheological complexity of Xanthan fermentations presents an interesting problem from a mixing viewpoint, because the phenomena of poor bulk blending and low oxygen mass transfer rates inherent in highly viscous fermentations (and their consequences) can be systematically investigated, even at the pilot plant scale. This study in a 150 L fermentor compares the physical and biological performance of four pairs of impellers: a standard Rushton turbine, a large diameter Rushton turbine, a Prochem Maxflo T, and a Scaba 6SRGT. Accurate in-fermentor power measurements, essential for the comparison of impellers in relation to operating costs are also reported. It is demonstrated that the agitator performance in Xanthan fermentations is very specific and the choice of which impeller to use in bioreactors to obtain enhanced performance is dependant on the applied criterion. None of the criterion favored the use of the standard Rushton turbine, therefore suggesting that there are strong grounds for retrofitting these impellers with either large diameter impellers of similar design or with novel agitators. In addition, fluid dynamic modeling of cavern formation has clearly highlighted the importance of a well mixed and oxygenated region for providing the capacity for high microbial oxygen uptake rates which govern Xanthan productivity and quality. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099183

Amanullah; Serrano-Carreon; Castro; Galindo; Nienow

1998-01-01

64

A pilot study for oil refinery wastewater treatment using a fixed-film bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of industrial oil refinery wastewater is a well-established method for remediation of these wastes. We have designed a new bioreactor system to increase the efficiency of biological treatment systems by (1) allowing greater organic loads, (2) minimizing production of sludge waste by-products, and (3) increasing process stability and resistance to shock loading. A fixed-film bioreactor system was constructed

Chih-Ju G Jou; Guo-Chiang Huang

2003-01-01

65

Large-Scale Plantlet Conversion and Ex Vitro Transplantation Efficiency of Siberian Ginseng by Bioreactor Culture  

PubMed Central

To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs) induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval) and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7%) and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST) expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

Yang, Jingli; Zhao, Shicheng; Yu, Changyeon; Li, Chenghao

2013-01-01

66

Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: Initial stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000–43000gl?1 of TOC) and low pH (5–6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had

Xian Qu; Pin-Jing He; Li-Ming Shao; Duu-Jong Lee

2008-01-01

67

Laboratory-scale bioreactors for soluble selenium removal from selenium refinery wastewater using anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale bioreactors were constructed to investigate their applicability for recovery of soluble selenium from industrial wastewater. Microbial reduction of soluble selenium into elemental selenium is the key reaction because, as a result of its insoluble characteristics, it can be removed easily from the aqueous phase. Wastewater of a selenium refinery plant showed extremely low pH (<1.0), high salinity (6–7%), and

Satoshi Soda; Masami Kashiwa; Tsubasa Kagami; Masashi Kuroda; Mitsuo Yamashita; Michihiko Ike

2011-01-01

68

Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed

Booki Min

2005-01-01

69

Validation of a full-scale membrane bioreactor and the impact of membrane cleaning on the removal of microbial indicators.  

PubMed

The removal of microbial indicators through a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was characterised. The overall log reduction of Escherichia coli and total coliforms were in the range of 5.0-5.9log10 units, while the reduction of clostridia was marginally less at 4.9log10 units. Removal of bacteriophage was in excess of 4.6log10 units. The impact of membrane cleaning on the elimination of microbial indicators was also assessed since this had been identified by pilot-scale studies as a potential hazardous event. Membrane cleaning temporarily reduced the log removal values of E. coli and total coliforms each by 1log10 unit, but did not affect the removal of bacteriophage or clostridia. Very little research has previously examined the consequences of hazardous events on the performance of full-scale MBRs, and thus the findings presented here will facilitate improvements for the risk assessment and management of MBRs used in water recycling schemes. PMID:24456851

van den Akker, Ben; Trinh, Trang; Coleman, Heather M; Stuetz, Richard M; Le-Clech, Pierre; Khan, Stuart J

2014-03-01

70

Pilot-scale testing of refining process for decontaminating lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of 1989--1990 pilot-scale tests of a refining process for decontaminating radioactively contaminated lead. Bench-scale tests in 1988 had been successful, and the pilot-scale tests were needed to determine whether the proc...

M. V. Davis

1990-01-01

71

Scale up aspects of sparged insect-cell bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we have attempted to evaluate the most important parameters which can be useful for the purpose of design and scale up. Insect cells and animal cells in general can be grown well in large vessels. However, none of the theories and parameters discussed in this chapter have been validated on a larger scale than laboratory and small

J. Tramper; J. M. Vlak; C. D. Gooijer

72

Scale up aspects of sparged insect-cell bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we have attempted to evaluate the most important parameters which can be useful for the pur-pose of design and scale up. Insect cells and animal cells in general can be grown well in large vessels. However, none of the theories and parameters discussed in this chapter have been validated on a larger scale than laboratory and small

J. Tramper; J. M. Vlak; C. D. Gooijer

1996-01-01

73

Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: initial stage.  

PubMed

Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000-43000gl(-1) of TOC) and low pH (5-6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had been established, and HMs release was reduced below the Chinese National Standards. Total released HMs accounted for less than 1% of landfill deposited during the investigated period. Most landfill HMs were inorganic. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra data and model calculations using Visual MINTEQ indicated that humic substances strongly affected the mobility of organic fractions of HMs in the methanogenic landfill. The initial rates of HMs release could be enhanced by recycling the leachate back to bioreactor landfill, but the total quantity released may be reduced by early establishment of methanogenic stage in bioreactor landfill. PMID:17723237

Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

2008-01-01

74

Evaluation of Newly Developed Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Water Reclamation. Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Report No. 147.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project evaluated the pilot scale performance of four newly developed membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems during the reclamation of municipal wastewater. The specific systems tested and participating MBR suppliers included Puron MBR from Koch Membrane ...

J. F. DeCarolis S. Adham Z. M. Hirani

2009-01-01

75

A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams  

SciTech Connect

An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

1995-10-01

76

A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

Hoh, R. H.

1975-01-01

77

Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

78

Production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii grown at two bioreactor scales under oxygen-limited conditions.  

PubMed

The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was evaluated as a scale-up criterion for alginate production in 3- and 14-L stirred fermentors. Batch cultures were performed at different agitation rates (200, 300, and 600 rpm) and airflow rates (0.25, 0.5, and 1 vvm), resulting in different maximum OTR levels (OTRmax). Although the two reactors had a similar OTRmax (19 mmol L(-1) h(-1)) and produced the same alginate concentration (3.8 g L(-1)), during the cell growth period the maximum molecular weight of the alginate was 1,250 kDa in the 3-L stirred fermentor and 590 kDa in 14-L stirred fermentor. The results showed for the first time the evolution of the molecular weight of alginate and OTR profiles for two different scales of stirred fermentors. There was a different maximum specific oxygen uptake rate between the two fermenters, reaching 8.3 mmol g(-1) h(-1) in 3-L bioreactor and 10.6 mmol g(-1) h(-1) in 14-L bioreactor, which could explain the different molecular weights observed. These findings open the possibility of using [Formula: see text] instead of OTRmax as a scaling criterion to produce polymers with similar molecular weights during fermentation. PMID:24173209

Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Gutierrez, Javiera; Martínez, Fabiola; Altamirano, Claudia

2014-06-01

79

Scale-up of virus-like particles production: effects of sparging, agitation and bioreactor scale on cell growth, infection kinetics and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The baculovirus-insect cells expression system was used for the production of self-forming Porcine parvovirus (PPV) like particles (virus-like particles, VLPs) in serum-free medium. At 2l bioreactor scale an efficient production was achieved by infecting the culture at a concentration of 1.5×106cells\\/ml using a low multiplicity of infection of 0.05pfu per cell. In a continuous bioreactor, it was shown that the

Luis Maranga; António Cunha; João Clemente; Pedro Cruz; Manuel J. T. Carrondo

2004-01-01

80

Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.  

PubMed

Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities. PMID:23315361

Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

2013-02-01

81

On the fluid dynamics of a laboratory scale single-use stirred bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The commercial success of mammalian cell-derived recombinant proteins has fostered an increase in demand for novel single-use bioreactor (SUB) systems that facilitate greater productivity, increased flexibility and reduced costs (Zhang et al., 2010). These systems exhibit fluid flow regimes unlike those encountered in traditional glass/stainless steel bioreactors because of the way in which they are designed. With such disparate hydrodynamic environments between SUBs currently on the market, traditional scale-up approaches applied to stirred tanks should be revised. One such SUB is the Mobius® 3 L CellReady, which consists of an upward-pumping marine scoping impeller. This work represents the first experimental study of the flow within the CellReady using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) approach, combined with a biological study into the impact of these fluid dynamic characteristics on cell culture performance. The PIV study was conducted within the actual vessel, rather than using a purpose-built mimic. PIV measurements conveyed a degree of fluid compartmentalisation resulting from the up-pumping impeller. Both impeller tip speed and fluid working volume had an impact upon the fluid velocities and spatial distribution of turbulence within the vessel. Cell cultures were conducted using the GS-CHO cell-line (Lonza) producing an IgG4 antibody. Disparity in cellular growth and viability throughout the range of operating conditions used (80–350 rpm and 1–2.4 L working volume) was not substantial, although a significant reduction in recombinant protein productivity was found at 350 rpm and 1 L working volume (corresponding to the highest Reynolds number tested in this work). The study shows promise in the use of PIV to improve understanding of the hydrodynamic environment within individual SUBs and allows identification of the critical hydrodynamic parameters under the different flow regimes for compatibility and scalability across the range of bioreactor platforms.

Odeleye, A.O.O.; Marsh, D.T.J.; Osborne, M.D.; Lye, G.J.; Micheletti, M.

2014-01-01

82

Scale-up cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea from indoor to outdoor in bubble column bioreactors.  

PubMed

The cultivation of Chlorella ellipsoidea in bubble column bioreactors was investigated at different scales under indoor and outdoor conditions. The algal cells were able to quickly adapt to the outdoor conditions and achieved a growth rate of 31.55mg L(-1)day(-1). Due to differences in light and temperature, the outdoor culture produced a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the indoor cultures, while the amino acid composition was unaffected. The overall cost of the biomass produced by the 200L outdoor cultivation (58.70US$/kg-dry weight) was estimated to be more than 7 times lower than that of the 20L indoor cultivation (431.39US$/kg-dry weight). Together these results provide a basis for the cultivation of C. ellipsoidea for the large-scale production of biofuels, high-value nutrients and/or recombinant proteins. PMID:24495537

Wang, Shi-Kai; Hu, Yi-Ru; Wang, Feng; Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2014-03-01

83

Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance. PMID:16915704

Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

2006-01-01

84

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF INCINERATING LISTED WASTES FROM SPECIFICSOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-Scale incineration testing was conducted at the United StatesEnvironmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility(IRF) to support the development of best demonstrated availabletechnology (BDAT) standards for the treatment of several hazardouswastes from specific...

85

Large Scale Expansion of Human Umbilical Cord Cells in a Rotating Bed System Bioreactor for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

Widespread use of human umbilical cord cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering requires production of large numbers of well-characterized cells under controlled conditions. In current research projects, the expansion of cells to be used to create a tissue construct is usually performed in static cell culture systems which are, however, often not satisfactory due to limitations in nutrient and oxygen supply. To overcome these limitations dynamic cell expansion in bioreactor systems under controllable conditions could be an important tool providing continuous perfusion for the generation of large numbers of viable pre-conditioned cells in a short time period. For this purpose cells derived from human umbilical cord arteries were expanded in a rotating bed system bioreactor for up to 9 days. For a comparative study, cells were cultivated under static conditions in standard culture devices. Our results demonstrated that the microenvironment in the perfusion bioreactor was more favorable than that of the standard cell culture flasks. Data suggested that cells in the bioreactor expanded 39 fold (38.7 ± 6.1 fold) in comparison to statically cultured cells (31.8 ± 3.0 fold). Large-scale production of cells in the bioreactor resulted in more than 3 x 108 cells from a single umbilical cord fragment within 9 days. Furthermore cell doubling time was lower in the bioreactor system and production of extracellular matrix components was higher. With this study, we present an appropriate method to expand human umbilical cord artery derived cells with high cellular proliferation rates in a well-defined bioreactor system under GMP conditions.

Reichardt, Anne; Polchow, Bianca; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hetzer, Roland; Lueders, Cora

2013-01-01

86

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30

87

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-08-01

88

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-01-01

89

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-08-01

90

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-05-01

91

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-02-01

92

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-04-01

93

SANASA Capivari II - the first full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor in Latin America.  

PubMed

The macro region of Campinas (Brazil) is rapidly evolving with new housing developments and industries, creating the challenge of finding new ways to treat wastewater to a quality that can be reused in order to overcome water scarcity problems. To address this challenge, SANASA (a publicly owned water and wastewater concessionaire from Campinas) has recently constructed the 'EPAR (Water Reuse Production Plant) Capivari II' using the GE ZeeWeed 500D(®) ultrafiltration membrane system. This is the first large-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system in Latin America with biological tertiary treatment capability (nitrogen and phosphorus removal), being able to treat an average flow of 182 L/s in its first phase of construction. The filtration system is composed of three membrane trains with more than 36,000 m(2) of total membrane filtration area. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was commissioned in April 2012 and the permeate quality has exceeded expectations. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates are around and above 97% on a consistent basis, with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH3 (ammonia) concentrations at very low levels, and turbidity lower than 0.3 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). Treated effluent is sent to a water reuse accumulation tank (from where will be distributed as reuse water), and the excess is discharged into the Capivari River. PMID:25051474

Pagotto, R; Rossetto, R; Gasperi, R L P; Andrade, J P; Trovati, J; Vallero, M V G; Okumura, A; Arntsen, B

2014-01-01

94

Development of a Scale-Down Model of hydrodynamic stress to study the performance of an industrial CHO cell line under simulated production scale bioreactor conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a Scale-Down Model of a hydrodynamic stress present in large scale production bioreactors to investigate the performance of CHO cells under simulated production bioreactor conditions. Various levels of hydrodynamic stress were generated in 2L bioreactors mimicking those present in different locations of a large scale stirred tank bioreactor. In general, it was observed that tested cells are highly robust against the effect of hydrodynamic stress. However, at elevated hydrodynamic stress equivalent to an average energy dissipation rate, ?, equal to 0.4W/kg, the specific monoclonal antibody productivity, qmAb, decreased by 25% compared to the cultivation conditions corresponding to ? equal to 0.01W/kg. Even stronger decrease of qmAb, in the order of 30%, was observed when ? was periodically oscillating between 0.01 and 0.4W/kg to simulate the repeated passage of cells through the highly turbulent impeller discharge zone of a production scale bioreactor. Despite this effect, no changes in metabolite consumption or byproduct formation were observed. Furthermore, considering the experimental error product quality was independent of the applied ?. To achieve a molecular insight into the observed drop of cellular productivity, a transcriptome analysis using mRNA microarrays was performed. It was found that transcripts related to DNA damage and repair mechanisms were upregulated when high ? was applied for cultivation. PMID:23228731

Sieck, Jochen B; Cordes, Thekla; Budach, Wolfgang E; Rhiel, Martin H; Suemeghy, Zoltan; Leist, Christian; Villiger, Thomas K; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav

2013-03-10

95

Polymeric compounds in activated sludge supernatant — Characterisation and retention mechanisms at a full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, for the first time a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated with focus on organic compounds in activated sludge over a period of approximately 2 years. Soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the sludge supernatant and permeate as well as bound EPS extracted from fouled membranes were determined photospectrometrically and revealed a typical composition of three main

Sven Lyko; Djamila Al-Halbouni; Thomas Wintgens; Andreas Janot; Juliane Hollender; Wolfgang Dott; Thomas Melin

2007-01-01

96

Production of tropane alkaloids by small-scale bubble column bioreactor cultures of Scopolia parviflora adventitious roots.  

PubMed

The mass production of tropane alkaloids from adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora, in small-scale bubble column bioreactor (BCB) was attempted. Adventitious roots of S. parviflora produced relatively enhanced levels of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in bioreactor compared to flask type cultures, and rapidly produced root clumps, with continuously increasing biomass throughout the culture period. The production of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in the top and bottom regions of root clumps were higher than in the core region. The adventitious root cultures of S. parviflora in the BCB required a relatively high level of aeration. The optimized conditions for the bioreactor culture growth and alkaloid production were found to be 3g of inoculum, on a fresh weight basis, a 15-day culture period and 0.4vvm of airflow. The elicitation by Staphylococus aureus increased the specific compound of scopolamine, while the production of hyoscyamine was slightly inhibited in BCB cultures. PMID:16965915

Min, Ji Yun; Jung, Hee Young; Kang, Seung Mi; Kim, Yong Duck; Kang, Young Min; Park, Dong Jin; Prasad, Doddananjappa Theertha; Choi, Myung Suk

2007-07-01

97

Enhanced pilot-scale fed-batch L-phenylalanine production with recombinant Escherichia coli by fully integrated reactive extraction.  

PubMed

A fully integrated process for the microbial production and recovery of the aromatic amino acid L-phenylalanine is presented. Using a recombinant L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) auxotrophic Escherichia coli production strain, a fed-batch fermentation process was developed in a 20-l-scale bioreactor. Concentrations of glucose and L-Tyr were closed-loop-controlled in a fed-batch process. After achieving final L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) titres >30 g/l the process strategy was scaled up to 300-l pilot scale. In technical scale fermentation L-phenylalanine was continuously recovered via a fully integrated reactive extraction system achieving a maximum extraction rate of 110 g/h (final purity >99%). It was thus possible to increase L-Phe/glucose selectivity from 15 mol% without to 20.3 mol% with integrated product separation. PMID:14505019

Gerigk, M R; Maass, D; Kreutzer, A; Sprenger, G; Bongaerts, J; Wubbolts, M; Takors, R

2002-04-01

98

Application of bioreactor systems for large scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of micropropagation via organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in a bioreactor has been advanced as a possible way of reducing costs. Micropropagation by conventional techniques is typically a labour-intensive means of clonal propagation. The paper describes lower cost and less labour-intensive clonal propagation through the use of modified air-lift, bubble column, bioreactors (a balloon-type bubble bioreactor), together with temporary immersion

K. Y. Paek; D. Chakrabarty; E. J. Hahn

2005-01-01

99

TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

100

Long term and large-scale cultivation of human hepatoma Hep G2 cells in hollow fiber bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term and large scale cultivation of an anchorage-dependent cell line using an industrial scale hollow fiber perfusion bioreactor is described. Hep G2 cells (a human hepatoma cell line) were cultivated in an Acysyst-P® (Endotronic) with a total fiber surface area of 7.2 m2 (6×1.2 m2) to produce Hep G2 crude conditioned medium (CCM). Pretreatment of the cellulose acetate hollow fibers

Jiuan J. Liu; Bor-Shiun Chen; Te-Feng Tsai; Yun-Ju Wu; Victor F. Pang; Amy Hsieh; Jih-Han Hsieh; Tong H. Chang

1991-01-01

101

Design and operating experiences of full-scale municipal membrane bioreactors in Japan.  

PubMed

In Japan, membrane bioreactor (MBRs) have been installed in 17 small-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the past 8 years, together with two recently installed MBRs for larger-scale WWTPs. In this study, design and operating data were collected from 17 of them as part of a follow-up survey, and aspects including system design, biological treatment, membrane operation, problems and costs were overviewed. Because most of the MBRs were designed according to standardized guidance, system configuration of the plants was similar; pre-denitrification using the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process with membrane units submerged in aerobic tanks, following a fine screen and flow equalization tank. This led to effluent quality with biochemical oxygen demand and T-N of less than 3.5 and 7.4 mg/L, respectively, for nine plants on an annual average basis. It was a common practice in extremely under-loaded plants to operate the membrane systems intermittently. Frequency of recovery cleaning events was plant-specific, mostly ranging from 1 to 5 times/year. Cost evaluation revealed that specific construction costs for the small-scale MBRs were no more than for oxidation ditch plants. Although specific energy consumption values tended to be high in the under-loaded plants, the demonstration MBR, where several energy reducing measures had been incorporated, attained specific energy consumption of 0.39 kWh/m(3) under full-capacity operation. PMID:24622560

Itokawa, H; Tsuji, K; Yamashita, K; Hashimoto, T

2014-01-01

102

Characterization and application of a miniature 10 mL stirred-tank bioreactor, showing scale-down equivalence with a conventional 7 L reactor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the engineering environment of an instrumented 10 mL miniature stirred-tank bioreactor and evaluate its potential as a scale-down device for microbial fermentation processes. Miniature bioreactors such as the one detailed in this work have been developed by several research groups and companies and seek to address the current bottleneck at the screening stage of bioprocess development. The miniature bioreactor was characterized in terms of overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient and mixing time over a wide range of impeller speeds. Power input to the miniature bioreactor was directly measured, and from this the power number of each impeller was calculated and specific power input estimated, allowing the performance of the miniature bioreactor to be directly compared with that of a conventional 7 L bioreactor. The capability of the miniature bioreactor to carry out microbial fermentations was also investigated. Replicate batch fermentations of Escherichia coli DH5alpha producing plasmid DNA were performed at equal specific power input, under fully aerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions. The results showed a high degree of equivalence between the two scales with regard to growth and product kinetics. This was underlined by the equal maximum specific growth rate and equal specific DNA product yield on biomass obtained at the two scales of operation, demonstrating the feasibility of scaling down to 10 mL on the basis of equivalent specific power input. PMID:16739949

Betts, Jonathan I; Doig, Steven D; Baganz, Frank

2006-01-01

103

The Characterization of Grade PCEA Recycle Graphite Pilot Scale Billets  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the physical properties of a series specimens machined from pilot scale (~ 152 mm diameter x ~305 mm length) grade PCEA recycle billets manufactured by GrafTech. The pilot scale billets were processed with increasing amounts of (unirradiated) graphite (from 20% to 100%) introduced to the formulation with the goal of determining if large fractions of recycle graphite have a deleterious effect on properties. The properties determined include Bulk Density, Electrical Resistivity, Elastic (Young s) Modulus, and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. Although property variations were observed to be correlated with the recycle fraction, the magnitude of the variations was noted to be small.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

2010-10-01

104

Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and

James G. Mueller; Suzanne E. Lantz; Derek Ross; Richard J. Colvin; Douglas P. Middaugh; Parmely H. Pritchard

1993-01-01

105

Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged membrane bioreactor with gravitational filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined practical performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with gravitational filtration, using a pilot-scale plant (volume of the bioreactor: 3.12m3) and raw domestic wastewater. Treated water was filtered through flat microfiltration membrane modules (polyethylene; pore size 0.4?m) by the pressure head of bulk solution. A combined aerobic\\/anaerobic (single-sludge) system was used to enhance nitrogen removal. Operation was continued

Tatsuki Ueda; Kenji Hata

1999-01-01

106

Powdered activated carbon and membrane bioreactors (MBRPAC) for tannery wastewater treatment: long term effect on biological and filtration process performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the findings of an experimental investigation carried out on a pilot scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to analyze improvements in effluent quality and in the filtration process. The results refer to a pilot plant monitoring stretched over a period of 594 days: 380 without PAC, 123 with a PAC concentration

G. Munz; R. Gori; G. Mori; C. Lubello

2007-01-01

107

Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning

Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia; Craig Rieger

2011-01-01

108

PILOT SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOTOLYTIC OZONATION FOR TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation has been studied at the pilot-scale for removing trihalomethane (THM) precursors from potable water. The effects of variations in ozone dose rate, UV intensity and other parameters were first studied using a synthetic feedwater...

109

Detoxification of jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis L.) with pilot scale roasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to investigate the relationships between various roasting conditions and the levels of antinutritional factors on the one hand and the nutritional value of jackbean (JB) samples on chicks on the other. Whole JB were roasted on a pilot scale coffee roaster as previously described (see part 1). Two animal experiments were performed on nine roasted JB samples

A León; R. E Vargas; C Michelangeli; J-P Melcion; M Picard

1998-01-01

110

Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

2010-01-01

111

Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors  

SciTech Connect

Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

2011-02-01

112

Biogeochemistry of a Field-Scale Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor Treating Mining Influenced Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidity, metal release, and toxicity may be environmental health concerns in areas influenced by mining. Mining influenced waters (MIW) can be remediated through the establishment of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors (SRBRs) as part of engineered passive treatment systems. The objective of our research is an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry in SRBRs by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques. Bioreactor reactive substrate, settling pond water, and effluent (from the SRBR) were collected from a field scale SRBR in Arizona, which has been in operation for approximately 3 years. Schematically, the water passes through the SRBR; combines with flow that bypasses the SRBR into the and goes into the mixing pond, and finally is released as effluent to aerobic polishing cells. High throughput sequencing of extracted DNA revealed that Proteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (61%), settling pond (93%), and effluent (50%), with the next most abundant phylum in all samples (excluding uncultured organisms) being Bacteriodes (1-17%). However, at the superclass level, the three samples were more variable. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (35%), Betaproteobacteria in the settling pond (63%) and finally the effluent was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Helicobacteraceae) (43%). Diversity was most pronounced in association with the reactor matrix, and least diverse in the settling pond. Putative functional analysis revealed a modest presence of sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) (>5%) in both the matrix and settling pond but a much higher abundance (43%) of sulfur reducing bacteria in the effluent. Interestingly this effluent population was composed entirely of the family Helicobacteraceae (sulfur reduction II via polysulfide pathway). Other putative functions of interest include metal reduction in the matrix (3%) and effluent (3%), as well as polysaccharide degradation, which was largely abundant in all samples (21-38%). Acid digests and micro-focused X-ray fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy revealed precipitation heterogeneities exist between surface samples taken near the front of the influent pipe (west) and downstream (east). Zinc was disproportionately immobilized at the front of the reactor (~10-fold higher), while a higher portion (~3-fold) of iron precipitates was observed downstream. Microfocused XAS further revealed matrix heterogeneities consisting of clusters of stellar shaped sulfur / iron precipitates. An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry of SRBRs has applications in passive remediation of contaminated MIW and an interdisciplinary understanding of metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Webb, S.; Sharp, J. O.

2012-12-01

113

Characterization of biofouling in a lab-scale forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR).  

PubMed

Forward osmosis membrane bioreactors (FOMBR) provide high quality permeate, however the propensity for membrane biofouling in FOMBRs is unknown. Here, FOMBRs were operated under high and low aeration and the membrane-associated biofilms were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and rRNA gene-tagged pyrosequencing. CLSM images revealed that there was little biofilm formed under high aeration, while thick biofilms were observed on the membranes operated under low aeration. The diversity and richness of bacterial and archaeal communities as assessed by pyrosequencing varied under high and low aeration. The composition of the bacterial suspended sludge communities and the sessile biomass on the membrane surface, as assessed by non-metric multidimensional scaling, was significantly different under high aeration, but was more similar under low aeration. SIMPER analysis indicated that Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Fluviicola preferentially attached to the membrane. The results presented here provide a comprehensive understanding of membrane biofouling in FOMBRs, which is essential for the development of effective control strategies. PMID:24751548

Zhang, Qiaoyun; Jie, Yap Wei; Loong, Winson Lay Chee; Zhang, Jinsong; Fane, Anthony G; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; McDougald, Diane

2014-07-01

114

Performance of a full-scale membrane bioreactor system in treating municipal wastewater for reuse purposes.  

PubMed

The microbial removal efficacy of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant was evaluated. Total and faecal coliforms, thermo-tolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F-RNA specific bacteriophages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis (BFRPH) were used as bacterial and viral indicators. Reclamation and reuse of MBR effluent were considered. The average Log(10) reductions of the bacterial indicators range from 6 Log(10) for enterococci to 7 Log(10) for E. coli and faecal coliforms. The average removal of FRNA coliphages was similar to that of enterococci. Complete removal of BFRPH was observed. Log(10) reductions of somatic coliphages were significantly lower than those of all other indicators. Somatic coliphages appear to be better indicators of the microbial removal efficiency of the MBR system than faecal bacterial indicators. The quality of the MBR permeate conforms largely with the microbiological standards for urban (e.g. street cleaning, vehicle washing) and agricultural reuse. PMID:20093005

Zanetti, Franca; De Luca, Giovanna; Sacchetti, Rossella

2010-05-01

115

[Performance of lab-scale SPAC anaerobic bioreactor with high loading rate].  

PubMed

The performance of a novel anaerobic bioreactor, spiral automatic circulation (SPAC) reactor, was investigated in lab-scale. The results showed that the average COD removal efficiency was 93.6% (91.1%-95.7%), with influent concentration increased from 8000 mg/L to 20 000 mg/L, at 30 degrees C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h. The removal efficiency remained at 96.0%-78.7% when HRT was shortened from 5.95 h to 1.57 h, as the influent concentration was kept constantly at 20 000 mg/L. The highest organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric COD removal rate and volumetric biogas production of the SPAC reactor were 306 gCOD/(L x d), 240 g/(L x d) and 131 L/(L x d), respectively. When increasing influent COD concentration (from 8000 mg/L to 20 000 mg/L), the effluent COD concentration maintained at low level (852 mg/L for average) with volumetric COD removal rate increased by 162% and volumetric biogas production increased by 119%. With reduced HRT (from 5.95 h to 1.57 h), the volumetric COD removal rate and volumetric biogas production were increased by 191% and 195%, respectively. The SPAC reactor shows good performances in adapting the continuous change of influent COD and HRT. PMID:18998544

Chen, Jianwei; Tang, Chongjian; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Lei

2008-08-01

116

Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option. PMID:24463730

Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

2014-02-15

117

Optimization and scale-up of L-lactic acid fermentation by mutant strain Rhizopus sp. MK-96-1196 in airlift bioreactors.  

PubMed

We determined the optimum culture conditions such as inoculum size, initial starch concentration, pH during the fermentation and aeration rate for L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus sp. MK-96-1196 in a 3-l airlift bioreactor. More than 90 g/l of L-lactic acid was produced from only partially enzymatically hydrolyzed corn starch with a production rate of 2.6 g/l/h and a product yield of 87% based on the starch consumed under the optimum conditions in the 3-l airlift bioreactor. Scale-up from the 3-l to a 100-l airlift bioreactor for L-lactic acid fermentation was carried out using V(s)(cm/s) as a scale-up criterion. The production rates and yields of L-lactic acid in both bioreactors appeared to be fairly well correlated with k(L)a (1/h). PMID:16233484

Miura, Shigenobu; Arimura, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Minako; Kojima, Mami; Dwiarti, Lies; Okabe, Mitsuyasu

2003-01-01

118

A xenogeneic-free bioreactor system for the clinical-scale expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.  

PubMed

The large cell doses (>1?×?10(6) ?cells/kg) used in clinical trials with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) will require an efficient production process. Moreover, monitoring and control of MSC ex-vivo expansion is critical to provide a safe and reliable cell product. Bioprocess engineering approaches, such as bioreactor technology, offer the adequate tools to develop and optimize a cost-effective culture system for the rapid expansion of human MSC for cellular therapy. Herein, a xenogeneic (xeno)-free microcarrier-based culture system was successfully established for bone marrow (BM) MSC and adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) cultivation using a 1L-scale controlled stirred-tank bioreactor, allowing the production of (1.1?±?0.1)?×?10(8) and (4.5?±?0.2)?×?10(7) cells for BM MSC and ASC, respectively, after 7 days. Additionally, the effect of different percent air saturation values (%Airsat ) and feeding regime on the proliferation and metabolism of BM MSC was evaluated. No significant differences in cell growth and metabolic patterns were observed under 20% and 9%Airsat . Also, the three different feeding regimes studied-(i) 25% daily medium renewal, (ii) 25% medium renewal every 2 days, and (iii) fed-batch addition of concentrated nutrients and growth factors every 2 days-yielded similar cell numbers, and only slight metabolic differences were observed. Moreover, the immunophenotype (positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 and negative for CD31, CD80 and HLA-DR) and multilineage differentiative potential of expanded cells were not affected upon bioreactor culture. These results demonstrated the feasibility of expanding human MSC from different sources in a clinically relevant expansion configuration in a controlled microcarrier-based stirred culture system under xeno-free conditions. The further optimization of this bioreactor culture system will represent a crucial step towards an efficient GMP-compliant clinical-scale MSC production system. PMID:24420557

Dos Santos, Francisco; Campbell, Andrew; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Andrade, Pedro Z; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Wen, Yuan; Boucher, Shayne; Vemuri, Mohan C; da Silva, Cláudia L; Cabral, Joaquim M S

2014-06-01

119

Application of process hazards management in lab-scale pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers working with lab-scale pilot plants are also exposed to the hazardous material and unsafe environment. Injuries, accidents or even fatalities are often reported due to direct exposure of process hazards such as hazardous chemicals while working with the pilot plant. Even though the quantity of hazardous materials at the lab-scale pilot plant is small compared to real scale plant,

Hanida Abdul Aziz; Azmi Mohd Shariff; Mohd Rafizie Roslan

2011-01-01

120

Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

1994-06-01

121

Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater was examined using two side-by-side pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactors packed with sand or plastic media, and bioaugmented with the perchlorate-degrading bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. KJ. Groundwater containing perchlorate (77?g\\/L), nitrate (4mg-NO3\\/L), and dissolved oxygen (7.5mg\\/L) was amended with a carbon source (acetic acid) and nutrients (ammonium phosphate). Perchlorate was completely removed (<4?g\\/L) in the sand medium bioreactor

Booki Min; Patrick J Evans; Allyson K Chu; Bruce E Logan

2004-01-01

122

Mathematical modeling of ultrasound in tissue engineering: From bioreactors to the cellular scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model predicted resonance. It appears that ultrasound applied close to the cell's resonant frequency effectively recreates the mechanical stimulation experienced by cells during natural movement. Ultrasonic bioreactors may therefore reproduce physiological conditions just as well as more complex bioreactors.

Louw, Tobias M.

123

Solid waste pyrolysis in a pilot-scale batch pyrolyser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of different solid wastes was studied with a pilot-scale batch pyrolyser at different temperatures, fuel\\/air ratios and reaction times. The temperature distributions of the pyrolyser under control conditions and in the pyrolysis runs were determined. The gas and char yields were determined and the evolved gases analysed. The SO2 and NOx emissions were low, 8–70 and 0–20 ppmv

Christopher S. Avenell; C. Ignacio Sainz-Diaz; Anthony J. Griffiths

1996-01-01

124

Pilot scale semicontinuous production of Spirulina biomass in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the feasibility of the pilot scale production of Spirulina strain LEB-18 in southern Brazil and assessed the quality of biomass produced in relation to its kinetics characteristic, nutritional value, heavy metal content and microbial content. The maximum mean biomass concentration was 1.24 g L?1 and the maximum productivity was 69.16 g m?2 d?1. The biomass showed 84.0% digestibility, 86.0% (w\\/w)

M. G. Morais; E. M. Radmann; M. R. Andrade; G. G. Teixeira; L. R. F. Brusch; J. A. V. Costa

2009-01-01

125

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification.

Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

2012-01-01

126

Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors  

PubMed Central

Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell·mL?1 at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day?1, with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day?1. After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.

Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Herve, Fabienne; Berard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Ciara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O.; Hess, Philipp

2012-01-01

127

Trickle-bed root culture bioreactor design and scale-up: growth, fluid-dynamics, and oxygen mass transfer.  

PubMed

Trickle-bed root culture reactors are shown to achieve tissue concentrations as high as 36 g DW/L (752 g FW/L) at a scale of 14 L. Root growth rate in a 1.6-L reactor configuration with improved operational conditions is shown to be indistinguishable from the laboratory-scale benchmark, the shaker flask (mu=0.33 day(-1)). These results demonstrate that trickle-bed reactor systems can sustain tissue concentrations, growth rates and volumetric biomass productivities substantially higher than other reported bioreactor configurations. Mass transfer and fluid dynamics are characterized in trickle-bed root reactors to identify appropriate operating conditions and scale-up criteria. Root tissue respiration goes through a minimum with increasing liquid flow, which is qualitatively consistent with traditional trickle-bed performance. However, liquid hold-up is much higher than traditional trickle-beds and alternative correlations based on liquid hold-up per unit tissue mass are required to account for large changes in biomass volume fraction. Bioreactor characterization is sufficient to carry out preliminary design calculations that indicate scale-up feasibility to at least 10,000 liters. PMID:15449296

Ramakrishnan, Divakar; Curtis, Wayne R

2004-10-20

128

Application of gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration to pilot-scale methane fermentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of a national project, Aqua-Renaissance '90,' by the MITI, a pilot-scale evaluation of membrane-enhanced anaerobic fermentation, has progressed for the wastewater from a pulp and paper mill. A novel membrane filtration system was newly proposed with the aim of saving energy. That is, a gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration which was generated with liquid circulation by an air-lift pump effect, was combined in the anaerobic bioreactor. It was confirmed that the membrane filtration not only offered very stable and large permeate flux, but enhanced the processing efficiency by retaining the microorganisms in the bioreactor. Furthermore, the power consumption per unit permeate volume in the membrane system of 1.78 kWh/m[sup 3] was achieved, which was a very high-performance result from the viewpoint of saving energy, as compared with 3-5 kWh/m[sup 3] of conventional liquid single-phase cross-flow filtration.

Imasaka, Takuo; So, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Kohnosuke; Furukawa, Tomoya; Kanekuni, Nobuhiko (Biotechnology and Water Treatment Dept., Kitakyushu-shi (Japan))

1993-01-01

129

Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were

Motomu Akita; Takeo Shigeoka; Yoko Koizumi; Michio Kawamura

1994-01-01

130

Modeling scaleup effects on a small pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor for fuel ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Domestic ethanol use and production are presently undergoing significant increases along with planning and construction of new production facilities. Significant efforts are ongoing to reduce ethanol production costs by investigating new inexpensive feedstocks (woody biomass) and by reducing capital and energy costs through process improvements. A key element in the development of advanced bioreactor systems capable of very high conversion rates is the retention of high biocatalyst concentrations within the bioreactor and a reaction environment that ensures intimate contact between substrate and biocatalyst. One very effective method is to use an immobilized biocatalyst that can be placed into a reaction environment that provides effective mass transport, such as a fluidized bed. Mathematical descriptions are needed based on fundamental principles and accepted correlations that describe important physical phenomena. We describe refinements and semi-quantitatively extend the predictive model of Petersen and Davison to a multiphase fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) that was scaled-up for ethanol production. Axial concentration profiles were evaluated by solving coupled differential equations for glucose and carbon dioxide. The pilot-scale FBR (2 to 5 m tall, 10.2-cm ID, and 23,000 L month{sup -1} capacity) was scaled up from bench-scale reactors (91 to 224 cm long, 2.54 to 3.81 cm ID, and 400 to 2,300 L month{sup -1} capacity). Significant improvements in volumetric productivites (50 to 200 g EtOH h{sup -1} L{sup -1} compared with 40 to 110 for bench-scale experiments and 2 to 10 for reported industrial benchmarks) and good operability were demonstrated.

Webb, O.F.; Davison, B.H.; Scott, T.C.

1995-09-01

131

FIELD-SCALE TESTING OF A TWO-STAGE BIOREACTOR FOR REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM GROUNDWATER: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. n separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (...

132

Zero Nuisance Piggeries: long-term performance of MBR (membrane bioreactor) for dilute swine wastewater treatment using submerged membrane bioreactor in semi-industrial scale.  

PubMed

Effective aerobic/anoxic treatment of piggery manure wastewater was achieved in a real farm scale using a small piggery (72 pigs) with reuse of the treated water. The experimental procedure was followed for 9 months. Fresh manure (FM) is formed by daily flush on piggeries and biologically treated after centrifuge pre-treatment. For upgrade liquid/solid separation and pathogen retention in biological treatment, a membrane system was used with the aim of effluent reuse in flush. Despite an evolution of FM through time, centrifuge pre-treatment and bioreactor performances stayed at high level. An elimination of 86% of the suspended solids occurred through pre-treatment, and nitrogen and COD biological degradation remains at 90% all time long. Moreover, interestingly about half of the soluble part of phosphorus (20% of the global phosphorus content) was biologically removed via the recirculation between the anoxic and the aerobic tank which acted as an intermittent aerobic/anoxic sequence. A part of COD was proved not biodegradable and was accumulated via the reuse of the treated water for flushing purpose. This accumulation justifies washing of the biomass between two runs in purpose to enhance the treated water quality and also to meet the membrane tolerance. The membrane was proved reliable as far as the maintenance procedure was respected. Maintenance cleaning had to be operated as soon as the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) achieved 50 mbar and curative washing was necessary if the TMP increased over 90 mbar or between 2 runs. The temperature was proved to influence both the bioactivity and the membrane fouling kinetic. Finally, it was demonstrated that the process was sustainable for long-term management of swine wastewater at semi-industrial scale. PMID:19136138

Prado, Nolwenn; Ochoa, Juan; Amrane, Abdeltif

2009-04-01

133

Effectiveness of the membrane bioreactor in the biodegradation of high molecular weight compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents biological and physical performance data from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor system fed with synthetic wastewater containing high molecular weight compounds. At steady state, high effluent quality was obtained and maintained for about 350days. The membrane was effective in retaining heterotrophic microorganisms and MS-2 viruses, eliminating the need for effluent disinfection. The flux through the membrane decreased rapidly

Nazim Cicek; Hans Winnen; Makram T. Suidan; Brian E. Wrenn; Vincent Urbain; Jacques Manem

1998-01-01

134

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the dynamic simulation of a pilot scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The proposed MBBR model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The biofilm growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Diffusional mass transport limitations

M. Plattes; E. Henry; P. M. Schosseler; A. Weidenhaupt

2006-01-01

135

Scale-up of biotransformation process in stirred tank reactor using dual impeller bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient KLa in the fermenter is a strong function of mode of energy dissipation and physico-chemical properties of the liquid media. A combination of disc turbine (DT) and pitched blade turbine down flow (PTD) impellers has been tested in laboratory bioreactor for gas hold-up and gas–liquid mass transfer performance for the growth and biotransformation medium for

V. B Shukla; U Parasu Veera; P. R Kulkarni; A. B Pandit

2001-01-01

136

A radial flow hollow fiber bioreactor for the large-scale culture of mammalian cells.  

PubMed

A radial flow hollow fiber bioreactor has been developed that maximizes the utilization of fiber surface for cell growth while eliminating nutrient and metabolic gradients inherent in conventional hollow fiber cartridges. The reactor consists of a central flow distributor tube surrounded by an annular bed of hollow fibers. The central flow distributor tube ensures an axially uniform radial convective flow of nutrients across the fiber bed. Cells attach and proliferate on the outer surface of the fibers. The fibers are pretreated with polylysine to facilitate cell attachment and long-term maintenance of tissuelike densities of cell mass. A mixture of air and CO(2) is fed through the tube side of the hollow fibers, ensuring direct oxygenation of the cells and maintenance of pH. Spent medium diffuses across the cell layer into the tube side of the fibers and is convected away along with the spent gas stream. The bioreactor was run as a recycle reactor to permit maximum utilization of nutrient medium. A bioreactor with a membrane surface area of 1150 cm(2) was developed and H1 cells were grown to a density of 7.3 x 10(6) cells/cm(2). PMID:18555333

Tharakan, J P; Chau, P C

1986-03-01

137

Scale-up of biotransformation process in stirred tank reactor using dual impeller bioreactor.  

PubMed

The gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient K(L)a in the fermenter is a strong function of mode of energy dissipation and physico-chemical properties of the liquid media. A combination of disc turbine (DT) and pitched blade turbine down flow (PTD) impellers has been tested in laboratory bioreactor for gas hold-up and gas-liquid mass transfer performance for the growth and biotransformation medium for an yeast isolate VS1 capable of biotransforming benzaldehyde to L-phenyl acetyl carbinol (L-PAC) and compared with those in water.Correlations have been developed for the prediction of the fractional gas hold-up and gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for the above media. The mass transfer coefficient and respiration rate have been determined in the shake flask for the growth as well as for biotransformation medium. These results, then have been used to optimize the operating parameters (impeller speed and aeration) for growth and biotransformation in a laboratory bioreactor. The comparison of cell mass production and L-PAC production in the bioreactor has been done with that obtained in shake flask studies. PMID:11356367

Shukla, V B.; Parasu Veera, U; Kulkarni, P R.; Pandit, A B.

2001-07-01

138

Performance characterization of a laboratory-scale bioreactor with liquid suspensions of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134  

SciTech Connect

Trichloroethylene (TCE) was degraded in a single-stage, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) bioreactor containing pure cultures of liquid-dispersed Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. Phenol was supplied as the sole source of carbon and energy for induction of catabolic activities. Operating conditions were varied in a series of randomly ordered experiments. The independent variables were influent TCE concentration, influent phenol concentration, and hydraulic residence time. The dependent variable was the percent on influent TCE degraded or degradation efficiency. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 98.6%. An empirical equation was fitted to the data in the form of degradation efficiency as a function of the three independent variables. A close match was achieved between the equation and the data. This equation is valid only where the phenol was oxidized below the level of detection in the effluent (150 {mu}g/L). This equation is useful for bioreactor design and operation. Hydraulic residence time was noted to have a relatively small effect on degradation efficiency. Phenol and TCE were competitive, as expected in a cometabolism system. The implication for bioreactor operation is that phenol levels must be closely matched to TCE levels for optimum performance. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

McKay, D.J. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Morse, J.S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

139

Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

2011-09-01

140

Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Urbain, V. [Centre International de Recherche Sur l`Eau et l`Environnement, Le Pecq (France)

1998-11-01

141

Innovative bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent papers have described new bioreactor designs. Most innovations addressed either oxygen transfer, shear induced by stirring, control of water activity in organic phase systems or waste biotreatment. Innovations made during the past year were reported in mainly three areas: bioreactor designs for increases in oxygen transfer and decreases in shear stress; bioreactors for two-phases reactions with water activity control;

Marc A. Deshusses; Wilfred Chen; Ashok Mulchandani; Irving J. Dunn

1997-01-01

142

Model-based bioreactor selection for large-scale solid-state cultivation of Coniothyrium minitans spores on oats.  

PubMed

Non-mixed and mixed SSF reactors were evaluated for their applicability in large-scale spore production of the biocontrol fungus Coniothyrium minitans. The major problem to overcome in large-scale SSF is heat accumulation. Testing various cooling strategies in large-scale bioreactors would be very expensive and time consuming, therefore lab experiments in combination with mathematical simulations were used instead. The metabolic heat production rate, estimated from the oxygen consumption rate of C. minitans on oats in Erlenmeyer flasks, was about 500 Watt per m(3) bed. Conductive cooling in packed-bed reactors was insufficient to cool large reactor volumes (radius > 0.2 m). The poor thermal conductivity of the bed (lambda(b) = 0.1 W m(-2) K(-1)) resulted in steep radial temperature profiles. Adequate temperature control could be achieved with forced aeration, but concomitant water losses lead to significant shrinkage of the oats (30%) and critically low water activities, even though the bed was assumed to be aerated with water saturated air. Mixed systems, however, allowed heat removal without the need of evaporative cooling. Simulations showed that large volumes could be cooled via the wall at low mixing intensities and small temperature driving forces. Experimental studies showed no detrimental effect of mixing on spore production by C. minitans. The spore production yield in a continuously mixed scraped-drum reactor (0.2 rpm) was 5 x 10(12) spores per kg dry oats after 450 hours. Based on the scale-up potential of the mixed system and the absence of detrimental mixing effects it is believed that a mixed bioreactor is superior to a non-mixed system for large-scale production of C. minitans spores. PMID:11064047

Oostraa; Tramper; Rinzema

2000-11-15

143

Cloning of Hybrid Celery Using Bioreactor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Phase I research was to scale-up production of hybrid celery somatic embryos in one to four liter bioreactors. researchers established the physical and nutritional conditions necessary for celery embryo acclimation in a bioreactor. Th...

D. A. Stuart S. Cooper-Smith

1988-01-01

144

Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale trommel test at a laboratory in upper Marlboro, Maryland, was initiated to support theoretical work on development of a model performance and to supplement data collected in full scale testing at Recovery 1 in New Orleans. Descriptions and summaries of the project through July 1981 are presented. The feedstocks were identical nearsized flakes and wooden blocks. Three groupings of results are provided. The first group, Feedstock Tests, contains data on feedstock properties. This group includes description of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency, and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize. (MCW)

Bolczak, R.

1981-09-01

145

Coastal Response on Multiple Scales: a Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand to assess the impact of both small scale and large scale anthropogenic activities on all relevant spatial and temporal scales (e.g. from 10 m to 100 km and hours to decades) including effects of climate change and sea level rise. This requires a comprehensive approach which deals with the appropriate scales in a continuous way. However, most of our knowledge and predictive tools are designed to cover very specific scales. Furthermore, the fact that coupled behavior covering multiple scales may be the dominant force does not allow for a simple sub-division of scales and study approaches without taking the interaction into account. In essence we anticipate that such a modeling framework will primarily be related to innovative application, combination and interpretation of existing techniques and models rather then the improvement of individual models. As a first step a pilot study was initiated in which the impact of the extension of the IJmuiden harbor moles in 1965 was investigated (Figure 1). The long term dataset enables us to investigate the harbor impact on various temporal and spatial scales. To that end a combined modeling approach was set up focusing on the local scale using the Delft3D model and a coastline model Unibest-CL+ covering the entire Holland coast. The models were first individually calibrated and validated to assess their performance and ability to simulate the relevant impacts. This should provide insight into the benefits of such a combined approach and identify the different levels of impact in both time and space. Holland Coast with the IJmuiden Port (left plot) and dtail of the IJmuiden harbor (2008) and the 1965 mean low water (blue), mean high water (green) and dune foot positions (red) (right plot) Target transports based on sediment budget (dashed) and simulated transports (red) along the Holland coast (IJmuiden is located at KM = 61)

Luijendijk, A.; Walstra, D.

2010-12-01

146

Modeling energy consumption in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment in north Africa.  

PubMed

Two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were operated alongside a full-sized activated sludge plant in Tunisia in order to compare specific energy demand and treated water quality. Energy consumption rates were measured for the complete membrane bioreactor systems and for their different components. Specific energy demand was measured for the systems and compared with the activated sludge plant, which operated at around 3 kWh m(-3). A model was developed for each membrane bioreactor based on both dynamic and steady-state mass balances, microbial kinetics and stoichiometry, and energy balance. Energy consumption was evaluated as a function of mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration, net permeate fluxes, and the resultant treated water quality. This work demonstrates the potential for using membrane bioreactors in decentralised domestic water treatment in North Africa, at energy consumption levels similar or lower than conventional activated sludge systems, with the added benefit of producing treated water suitable for unrestricted crop irrigation. PMID:24734471

Skouterisl, George; Arnot, Tom C; Jraou, Mouna; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami

2014-03-01

147

Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)- contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. In separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (454L) system, bioreactor performance in the presence of specially-selected microbial inoculants was compared to that observed using non-specific biomass. Results obtained with specialty organisms in the first run of the field-scale bioreactor showed that, on average, 70.6% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles were degraded. Only 36.9% of the pentachlorophenol (PCP) present was biodegraded. In the second run, microorganisms from an industrial waste water treatment facility averaged 51.0% biodegradation of PAHs and heterocycles. Degradaton of PCP was 81.0%, a value substantially higher than in the first run. Reductions in toxicity/teratogenicity were also observed for effluent from the second run of the field-scale bioreactor but the magnitude of toxicity reduction was less than in the first run.

Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

1993-11-15

148

A two-compartment bioreactor system made of commercial parts for bioprocess scale-down studies: impact of oscillations on Bacillus subtilis fed-batch cultivations.  

PubMed

This study describes an advanced version of a two-compartment scale-down bioreactor that simulates inhomogeneities present in large-scale industrial bioreactors on the laboratory scale. The system is made of commercially available parts and is suitable for sterilization with steam. The scale-down bioreactor consists of a usual stirred tank bioreactor (STR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR) equipped with static mixer modules. The PFR module with a working volume of 1.2 L is equipped with five sample ports, and pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. The concept was applied using the non-sporulating Bacillus subtilis mutant strain AS3, characterized by a SpoIIGA gene knockout. In a fed-batch process with a constant feed rate, it is found that oscillating substrate and DO concentration led to diminished glucose uptake, ethanol formation and an altered amino acid synthesis. Sampling at the PFR module allowed the detection of dynamics at different concentrations of intermediates, such as pyruvic acid, lactic acid and amino acids. Results indicate that the carbon flux at excess glucose and low DO concentrations is shifted towards ethanol formation. As a result, the reduced carbon flux entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle is not sufficient to support amino acid synthesis following the oxaloacetic acid branch point. PMID:21751400

Junne, Stefan; Klingner, Arne; Kabisch, Johannes; Schweder, Thomas; Neubauer, Peter

2011-08-01

149

Application of a 22L scale membrane bioreactor and cross-flow ultrafiltration to obtain purified chondroitin.  

PubMed

Recently, the possibility of producing fructosylated chondroitin from the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O5:K4:H4, in fed-batch and microfiltration experiments was assessed on a 2 L bioreactor. In this work, a first scale-up step was set on a 22 L membrane reactor with modified baffles to insert ad hoc designed microfiltration modules permanently inside the bioreactor vessel. Moreover, the downstream polysaccharide purification process, recently established on the A¨?KTA cross-flow instrument, was translated to a UNIFLUX-10, a tangential flow filtration system suitable for prepilot scale. In particular, the microfiltered permeates obtained throughout the fermentation, and the supernatant recovered from the centrifuged broth at the end of the process, were treated as two separate samples in the following ultrafiltration procedure, and the differences in the two streams and how these affected the ultrafiltration/diafiltration process performance were analysed. The total amount of K4 capsular polysaccharide was about 85% in the broth and 15% in the microfiltered permeates. However, the downstream treatment was more efficient when applied to the latter. The major contaminant, the lipopolysaccharide, could easily be separated by a mild hydrolysis that also results in the elimination of the unwanted fructosyl residue, which is linked to the C-3 of glucuronic acid residues. The tangential ultrafiltration/diafiltration protocols developed in a previous work were effectively scaled-up, and therefore in this research proof of principle was established for the biotechnological production of chondroitin from the wild-type strain E. coli O5:K4:H4. The complete downstream procedure yielded about 80% chondroitin with 90% purity. PMID:22619212

Schiraldi, Chiara; Alfano, Alberto; Cimini, Donatella; Rosa, Mario De; Panariello, Andrea; Restaino, Odile F; Rosa, Mario De

2012-07-01

150

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30

151

SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests  

SciTech Connect

Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2008-07-15

152

Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. PMID:22537399

Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

2012-07-01

153

Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.  

PubMed

Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%). PMID:24956758

Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

2014-08-01

154

Manganese and Sulfate Removal from a Synthetic Mine Drainage Through Pilot Scale Bioreactor Batch Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine drainage is a significant problem in the Appalachian Plateau due to elevated metal and solute concentrations. Most metals\\u000a may be removed by oxidation\\/precipitation or natural buffering, but Mn is more difficult to remove due to its higher solubility.\\u000a Some mine drainages in southeastern Kentucky have average sulfate and Mn concentrations exceeding 1,300 and 30 mg L?1, respectively. Manganese does not readily

A. D. KarathanasisJ; J. D. Edwards; C. D. Barton

2010-01-01

155

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

156

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM TO TREAT WASTEWATER AT THE BP AMOCO FORMER CASPER REFINERY: PILOT SCALE PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale subsurface flow wetlands system was built at the BPAmoco Former Casper Refinery site in Wyoming to test whether a full-scale constructed wetlands could be used to treat recovered groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The pilot system consisted of four treatment cells packed with sand and operated in an upward vertical flow mode (one day mean hydraulic detention

Ari M. Ferro; Robert H. Kadlec; Joe Deschamp

157

Modelling and dynamic simulation of a moving bed bioreactor using respirometry for the estimation of kinetic parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respirometry was used for the characterization of active autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass in a pilot scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR). For this purpose biofilm samples attached to the carrier elements of the MBBR were transferred to a static gas\\/static liquid type respirometer with intermittent aeration. Known amounts of ammonia nitrogen and acetate were added to the respirometer. The dissolved oxygen

M. Plattes; D. Fiorelli; S. Gillé; C. Girard; E. Henry; F. Minette; O. O’Nagy; P. M. Schosseler

2007-01-01

158

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pharmaceuticals, two polycyclic musk fragrances and nine endocrine disrupting chemicals were analysed in several waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). A membrane bioreactor in pilot scale was operated at different solid retention times (SRTs) and the results obtained are compared to conventional activated sludge plants (CASP) operated at different SRTs. The SRT is an important design parameter and its impact

M. Clara; B. Strenn; O. Gans; E. Martinez; N. Kreuzinger; H. Kroiss

2005-01-01

159

Rotary kiln incineration. Comparison and scaling of field-scale and pilot scale contaminant evolution rates from sorbent beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made, for the first time, between the evolution of hydrocarbons from clay sorbent beds in a field-scale rotary kiln incinerator and in a pilot-scale rotary kiln simulator. To relate the data from the different sized units, due allowance is made for bed dynamical similitude, bed geometrical factors, and bed heat-up. To minimize the effects of disturbances caused

Thomas W. Lester; Vic A. Cundy; Arthur M. Sterling; Alfred N. Montestruc; Allen L. Jakway; Chao Lu; Christopher B. Leger; David W. Pershing; JoAnn S. Lighty; G. D. Silcox; W. D. Owens

1991-01-01

160

Relationships between Laboratory and Pilot-Scale Combustion of Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors governing the occurrence of trace amounts of residual organic substance emissions (ROSEs) in full-scale incinerators are not fully understood. Pilot-scale spray combustion experiments involving some liquid chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) and the d...

D. P. Y. Chang N. W. Sorbo C. K. Law R. R. Steeper M. K. Richards

1989-01-01

161

Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project.  

PubMed

The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), down-gradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, travel-time tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased down-gradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP. PMID:16681523

Lane, John W; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Casey, Clifton C

2006-01-01

162

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

163

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

164

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

165

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

166

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

167

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

168

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

169

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

170

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

171

Efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells grown in a rotating bioreactor with exogenous growth factors and hormones  

PubMed Central

Introduction Embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered a potentially advantageous source of hepatocytes for both transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers. However, the efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from ES cells remains a major challenge, especially for those methods compatible with clinical applications. Methods In this study, we investigated whether a large number of functional hepatocytes can be differentiated from mouse ES (mES) cells using a simulated microgravity bioreactor. mES cells were cultured in a rotating bioreactor in the presence of exogenous growth factors and hormones to form embryoid bodies (EBs), which then differentiated into hepatocytes. Results During the rotating culture, most of the EB-derived cells gradually showed the histologic characteristics of normal hepatocytes. More specifically, the expression of hepatic genes and proteins was detected at a higher level in the differentiated cells from the bioreactor culture than in cells from a static culture. On further growing, the EBs on tissue-culture plates, most of the EB-derived cells were found to display the morphologic features of hepatocytes, as well as albumin synthesis. In addition, the EB-derived cells grown in the rotating bioreactor exhibited higher levels of liver-specific functions, such as glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, low-density lipoprotein, and indocyanine green uptake, than did differentiated cells grown in static culture. When the EB-derived cells from day-14 EBs and the cells’ culture supernatant were injected into nude mice, the transplanted cells were engrafted into the recipient livers. Conclusions Large quantities of high-quality hepatocytes can be generated from mES cells in a rotating bioreactor via EB formation. This system may be useful in the large-scale generation of hepatocytes for both cell transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers.

2013-01-01

172

Computational study of culture conditions and nutrient supply in a hollow membrane sheet bioreactor for large-scale bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Successful bone tissue culture in a large implant is still a challenge. We have previously developed a porous hollow membrane sheet (HMSh) for tissue engineering applications (Afra Hadjizadeh and Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, J Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A [2]). This study aims to investigate culture conditions and nutrient supply in a bioreactor made of HMSh. For this purpose, hydrodynamic and mass transport behavior in the newly proposed hollow membrane sheet bioreactor including a lumen region and porous membrane (scaffold) for supporting and feeding cells with a grooved section for accommodating gel-cell matrix was numerically studied. A finite element method was used for solving the governing equations in both homogenous and porous media. Furthermore, the cell resistance and waste production have been included in a 3D mathematical model. The influences of different bioreactor design parameters and the scaffold properties which determine the HMSh bioreactor performance and various operating conditions were discussed in detail. The obtained results illustrated that the novel scaffold can be employed in the large-scale applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24077884

Khademi, Ramin; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Hadjizadeh, Afra

2014-03-01

173

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

174

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

175

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

176

A proposal for a field?scale pilot demonstration unit for bioremediation of tnt contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reasonable field?scale operational scenario was developed as the hypothetical TNT bioremediation unit. II is described in Appendix A and termed the Riffle?Pool Reactor. The two?stage system consists of TNT leach?bed followed by a plant?pool bioreactor. Water is recirculated either continuously or intermittently over the riffle?bed TNT extractor and into the plant?pool reactor. A previously published manuscript entitled “Aquatic Plant

K. M. Qaisi; L. J. Thibodeaux; K. S. Ro; K. T. Valsaraj; D. D. Adrian

1996-01-01

177

High cell density cultivation of Rhodococcus opacus for lipid production at a pilot-plant scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triacylglycerol (TAG)-accumulating bacterium Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 was investigated with respect to the fermentative production of TAGs consisting of an unusually high fraction of fatty acids with an odd-number of carbon atoms and unsaturated monoenic fatty acids from sugar beet molasses and sucrose. Fed-batch fermentations were optimized at the 30-l scale in a stirred tank bioreactor at 30°C using

I. Voss; A. Steinbüchel

2001-01-01

178

Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

Rivera, A.L.

1982-04-01

179

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR AND CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and two bench-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactors were operated on municipal primary effluent over a range of mean cell residence times (MCRTs) from 2-10 d. The reactors had different turbulence levels. The root mean square velocity gradient (G) of the SMBR was 632 s-1; for the CAS reactors the G values were 72

Rion P. Merlo; R. Shane Trussell; Slawomir W. Hermanowicz; David Jenkins

2004-01-01

180

Linkages between microbial functional potential and wastewater constituents in large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used for the municipal wastewater treatment, whose performance relies on microbial communities of activated sludge. Nevertheless, microbial functional structures in MBRs remain little understood. To gain insight into functional genes and their steering environmental factors, we adopted GeoChip, a high-throughput microarray-based tool, to examine microbial genes in four large-scale, in-operation MBRs located in Beijing, China. The results revealed substantial microbial gene heterogeneity (43.7-85.1% overlaps) among different MBRs. Mantel tests indicated that microbial nutrient cycling genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, TP or sulfate, which signified the importance of microbial mediation of wastewater constituent removal. In addition, functional genes shared by all four MBRs contained a large number of genes involved in antibiotics resistance, metal resistance and organic remediation, suggesting that they were required for degradation or resistance to toxic compounds in wastewater. The linkages between microbial functional structures and environmental variables were also unveiled by the finding of hydraulic retention time, influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, mixed liquid temperature and humic substances as major factors shaping microbial communities. Together, the results presented demonstrate the utility of GeoChip-based microarray approach in examining microbial communities of wastewater treatment plants and provide insights into the forces driving important processes of element cycling. PMID:24675272

Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia

2014-06-01

181

Optimization of Xylanase Production by Filamentous Fungi in Solid-State Fermentation and Scale-up to Horizontal Tube Bioreactor.  

PubMed

Five microorganisms, namely Aspergillus niger CECT 2700, A. niger CECT 2915, A. niger CECT 2088, Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808, and Rhizopus stolonifer CECT 2344, were grown on corncob to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, mainly xylanases, by solid-state fermentation (SSF). A. niger CECT 2700 produced the highest amount of xylanases of 504?±?7 U/g dry corncob (dcc) after 3 days of fermentation. The optimization of the culture broth (5.0 g/L NaNO3, 1.3 g/L (NH4)2SO4, 4.5 g/L KH2PO4, and 3 g/L yeast extract) and operational conditions (5 g of bed loading, using an initial substrate to moistening medium of 1:3.6 (w/v)) allowed increasing the predicted maximal xylanase activity up to 2,452.7 U/g dcc. However, different pretreatments of materials, including destarching, autoclaving, microwave, and alkaline treatments, were detrimental. Finally, the process was successfully established in a laboratory-scale horizontal tube bioreactor, achieving the highest xylanase activity (2,926 U/g dcc) at a flow rate of 0.2 L/min. The result showed an overall 5.8-fold increase in xylanase activity after optimization of culture media, operational conditions, and scale-up. PMID:24728763

Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Oliveira, F; Pérez-Bibbins, B; Belo, I; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

2014-06-01

182

Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop  

SciTech Connect

We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

2011-08-01

183

SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

2007-07-02

184

Anaerobic digestibility of marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The biomass of industrially grown Phaeodactylum tricornutum was subjected in a novel way to bio-methanation at 33°C, i.e., in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, at solid retention times of 20 to 10 days and at loading rates in the range of 2.6-5.9 g biomass-COD L(-1) day(-1) with membrane fluxes ranging from 1 to 0.8 L m(-2) h(-1). The total COD recovered as biogas was in the order of 52%. The input suspension was converted to a clear effluent rich in total ammonium nitrogen (546 mg TAN L(-1)) and phosphate (141 mg PO(4)-P L(-1)) usable as liquid fertilizer. The microbial community richness, dynamics, and organization in the reactor were interpreted using the microbial resource management approach. The AnMBR communities were found to be moderate in species richness and low in dynamics and community organization relative to UASB and conventional CSTR sludges. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Methanosaeta sp. was the dominant acetoclastic methanogen species followed by Methanosarcina sp. This work demonstrated that the use of AnMBR for the digestion of algal biomass is possible. The fact that some 50% of the organic matter is not liquefied means that the algal particulates in the digestate constitute a considerable fraction which should be valorized properly, for instance as slow release organic fertilizer. Overall, 1 kg of algae dry matter (DM) could be valorized in the form of biogas ( euro 2.07), N and P in the effluent (euro 0.02) and N and P in the digestate (euro 0.04), thus totaling about euro 2.13 per kilogram algae DM. PMID:22005739

Zamalloa, Carlos; De Vrieze, Jo; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

2012-01-01

185

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

186

APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

187

Applying Fabric Filtration to Refuse-Fired Boilers: A Pilot-Scale Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was size...

J. D. McKenna J. C. Mycock R. L. Miller K. D. Brandt

1978-01-01

188

EVALUATION OF SOLIDS DEWATERING FOR A PILOT-SCALE THIOSORBIC LIME SO2 SCRUBBER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of solids dewatering for a pilot-scale thiosorbic lime SO2 scrubber. Pilot plant data showed that the dissolved magnesium in thiosorbic lime caused deterioration of solids dewatering properties. The slurry settling rate increased when the ...

189

Rotary kiln incineration. Comparison and scaling of field-scale and pilot scale contaminant evolution rates from sorbent beds  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is made, for the first time, between the evolution of hydrocarbons from clay sorbent beds in a field-scale rotary kiln incinerator and in a pilot-scale rotary kiln simulator. To relate the data from the different sized units, due allowance is made for bed dynamical similitude, bed geometrical factors, and bed heat-up. To minimize the effects of disturbances caused by foreign matter in the field-scale bed and differences in loading techniques, the rate of evolution is characterized by an evolution interval defined as the time required for the middle 80% of the ultimate contaminant evolution to occur. A comparison of evolution intervals with reciprocal bed temperature reveals that the data are consistent with an analysis that assumes a uniform bed temperature (at any instant of time) and a desorption-controlled evolution rate. Furthermore, the evolution intervals scale inversely with a modified Froude number, which characterizes bed dynamics. The success in comparing field and simulator results indicates that pilot-scale rotary kilns may be used to simulate certain features of industrial-scale units if dynamical, geometrical, and thermal parameters are matched appropriately.

Lester, T.W.; Cundy, V.A; Sterling, A.M.; Montestruc, A.N.; Jakway, A.L.; Chao Lu; Leger, C.B. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States)); Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.S.; Silcox, G.D.; Owens, W.D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1991-06-01

190

Integrated L-phenylalanine separation in an E. coli fed-batch process: from laboratory to pilot scale.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale reactive-extraction technology for fully integrated L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) separation in Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentations was investigated in order to prevent an inhibition of microbial L-Phe production by-product accumulation. An optimal reactive-extraction system, consisting of an organic kerosene phase with the cation-selective carrier DEHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid) and an aqueous stripping phase including sulphuric acid, was found particularly efficient. Using this system with two membrane contactors, mass-transfer coefficients of up to 288 x 10(-7) cm s(-1) for the aqueous/organic and 77 x 10(-7) cm s(-1) for the organic/stripping phase were derived from experimental data using a simple modelling approach. Concentration factors higher than 4 were achieved in the stripping phase as compared to the aqueous donor phase. Reactive extraction enabled a 98% cation portion of L-Phe in the stripping phase, leading to final product purity higher than 99% after L-Phe precipitation. A doubling of L-Phe/glucose yield was observed when kerosene/DEHPA was added to the fermentation solution in the bioreactor to experimentally simulate a fully integrated L-Phe separation process. PMID:14505008

Maass, D; Gerigk, M R; Kreutzer, A; Weuster-Botz, D; Wubbolts, M; Takors, R

2002-06-01

191

Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.  

PubMed

To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. PMID:24412856

Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

2014-02-01

192

Biofouling in Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) combines membrane separation and biological treatment, normally involving the activated sludge process, in municipal wastewater treatment. Despite excellent performance over years of full?scale operation, the interactions between microbes and the membrane in the MBR process, which determine its design and operational criteria, remain unclear. This report reviewed research regarding how numerous process parameters impact biofouling rates

A. Ramesh; D. J. Lee; M. L. Wang; J. P. Hsu; R. S. Juang; K. J. Hwang; J. C. Liu; S. J. Tseng

2006-01-01

193

Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.  

PubMed

Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

2011-01-01

194

Performance of a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor consisting mixed liquor with aquatic worms under toxic conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) consisting of worms was operated for 214days. The objective was to evaluate the treatment and operating performance of the MBR with and without the addition of Ametryn which is a toxic and persistent herbicide. Removal of Ametryn was doubled (up to 80%) in the MBR when the worms were present. Increased rate (2.5kPa/day) of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and low concentration of MLSS (5.5g/L) were recorded when the worm population was high (80-100 worms per 70?L). Short-term critical flux values were increased from 7.5 to 15 and then to 30L/m(2)/h when the worm numbers decreased from 90 to 35 and then to 18 per 70?L of mixed liquor respectively. Further, high levels of carbohydrate concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) and smaller sludge floc-sizes were found when the worm numbers were high. PMID:24413480

Navaratna, Dimuth; Shu, Li; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

2014-03-01

195

Nitrification performance and microbial ecology of nitrifying bacteria in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating TFT-LCD wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated nitrification performance and nitrifying community in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating TFT-LCD wastewater. For the A/O MBR system treating monoethanolamine (MEA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), no nitrification was observed, due presumably to high organic loading, high colloidal COD, low DO, and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions. By including additional A/O or O/A tanks, the A/O/A/O MBR and the O/A/O MBR were able to perform successful nitrification. The real-time PCR results for quantification of nitrifying populations showed a high correlation to nitrification performance, and can be a good indicator of stable nitrification. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of functional gene, amoA, suggest that Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like AOB seemed to be important to a good nitrification in the MBR system. In the MBR system, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like NOB were both abundant, but the low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB. PMID:22595093

Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Yi-Ju; Lee, Ya-Chin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Chang, Ming-Yu; Cheng, Sheng-Shung; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Huey; Shen, Wason; Huang, Chung Kai; Fu, Ryan; Chang, Barkley

2012-10-01

196

Control in bioreactors showing gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large-scale bioreactors gradients often occur as a result of non-ideal mixing. This phenomenon complicates design and control of large-scale bioreactors. Gradients in the oxygen concentration can be modeled with a two-compartment model of the liquid phase. Application of this model had been suggested for the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration with a batch gluconic acid fermentation process as

S. R. Weijers; G. Honderd; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1990-01-01

197

Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance  

PubMed Central

The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant ?-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation.

Valentin-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

2012-01-01

198

Foam Flotation Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters: Laboratory and Pilot Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A floc foam flotation pilot plant reduced lead and zinc in dilute solution to very low concentrations. The results suggest a number of design improvements. A simple diffusion model does not adequately describe axial dispersion at high column leadings. The...

D. J. Wilson E. L. Thackston

1980-01-01

199

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Nutrient Film Technique for Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was conducted to determine feasibility of using several plant species in a pilot-scale nutrient film technique (NFT) installation to further treat primary-treated effluent. The reduction of biochemical oxygen demand, is discussed. Tracer stu...

J. R. Bouzoun C. J. Diener P. L. Butler

1982-01-01

200

CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

201

A pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor: performance and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and tested a pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor for water treatment. The performance of the pilot-scale reactor was evaluated by monitoring the degradation efficiency of several organic pollutants and the membrane suction pressure at different operating conditions. The concentration of humic acids rather increased in the initial period of UV illumination and then decreased gradually, which could be ascribed

J. Ryu; W. Choi; K.-H. Choo

202

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu\\/hr pilot-scale furnace at

Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

2008-01-01

203

Fate of sex hormones in two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants: Conventional treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormones in both the liquid and the solid matrixes of the plants were determined. Each of the two 20-l\\/h pilot-scale plants consisted of a primary clarifier

Mar Esperanza; Makram T. Suidan; Ruth Marfil-Vega; Cristina Gonzalez; George A. Sorial; Paul McCauley; Richard Brenner

2007-01-01

204

Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial liquid contained in the waste, recycling may be necessary; removal of the resulting aqueous stream at the largest specific gravity consistent with the operating safety basis ensures productive use of water. Secondly, direct modeling of a given waste dissolution must consider variations in the extent of channeling such that limits can be established on anticipated concentrations expected during the course of the retrieval. Finally, the ability to account for heterogeneous dissolution has been accounted for. Details regarding the development of the modeling strategy as well as knowledge gained regarding flowsheet development are provided. (authors)

Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S. [Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC 2100, Miami, FL, 33174 (United States)

2006-07-01

205

Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27 000 kJ/h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 104 was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m/s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg/h m2), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

Chien, S. H.; Hsieh, M. K.; Li, H.; Monnell, J.; Dzombak, D.; Vidic, R.

2012-02-01

206

PILOT SCALE EXPERIMENTS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes pilot plant experience with techniques with a potential for improving the performance of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) by using a novel rapping reentrainment collector and flexible steel cable (in place of solid large-diameter discharge electrodes) for bo...

207

Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality

Michele Espinosa da Cunha; Laiza Canielas Krause; Maria Silvana Aranda Moraes; Candice Schmitt Faccini; Rosângela Assis Jacques; Suelen Rodrigues Almeida; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Elina Bastos Caramão

2009-01-01

208

FOAM FLOTATION TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS: LABORATORY AND PILOT SCALE  

EPA Science Inventory

A floc foam flotation pilot plant reduced lead and zinc in dilute solution to very low concentrations. The results suggest a number of design improvements. A simple diffusion model does not adequately describe axial dispersion at high column leadings. The floc foam flotation of z...

209

Serum-free suspensin large-scale transient transfection of CHO cells in WAVE bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the development of a large-scale transient expression platform utilizing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.\\u000a The majority of recombinant proteins and antibodies that are produced for preclinical models and clinical trials are expressed\\u000a in stably transfected CHO cells. A protocol for transient transfection of CHO cells that is rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective\\u000a would therefore streamline the process from

Raj Haldankar; Danqing Li; Zane Saremi; Claudia Baikalov; Rohini Deshpande

2006-01-01

210

Scale-up of osmotic membrane bioreactors by modeling salt accumulation and draw solution dilution using hollow-fiber membrane characteristics and operation conditions.  

PubMed

A full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) model was developed to simulate salt accumulation, draw solution (DS) dilution, and water flux over the hollow-fiber membrane length. The model uses the OMBR design parameters, DS properties, and forward osmosis (FO) membrane characteristics obtained from lab-scale tests. The modeling results revealed a tremendous water flux decline (10?0.82LMH) and short solids retention time (SRT: 5days) due to salt accumulation and DS dilution when OMBR is scaled up using commercially available DS and FO membrane. Simulated water flux is a result of interplay among reverse salt flux, internal and external concentration polarization (ICP and ECP). ECP adversely impacts water flux considerably in full-scale OMBR although it is often ignored in previous works. The OMBR model makes it possible to select better DS properties (higher flow rate and salt concentration) and FO membranes with higher water flux propensity in full-scale operation. PMID:24746768

Kim, Suhan

2014-08-01

211

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

212

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

213

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

214

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

215

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

216

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

217

Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous glycerol solutions.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acidified aqueous glycerol solution was evaluated at both laboratory and pilot scales. Laboratory scale pretreatment (4.00 g dry mass in 40.00 g liquid) with glycerol solutions containing ? 20 wt.% water and 1.2 wt.% HCl at 130°C for 60 min resulted in biomass having glucan digestibilities of ? 88%. Comparable glucan enzymatic digestibility of 90% was achieved with bagasse pretreated at pilot scale (10 kg dry mass in 60 kg liquid) using a glycerol solution containing 0.4 wt.% HCl and 17 wt.% water at 130°C for 15 min. We attribute more efficient pretreatment at pilot scale (despite shorter reaction time and reduced acid content) to improved mixing and heat transfer in a horizontal reactor. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acid-catalysed glycerol solutions likely produces glycerol-glycosides, which together with hydrolysed lignin are potential substrates for the production of biopolymers. PMID:23612157

Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

2013-06-01

218

Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater was examined using two side-by-side pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactors packed with sand or plastic media, and bioaugmented with the perchlorate-degrading bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. KJ. Groundwater containing perchlorate (77mg\\/L), nitrate (4 mg-NO3\\/L), and dissolved oxygen (7.5 mg\\/L) was amended with a carbon source (acetic acid) and nutrients (ammonium phosphate). Perchlorate was completely removed (o4mg\\/L) in the sand

Booki Mina; Patrick J. Evans; Allyson K. Chu; Bruce E. Logan

219

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the perforated plate configuration on bag protection and AHPC overall performance and to optimize the perforated plate design. Five different perforated plate configurations were evaluated in a coal combustion system. The AHPC performed extremely well even at a low current level (1.5-3.0 mA) and a low pulse trigger pressure of 6.5 in. W.C. (1.62 kPa), resulting in a bag-cleaning interval of over 40 min at an A/C ratio of 12 ft/min (3.7 m/min) for most of the test period. The longest bag-cleaning interval was 594 min, which is the best to date. The residual drag was reduced to the range from 0.25 to 0.35 in. H{sub 2}O/ft/min, showing an excellent bag-cleaning ability under the perforated plate configurations. The K{sub 2}C{sub i} at the current level of 3 mA was as low as 1.0, indicating excellent ESP performance. All the results are the best achieved to date.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-09-30

220

The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Results of a Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the results of a pilot study of the relationship between teachers and students. The study used a newly developed measure: The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS). In a sample of 72 kindergarten children, the STRS was found to have three factors: Secure, Change, and Insecure. The total scale and the subscales based on these…

Pianta, Robert C.; Nimetz, Sheri L.

221

PILOT SCALE PROCESS EVALUATION OF REBURNING FOR IN-FURNACE NOX REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of coal and natural gas reburning application tests to a pilot scale 3.0 MWt furnace to provide the scaling information required for commercial application of reburning to pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Initial parametric studies had been conducted in a 2...

222

PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

223

PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

224

Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

1995-10-02

225

PILOT SCALE STUDIES ON DISSOLUTION PROCESSES FOR NUCLEAR FUELS. II. ALUMINUM, MAGNESIUM, STAINLESS STEEL DECANNING, AND NON-IRRADIATED URANIUM METAL DISSOLUTION TESTS IN A PILOT RECIRCULATION DISSOLVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description of a half scale pilot dissolver is given. The results of four series of runs including aluminium, magnesium and stainless steel decladding and dissolution of non-irradiated uranium metal are summarized and discussed. The reaction rates measured in the pilot dissolver and those obtained in laboratory equipment were in agreement. Means for instantaneous measurement of the reaction rate

A. Hasler; J. Centeno; Y. Marchant; R. Van Eylen

1967-01-01

226

Pilot-scale process development and scale up for antifungal production.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale fermentation was developed for an antifungal compound produced by a filamentous fungus. Replacement of galactose with lactose (20-fold cost savings) and a threefold phosphate reduction (15 to 5 g/L) improved productivity 2.5-fold. Addition of supplements--glycine, cobalt chloride, and trace elements--resulted in a further twofold productivity increase, greater process robustness, and less foaming which reduced antifoam addition tenfold (30 to <3 mL/L). Mid-cycle lactose limitations were addressed by raising initial lactose levels (40 to 120 g/L) resulting in another twofold productivity increase. Overall, peak titers increased tenfold from 45 +/- 9 to 448 +/- 39 mg/L, and productivities improved from 3 to 25 mg/L day. Despite its high productivity, process scale up was challenged by high broth viscosity (5,000-6,000 cP at 16.8 s(-1)). Gassed power requirements at the 600 L scale (4.7 kW/1,000 L) exceeded available power at the 15,000 L scale (3.0 kW/1,000 L), and broth transfer to the downstream isolation facility was hindered. Mid-cycle broth dilution with up to five 10 vol% additions of 12 wt% lactose solution or whole medium-reduced viscosity three- to fivefold (1,000-1,500 cP at 16.8 s(-1)), gassed power within scale-up limits (2.5 kW/1,000 L), and peak titer by up to 45%. The process was scaled up to the 15,000 L working volume based on constant aeration rate (vvm) and peak impeller tip speed, raising superficial velocities at similar shear. This strategy maximized mass transfer rates at target gassed power per unit volume levels, and along with controlled broth viscosity, precluded multiple dilution additions. A final titer of 333 mg/L with one dilution addition was achieved, somewhat lower than expected, likely owing to inhibition from some unmeasured volatile compound (not believed to be carbon dioxide) during an extended period of high back-pressure in the early production phase. PMID:18853195

Junker, Beth; Walker, Andre; Hesse, Michelle; Lester, Michael; Vesey, Diane; Christensen, Jens; Burgess, Bruce; Connors, Neal

2009-06-01

227

Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.  

PubMed

Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH?-N, TN, COD, and PO?-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

2014-02-01

228

Bench-scale study on zero excess activated sludge production process coupled with ozonation unit in membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this bench-scale study, two promising processes for minimizing excess activated sludge (EAS) production, i.e., membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sludge ozonation (SO), were coupled in this study into the MBR-SO process to treat domestic wastewater for 80 days, and the vital related operational factors were also investigated. Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the actually operational effects of these parameters on the performance of MBR-SO process. As a consequence, the ratio of flow-rate draining to ozonation unit (q) to influent wastewater flow-rate (Q) was the mainly operational parameter, which was significantly affected by the sludge lysing ratio in ozonation unit (xi), produced COD per unit mass lysed MLSS (eta), observed sludge yield coefficient for wastewater (Y(obs)) and intrinsic yield coefficient for COD produced by lysed sludge (Y(2)). To keep the mixed liquid suspended solid concentration (MLSS) in MBR around 8,000 mg/L, the ratio of q/Q and xi for each batch ozonation was set at 0.0067 and 0.72, respectively. The generated EAS was continuously drained into ozonation unit at a frequency of 2 batch/d for lysing cells, and almost constant MLSS concentration with zero observed sludge yield coefficient (Y(obs)) and excellent effluent quality could be achieved in MBR except for TP concentration (only approximately 3.62% TP removal efficiency rate obtained in Test stage). The calculation of sludge disintegration number (SDN) and the maximum SDN (SDN(max)) indicated that the higher xi could reduce apparently the sludge amount needed for ozonation. The low input ozone gas concentration and high flow-rate could enhance the sludge lysing effects at same ozone dosage, and therefore lower energy consumption of 0.041Yuan (USD 0.0053)/m(3) wastewater was obtained. Overall, mass balance showed that the preset value of operation parameters listed in mathematical models matched well with trends of sludge reduction found in this experimental result. PMID:18642157

Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bao Z; Jiang, Yi F; Liu, Shuo

2008-09-01

229

Membrane bioreactor: a new treatment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process that combines membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been developed at industrial scale. This process denitrifies, removes natural organic matter (NOM) and pesticides, and disinfects. Denitrification is carried out by heterotrophic bacteria using ethanol as a carbon source. PAC added to the bioreactor adsorbs pesticides and a fraction of NOM. The membrane keeps

Vincent Urbain; Raymond Benoit; Jacques Manem

1996-01-01

230

Scale-up micropropagation of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in an airlift bioreactor and accumulation of rosmarinic acid.  

PubMed

Nodal explants with lateral buds and leaf-derived suspension cultures of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L., were cultured in 5 l airlift bioreactors for three weeks, thereby increasing the fresh wt of suspension cultures 2.5-fold. Rosmarinic acid accumulated at 29 micromicrog g(-1) dry wt in the suspension culture but, for micropropagated plants, it reached 178 microg g(-1) dry wt. PMID:15127795

Kintzios, Spiridon; Kollias, Haralambos; Straitouris, Evangelos; Makri, Olga

2004-03-01

231

Meso-Scale Self-Assembly Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project investigates the formation of micro-scale structures using capillary force-driven self-assembly. Two main activities were undertaken during the course of the project: determination of the proper self-assembly environment and scaling of the met...

B. A. Parviz

2007-01-01

232

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01

233

Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

2014-01-01

234

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. ive reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. he soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. he pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum of...

235

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

236

Results of a pilot-scale melter test to attain higher production rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates in high level waste vitrification. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading on glass production rat...

M. L. Elliot J. M. Perez C. C. Chapman

1991-01-01

237

Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNOâ), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with

William F. Wright; Edward D. Schroeder; Daniel P. Y. Chang; Keith Romstad

1997-01-01

238

Characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of a pilot-scale grout test were to determine the homogeneity of the grout produced under conditions similar to those planned for the TGF, to evaluate performance of candidate grout processing equipment for the TGF, and to evaluate properties of grout that was produced during continuous operation over an extended time period and cured in a large monolith. This report addresses the first and third objectives. Tests were conducted on pilot-scale grout slurry, simulated waste solution, dry solids blend samples, and cured grout samples. Grout slurry collected at two points during the pilot-scale test and slurry produced in the laboratory were characterized by measuring rheology, drainable liquid, and penetration resistance. Cured grout samples included samples collected during the pilot-scale test and cured in the laboratory, samples produced in the laboratory, samples obtained from tubes inserted into the monolith, and samples from cored sections of the monolith. Tests conducted on the cured samples included compressive strength, density, ultrasonic pulse velocity, leachability, and microstructural characterization. 10 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

Lokken, R.O.; Reimus, M.A.; Martin, P.F.C.; Geldart, S.E.

1988-02-01

239

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EPA/IERL-RTP PILOT-SCALE PRECIPITATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the EPA/IERL-RTP pilot scale electrostatic precipitator, a research device used for testing and verifying new precipitator concepts and models of precipitator operation. It describes the basic capabilities of the precipitator, and contains measurements of pre...

240

Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over

Nana O. K. Mainoo; Suzelle Barrington; Joann K. Whalen; Luis Sampedro

2009-01-01

241

PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM THE DRAKE CHEMICAL SUPERFUND SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, ...

242

EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes the results of emission tests carried out on three pilot-scale air pollution control devices. The units were connected to a slip stream from the ENSCO, Inc. hazardous waste incinerator at El Dorado, Arkansas. The three units were a Hydro Sonic System wet scru...

243

Dust Exposure During Small-scale Mining in Tanzania: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environ- ment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor

M. BRATVEIT; BENTE E. MOEN; YOHANA J. S. MASHALLA; HATUA MAALIM

2003-01-01

244

Practical Paper Disinfectant efficacy in distribution systems: a pilot-scale assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection efficacy was evaluated in four pilot-scale systems that were operated at four water utilities across North America. Through this approach, factors which are difficult to simulate in a laboratory environment (such as water properties, process conditions, climatic conditions) were assessed, in order to determine their influence on disinfectant effectiveness. The results from this study show that a critical level

Graham A. Gagnon; Helene Baribeau; Simon O. Rutledge; Robert Dumancic; Adrian Oehmen; Christian Chauret; Susan Andrews; Carollo Engineers

245

Benzoic acid degradation by small, pilot-scale artificial wetlands filter (AWF) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SF) or artificial wetlands filter (AWF) systems were examined for potential use in the removal from various waste streams of complex halogenated and nonhalogenated organic compounds as represented by benzoic acid (BA). Three small, pilot-scale AWF systems with differing reactor configurations including two planted reactors (Scirpus validus Valn) and an unplanted control, were run on a continuous

Walter H. Zachritz; Leon L. Lundie; Harry Wang

1996-01-01

246

Effect of plants and filter materials on bacteria removal in pilot-scale constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lack of testing units or appropriate experimental approaches, only little is known about the removal of bacteria in constructed wetlands. However, improved performance in terms of water sanitation requires a detailed understanding of the ongoing processes. Therefore, we analyzed the microbial diversity and the survival of Enterobacteriaceae in six pilot-scale constructed wetland systems treating domestic wastewater: two

Gabriela Vacca; Helmut Wand; Marcell Nikolausz; Peter Kuschk; Matthias Kästner

2005-01-01

247

Pilot scale, alpha disassembly and decontamination facility at the Savannah River Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An alpha-contained pilot facility is being built at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for research into the disassembly and dcontamination of noncombustible, Transuranic (TRU) waste. The design and program objectives for the facility are presented along with the initial test results from laboratory scale decontamination experiments with Pu-238 and Cm-244.

Cadieux, J R; Becker, Jr, G W; Richardson, G W; Coogler, A L

1982-01-01

248

Development of a pilot scale anaerobic digester for biogas production from cow manure and whey mix  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from anaerobic digestion of cow manure and whey mix. A pilot scale anaerobic digester, 128l in volume, has been developed, to operate under batch and fed-batch conditions. The versatile and unique characteristics of the instrument allowed testing the methane production directly in the farm. The digester performance was evaluated with two calibration tests, the main for

Elena Comino; Maurizio Rosso; Vincenzo Riggio

2009-01-01

249

Fuels by pyrolysis of waste plastics from agricultural and packaging sectors in a pilot scale reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of waste plastics (so called chemical recycling) is one perspective way of their utilizations, but the end product properties are a key point of the industrial leading of processes. In this paper a pilot scale pyrolysis process has been investigated. Waste plastics were decomposed in a tube reactor at 520 °C, using hourly feed rate of 9.0 kg. Raw materials

N. Miskolczi; A. Angyal; L. Bartha; I. Valkai

2009-01-01

250

Case History of a Pilot-Scale Acidic In situ Uranium Leaching Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines assisted the Rocky Mountain Energy Co. in a pilot-scale in situ leaching experiment at Casper, Wyo., to determine if sulfuric acid can be used as a cost-effective alternative lixiviant (leachant) for uranium in situ leaching. This expe...

M. T. Nigbor W. H. Engelmann D. R. Tweeton

1982-01-01

251

AOX reduction of kraft bleach plant effluent by chemical pretreatment—Pilot-scale trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests indicate that the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent can be reduced by about 30% by an alkaline sulphide chemical treatment. Pilot-scale trials, consisting of chemical pretreatment of effluent with green liquor followed by air activated sludge biological treatment, were conducted to evaluate this chemical treatment process. The chemical pretreatment reduced the AOX in

D. W. Francis; P. A. Turner; J. T. Wearing

1997-01-01

252

CHARACTERISTICS OF PILOT- AND FULL-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

This review encompasses ash characterization data from 16 different hazardous waste incinerators, both pilot- and full-scale, treating a variety of waste streams. Its focus is on 14 volatile organic compounds, 18 semivolatile organics, and 13 metals for which analyses were most f...

253

REBURNING THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL PILOT-SCALE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes an experimental investigation of the thermal and chemical processes influencing NOx reduction by natural gas reburning in a two-dimensional pilot-scale combustion system. Reburning effectiveness for initial NOx levels of 50-500 ppm and reburn stoichiometric ra...

254

EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES ON A MUNICIPAL WATERFALL INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts a...

255

Fluxes and Patterns of Wall Deposits for Skim Milk in a Pilot-Scale Spray Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of wall deposits in a pilot-scale spray dryer has been studied, using skim milk, by changing the flow rate to the nozzle and measuring the resultant deposition fluxes at different positions inside the dryer. The solids concentration was maintained at 30%. The deposition was measured at three locations of the conical section and in the cylindrical section of

K. Kota; T. A. G. Langrish

2006-01-01

256

Use of spray dry absorption product in wet flue gas desulphurisation plants: pilot-scale experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the effects on plant performance of converting spray dry absorption product (SDAP) to gypsum in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, has been conducted. At concentrations up to 300g SDAP\\/l (feed tank basis), no scaling or plugging of pipes was observed. The SO2 removal efficiency increased from 69

Yuanjing Zheng; Søren Kiil; Jan E. Johnsson; Qin Zhong

2002-01-01

257

Pilot scale membrane separation of electroplating waste water by reverse osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroplating waste water containing copper was treated by means of reverse osmosis (RO) membrane separation on a pilot scale. The copper concentration in the untreated waste water was 340 ppm. After the treatment, the concentration in the treated water was below 4 ppm which is the Hong Kong government discharge limit. It is shown that, by increasing transmembrane pressure drop,

Xijun Chai; Guohua Chen; Yue Po-Lock; Yongli Mi

1997-01-01

258

Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212L (16L/kgwaste). PMID:24713237

Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

2014-09-01

259

Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m(2) was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted. PMID:20542632

Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M; Ortiz, Inmaculada

2010-09-15

260

Performance of a flat-sheet submerged membrane bioreactor during long-term treatment of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with anoxic and oxic tanks was operated in an attempt to reduce the problems concerning effective removal of organic matter and nutrients from municipal wastewater. A fl at type membrane with a pore size of 0.038 ?m and having a total surface area of 3.60 m was used in the experiments. During the operation,

Mustafa Turan; Ozgur Ozdemir; Abdullah Z. Turan; Oktay Ozkan; Hurrem Bayhan; Erol Aykar

2011-01-01

261

Large-scale propagation of a replication-defective adenovirus vector in stirred-tank bioreactor PER.C6 cell culture under sparging conditions.  

PubMed

Large-scale propagation of replication-defective adenovirus vectors has not been well studied to date. One of the challenges for efficient propagation at large scale is to overcome the sensitivity of virus infected cells to gas sparging required for oxygenation and CO(2) removal. In our initial experiments, it was observed that productivity of an adenovirus vector was significantly reduced under sparging conditions as compared to nonsparged, i.e., surface-aerated controls in serum-free cultures. Investigations led to the identification of a buffer containing surfactant (Polysorbate-80, PS-80) that was included in the virus seed stock formulation and introduced through virus infection into the culture at a very low concentration as the cause of the reduced virus productivity. This finding was not obvious and trivial, as neither uninfected sparged nor infected nonsparged PER.C6 trade mark cells in serum-free cultures were affected by the buffer at such a low PS-80 concentration of 0.00025% (v/v), which is a common component of serum-free cell culture media. These results strongly suggest that virus-infected cells behave very differently from uninfected cells under sparging conditions. To mitigate the deleterious effects of sparging, the virus seed stock was prepared in the absence of the buffer containing PS-80. At the same time, the concentration of Pluronic-F68 (PF-68) in the serum-free medium was increased to 1 g/L, at which cell growth and metabolism were unaffected, even though this measure alone did not result in virus productivity improvement. Only by implementing the two measures together was virus productivity loss completely eliminated under sparging conditions. After demonstration of the process robustness in 2-L bioreactors, this adenovirus propagation process was successfully scaled up to 250 L in a 300-L bioreactor under the worst-case sparging conditions projected for 10,000-L scale. PMID:12740932

Xie, Liangzhi; Metallo, Christian; Warren, James; Pilbrough, Warren; Peltier, Joseph; Zhong, Tanya; Pikus, Lana; Yancy, Amanda; Leung, John; Auni?s, John G; Zhou, Weichang

2003-07-01

262

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

Adamson, D.

2009-05-28

263

Zeolite-chrome tanning: From laboratory to pilot scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Na-zeolites (NaA, NaX, NaAX) were investigated as tanning agents in leather production from sheepskin and calfskin pelts. It was found in laboratory scale testing that the combined use of zeolite and chrome sulphate results in both higher float exhaustion and higher shrinkage temperatures in shorter time than in conventional chrome tannage. The best results were obtained with zeolite NaA.

P. Ciambelli; D. Sannino; B. Naviglio; A. M. Manna; V. Vaiano; G. Calvanese; G. Vietri; S. Gallo

2005-01-01

264

Large-scale data mining pilot project in human genome  

SciTech Connect

This whitepaper briefly describes a new, aggressive effort in large- scale data Livermore National Labs. The implications of `large- scale` will be clarified Section. In the short term, this effort will focus on several @ssion-critical questions of Genome project. We will adapt current data mining techniques to the Genome domain, to quantify the accuracy of inference results, and lay the groundwork for a more extensive effort in large-scale data mining. A major aspect of the approach is that we will be fully-staffed data warehousing effort in the human Genome area. The long term goal is strong applications- oriented research program in large-@e data mining. The tools, skill set gained will be directly applicable to a wide spectrum of tasks involving a for large spatial and multidimensional data. This includes applications in ensuring non-proliferation, stockpile stewardship, enabling Global Ecology (Materials Database Industrial Ecology), advancing the Biosciences (Human Genome Project), and supporting data for others (Battlefield Management, Health Care).

Musick, R.; Fidelis, R.; Slezak, T.

1997-05-01

265

MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pope, J.R. [Elizabethtown Gas Co., Union, NJ (United States); Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Jerger, D.E. [OHM Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

266

Vermicomposting of sludges from paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia andrei: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of sludges from a paper mill mixed with cattle manure in a six-month pilot-scale experiment. Initially, a small-scale laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms in the different substrates tested. In the pilot-scale experiment, the number of earthworms increased between 22- and 36-fold and total biomass increased

C. Elvira; L. Sampedro; E. Benítez; R. Nogales

1998-01-01

267

Modelling of the substrate heterogeneities experienced by a limited microbial population in scale-down and in large-scale bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology based on stochastic modelling is presented to describe the influence of the bioreactor heterogeneity on the microorganisms growth and physiology. The stochastic model is composed of two sub-models: a microorganism circulation sub-model and a fluid mixing sub-model used for the characterization of the concentration gradient. The first one is expressed by a classical stochastic model (with random number

F. Delvigne; A. Lejeune; J. Destain; P. Thonart

2006-01-01

268

Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

1992-12-01

269

Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

2006-08-01

270

Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid using starch wastewater as raw material.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to develop a cost-effective pilot-scale fermentation process for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis using starch wastewater. A temperature range of 30-37 degrees C, and an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) higher than 30,000 mg/L, were optimal for growth and lipid synthesis in flask culture. Cultivation in a 5-L fermenter yielded more than 60 g/L biomass with a 30% (w/w) lipid content after 60 h. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid in a 300-L fermenter using starch wastewater without sterilization and pH adjustment yielded 40 g/L biomass and 35% lipid content with 80% COD degradation after only 30-40 h of cultivation. Transesterification experiments demonstrated that lipids can be used for biodiesel production. PMID:20371176

Xue, Feiyan; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

2010-08-01

271

Interpretation of pilot-scale, fluidized bed behavior using chaotic time series analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we apply conventional and chaotic time series analyses to the interpretation of pressure-drop measurements from a 250 kW, pilot-scale, bubbling fluidized bed combustor. Our results demonstrate that such analyses can be useful for discriminating different types of fluidization in a practical combustor and offer a basis for improving fluidized bed monitoring and control. A new comparative index that reflects the multivariate structure in pressure-drop measurements is proposed for detecting variations in the fluidized state. We also propose standards for acquiring fluidized bed pressure-drop measurements in pilot and commercial-scale facilities as well as three potential commercial uses. Recent findings regarding the effect of pressure tap location and design on the measured signal fidelity are discussed.

Fuller, T.A.; Flynn, T.J. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Daw, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Halow, J.S. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1993-06-01

272

Using hybrid neural networks in scaling up an FCC model from a pilot plant to an industrial unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling up of a pilot plant fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) model to an industrial unit with use of artificial neural networks is presented in this paper. FCC is one of the most important oil refinery processes. Due to its complexity the modeling of the FCC poses great challenge. The pilot plant model is capable of predicting the weight percent

G. M. Bollas; S. Papadokonstadakis; J. Michalopoulos; G. Arampatzis; A. A. Lappas; I. A. Vasalos; A. Lygeros

2003-01-01

273

Application of membrane technology on semiconductor wastewater reclamation: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater discharged from semiconductor industry contains high turbidity and conductivity. When membrane systems are used for semiconductor wastewater reclamation without pretreatment, membranes will soon be clogged by the nano-size particles. In this pilot-scale study, a three-stage system has been developed for semiconductor wastewater reclamation. This system (flow=5m3d?1) contained fiber ball (material: polypropylene, diameter=25mm) filtration (FF) followed by ultrafiltration (UF) and

C. J. Huang; B. M. Yang; K. S. Chen; C. C. Chang; C. M. Kao

2011-01-01

274

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Hyperbaric Filtration of Ultra Fine Clean Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale evaluation of continuous pressure filtration was conducted on minus 200 mesh clean coal recovered by column flotation using an Andritz-Ruthner trailer mounted hyperbaric filter. Results showed that increasing vessel pressure for a given cake formation angle (CFA), increased cake thickness and throughput, while decreasing cake moisture. Baseline testing concluded that filter operating parameters-of 3 bar pressure, 1.5

J. G. GROPPO; B. K. PAREKH

1996-01-01

275

Gasification of Natural and Waste Biomass in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercially available biomass fuels, made of natural and waste wood, were fed in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier having an internal diameter of 0.381 m and a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg\\/h. The experimental runs were carried out at about 850°C and under values of the equivalence ratio between 0.20 and 0.30. The fluidized bed was generally made

U. Arena; L. Zaccariello; M. L. Mastellone

2010-01-01

276

Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: A pilot-scale study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)×1-m (W)×1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170mgl?1 chemical oxygen

T. Y. Chen; C. M. Kao; T. Y. Yeh; H. Y. Chien; A. C. Chao

2006-01-01

277

Knowledge-Based Fuzzy Control of Pilot-Scale SBR for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fuzzy controller to optimize oxic phase of sub-cycle in pilot scale SBR (working volume, 20m3) located at public swine wastewater treatment plant was investigated. The operation mode of intermittent feeding of raw water\\u000a and sub-cycle with repeating anoxic-aeration conditions were adapted to avoid the high-strength nitrogen inhibition. In sub-cycle,\\u000a aeration time for ammonium oxidation was tried to control by

Byong-hee Jun; Jang-hwan Park; Myung-geun Chun

2005-01-01

278

Biological nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate in a pilot scale suspended carrier biofilm process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leachate from a municipal landfill receiving both household and industrial waste was treated in pilot scale suspended carrier biofilm reactors for removal of nitrogen and organic matter. Nitrification was studied in two parallel aerated reactors, filled to 60% (v\\/v) with two different models of carrier media with specific surface areas of 210 and 390m2\\/m3 media, respectively. Denitrification was carried out

U Welander; T Henrysson; T Welander

1998-01-01

279

Pilot-scale tests to optimize the treatment of net-alkaline mine drainage.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale plant consisting of an oxidation basin (OB), a neutralization basin (NB), a reaction basin (RB), and a settling basin (SB) was designed and built to conduct pilot-scale experiments. With this system, the effects of aeration and pH on ferrous oxidation and on precipitation of the oxidized products were studied systemically. The results of pilot-scale tests showed that aeration at 300 L/min was optimum for oxidation of Fe(II) in the OB, and the efficiency of oxidation of Fe(II) increased linearly with increasing retention time. However, Fe(II) was still present in the subsequent basins-NB, RB, and SB. Results from pilot-scale tests in which neutralization was excluded were used to obtain rate constants for heterogeneous and homogeneous oxidation. Oxidation of Fe(II) reached almost 100% when the pH of the mine drainage was increased to more than 7.5, and there was a linear relationship between total rate constant, log (K(total)), and pH. Absorbance changes for samples from the NB under different pH conditions were measured to determine the precipitation properties of suspended solids in the SB. Because ferrous remained in the inflow to the SB, oxidation of Fe(II) was dominant initially, resulting in increased absorbance, and the rate of precipitation was slow. However, the absorbance of the suspension in the SB rapidly dropped when pH was higher than 7.5. PMID:21046432

Jang, Min; Kwon, Hyunho

2011-01-01

280

Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and\\u000a COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic\\u000a biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced\\u000a by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA\\/SCOD???0.5) and

Roland D. Cusick; Bill Bryan; Denny S. Parker; Matthew D. Merrill; Maha Mehanna; Patrick D. Kiely; Guangli Liu; Bruce E. Logan

2011-01-01

281

Electrokinetic remediation. 1: Pilot-scale tests with lead-spiked kaolinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility and efficiency of transporting lead under electric fields are investigated at pilot scale in three 1 t Georgia kaolinite specimens spiked with lead nitrate solution and at an electrode spacing of 72 cm. Enhancement methods such as cathode depolarization and\\/or catholyte neutralization techniques are not used in processing. A constant direct current density of 133 μmA\\/cm² is applied.

Yalc?in B. Acar; Akram N. Alshawabkeh

1996-01-01

282

High-solids aerobic decomposition: pilot-scale reactor development and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale reactors have been constructed to mimic the central core of an aerated static bed or in-vessel composting process. The 770 litre reactors were instrumented to measure temporal and spatial variations in temperature, oxygen and moisture content. Experiments were performed with a synthetic food waste (SFW) and digested biosolids using four different aeration rates and two initial moisture contents.An analysis

J. S. VanderGheynst; J. M. Gossett; L. P. Walker

1997-01-01

283

Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day. Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of

Yang Liu; Wei Zhang; Tadas Sileika; Richard Warta; Nicholas P. Cianciotto; Aaron I. Packman

2011-01-01

284

Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological–coagulation–filtration pilot scale reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological–coagulation–filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%)

Muhammad Afzal; Ghulam Shabir; Irshad Hussain; Zafar M. Khalid

2008-01-01

285

Leachate Treatment in Newly Built Peat Filters: A Pilot-Scale Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this short-term pilot-scale (1 m3) experiment was to focus on the efficiency of leachate treatment during the initial period of a newly built peat filter.\\u000a The initial start-up period of a filter is dynamic and differs for different types of peat and leachate. Reduction of biochemical\\u000a oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nutrient concentrations from

Pille Kängsepp; Margit Kõiv; Mait Kriipsalu; Ülo Mander

286

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of an Innovative Treatment for Vapor Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently conducted a pilot-scale study at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in Sacramento, CA. The objective of the test was to determine the effectiveness of an ambient-temperature, solar-powered photocatalytic oxidation treatment unit for destroying emissions of chlorinated organic compounds from an air stripper. This paper reports test results and discusses applications and limitations

Andrew S. Watt; Kimberly A. Magrini; Lynnae E. Carlson; Edward J. Wolfrum; Sheldon A. Larson; Christine Roth; Greg C. Glatzmaier

1999-01-01

287

106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.

Bagaasen, L.M.

1993-05-01

288

Laboratory pilot scale study for H2S removal from biogas in an anoxic biotrickling filter.  

PubMed

The purpose of this laboratory pilot scale study at the Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC), Environment Canada, Burlington, ON was to investigate the anaerobic biological removal of H2S from biogas under real-time operating conditions. Biogas produced in a 538 litre pilot anaerobic digester was continuously fed into a 12 litre biotrickling filter containing plastic fibres as packing bed media. The process was monitored for several months. The biogas flowrate and H2S concentration ranged between 10 to 70 L/h and 1,000 to 4,000 ppmv respectively over the course of the test period. Nitrate-rich wastewater from a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor effluent was used as the nutritive solution for the biotrickling filter. The paper presents the influence of several operational parameters such as biogas flowrate, hydrogen sulphide concentration and composition of nutrient solution on process performance. To date, our results show H2S removal rates up to 100% without adverse effects on the methane concentration of the biogas. No system deterioration was observed over long term operation. This non-conventional technology is very promising and could be considered for full scale applications. PMID:18235172

Soreanu, G; Béland, M; Falletta, P; Edmonson, K; Seto, P

2008-01-01

289

Removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in a bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to investigate the removal of aqueous phenol using immobilized enzymes in both bench scale and pilot scale three-phase fluidized bed reactors. The enzyme used in this application was a fungal tyrosinase [E.C. 1.14.18.1] immobilized in a system of chitosan and alginate. The immobilization matrix consisted of a chitosan matrix cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with an aliginate-filled pore space. This support matrix showed superior mechanical properties along with retaining the unique adsorptive characteristics of the chitosan. Adsorption of the o-quinone product by the chitosan reduced tyrosinase inactivation that is normally observed for this enzyme under these conditions. This approach allowed reuse of the enzyme in repeated batch applications. For the bench scale reactor (1.2-l capacity) more than 92% of the phenol could be removed from the feed water using an immobilized enzyme volume of 18.5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 150 min. Removal rates decreased with subsequent batch runs. For the pilot scale fluidized bed (60 l), 60% phenol removal was observed with an immobilized enzyme volume of 5% and a residence time of the liquid phase of 7 h. Removal decreased to 45% with a repeat batch run with the same immobilized enzyme. PMID:15765216

Ensuncho, Lucila; Alvarez-Cuenca, Manuel; Legge, Raymond L

2005-05-01

290

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF THE CHLORINATION PROCESS. VOLUME I: COMPARISON OF OPTIMIZED PILOT SYSTEM WITH EXISTING FULL-SCALE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Parallel wastewater effluent chlorination studies were done on a mobile optimized chlorination pilot system and the full-scale system at eight different treatment plants. Disinfection efficiency was measured by total coliform enumeration and chlorine residual tests. Parallel flow...

291

Comprehensive clone screening and evaluation of fed-batch strategies in a microbioreactor and lab scale stirred tank bioreactor system: application on Pichia pastoris producing Rhizopus oryzae lipase  

PubMed Central

Background In Pichia pastoris bioprocess engineering, classic approaches for clone selection and bioprocess optimization at small/micro scale using the promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1), induced by methanol, present low reproducibility leading to high time and resource consumption. Results An automated microfermentation platform (RoboLector) was successfully tested to overcome the chronic problems of clone selection and optimization of fed-batch strategies. Different clones from Mut+P.?pastoris phenotype strains expressing heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL), including a subset also overexpressing the transcription factor HAC1, were tested to select the most promising clones. The RoboLector showed high performance for the selection and optimization of cultivation media with minimal cost and time. Syn6 medium was better than conventional YNB medium in terms of production of heterologous protein. The RoboLector microbioreactor was also tested for different fed-batch strategies with three clones producing different lipase levels. Two mixed substrates fed-batch strategies were evaluated. The first strategy was the enzymatic release of glucose from a soluble glucose polymer by a glucosidase, and methanol addition every 24 hours. The second strategy used glycerol as co-substrate jointly with methanol at two different feeding rates. The implementation of these simple fed-batch strategies increased the levels of lipolytic activity 80-fold compared to classical batch strategies used in clone selection. Thus, these strategies minimize the risk of errors in the clone selection and increase the detection level of the desired product. Finally, the performance of two fed-batch strategies was compared for lipase production between the RoboLector microbioreactor and 5 liter stirred tank bioreactor for three selected clones. In both scales, the same clone ranking was achieved. Conclusion The RoboLector showed excellent performance in clone selection of P. pastoris Mut+ phenotype. The use of fed-batch strategies using mixed substrate feeds resulted in increased biomass and lipolytic activity. The automated processing of fed-batch strategies by the RoboLector considerably facilitates the operation of fermentation processes, while reducing error-prone clone selection by increasing product titers. The scale-up from microbioreactor to lab scale stirred tank bioreactor showed an excellent correlation, validating the use of microbioreactor as a powerful tool for evaluating fed-batch operational strategies.

2014-01-01

292

Assessing Stress in Disability: Developing and Piloting the Disability Related Stress Scale  

PubMed Central

Background Stress negatively influences health, but few scales capture the unique stressors encountered by people with physical disability. Objective/Hypothesis Conduct a pilot study to develop and evaluate the factor structure of a stress measure targeting unique stressors facing people with physical limitations due to impaired movement of the upper and lower extremities. Methods Development of the Disability Related Stress Scale (DRSS) included: (1) obtaining input regarding content and items from focus groups and outside experts and (2) piloting the instrument. Participants recruited from an independent living center attended a focus group or completed the pilot survey. The piloted measure was a 107 item two-part survey. Part 1 assessed stressors encountered over the past week and Part 2 assessed stressors encountered over the past six months. Participants included a convenience sample of 143 adults who experienced a physical limitation; 26 attended focus groups and 117 completed the instrument. Respondents were predominantly women (60%), Caucasian (58%), and unemployed (92%). Respondents’ were 50.51 ± 14.46 years old and had lived with their disability for 15.64 ± 13.04 years. Results Exploratory factor analyses revealed a four factor solution for Part 1 and a two factor solution for Part 2 of the DRSS. Estimates of both scales’ internal consistency (Part 1 Cronbach’s ? = .78 – 84; Part 2 Cronbach’s ? = .72) and factor loadings (.40–1.00 for Part 1; .43–.87 for Part 2) indicate adequate reliability. Conclusions Preliminary results provide initial support for the instrument’s reliability and factor structure although further validation studies are warranted.

Rhode, Paula C.; Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Hockemeyer, Jill R.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Lee, Jaehoon

2013-01-01

293

Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 2. Membrane bioreactor system for sulfate reduction.  

PubMed

Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT, using hydrogen consuming SRB biofilms. The advantages of using the membrane bioreactor over the conventional tall liquid phase sparged gas bioreactor systems are: large microporous membrane surface to the liquid phase; formation of hydrogen sulfide outside the membrane, preventing the mixing with the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the membrane; no requirement of gas recycle compressor; membrane surface is suitable for immobilization of active SRB, resulting in the formation of biofilms, thus preventing washout problems associated with suspended culture reactors; and lower operating costs in membrane bioreactors, eliminating gas recompression and gas recycle costs. Information is provided on sulfate reduction rate studies and on biokinetic tests with suspended SRB in anaerobic digester sludge and sediment master culture reactors and with SRB biofilms in bench-scale SRB membrane bioreactors. Biokinetic parameters have been determined using biokinetic models for the master culture and membrane bioreactor systems. Data are presented on the effect of acid mine water sulfate loading at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/min in scale-up SRB membrane units, under varied temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C) to determine and optimize sulfate conversions for an effective AMD biotreatment. Pilot-scale studies have generated data on the effect of flow rates of acid mine water (MGD) and varied inlet sulfate concentrations in the influents on the resultant outlet sulfate concentration in the effluents and on the number of SRB membrane modules needed for the desired sulfate conversion in those systems. The pilot-scale data indicate that the SRB membrane bioreactors systems can be applied toward field-scale biotreatment of AMD and for recovery of high purity metals and an agriculturally usable water. PMID:14669874

Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh

2003-12-01

294

Modeling Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control in Baghouse Filters: II—Pilot-Scale Studies and Model Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon injection for Hg control in a 500-lb\\/hr pilot-scale coal-fired furnace equipped with a fabric filter for particulate control was evaluated at different operating conditions. The pilot-scale tests showed that Hg removal was improved at lower temperatures and higher C\\/Hg ratios. The two-stage mathematical model developed to describe Hg removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse

Joseph R. V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O’Dowd; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic

2003-01-01

295

Yield of Starch and By-Products in the Processing of Different Varieties of Wrinkled Peas on a Pilot Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 74(4):364-370 A recently developed pilot-scale process for the extraction of starch and by-products from wrinkled peas was used to determine the attainable yield and purity of starch and by-products from different varieties of these peas. It was shown that the starch yield mainly depends on the removal of the starch from the fibers. From the pilot scale experiments,

F. Meuser; N. Pahne; M. Möller

1997-01-01

296

Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

2013-07-01

297

Bio-reactor chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

Chandler, Joseph A. (inventor)

1989-01-01

298

Poliovirus-1 Inactivation and Interaction with Biofilm: a Pilot-Scale Study  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale study was initiated to examine the behavior of viruses pulse injected into a distribution system. The influence of a free-chlorine residual and that of virus preadsorption to clay particles was evaluated by tracing the viruses both in the water flow and after elution from the biofilm. These experiments demonstrated, first, that virus preadsorption on 40 mg of Na-montmorillonite per liter increased the residence time of the viruses within the pilot plant by roughly three times and, second, that preadsorption to clay did not prevent viruses from being inactivated by chlorine. Moreover, with no clay added, a greater amount of viruses was recovered from the biofilm than from the water flow (by a factor of 2 or 10 in the absence or presence of chlorine, respectively), indicating a tendency for virus accumulation within biofilms.

Quignon, F.; Sardin, M.; Kiene, L.; Schwartzbrod, L.

1997-01-01

299

Development and pilot testing of an Organizational Information Technology/Systems Innovation Readiness Scale (OITIRS).  

PubMed Central

Empirical evidence indicates that healthcare organizational readiness for new information technology/systems (IT/S) is crucial to successful innovation. Despite this evidence, limited research has been done to define innovation readiness, and develop and test metrics to measure it. This presentation reports on the third phase in a multi-phased research program focused on healthcare organizational change related to IT/S innovation. In the initial two phases, the concept of IT/S innovation readiness was explored and its sub-dimensions identified and validated. In the third phase, findings from the first two phases were used to develop and pilot test an Organizational Information Technology/Systems Innovation Readiness Scale (OITIRS) for use in healthcare settings. The specific aims of this presentation are to 1) provide background information on the development of the OITIRS, and 2) report pilot testing results that support use of the OITIRS in healthcare informatics research.

Snyder-Halpern, Rita

2002-01-01

300

Effect of the concentration of suspended solids on the enzymatic activities and biodiversity of a submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater in order to study the influence\\u000a of the variations in the concentration of volatile suspended solids (VSS) on the enzymatic activities (acid and alkaline phosphatases,\\u000a glucosidase, protease, esterase, and dehydrogenase) and biodiversity of the bacterial community in the sludge. The influence\\u000a of VSS concentration was evaluated in

M. Molina-Muñoz; J. M. Poyatos; R. Vílchez; E. Hontoria; B. Rodelas; J. González-López

2007-01-01

301

Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreactors.  

PubMed

The treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater was examined using two side-by-side pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactors packed with sand or plastic media, and bioaugmented with the perchlorate-degrading bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. KJ. Groundwater containing perchlorate (77microg/L), nitrate (4mg-NO(3)/L), and dissolved oxygen (7.5mg/L) was amended with a carbon source (acetic acid) and nutrients (ammonium phosphate). Perchlorate was completely removed (<4microg/L) in the sand medium bioreactor at flow rates of 0.063-0.126L/s (1-2gpm or hydraulic loading rate of 0.34-0.68L/m(2)s) and in the plastic medium reactor at flow rates of <0.063L/s. Acetate in the sand reactor was removed from 43+/-8 to 13+/-8mg/L (after day 100), and nitrate was completely removed in the reactor (except day 159). A regular (weekly) backwashing cycle was necessary to achieve consistent reactor performance and avoid short-circuiting in the reactors. For example, the sand reactor detention time was 18min (hydraulic loading rate of 0.68L/m(2)s) immediately after backwashing, but it decreased to only 10min 1 week later. In the plastic medium bioreactor, the relative changes in detention time due to backwashing were smaller, typically changing from 60min before backwashing to 70min after backwashing. We found that detention times necessary for complete perchlorate removal were more typical of those expected for mixed cultures (10-18min) than those for the pure culture (<1min) reported in our previous laboratory studies. Analysis of intra-column perchlorate profiles revealed that there was simultaneous removal of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and perchlorate, and that oxygen and nitrate removal was always complete prior to complete perchlorate removal. This study demonstrated for the first time in a pilot-scale system, that with regular backwashing cycles, fixed-bed bioreactors could be used to remove perchlorate in groundwater to a suitable level for drinking water. PMID:14630102

Min, Booki; Evans, Patrick J; Chu, Allyson K; Logan, Bruce E

2004-01-01

302

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2007-01-09

303

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24 inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2006-11-08

304

A pilot scale evaluation for adsorptive removal of lead (II) using treated granular activated carbon.  

PubMed

Wastewaters discharged from the defence serviceable industries pose a serious environmental hazard due to their heavy metal load. The present study focused on optimizing the operational variables viz, hydraulic loading rate, bed height and feed concentration through bench scale study and using that for assessing the efficiency of pilot scale system with sulphur loaded carbon (AC-S) as the adsorbent in the removal of Pb (II). Static mode adsorption studies were also carried out for Pb (II) removal using treated (AC-S) and untreated carbon (AC). AC-S shows about 35 percent increase in maximum adsorption capacity over that on AC. The maximum adsorption capacity in the column mode for Pb (II) at the optimized conditions: bed height of 0.4 m, hydraulic loading rate of 7.5 m3h(-1)m(-2) and the feed concentration of 6 mg l(-1) for achieving 50% breakthrough concentration was found to be 2.89 mg g(-1). Adsorption mechanism involved during Pb (1) in the column has also been explored. Bohart-Adams model was used for modeling the bench scale data and predicting the adsorption behavior at pilot scale level. PMID:15974267

Goel, Jyotsna; Kadirvelu, K; Garg, V K; Meena, A; Chopra, R; Chauhan, D; Rawat, A; Kumar, S; Mishra, G K; Rajagopal, C

2005-05-01

305

Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water. PMID:21838294

Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y

2011-10-01

306

A new computational control strategy for leachate management in bioreactor landfills.  

PubMed

A novel computational measurement-based control strategy (CMCS) was developed to manage leachate recirculation based on monitoring ofkey system parameters. The proposed framework identifies the operational phase ofthe controlled bioreactor, and accordingly determines quantities ofleachate, buffer, supplemental water, and nutritional amendments required to provide the temporally changing landfill microbial consortia with their growth requirements. The CMCS was tested in a pilot-scale bioreactor cell (0.5 m3) for a period of nine months, and compared to a conventional open-loop leachate control scheme (fixed recirculation rate of produced leachate) in an identical cell. Overall, positive results confirmed the applicability and benefits of the control strategy to optimize the leachate recirculation and manipulation processes. Throughout the 21 operational cycles of the controlled bioreactor cell, the maximum specific daily recirculation volume (24 L/t/d) was sixfold the minimum volume determined. The amounts of inoculum/nutrient, buffer, and supplemental water were also computed cyclically, and ranged between 2% and 11%, 1% and 9%, and 3% and 16% of the total volume recycled, respectively. The recirculated volumes of leachate and other amendments were highly variable, and did not follow any predictable trends. In general, CMCS achieved proper control with a minimal use of resources, e.g. it utilized about 55% less buffer compared with the leachate neutralization practice commonly used in lab- and pilot-scale studies. The greater degradation rates of organic matter combined with relative increases in biogas production (1.7-fold greater) demonstrate that calculation-based recirculation stimulated the methanogenic activity and accelerated the bioreactor evolution. PMID:24600869

Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa

2014-01-01

307

Ultrasonic pilot-scale reactor for enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.  

PubMed

The potential of ultrasound-assisted technology has been demonstrated by several laboratory scale studies. However, their successful industrial scaling-up is still a challenge due to the limited pilot and commercial sonochemical reactors. In this work, a pilot reactor for laccase-hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching assisted by ultrasound was scaled-up. For this purpose, an existing dyeing machine was transformed and adapted by including piezoelectric ultrasonic devices. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that both low frequency, high power (22 kHz, 2100 W) and high frequency, low power ultrasounds (850 kHz, 400 W) were required to achieve satisfactory results. Standard half (4 g/L H2O2 at 90 °C for 60 min) and optical (8 g/L H2O2 at 103 °C for 40 min) cotton bleaching processes were used as references. Two sequential stages were established for cotton bleaching: (1) laccase pretreatment assisted by high frequency ultrasound (850 kHz, 400 W) and (2) bleaching using high power ultrasound (22 kHz, 2100 W). When compared with conventional methods, combined laccase-hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching with ultrasound energy improved the whitening effectiveness. Subsequently, less energy (temperature) and chemicals (hydrogen peroxide) were needed for cotton bleaching thus resulting in costs reduction. This technology allowed the combination of enzyme and hydrogen peroxide treatment in a continuous process. The developed pilot-scale reactor offers an enhancement of the cotton bleaching process with lower environmental impact as well as a better performance of further finishing operations. PMID:24618529

Gonçalves, Idalina; Herrero-Yniesta, Victor; Perales Arce, Iratxe; Escrigas Castañeda, Monica; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Silva, Carla

2014-07-01

308

Exploring the links between population dynamics of total and active bacteria and the variables influencing a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR).  

PubMed

Long-term dynamics of total and active bacterial populations in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating urban wastewater were monitored during nine months by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of partial 16S-rRNA genes, amplified from community DNA and RNA templates. The bacterial community, dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, displayed the required characteristics for a successful and steady contaminant removal under real operating conditions. The evolution of population dynamics showed that a fully-stable microbial community was not developed even after technical stabilization and steady performance of the MBR were achieved. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and BIO-ENV demonstrated that the trends of the populations were often mostly explained by temperature, followed by the concentration of volatile suspended solids and C/N ratio of the influent. These variables were mainly responsible for triggering the shifts between functionally redundant populations. These conclusions contribute to the prediction of the complex profiles of adaptation and response of bacterial populations under changing conditions. PMID:24747388

Gómez-Silván, C; Arévalo, J; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

2014-06-01

309

Simple bioreactors for mass propagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors provide a rapid and efficient plant propagation system for many agricultural and forestry species, utilizing liquid media to avoid intensive manual handling. Large-scale liquid cultures have been used for micropropagation through organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis pathways. Various types of bioreactors with gas-sparged mixing are suitable for the production of clusters of buds, meristems or protocorms. A simple glass bubble-column

Meira Ziv

2005-01-01

310

Simple bioreactors for mass propagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors provide a rapid and efficient plant propagation system for many agricultural and forestry species, utilizing liquid media to avoid intensive manual handling. Large-scale liquid cultures have been used for micropropagation through organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis pathways. Various types of bioreactors with gas-sparged mixing are suitable for the production of clusters of buds, meristems or protocorms. A simple glass bubble-column

Meira Ziv

311

Characterization of oxygen transfer in miniature and lab-scale bubble column bioreactors and comparison of microbial growth performance based on constant k(L)a.  

PubMed

This work describes the engineering characterization of miniature (2 mL) and laboratory-scale (100 mL) bubble column bioreactors useful for the cultivation of microbial cells. These bioreactors were constructed of glass and used a range of sintered glass gas diffusers with differently sized pores to disperse humidified air within the liquid biomedium. The effect of the pressure of this supplied air on the breakthrough point for gas diffusers with different pore sizes was examined and could be predicted using the Laplace-Young equation. The influence of the superficial gas velocity (u(g)) on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) was determined, and values of up to 0.09 s(-1) were observed in this work. Two modeling approaches were considered in order to predict and provide comparison criteria. The first related the volumetric power consumption (P/V) to the k(L)a and a good correlation was obtained for differently sized reactors with a given pore size, but this correlation was not satisfactory for bubble columns with different gas diffusers. Values for P/V ranged from about 10 to 400 W.m(-3). Second, a model was developed predicting bubble size (d(b)), bubble rising velocity (u(b)), gas hold-up (phi), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (k(L)), and thus the k(L)a using established theory and empirical correlations. Good agreement was found with our experimental data at different scales and pore sizes. Values for d(b) varied from 0.1 to 0.6 mm, and k(L) values between 1.7 and 9.8 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) were determined. Several E. coli cultivations were performed in the miniature bubble column at low and high k(L)a values, and the results were compared to those from a conventional stirred tank operated under identical k(L)a values. Results from the two systems were similar in terms of biomass growth rate and carbon source utilization. PMID:16080699

Doig, Steven D; Ortiz-Ochoa, Kenny; Ward, John M; Baganz, Frank

2005-01-01

312

Anaerobic digestion of total raw olive-oil wastewater in a two-stage pilot-plant (up-flow and fixed-bed bioreactors)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of total raw olive-oil wastewater in a two-stage pilot-plant with reactors connected in series. Two different types of anaerobic digesters were used, an up-flow type and a fixed-bed type. The main pupose of the study was to evaluate the performance of an up-flow-type reactor working in series with a fixed-bed-type reactor,

D. Dalis; K. Anagnostidis; A. Lopez; I. Letsiou; L. Hartmann

1996-01-01

313

Solar photocatalytic degradation of some hazardous water-soluble pesticides at pilot-plant scale.  

PubMed

The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of six water-soluble pesticides (cymoxanil, methomyl, oxamyl, dimethoate, pyrimethanil and telone) have been studied at pilot-plant scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural solar UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. TiO(2) photocatalysis tests were performed in a 35L solar pilot plant with three Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) under natural illumination and a 75L solar pilot plant with four CPC units was used for homogeneous photocatalysis tests. The initial pesticide concentration studied was 50 mg L(-1) and the catalyst concentrations employed were 200 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) and 20 mg L(-1) of iron. Both toxicity (Vibrio fischeri, Biofix) and biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) of the initial pesticide solutions were also measured. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and nearly complete mineralization were attained with all pesticides tested. Treatment time, hydrogen peroxide consumption and release of heteroatoms are discussed. PMID:16839679

Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Maldonado, M I; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Malato, S

2006-12-01

314

Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.  

PubMed

Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction. PMID:24549412

Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

2014-04-01

315

Pilot scale benzene stripping column testing: Review of test data and application to the ITP columns  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive cesium will be removed from aqueous high level waste (HLW) solutions by precipitation with sodium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Benzene is generated due to the radiolysis of TPB, and dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into the water used to wash (WW) the precipitate. These solutions will be processed through stripping columns to reduce the benzene concentration to satisfy limits for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW. A pilot scale testing program to evaluate the stripping column operation in support of ITP startup activities has been completed. Equipment and test plans were developed so that data obtained from the pilot scale testing would be directly applicable to full scale column operation and could be used to project hydraulic performance and stripping efficiency of both columns. A review of the test data indicate that the ITP stripping columns will be capable of reducing benzene concentrations in salt solutions to satisfy Saltstone and Tank 22 acceptance limits. An antifoam (AF) will be required to maintain the column differential pressure below the vendor recommendation of 40 inches wc so that design feed rates can be achieved. Additionally, the testing program indicated that the nitrogen rate can be decreased from the ITP column design rates and still satisfy benzene concentration requirements in the product.

Georgeton, G.K.; Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

1993-09-10

316

Release and conversion of ammonia in bioreactor landfill simulators.  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfills are an improvement to normal sanitary landfills, because the waste is stabilised faster and the landfill gas is produced in a shorter period of time in a controlled way, thus enabling CH(4) based energy generation. However, it is still difficult to reach, within 30 years, a safe status of the landfill due to high NH(4)(+) levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate and NH(4)(+) is extremely important when defining the closure of landfill sites, due to its potential to pollute aquatic environments and the atmosphere. The effect of environmental conditions (temperature, fresh versus old waste) on the release of NH(4)(+) was assessed in experiments with bench (1 L) and pilot scale (800 L) reactors. The NH(4)(+) release was compared to the release of Cl(-) and BOD in the liquid phase. The different release mechanisms (physical, chemical, biological) of NH(4)(+) and Cl(-) release from the solid into the liquid phase are discussed. The NH(4)(+) level in the liquid phase of the pilot scale reactors starts decreasing after 100 days, which contrasts real-scale observations, where the NH(4)(+) level increases or remains constant. Based on the absence of oxygen in the simulators, the detectable levels of hydrazin and the presence of Anammox bacteria, it is likely that Anammox is involved in the conversion of NH(4)(+) into N(2). Nitrogen release was shown to be governed by physical and biological mechanisms and Anammox bacteria are serious candidates for the nitrogen removal process in bioreactor landfills. These results, combined with carbon removal and improved hydraulics, will accelerate the achievement of environmental sustainability in the landfilling of municipal solid waste. PMID:20884112

Lubberding, Henk J; Valencia, Roberto; Salazar, Rosemarie S; Lens, Piet N L

2012-03-01

317

Changes in the Structure and Function of Microbial Communities in Drinking Water Treatment Bioreactors upon Addition of Phosphorus? †  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors.

Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

2010-01-01

318

Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.  

PubMed

Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors. PMID:20889793

Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

2010-11-01

319

Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.  

PubMed

Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. PMID:25016156

Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

2014-09-01

320

Development of a small-scale bioreactor method to monitor the molecular diversity and environmental impacts of bacterial biofilm communities from an acid mine drainage impacted creek.  

PubMed

Shamokin Creek is a tributary of the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania that is heavily impacted by the acid mine drainage (AMD) caused by the oxidation of pyrite from the region's extensive anthracite coal mining industry. Recent studies have begun to characterize the microbial communities present in this and other AMD-impacted waters, but varying environmental conditions have complicated attempts to determine the ecological impacts of individual bacterial species within these communities. This study developed a small-scale biofilm reactor protocol that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the development of bacterial biofilm communities in AMD-impacted creek collected water using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes, while assessing the impacts that the developing biofilms were having on water quality. Our analysis confirmed that the diversity and composition of these small in situ biofilm communities could be monitored using molecular methods, and indicated the possible presence of many taxa frequently found in AMD environments, including Sulfobacillus, Nitrospira, Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, and Leptothrix species. A significant increase in the total sulfate was observed in the bioreactor, and as most likely due to the accumulation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria such as Sulfobacillus in the biofilms. This system will allow us to study the microbial ecology of Shamokin Creek through controlled experiments that will ultimately integrate microscopic, molecular, physiological and chemical analyses, and that can be utilized to develop more effective and cost-efficient environmental remediation techniques for AMD-impacted areas. PMID:21821067

Cole, Michael; Wrubel, Joshua; Henegan, Patricia; Janzen, Christopher; Holt, Jack; Tobin, Tammy

2011-10-01

321

Liquid-phase bioreactor for degradation of trichloroethylene and benzene. Final report, 11 January 1993-30 December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The major objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of a dual-stage bioreactor system for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with fuels and solvents. Under this SBIR Phase II, the number of chemicals to be treated during the field demonstration was expanded to include TCE, BTEX, and dichlorobenzenes (DCBs). A pilot-scale dual-stage bioreactor system was operated at Robins AFB GA to establish proof-of-concept and to develop operational and economic information for full-scale implementation. The system included a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR), an air stripper, and a TCE gas-phase bioreactor (GPR). Due to the enhanced performance of the FBR towards TCE, the demonstration essentially became a test of two independent pilot systems, one for treatment of contaminated water in the FBR and the second for treatment of contaminated air in the GPR. Operation of the system demonstrated effective treatment of not only BTEX and DCB, but also TCE. Over 210,000 gallons of contaminated groundwater were effectively treated during the demonstration. All hazardous chemicals were treated to concentrations near or below drinking water standards. An economic evaluation of the FBR to UV-peroxidation, air stripping with carbon adsorption, wet carbon adsorption and air stripping followed by PURUS adsorption suggests a significant cost savings over the life of a typical project.

Guarini, B.; Folsom, B.

1996-04-01

322

Aerosol characteristics in the offgas from a pilot-scale sluicing operation  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale study was performed to simulate conditions anticipated during sluicing operations to retrieve waste in single-shell Tank 241-C-106 at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize the potential aerosol source term at the inlet of the headspace exhaust ventilation system during sluicing operations. The information is needed to support decisions for components to be used in the full-scale operation. A secondary objective was to qualitatively evaluate the visibility during sluicing. Three simulated sluicing tests were performed in the 336 Building`s quarter-scale waste tank facility located at Hanford. Scaling relationships were used to guide modifications to the quarter-scale tank to accommodate tests that simulated tank geometry, sluicing, and ventilation conditions in the full-scale tank. Simulated sluicing fluids were targeted on solid and liquid surfaces during the tests. Test conditions were monitored, and aerosol measurements were made in the offgas ventilation duct. Also during the tests, an in-tank camera was used to monitor visibility.

Ligotke, M.W.; Whyatt, G.A.; Beckette, M.R.

1995-01-01

323

EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES ON A REFUSE AND COAL-FIRED BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The project report describes the operation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices to gather data on air pollution efficiency versus several different operating parameters on various waste-as-fuel combustio processes. It also includes a test of a full scale fabric filter use...

324

Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales  

SciTech Connect

Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

2011-05-01

325

Second-order chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation in a pilot-scale water distribution systems.  

PubMed

It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments were run to investigate the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of trihalomethanes (THMs) in pilot-scale water distribution systems. Experimental results show that the rate constants of chlorine decay, including wall decay and bulk decay, increasing with temperature. Moreover, the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of THMs describe experiment data of pilot-scale water distribution systems. The effect of different piping material on chlorine decay and THMs formation were also investigated. The rate constants of chlorine decay are ranked in order: stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because wall decay is the largest in stainless steel pipe than that in other piping material. Correspondingly, the rate of THMs formation follows the order of stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because of less chlorine in bulk water reacting with the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). PMID:22953450

Li, Cong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Yu, Jieze; Zhang, Tu-qiao; Mao, Xinwei; Shao, Weiyun

2012-08-01

326

Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator  

SciTech Connect

A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

1991-01-01

327

Development of a pilot scale anaerobic digester for biogas production from cow manure and whey mix.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from anaerobic digestion of cow manure and whey mix. A pilot scale anaerobic digester, 128 l in volume, has been developed, to operate under batch and fed-batch conditions. The versatile and unique characteristics of the instrument allowed testing the methane production directly in the farm. The digester performance was evaluated with two calibration tests, the main for a period of 56 days. The study test was divided into three phases, one for each type of feeding operation (batch, fed-batch, batch). The initial phase of digestion resulted in 57 l-CH(4)/kg-VS, the second phase had a yield of 86.6 l-CH(4)/kg-VS and the third one had a production of 67 l-CH(4)/kg-VS. The total methane yield was equal to 211.4 l-CH(4)/kg-VS. Using the obtained pilot plant results to a real scale diary production cycle, it was possible to evaluate an electricity production equal to 8.86 kwh per 1 t/d. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to the use of a cow manure and whey biomass mix for biogas production. PMID:19559606

Comino, Elena; Rosso, Maurizio; Riggio, Vincenzo

2009-11-01

328

CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-? turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

2014-01-01

329

Sludge drying reed beds: full- and pilot-scale study for activated sludge treatment.  

PubMed

Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90s, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM] content and mineralization of the sludge have made necessary new studies. Therefore, 8 pilots of 2 m2 each and a full-scale plant (13,000 p.e, 8 beds of 470 m2 in operation for 4 years) have been monitored to examine the influence of the sludge loading rate, the sludge quality and the loading frequency on the dewatering and mineralization efficiencies. Two filtration layers and two loading rhythms were tested on pilots which were fed at a loading rate of 25-30 kg DM m(-2) yr(-1) during the first year of operation (commissioning period). Hydraulic behaviour (infiltration rate, outflow), O2 and CO2 relative concentrations in the filtration media, redox potential, pollutants removal and dry matter content were assessed during all the study. The rheological quality of the extracted sludge from full scale beds was assessed and showed that its mechanical behaviour exceed those of sludge of comparable dry matter content, making its spreading easier. Therefore, this sludge could easily claim the status of solid and stabilized sludge according to the French regulation. Design and management recommendations (number of beds, loading rates, feeding/rest period) gained from the experiments results are suggested. PMID:19717900

Troesch, S; Liénard, A; Molle, P; Merlin, G; Esser, D

2009-01-01

330

Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout.

Lokken, R.O.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Martin, P.F.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

1993-06-01

331

Bioreactors with Substance Injection Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with substance injection capability. In one embodiment, the bioreactor includes a first substrate having a first surface, an opposite second surface and edges. The bioreactor further includes a second substrate having a first surface and an o...

C. P. Lin F. Haselton F. J. Baudenbacher J. P. Wikswo

2003-01-01

332

Application of polystyrene-bound invertase to continuous sucrose hydrolysis on pilot scale.  

PubMed

Invertase from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) covalently bound to a macroporous polystyrene anion-exchange resin via glutaraldehyde was applied to continuous sucrose hydrolysis in packed bed-reactors. The process was scaled up from 3-mL laboratory reactors via 0.3-L reactors to pilot-scale 50-L reactors without significant loss of efficiency. The described process allows the production of a wide spectrum of invert sugar syrups with high purity in continuous procedure. The 50-L reactor was used under process conditions 1 year without significant loss of productivity at a temperature of 40 degrees C. A productivity of 760 g/h was obtained with 1 L invertase-polystyrene complex using a 2.5M sucrose solution as substrate. PMID:18601207

Mansfeld, J; Schellenberger, A; Römbach, J

1992-11-01

333

Improvement of mixing patterns in pilot-scale anaerobic ponds treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ponds are customarily designed as completely mixed reactors. However, evidence from experiments on full-scale facilities shows large deviations from ideal flow models, which in turn cause a reduced process performance. Thus, modified pilot scale anaerobic ponds receiving domestic sewage were developed and studied in parallel. A factorially designed experiment evaluated horizontal and vertical baffling, ponds fitted with cross-sectional plastic nets and a pond with a mixing pit. The hydrodynamic behaviour and process performance of these modified configurations were monitored for four flow rates (1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 l/s). The results showed that baffling (vertical and horizontal) and the mixing pit configuration had the best hydrodynamic behaviours and removal efficiencies. Consequently, the development of high-rate anaerobic ponds, through improvements of hydrodynamic behaviour, seems feasible. PMID:14510216

Peña, M R; Mara, D D; Piguet, J M

2003-01-01

334

Creative use of pilot points to address site and regional scale heterogeneity in a variable-density model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pilot points for parameter estimation were creatively used to address heterogeneity at both the well field and regional scales in a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model designed to test multiple hypotheses for upward migration of fresh effluent injected into a highly transmissive saline carbonate aquifer. Two sets of pilot points were used within in multiple model layers, with one set of inner pilot points (totaling 158) having high spatial density to represent hydraulic conductivity at the site, while a second set of outer points (totaling 36) of lower spatial density was used to represent hydraulic conductivity further from the site. Use of a lower spatial density outside the site allowed (1) the total number of pilot points to be reduced while maintaining flexibility to accommodate heterogeneity at different scales, and (2) development of a model with greater areal extent in order to simulate proper boundary conditions that have a limited effect on the area of interest. The parameters associated with the inner pilot points were log transformed hydraulic conductivity multipliers of the conductivity field obtained by interpolation from outer pilot points. The use of this dual inner-outer scale parameterization (with inner parameters constituting multipliers for outer parameters) allowed smooth transition of hydraulic conductivity from the site scale, where greater spatial variability of hydraulic properties exists, to the regional scale where less spatial variability was necessary for model calibration. While the model is highly parameterized to accommodate potential aquifer heterogeneity, the total number of pilot points is kept at a minimum to enable reasonable calibration run times.

Dausman, Alyssa M.; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D.

2010-01-01

335

Influence of activated sludge characteristics on membrane fouling in a hybrid membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was conducted in a domestic wastewater treatment plant for investigating the behaviour of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) which was developed by adding biofilm carriers into a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR). As a result of long term operation, the HMBR performed organic, nitrogen and phosphorous removal much better than the CMBR under the same operation condition. The

Xiaochang C. Wang; Yisong S. Hu; Qiang Liu

2012-01-01

336

Stabilisation of biodried municipal solid waste fine fraction in landfill bioreactor.  

PubMed

The biodrying process of solid waste is a pre-treatment for the bio-stabilisation of the municipal solid waste. This study aims to investigate the fate of the municipal solid waste fine fraction (MSWFF) resulting from a biodrying treatment when disposed in landfills that are operated as bioreactors. Biodried MSWFF was apparently stable due to its low moisture content that slows down the microbial activity. The lab-scale anaerobic bioreactors demonstrated that a proper moisture content leads to a complete biodegradation of the organic matter contained in the biodried MSWFF. Using a pilot-scale landfill bioreactor (LBR), MSWFF stabilisation was achieved, suggesting that the leachate recirculation could be an effective approach to accomplish the anaerobic biodegradation and biostabilisation of biodried MSWFF after landfilling. The biostabilisation of the material resulting from the LBR treatment was confirmed using anaerobic and aerobic stability indices. All anaerobic and aerobic indices showed a stability increase of approximately 80% of the MSWFF after treatment in the LBR. The similar values of OD7 and BMP stability indices well agree with the relationship between the aerobic and anaerobic indices reported in literature. PMID:22633467

Grilli, Selene; Giordano, Andrea; Spagni, Alessandro

2012-09-01

337

Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology.  

PubMed

Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs, vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use have contributed to further new developments and have resulted in the availability of a multitude of disposable bioreactor types which differ in power input, design, instrumentation, and scale of the cultivation container. In this review, the term "disposable bioreactor" is defined, the benefits and constraints of disposable bioreactors are discussed, and critical phases and milestones in the development of disposable bioreactors are summarized. An overview of the disposable bioreactors that are currently commercially available is provided, and the domination of wave-mixed, orbitally shaken, and, in particular, stirred disposable bioreactors in animal cell-derived productions at cubic meter scale is reported. The growth of this type of reactor system is attributed to the recent availability of stirred disposable benchtop systems such as the Mobius CellReady 3 L Bioreactor. Analysis of the data from computational fluid dynamic simulation studies and first cultivation runs confirms that this novel bioreactor system is a viable alternative to traditional cell culture bioreactors at benchtop scale. PMID:20094714

Eibl, Regine; Kaiser, Stephan; Lombriser, Renate; Eibl, Dieter

2010-03-01

338

Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

2012-11-15

339

Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.  

PubMed

The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

2012-12-01

340

Bioreactors for Bioartificial Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the design of bioreactors constituting the core of some bioartificial organs is discussed. Initially, the\\u000a problem of cell sourcing is shortly addressed. Then, criteria and limitations to current bioreactor design for bioartificial\\u000a organs are presented. Design equations are separately obtained and discussed for bioreactors implanted in extravascular body\\u000a compartments or connected to the blood circulation of the

G. Catapano

341

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

342

A review of advanced small-scale parallel bioreactor technology for accelerated process development: current state and future need.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical and biotech industries face continued pressure to reduce development costs and accelerate process development. This challenge occurs alongside the need for increased upstream experimentation to support quality by design initiatives and the pursuit of predictive models from systems biology. A small scale system enabling multiple reactions in parallel (n ? 20), with automated sampling and integrated to purification, would provide significant improvement (four to fivefold) to development timelines. State of the art attempts to pursue high throughput process development include shake flasks, microfluidic reactors, microtiter plates and small-scale stirred reactors. The limitations of these systems are compared to desired criteria to mimic large scale commercial processes. The comparison shows that significant technological improvement is still required to provide automated solutions that can speed upstream process development. PMID:21312350

Bareither, Rachel; Pollard, David

2011-01-01

343

Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In addition…

Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

2010-01-01

344

Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors.

Mehos, M.; Turchi, C. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Pacheco, J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1992-08-01

345

Pilot scale study and design of a granular activated carbon regeneration process using supercritical fluids  

SciTech Connect

A technology which has great potential for environmental control and waste remediation is contaminant removal and separation with supercritical fluids (SCF's) or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Pressure tuning of solvent power allows SCF processes to adapt to a wide variety of small batch oriented separations typified by environmental cleanup operations. The ability of supercritical CO[sub 2] to extract model contaminant compounds from GAC and subsequently drop out most of the contaminant in a liquid phase has been investigated in a pilot scale apparatus. Typical desorption profiles indicate an 85% removal of the compound from the carbon which allows for reuse. The desorption results have been interpreted with a generalized desorption-mass transfer model. The results of the pilot plant studies have been applied to the design of a fixed-site GAC regeneration unit consisting of a three-element desorber with two-stage flash separation. Optimization of the process centers around minimizing the cost of recycling the SCF through an efficient recompression scheme and cycle configuration in the desorber unit. An economic evaluation shows a processing cost of 10.6 cents/lb (23 cents/kg) GAC which compares favorably with thermal regeneration and incineration. This non-destructive process allows re-use of the GAC while maintaining a high adsorbate capacity, which reduces carbon replacement costs and significantly decreases the need for carbon disposal by landfill or incineration. 25 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Tomasko, D.L.; Hay, K.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Leman, G.W. (Cabot Corp., Tuscola, IL (United States)); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-08-01

346

Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23  

SciTech Connect

The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

1990-02-01

347

Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

2011-05-01

348

Antibacterial and enzymatic activity of microbial community during wastewater treatment by pilot scale vermifiltration system.  

PubMed

The present study investigated microbial community diversity and antibacterial and enzymatic properties of microorganisms in a pilot-scale vermifiltration system during domestic wastewater treatment. The study included isolation and identification of diverse microbial community by culture-dependent method from a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional geofilter (GF) without earthworms. The results of the four months study revealed that presence of earthworms in VF could efficiently remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and other pathogens. Furthermore, the burrowing activity of earthworms promoted the aeration conditions in VF which led to the predominance of the aerobic microorganisms, accounting for complex microbial community diversity. Antibacterial activity of the isolated microorganisms revealed the mechanism behind the removal of pathogens, which is reported for the first time. Specifically, cellulase, amylase and protease activity is responsible for biodegradation and stabilization of organic matter. PMID:24907572

Arora, Sudipti; Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Pruthi, Vikas; Bhatia, Akansha; Kazmi, A A

2014-08-01

349

On-line adaptive and nonlinear process monitoring of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

This article describes the application of on-line nonlinear monitoring of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Three-way batch data of SBR are unfolded batch-wisely, and then a adaptive and nonlinear multivariate monitoring method is used to capture the nonlinear characteristics of normal batches. The approach is successfully applied to an 80 L SBR for biological wastewater treatment, where the SBR poses an interesting challenge in view of process monitoring since it is characterized by nonstationary, batchwise, multistage, and nonlinear dynamics. In on-line batch monitoring, the developed adaptive and nonlinear process monitoring method can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship among process variables of a biological process in a SBR. The results of this pilot-scale SBR monitoring system using simple on-line measurements clearly demonstrated that the adaptive and nonlinear monitoring technique showed lower false alarm rate and physically meaningful, that is, robust monitoring results. PMID:16721630

Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Lee, In-Beum; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

2006-08-01

350

Assessment of a biogas-generating microbial community in a pilot-scale anaerobic reactor.  

PubMed

In this work bacteria and methanogenic archaea utilizing agricultural wastes in a pilot-scale biogas reactor were examined using sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Based on the analyses of 16S rRNA genes, Clostridia represented the most diverse group in the digester. Of the Clostridia, unclassified Clostridiales and the members of the genera Anaerotruncus and Tissierella were detected at high abundances. The representatives of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were also defined, but in minor proportions, and were assigned to non-dominant communities. Within the phylum Euryarchaeota, the members of the orders Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales were found at high levels. Methanogenic archaea were analyzed using both 16S rRNA and mcrA genes. Actually good results were received using both approaches; however, the rRNA gene method missed the non-dominant order Methanobacteriales. PMID:24418257

Ziganshina, Elvira E; Bagmanova, Alsu R; Khilyas, Irina V; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

2014-06-01

351

Thermal composting of faecal matter as treatment and possible disinfection method--laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies.  

PubMed

When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for dry thermal composting was a mix of faeces, food waste and amendment. The urine was collected separately by use of urine-diverting toilets. A new method was developed to mathematically evaluate and estimate the safety margins of pathogen inactivation during thermal composting. The method is based upon a mathematical calculation of the number of times total inactivation (at least 12log(10) reduction) of the organisms is achieved. In a pilot-scale experiment, the disinfection of a faeces/food waste mix was performed with a calculated safety margin of more than 37 times the total die-off of Enteroviruses and some 550 times that of Ascaris. Thus, well functioning composting seems to be effective for disinfection of faecal matter. To get a high temperature in all of the material, the reactor has to have sufficient insulation. A major disadvantage is the initial need for handling the raw un-disinfected material. The degradation of the organic matter in the compost was almost 75%, resulting in a small final volume that could safely be recycled. PMID:12573563

Vinnerås, Björn; Björklund, Anders; Jönsson, Håkan

2003-05-01

352

The translation of the Vertigo Symptom Scale into Afrikaans: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Dizziness is a common clinical problem that is challenging to diagnose and treat. One of a subset of symptoms that fall under the encompassing term of dizziness is vertigo, which is the subjective experience of hallucination of movement, often associated with vestibular disorders. While dizziness has a broad range of causes, the association between vestibular disturbance, and its attendant vertigo, and anxiety is well established. The Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) is a questionnaire that assesses aspects of vertigo and vertigo-related anxiety. The aim of this study was twofold. In phase 1, a translation of the VSS into Afrikaans was evaluated using the Delphi consensus technique and two panels of participants. Panel 1 comprised first-language Afrikaans speakers who commented on the language, grammar and vocabulary of the items. Panel 2 were bilingual health care practitioners with either a psychology background or a special interest in vertigo. After two rounds of consultation, consensus was achieved and the final translation of the Afrikaans Vertigo Symptom Scale (AVSS) was agreed upon, as well as a list of Afrikaans words descriptive of vertigo. Phase 2 used a descriptive, correlational design. The aim was to pilot the AVSS with a sample of vertiginous and control participants to establish its ability to differentiate between the two groups and to explore experiences of vertigo and anxiety within the two embedded subscales. The results of the pilot study yielded significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) between the groups on both subscales of the tool. Preliminary results suggest that the AVSS is able to identify patients with vertiginous disturbance and anxiety. The AVSS presents with good sensitivity and specificity as measured by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Afrikaans is the home language of almost 6 million people in South Africa. The translation of the VSS into Afrikaans presents health care professionals with a tool with which to assess vertigo and vertigo-related anxiety in this population. PMID:22216555

Rogers, Christine; de Wet, Jacques; Gina, Ayanda; Louw, Ladine; Makhoba, Musa; Tacon, Lee

2011-10-01

353

Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.  

PubMed

Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry. PMID:16831549

Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

2007-04-01

354

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

355

Bioreactors: design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

C. L. Cooney

1983-01-01

356

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

Charles L. Cooney

1983-01-01

357

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

358

Pilot-scale demonstration of process wastewater decontamination using chabazite zeolites  

SciTech Connect

Improved precipitation and ion-exchange methods are being developed to decontaminate Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) process wastewaters containing small amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs while minimizing waste generation. A wide range of potential processes have been tested in laboratory-scale scouting tests. Based on the data from these scouting tests, several alternative flowsheets have been developed for long-term upgrade of the facility. The primary objective of these proposed flowsheets is to minimize secondary waste generation, particularly liquid wastes, and produce a nonhazardous waste form that can be safely stored with minimum surveillance. The most promising process consists of passing wastewater through a series of columns containing chabazite zeolite, an inorganic ion-exchange material, to remove both cesium and strontium. The flowsheet has the advantage of being a simple, reliable process that produces one type of solid waste. The feasibility of this process has been demonstrated using pilot-scale equipment at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A single near-full-scale column has also been tested at the PWTP for cesium removal. This report summarizes the results of both chabazite tests performed at the PWTP in 1987. 16 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Robinson, S.M.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

1989-12-01

359

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

360

Fluidised pellet bed bioreactor: a promising technology for onsite wastewater treatment and reuse.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale fluidised pellet bed (FPB) bioreactor, which combines chemical coagulation, biological degradation, particle pelletisation and separation in one unit, was applied for onsite wastewater treatment and reuse. As a result of rational use of inorganic coagulant and organic polymer and moderate mechanical agitation, spherical particles were generated in the upflow column and a well-fluidised bed was formed. With a continuous supply of dissolved oxygen through a recycling loop, an aerobic condition was kept in the bottom section of the FPB column. Under such conditions the pellets in the FPB column showed the following characteristics: (1) compact structure and high density; (2) rich in microorganisms; and (3) high MLSS and MLVSS concentrations. Therefore, the FPB bioreactor achieved more than 90% removal of SS, COD, BOD and TP from raw domestic wastewater within a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of only about 30 minutes. It also showed nitrification and denitrification ability and the TN removal could be about 50% as the recycling ratio was increased to 1:1. The treated water quality is generally competitive with the secondary effluent from a conventional activated sludge process. With these advantages the FPB bioreactor is recommendable as a compact system for onsite wastewater treatment and reuse. PMID:17305124

Wang, X C; Yuan, H L; Liu, Y J; Jin, P K

2007-01-01

361

INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

362

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 3. PILOT SCALE TEST RESULTS FOR MAGNESIUM OXIDE SCRUBBING  

EPA Science Inventory

A research project was conducted to determine the feasibility of applying the magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubbing system to smelter off-gas streams containing approximately one percent SO2. Pilot scale (4000 cu Nm/hr) tests of the MgO system using a packed tower absorber with no rege...

363

Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system’s performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland

Laura E. Kanagy; Brenda M. Johnson; James W. Castle; John H. Rodgers

2008-01-01

364

Solid transport in a pyrolysis pilot-scale rotary kiln: preliminary results—stationary and dynamic results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments for the investigation of the flow of granular solids in a pyrolysis pilot-scale rotary kiln are presented. These experiments consisted first in measuring the volumetric filling ratio (steady-state experiences) for several operating conditions and second in recording the exit flow rates after a positive or negative step in one of the operating parameters (dynamic experiences). A dynamical model computing

N. Descoins; J.-L. Dirion; T. Howes

2005-01-01

365

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BROMINE AND CHLORINE IN A PILOT-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR (EPA/600/A-96/066)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses experiments that were performed in a 73-kW pilot-scale rotary-kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73-kW secondary combustion chamber during which a complex organic mixture containing bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) was incinerated. Detailed measurements ...

366

PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA?s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

367

RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

368

Pipeline treatment of a copper-zinc waste stream: A pilot-scale evaluation. Report of investigations\\/1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The In-Line System (ILS) replaces the basins, mechanical mixers, and aerators normally used in the chemical neutralization process with a jet pump and static mixer. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of the ILS could be extended from CMD treatment to MMD treatment. The study consisted of a series of pilot-scale treatments of an MMD

Hustwit

1995-01-01

369

SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF TRACE METALS IN FLUE GAS PARTICULATE FROM A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The distributions of nine trace metals in flue gas particulate by particle size range were determined as part of a pilot-scale hazardous waste incineration test program. hese tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incinerator system at the U.S. EPA's Incineration Research Facili...

370

1/10 Scale Pilot Plant for the Ecological Demilitarization of Mk 25 Marine Location Markers/Red Phosphorus Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NAVSEA (0332) under WR 74026 tasked NWSC Crane to develop a 1/10 scale pilot plant to reclaim phosphoric acid and other components from the disposal of Mk 25 Marine Location Markers. The typical pyrotechnic formulation for the Mk 25 and Mk 58 Marine Locat...

F. E. Montgomery J. E. Short

1977-01-01

371

Disinfection in a pilot-scale "advanced" pond system (APS) for domestic sewage treatment in New Zealand.  

PubMed

"Advanced" pond systems (APS) have the potential for improving treatment, including disinfection, over conventional WSPs. Disinfection in a pilot scale APS at Ngatea, New Zealand was studied. This system comprises a high-rate algal pond (HRP) that optimises growth of settleable colonial green algae, followed by an algal settling pond (ASP) that removes much of the nutrients and solids as non-noxious algal sludge, and then a maturation pond (MP) for effluent polishing. Monitoring of this pilot-scale system over 2 years showed excellent overall removal of E. coli (average of 2000-fold reduction), with approximately 1 log removal in each of the three stages. Experiments in the pilot scale HRP suggest that most E. coli removal in this stage is inactivation by sunlight exposure, but with an important contribution from continuous dark processes. Preliminary experiments on the pilot scale algal settling pond (APS) suggest the combined effect of sedimentation of bacteria and sunlight disinfection of the (clarified) supernatant water. PMID:14510197

Davies-Colley, R J; Craggs, R J; Nagels, J W

2003-01-01

372

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. he waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. olume I give...

373

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION  

SciTech Connect

Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

2000-12-01

374

Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils  

SciTech Connect

IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

NONE

1994-09-01

375

Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

2006-06-01

376

Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. PMID:21485036

Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

2011-01-01

377

Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters.  

PubMed

Tannery operations consist of converting raw animal skins into leather through a series of complex water- and chemically-intensive batch processes. Even when conventional primary treatment is supplemented with chemicals, the wastewater requires some form of biological treatment to enable the safe disposal to the natural environment. Thus, there is a need for the adoption of low cost, reliable, and easy-to-operate alternative secondary treatment processes. This paper reports the findings of two pilot-scale wetlands for the secondary treatment of primary effluents from a full tannery operation in terms of resilience (i.e., ability to produce consistent effluent quality in spite of variable influent loads) and reliability (i.e., ability to cope with sporadic shock loads) when treating this hazardous effluent. Areal mass removal rates of 77.1 g COD/m2/d, 11 g TSS/m2/d, and 53 mg Cr/m2/d were achieved with a simple gravity-flow horizontal subsurface flow unit operating at hydraulic loading rates of as much as 10 cm/d. Based on the findings, a full-scale wetland was sized to treat all the effluent from the tannery requiring 68% more land than would have been assumed based on literature values. Constructed wetlands can offer treatment plant resilience for minimum operational input and reliable effluent quality when biologically treating primary effluents from tannery operations. PMID:22999657

Dotro, Gabriela; Castro, Silvana; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Piovano, Nancy; Paris, Marta; Faggi, Ana; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel; Fitch, Mark

2012-11-15

378

Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.  

PubMed

Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species. PMID:16259427

Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

2005-09-01

379

Monitoring Granulation Rate Processes Using Three PAT Tools in a Pilot-Scale Fluidized Bed  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Tan, Reginald B. H.

2008-01-01

380

Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure.

Ragothaman, Anjani; Feinstein, Wei; Jha, Shantenu; Kim, Joohyun

2014-01-01

381

Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4±0.2mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34cm), and exceed 300cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. PMID:24762696

Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

2014-06-15

382

Pilot testing of sodium thiosulfate for oxidation/scaling inhibition in lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

Pilot plant tests have been conducted to evaluate sodium thiosulfate as an oxidation inhibition additive in five lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization processes. It was found that the oxidation rate of absorbed sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was reduced by more than 50 percent in the presence of 100 to 200 ppm of thiosulfate ion in the scrubbing slurry. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) scaling was eliminated and the unsaturated (with respect to gypsum) operation mode was maintained by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. Other benefits of sodium thiosulfate addition observed at the pilot plant included improvement in solids dewatering properties for limestone processes.

Chang, J.C.S.; Brna, T.G.

1985-01-01

383

Bioreactor rotating wall vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

2001-01-01

384

Optimizing of Bioreactor Heat Supply and Material Feeding by Numerical Calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell culture at large scale normally uses stirred structure. And the situation of temperature field distribution is very important to the cell culture at large scale. Some cells are very sensitive to the circumstances. The local temperature is too high or too low all influences the cell survival and low the cell quantity at unit volume. This paper simulates the temperature field under three different heating conditions. Then analysis and contrast the simulation results. The mixed situation in bioreactor is extremely significant for nutrition transmit. Usually, use ways to measure the average mixture time in bioreactor, and improve the mixture circumstance in the bioreactor through stirred impeller and bioreactor structure change. This paper adopts numerical calculation method to investigate the flow field in bioreactor. It gets the mixture time of bioreactor through virtual tracer in simulate flow field and detects the tracer density time variation curve in the bioreactor.

Zhou, Zhiwei; Song, Boyan; Zhu, Likuan; Li, Zuntao; Wang, Yang

385

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

386

Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis. PMID:12639837

Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

2003-04-01

387

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperatuare is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of tow hgih-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide.

SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

388

Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.  

PubMed

This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 ?g/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

2014-07-01

389

Cultivation of mammalian cells in bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of bioreactors for the cultivation of mammalian cells in vitro has the potential for systematic scale up to meet future demand. The complexity of mammalian cells in culture and their characteristics is described here as is a number of cultivation methods including simple suspension, microcarrier, hollow fiber, ceramic matrix and microencapsulation.

Hu, W.S.; Dodge, T.C.

1985-12-01

390

Bioreactors for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H(2) production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H(2) (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubble-train bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N(2)) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1)) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) of H(2) production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days. PMID:18425614

Markov, Sergei A; Weaver, Paul F

2008-03-01

391

Bioreactors for H2 Production by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H2 (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubbletrain bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N2) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw-1 h-1 (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw-1 h-1) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw-1 h-1 of H2 production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days.

Markov, Sergei A.; Weaver, Paul F.

392

SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to overcome limitations on biomass slurry feed concentration and preheat temperature is to coprocess an auxiliary high heating value material. SWPO coprocessing of two high-water content wastes, partially dewatered sewage sludge and trap grease, yields a scenario for the production of hydrogen at highly competitive prices. It is estimated that there are hundreds if not thousands of potential sites for this technology across the US and worldwide. The economics for plants processing 40 tpd sewage sludge solids augmented with grease trap waste are favorable over a significant range of cost parameters such as sludge disposal credit and capital financing. Hydrogen production costs for SWPO plants of this size are projected to be about $3/GJ or less. Economics may be further improved by future developments such as pumping of higher solids content sludges and improved gasifier nozzle designs to reduce char and improve hydrogen yields. The easiest market entry for SWPO is expected to be direct sales to municipal wastewater treatment plants for use with sewage sludge in conjunction with trap grease, as both of these wastes are ubiquitous and have reasonably well-defined negative value (i.e., the process can take credit for reduction of well-defined disposal costs for these streams). Additionally, waste grease is frequently recovered at municipal wastewater treatment plants where it is already contaminated with sewage. SWPO should also be favorable to other market applications in which low or negative value, high water content biomass is available in conjunction with a low or negative value fuel material. For biomass slurries primary candidates are sewage sludge, manure sludge, and shredded and/or composted organic municipal solid waste (MSW) slurries. For the high heating value stream primary candidates are trap grease, waste plastic or rubber slurries, and coal or coke slurries. Phase II of the SWPO program will be focused on verifying process improvements identified during Phase I, and then performing extended duration testing with the GA pilot plant. Tests of at least 1

SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

2005-01-01

393

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

394

Bioreactor design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

Bowie, William

1987-01-01

395

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

396

Characterization and feasibility of a miniaturized stirred tank bioreactor to perform E. coli high cell density fed-batch fermentations.  

PubMed

The use of small scale bioreactors that are mechanically and functionally similar to large scale reactors is highly desirable to accelerate bioprocess development because they enable well-defined scale translations. In this study, a 25-mL miniaturized stirred tank bioreactor (MSBR) has been characterized in terms of its power input, hydrodynamics, and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a) to assess its potential to grow high cell density (HCD) cultures using adequate scale-down criteria. Engineering characterization results show scale down, based on matched specific power input (P(G)/V), is feasible from a 20-L pilot scale stirred tank bioreactor. Results from fed-batch fermentations performed using Fab' producing E. coli W3110 at matched (P(G)/V) in the MSBR and 20-L STR demonstrated that the MSBR can accurately scale down the 20-L fermentation performance in terms of growth and Fab' production. Successful implementation of a fed-batch strategy in the MSBR resulted in maximum optical density of ca. 114 and total Fab' concentration of 940 ?g/mL compared with ca. 118 and 990 ?g/mL in 20-L STR. Furthermore, the use of the MSBR in conjunction with primary recovery scale-down tools to assess the harvest material of both reactors showed comparable shear sensitivity and centrifugation performance. The conjoint use of the MSBR with ultra scale-down (USD) centrifugation mimics can provide a cost-efficient manner in which to design and develop bioprocesses that account for good upstream performance as well as their manufacturability downstream. PMID:21954170

Ali, Shaukat; Perez-Pardo, Miguel Angel; Aucamp, Jean P; Craig, Alan; Bracewell, Daniel G; Baganz, Frank

2012-01-01

397

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry.

Cooney, Charles L.

1983-02-01

398

Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment  

PubMed Central

The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry.

2014-01-01

399

Kinetic evaluation and performance of pilot-scale fed-batch aerated lagoons treating winery wastewaters.  

PubMed

Winery wastewater was treated in two pilot-scale aerated lagoons operating in fed-batch mode. A first lagoon of 27.2m(3) working volume was gradually filled with wastewater with an average COD content of 8700mg/L. Given that with the flow-rate used (790L/day) this first lagoon completed its working volume after 30days of starting, part of the liquid contained in the first lagoon was transferred to another adjacent second lagoon of 10.8m(3) working volume. Therefore, the experiment continued in the second lagoon for another additional 24days using an influent with a COD content of 18,700mg/L at a flow-rate of 170L/day. After the 21st day, a maximum COD removal efficiency of 91% was achieved, and this value was maintained virtually constant until the end of the experiments. A mathematical model based on three differential equations solved simultaneously allowed the kinetic parameters of the system to be obtained. PMID:20097559

Montalvo, S; Guerrero, L; Rivera, E; Borja, R; Chica, A; Martín, A

2010-05-01

400

Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter  

PubMed Central

Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

2012-01-01

401

Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.  

PubMed

This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. PMID:23995560

Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

2013-10-15

402

Characterization of intermediate products of solar photocatalytic degradation of ranitidine at pilot-scale.  

PubMed

In the present study the mechanisms of solar photodegradation of H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine (RNTD) were studied in a well-defined system of a pilot plant scale Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) reactor. Two types of heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments were performed: catalysed by titanium-dioxide (TiO(2)) semiconductor and by Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)), each one with distilled water and synthetic wastewater effluent matrix. Complete disappearance of the parent compounds and discreet mineralization were attained in all experiments. Furthermore, kinetic parameters, main intermediate products, release of heteroatoms and formation of carboxylic acids are discussed. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of RNTD have been structurally elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) experiments performed at quadrupole-time of flight (QqToF) mass analyzer coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC). RNTD displayed high reactivity towards OH radicals, although a product of conduction band electrons reduction was also present in the experiment with TiO(2). In the absence of standards, quantification of intermediates was not possible and only qualitative profiles of their evolution could be determined. The proposed TiO(2) and photo-Fenton degradation routes of RNTD are reported for the first time. PMID:20207392

Radjenovi?, Jelena; Sirtori, Carla; Petrovi?, Mira; Barceló, Damià; Malato, Sixto

2010-04-01

403

Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

Whyatt, G.A.

1994-08-01

404

Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m(2)/d, 97/112 mg/m(2)/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m(2)/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique. PMID:21840095

Seeger, Eva M; Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga; Grathwohl, Peter; Kaestner, Matthias

2011-12-01

405

Rapid cultivation of aerobic granular sludge in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge which had good performance to pollutants removal was successfully cultivated within 18days in a pilot scale sequencing batch reactor, about 25% mature aerobic granular sludge was inoculated when the setting time of activated sludge was reduced to 10min. Anaerobic biological selector was implemented to inhibit filamentous bacteria overgrowth, where the maximum COD could reach to 1703.74mg/L. The cultivated aerobic granular sludge was irregular and pale yellow, average particle size, SVI, SV30/SV5, PN/PS, EPS and water content were 1.58mm, 67.64mL/g, 0.91, 2.17, 268.90mgEPS/g MLVSS and 98.16% on the 18th day. Mechanism of rapid granulation mainly included crystal nucleus hypothesis and selection pressure hypothesis. The inoculated aerobic granules could maintain stable under short setting time environment, making it directly as the crystal nucleus and the carriers for new particles without obvious disintegration, which eventually shortened the granulation time greatly. PMID:24905043

Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Jiang, Guo-Sheng; Dan, Jing-Feng; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Fu-Biao

2014-08-01

406

Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking  

SciTech Connect

A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

1992-04-01

407

Pilot-Scale Selenium Bioremediation of San Joaquin Drainage Water with Thauera selenatis  

PubMed Central

This report describes a simple method for the bioremediation of selenium from agricultural drainage water. A medium-packed pilot-scale biological reactor system, inoculated with the selenate-respiring bacterium Thauera selenatis, was constructed at the Panoche Water District, San Joaquin Valley, Calif. The reactor was used to treat drainage water (7.6 liters/min) containing both selenium and nitrate. Acetate (5 mM) was the carbon source-electron donor reactor feed. Selenium oxyanion concentrations (selenate plus selenite) in the drainage water were reduced by 98%, to an average of 12 (plusmn) 9 (mu)g/liter. Frequently (47% of the sampling days), reactor effluent concentrations of less than 5 (mu)g/liter were achieved. Denitrification was also observed in this system; nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the drainage water were reduced to 0.1 and 0.01 mM, respectively (98% reduction). Analysis of the reactor effluent showed that 91 to 96% of the total selenium recovered was elemental selenium; 97.9% of this elemental selenium could be removed with Nalmet 8072, a new, commercially available precipitant-coagulant. Widespread use of this system (in the Grasslands Water District) could reduce the amount of selenium deposited in the San Joaquin River from 7,000 to 140 lb (ca. 3,000 to 60 kg)/year.

Cantafio, A. W.; Hagen, K. D.; Lewis, G. E.; Bledsoe, T. L.; Nunan, K. M.; Macy, J. M.

1996-01-01

408

Pilot-scale ethanol production from rice straw hydrolysates using xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

Ethanol was produced at pilot scale from rice straw hydrolysates using a Pichia stipitis strain previously adapted to NaOH-neutralized hydrolysates. The highest ethanol yield was 0.44 ± 0.02 g(p)/g(s) at an aeration rate of 0.05 vvm using overliming-detoxified hydrolysates. The yield with hydrolysates conditioned by ammonia and NaOH was 0.39 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.01 g(p)/g(s), respectively, were achieved at the same aeration rate. The actual ethanol yield from hydrolysate fermentation with ammonia neutralization was similar to that with overliming hydrolysate after taking into account the xylose loss resulting from these conditioning processes. Moreover, the ethanol yield from ammonia-neutralized hydrolysates could be further enhanced by increasing the initial cell density by two-fold or reducing the combined concentration of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural to 0.6g/L by reducing the severity of operational conditions in pretreatment. This study demonstrated the potential for commercial ethanol production from rice straw via xylose fermentation. PMID:22537402

Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Guo, Gia-Luen; Hwang, Wen-Song; Huang, Shir-Ly

2012-07-01

409

Bench- and pilot-scale evaluation of mercury speciation measurement methods  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the health risks associated with mercury. Since the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend on the type of mercury species emitted, a proven sampling method that can reliably and accurately speciate mercury at the very low concentrations found in coal combustion flue gas is necessary. A number of mercury speciation methods have been proposed, including wet-chemistry methods, such as EPA Method 29, the Ontario Hydro method, and the tris-buffer method, as well as dry methods such as the Mercury Speciation Absorption method (MESA). In addition, a number of companies are developing continuous emissions monitors to speciate mercury by difference. Bench- and pilot-scale tests, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), are currently under way at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the most accurate and precise mercury speciation method available. The overall objective of the test program is to determine whether EPA Method 29 or other sampling methods can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in flue gas from coal-fired boilers at both the inlet and outlet of a particulate control device such as a pulse-jet baghouse. A specific goal of the project is to determine the precision and bias of the various mercury speciation methods as a function of process variables.

Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Nott, B.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Brown, T.D. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

1996-12-31

410

A comparison of pilot-scale photocatalysis and enhanced coagulation for disinfection byproduct mitigation.  

PubMed

This study evaluated pilot-scale photocatalysis and enhanced coagulation for their ability to remove or destroy disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors, trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (FP), and THMs in two Arizona surface waters. Limited photocatalysis (<5 kWh/m(3)) achieved reductions in most of the DBP precursor parameters (e.g., DOC, UV(254), and bromide) but led to increased chlorine demand and THMFP. In contrast, enhanced coagulation achieved reductions in the DBP precursors and THMFP. Extended photocatalysis (<320 kWh/m(3)) decreased THMFP once the energy consumption exceeded 20 kWh/m(3). The photocatalytic energy requirements for THM destruction were considerably lower (EEO=20-60 kWh/m(3)) than when focusing on precursor destruction and THMFP. However, rechlorination increased the total THM (TTHM) concentration well beyond the raw value, thereby negating the energy benefits of this application. Enhanced coagulation achieved consistent 20-30% removals of preformed THMs. Outstanding issues need to be addressed before TiO(2) photocatalysis is considered feasible for DBP mitigation; traditional strategies, including enhanced coagulation, may be more appropriate. PMID:19232668

Gerrity, Daniel; Mayer, Brooke; Ryu, Hodon; Crittenden, John; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

2009-04-01

411

Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program  

SciTech Connect

The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.

1987-07-01

412

Bioremediation process for sediments contaminated by heavy metals: feasibility study on a pilot scale.  

PubMed

The core stages of a sediment remediation process--the conditioning of dredged sludge by plants and the solid-bed leaching of heavy metals using microbially produced sulfuric acid--were tested on a pilot scale using a highly polluted river sediment. Conditioning was performed in 50 m3 basins at sludge depths of 1.8 m. During one vegetation period the anoxic sludge turned into a soil-like oxic material and became very permeable to water. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be best suited for conditioning. Bioleaching was carried out in an aerated solid-bed reactor of 2000 L working volume using oxic soil-like sediment supplemented with 2% sulfur. When applying conditioned sediment, the oxidation of easily degradable organic matter by heterotrophic microbes increased the temperature up to 50 degrees C in the early leaching phase, which in turn temporarily inhibited the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Nevertheless, most of the metal contaminants were leached within 21 days. Zn, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni were removed by 61-81%, Cu was reduced by 21%, while Cr and Pb were nearly immobile. A cost-effectiveness assessment of the remediation process indicates it to be a suitable treatment for restoring polluted sediments for beneficial use. PMID:15046363

Seidel, H; Löser, C; Zehnsdorf, A; Hoffmann, P; Schmerold, R

2004-03-01

413

Pilot scale evaluation on ferric floc sludge concentration with pelleting flocculation blanket process.  

PubMed

Pelleting flocculation blanket (PFB) process has been successfully applied to high turbidity suspensions for high efficient solid/liquid separation. In this paper, by using the PFB process, a dynamic experimental study was carried out on concentrating ferric flocs sludge with a scale of 1.3-5.4 m(3)/h. The pilot experiment aimed to optimize the conditioning system and determine the operational parameters. Under the raw sludge concentrations of 103-1,154 mg/L, the system could achieve ideal conditioning effect with polyacrylamide (PAM) dosages of 0.3-2.7 mg/L, agitation speed of 10 rpm, and water up-flow rates of 18-48 m/h. Under the experimental conditions, the increase of polymer dosage would improve effluent turbidity and pellets settling behaviour, the moderate up-flow rate had no marked effect on treatment results, while too large surface loading could worsen effluent turbidity. The experimental results also revealed that there existed an approximately linear relationship between the raw sludge concentration and optimum PAM dosage, that is, the optimum dosage of PAM increased synchronously as the raw sludge concentration increased. While the relationship between the raw sludge concentration and maximum up-flow rate reflected another linear dependence, namely, the maximum up-flow rate would decreased linearly as the raw sludge concentration increased. PMID:21045327

Huang, Ting-Lin; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Ning; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Li, Zhan-peng

2010-01-01

414

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

SciTech Connect

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15

415

A pilot-scale homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides.  

PubMed

This paper reported a new, green and effective extraction technique for polysaccharides, namely homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction (HNPCE), which succeeded in the extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides (APs). Central composite design and kinetic model were applied to optimize the extraction conditions, and the optimal parameters were obtained as follows: homogenization time 70s, negative pressure -0.068MPa, extraction temperature 64.8°C, ratio of water to material 13.4 and extraction time 53min. The proposed method exhibited considerable predominance in terms of higher APs yield (16.74%) with much lower temperature and shorter duration, as against the reported hot water extraction method (14.33% of APs yield with 100°C and 3h). Moreover, FT-IR results showed that HNPCE method did not alter the primary structure of polysaccharides. Furthermore, the pilot-scale application of HNPCE was successfully performed with 16.62% of APs yield. Thus, HNPCE is an excellent alternative method for the extraction of polysaccharides from Astragalus or other plant materials in industry. PMID:24661891

Jiao, Jiao; Wei, Fu-Yao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

2014-06-01

416

Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.  

PubMed

The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

2011-04-01

417

Chemical disinfection of Legionella in hot water systems biofilm: a pilot-scale 1 study.  

PubMed

Legionella bacteria encounter optimum growing conditions in hot water systems and cooling towers. A pilot-scale 1 unit was built in order to study the biofilm disinfection. It consisted of two identical loops, one used as a control and the other as a 'Test Loop'. A combination of a bio-detergent and a biocide (hydrogen peroxide + peracetic acid) was applied in the Test Loop three times under the same conditions at 100 and 1,000 mg/L with a contact time of 24 and 3-6 hours, respectively. Each treatment test was preceded by a three week period of biofilm re-colonization. Initial concentrations of culturable Legionella into biofilm were close to 10(3) CFU/cm2. Results showed that culturable Legionella spp. in biofilm were no longer detectable three days following each treatment. evertheless, initial Legionella spp. concentrations were recovered 7 days after the treatments (in two cases). Before the tests, Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila PCR counts were both about 10(4) GU/cm2 in biofilm and they both decreased by 1 to 2 log units 72 hours after each treatment. The three tests had a good but transient efficiency on Legionella disinfection in biofilm. PMID:22097051

Farhat, Maha; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Forêt, Christophe; Hater, Wolfgang; Moletta-Denat, Marina; Robine, Enric; Frère, Jacques

2011-01-01

418

In situ manipulation of critical flux in a submerged membrane bioreactor using variable aeration rates, and effects of membrane history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been increasingly used for municipal wastewater treatment. Systems where the membranes are submerged in the bioreactor, and scoured by the aerating gas stream, are very common and the “Kubota process” is a classic example of this technology [S. Churchouse, Membrane bioreactors: going from laboratory to large scale—problems to clear solutions, in: Presented at Membranes and the

J. A. Howell; H. C. Chua; T. C. Arnot

2004-01-01

419

Kinetics of hydrocarbon and pesticide removal from clay soils during thermal treatment in a pilot-scale rotary kiln  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated clay soils during thermal treatment in rotary kilns were studied experimentally, and kinetic parameters were obtained for simple first-order models. Results are given for seven hydrocarbons: toluene, naphthalene, n-hexadecane, lindane ({gamma}-HCH or 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (1,1{prime}-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), DDD (1,1{prime}-(2,2-dichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene). The activation energies ranged from 18 kJ/mol for toluene on wet soil, to 90 kJ/mol for the chlorinated pesticides. All the kinetic data were obtained in a 130 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln. The wall temperature of the kiln was 700 C for the pesticides. Three of the hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene and n-hexadecane, were studied on both wet soil (5.0 and 8.5 wt%) and on oven-dried soil at temperatures ranging from 300 to 650 C in order to understand better the effects of water on desorption rates. Water increases the rate of desorption of toluene but decreases the rates for the heavier compounds. The pilot-scale data and correlations should be useful to those who are operating and/or designing rotary kilns to remediate soils thermally. A methodology for taking pilot-scale results and using them to estimate full-scale performance is given.

Silcox, G.D.; Larsen, F.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering; Owens, W.D. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choroszy-Marshall, M. [Ciba-Geigy Corp., Tarrytown, NY (United States)] [Ciba-Geigy Corp., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

420

Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test. Hanford Grout Technology Program  

SciTech Connect

Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

1992-12-01

421

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16

422

Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor  

DOEpatents

A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

Klein, David L. (Palo Alto, CA); Laidlaw, Robert D. (Albany, CA); Andronaco, Gregory (Palo Alto, CA); Boyer, Stephen G. (Moss Beach, CA)

2010-12-14

423

Removal of multiple electron acceptors by pilot-scale, two-stage membrane biofilm reactors.  

PubMed

We studied the performance of a pilot-scale membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) treating groundwater containing four electron acceptors: nitrate (NO3(-)), perchlorate (ClO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and oxygen (O2). The treatment goal was to remove ClO4(-) from ?200 ?g/L to less than 6 ?g/L. The