Science.gov

Sample records for pilot-scale fireside deposit

  1. FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of fireside deposits in a pilot-scale combustor. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Successful operation of conventional as well as advanced coal combustion systems depends on controlling and minimizing the development of ash fouling and stagging, i.e., fireside deposits. The development of these deposits depends not only on combustion design and operating conditions, but also on the composition and quantity of the inorganic species in the coal. Coals contain several minerals, and low-rank coals contain organically associated cations that vary in their association, size, and position relative to one another and in their composition. In the course of combustion, the major inorganic constituents directly affect chemical and physical transformations, such that inorganic species are initially partitioned into gaseous, liquid, and solid intermediates. this report discusses the design and construction of an infrared emission sampling probe for ash deposits, and discusses the correlations of ash build-up with the emission spectra.

  2. Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon

    2011-07-14

    Oxy-fuel fireside research goals are: (1) determine the effect of oxyfuel combustion on fireside corrosion - flue gas recycle choice, staged combustion ramifications; and (2) develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an ash corrosivity measurement - synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes.

  3. Fireside Corrosion USC Steering

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak

    2011-09-07

    Oxy-Fuel Fireside Research goals are: (1) Determine the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on fireside corrosion - (a) Flue gas recycle choice, Staged combustion ramifications, (c) JCOAL Collaboration; and (2) Develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an 'ash corrosivity' measurement - (a) Synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes, (b) Applicable to SH/RH conditions.

  4. Characterization of ash deposition and heat transfer behavior of coals during combustion in a pilot-scale facility and full-scale utility

    SciTech Connect

    Sushil Gupta; Rajender Gupta; Gary Bryant; Terry Wall; Shinji Watanabe; Takashi Kiga; Kimihito Narukawa

    2009-05-15

    Experimental measurements as well as theoretical models were used to investigate the impact of mineral matter of three coals on ash deposition and heat transfer for pulverized coal fired boilers. The ash deposition experiments were conducted in a pulverized fuel combustion pilot-scale facility and a full-scale unit. A mathematical model with input from computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy analysis of coal minerals was used to predict the effect of ash deposition on heat transfer. The predicted deposit thickness and heat flux from the model are shown to be consistent with the measurements in the test facility. The model differentiates the coals according to the deposits they form and their effect on heat transfer. The heat transfer predictions in the full-scale unit were found to be most suitable for the water wall under the furnace nose. The study demonstrates that the measurements in a full-scale unit can differ significantly from those in pilot-scale furnaces due to soot-blowing operations. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fireside corrosion probes--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to monitor the corrosion degradation of key metallic components in fossil fuel power plants will become increasingly important for FutureGen and ultra-supercritical power plants. A number of factors (ash deposition, coal composition changes, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others) which occur in the high temperature sections of energy production facilities, will contribute to fireside corrosion. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. Our recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Continuing research is targeted to help resolve these issues.

  6. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  7. A novel capacitance sensor for fireside corrosion measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Zuoping

    2009-11-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a leading mechanism for boiler tube failures. Online monitoring of fireside corrosion can provide timely data to plant operators for mitigation implementation. This paper presents a novel sensor concept for measuring metal loss based on electrical capacitance. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated the feasibility of design, fabrication, and operation of the sensor. The fabrication of the prototype sensor involved sputtering deposition of a thin metal coating with varying thickness on a ceramic substrate. Corrosion metal loss resulted in a proportional decrease in electrical capacitance of the sensor. Laboratory experiments using a muffle furnace with an oxidation environment demonstrated that low carbon steel coatings on ceramic substrate survived cyclic temperatures over 500 °C. Measured corrosion rates of sputtered coating in air had an Arrhenius exponential dependence on temperature, with metal thickness loss ranging from 2.0 nm/h at 200 °C to 2.0 μm/h at 400 °C. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the overall measurement uncertainty was within 4%. The experimental system showed high signal-to-noise ratio, and the sensor could measure submicrometer metal thickness changes. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sensor concept and measurement system are capable of short term, online monitoring of metal loss, indicating the potential for the sensor to be used for fireside corrosion monitoring and other metal loss measurement.

  8. A novel capacitance sensor for fireside corrosion measurement.

    PubMed

    Ban, Heng; Li, Zuoping

    2009-11-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a leading mechanism for boiler tube failures. Online monitoring of fireside corrosion can provide timely data to plant operators for mitigation implementation. This paper presents a novel sensor concept for measuring metal loss based on electrical capacitance. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated the feasibility of design, fabrication, and operation of the sensor. The fabrication of the prototype sensor involved sputtering deposition of a thin metal coating with varying thickness on a ceramic substrate. Corrosion metal loss resulted in a proportional decrease in electrical capacitance of the sensor. Laboratory experiments using a muffle furnace with an oxidation environment demonstrated that low carbon steel coatings on ceramic substrate survived cyclic temperatures over 500 degrees C. Measured corrosion rates of sputtered coating in air had an Arrhenius exponential dependence on temperature, with metal thickness loss ranging from 2.0 nm/h at 200 degrees C to 2.0 microm/h at 400 degrees C. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the overall measurement uncertainty was within 4%. The experimental system showed high signal-to-noise ratio, and the sensor could measure submicrometer metal thickness changes. The laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sensor concept and measurement system are capable of short term, online monitoring of metal loss, indicating the potential for the sensor to be used for fireside corrosion monitoring and other metal loss measurement. PMID:19947757

  9. Failure Analysis of a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K J

    2001-09-14

    Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading.

  10. Monitoring power plant fireside corrosion using corrosion probes

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to monitor the corrosion degradation of key components in fossil fuel power plants is of utmost importance for Futuregen and ultra-supercritical power plants. Fireside corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production facilities due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Problems occur when equipment designed for either oxidizing or reducing conditions is exposed to alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions. This can happen especially near the burners. The use of low NOx burners is becoming more commonplace and can produce reducing environments that accelerate corrosion. One method of addressing corrosion of these surfaces is the use of corrosion probes to monitor when process changes cause corrosive conditions. In such a case, corrosion rate could become a process control variable that directs the operation of a coal combustion or coal gasification system. Alternatively, corrosion probes could be used to provide an indication of total metal damage and thus a tool to schedule planned maintenance outages.

  11. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  12. Development of fireside performance indices, Task 7.33, Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in FBCS, Task 7.36, Enhanced air toxics control, Task 7.45

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been developing advanced indices that rank coals according to their fouling and slagging propensity in utility boilers. The indices are based on sophisticated analytical techniques for identifying and quantifying coal inorganics and are useful in predicting the effects of proposed operational changes on ash deposition in coal-fired boilers. These indices are intended to provide an economical way to reduce the amount of full-scale testing needed to determine the best means of minimizing ash-related problems. The successful design and operation of the fluidized-bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems in FBC are agglomeration of bed material, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, ash deposition on refractory and uncooled surfaces, corrosion, and erosion. The focus of the Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCs is on the agglomeration and deposition problems in atmospheric bubbling and circulating beds. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require study of air toxic emissions from coal combustion systems. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine-particle control appears to be the best approach to achieving a high level of air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and are not typically collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, the goal of this project is to develop methods that capture the vapor-phase metals while simultaneously achieving ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxics.

  13. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  14. The Characterization of Grade PCEA Recycle Graphite Pilot Scale Billets

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Here we report the physical properties of a series specimens machined from pilot scale (~ 152 mm diameter x ~305 mm length) grade PCEA recycle billets manufactured by GrafTech. The pilot scale billets were processed with increasing amounts of (unirradiated) graphite (from 20% to 100%) introduced to the formulation with the goal of determining if large fractions of recycle graphite have a deleterious effect on properties. The properties determined include Bulk Density, Electrical Resistivity, Elastic (Young s) Modulus, and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. Although property variations were observed to be correlated with the recycle fraction, the magnitude of the variations was noted to be small.

  15. PILOT SCALE EVALUATION OF PHOTOLYTIC OZONATION FOR TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSOR REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation has been studied at the pilot-scale for removing trihalomethane (THM) precursors from potable water. The effects of variations in ozone dose rate, UV intensity and other parameters were first studied using a synthetic feedwater...

  16. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  17. Laboratory to pilot scale: Microwave extraction for polyphenols lettuce.

    PubMed

    Périno, Sandrine; Pierson, Jean T; Ruiz, Karine; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2016-08-01

    Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technique has been applied to pilot-scale solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of polyphenols from Lettuce sativa. Following the dictates of green extraction and with the aim to save time and energy, the lab-scale knowledge on SFME was exploited for the development of a pilot-scale process. The investigation entailed the optimization of all main parameters (temperature, time, extracted water volume, etc.) and we showed that the polyphenols composition profile under SFME was similar to the classic methods though a bit lower in total content. The energy consumption in the optimized procedure (30min) was 1W/g of fresh matrix. PMID:26988482

  18. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  19. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  20. Pilot-scale fermentation of aqueous-ammonia-soaked switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Isci, Asli; Himmelsbach, Jennifer N; Strohl, John; Pometto, Anthony L; Raman, D Raj; Anex, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Aqueous-ammonia-steeped switchgrass was subject to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in two pilot-scale bioreactors (50- and 350-L working volume). Switchgrass was pretreated by soaking in ammonium hydroxide (30%) with solid to liquid ratio of 5 L ammonium hydroxide per kilogram dry switchgrass for 5 days in 75-L steeping vessels without agitation at ambient temperatures (15 to 33 degrees C). SSF of the pretreated biomass was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D(5)A) at approximately 2% glucan and 77 filter paper units per gram cellulose enzyme loading (Spezyme CP). The 50-L fermentation was carried out aseptically, whereas the 350-L fermentation was semiaseptic. The percentage of maximum theoretical ethanol yields achieved was 73% in the 50-L reactor and 52-74% in the 350-L reactor due to the difference in asepsis. The 350-L fermentation was contaminated by acid-producing bacteria (lactic and acetic acid concentrations approaching 10 g/L), and this resulted in lower ethanol production. Despite this problem, the pilot-scale SSF of aqueous-ammonia-pretreated switchgrass has shown promising results similar to laboratory-scale experiments. This work demonstrates challenges in pilot-scale fermentations with material handling, aseptic conditions, and bacterial contamination for cellulosic fermentations to biofuels. PMID:18716923

  1. Synthesis of arsenic graft adsorbents in pilot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Noboru; Shibata, Takuya; Aketagawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Makikatsu; Yoshii, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Yasuhiko; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Synthesis of arsenic (As) adsorbents in pilot scale was carried out with a synthesizing apparatus by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate phosphoric acid monomer (PA), which consists of phosphoric acid mono- (50%) and di- (50%) ethyl methacrylate esters onto a nonwoven cotton fabric (NCF), and following chemical modification by contact with a zirconium (Zr) solution. The apparatus which was equipped with reaction tanks, a washing tank and a pump can produce up to 0.3 m×14 m size of the As(V) adsorbent in one reaction. A degree of grafting of 150% was obtained at an irradiation dose of 20 kGy with 5% of PA solution mixed with deionized water for 1 h at 40 °C. Finally, after Zr(IV) was loaded onto a NCF with 5 mmol/L of Zr(IV) solution, the graft adsorbent for the removal of As(V) was achieved in pilot-scale. The adsorbent which was synthesized in pilot scale was evaluated in batch mode adsorption with 1 ppm (mg/l) of As(V) solution for 2 h at room temperature. As a result, the adsorption capacity for As(V) was 0.02 mmol/g-adsorbent.

  2. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  3. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  4. Air- and Oxy-Fired Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G. R.; Tylczak, J.; Carney, C.; Laughlin, D.; Zhu, J.; Wise, A.

    2014-03-04

    The primary goal of this work was to examine the corrosion effects from flue gas composition changes arising from oxy‐combustion. At 700°C, increased SO{sub X}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O contents in the gas phase arising from various oxy‐combustion flue gas recirculation scenarios, while maintaining constant ash deposit chemistry, do not increase corrosion in superheater or reheater tubing. At 400°C, for both oxidative and reducing conditions, the corrosion rates were lower than at 700°C.

  5. A pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Szymcek, Phillip; McCallum, Scott; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    A three-phase, pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor (CJHR) has been developed for the production of gas hydrates. The reactor receives water and a hydrate-forming species to produce the solid gas hydrate. The CJHR has been tested for the production of CO{sub 2} hydrate for the purpose of ocean carbon sequestration. Formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate was investigated using various reactor/injector designs in a 72-l high-pressure vessel. Designs of the CJHR varied from single-capillary to multiple-capillary injectors that dispersed (1) liquid CO{sub 2} into water or (2) water into liquid CO{sub 2}. The novel injector is designed to improve the dispersion of one reactant into the other and, thus, eliminate mass transfer barriers that negatively affect conversion. An additional goal was an increase in production rates of two orders of magnitude. The designed injectors were tested in both distilled and saline water. Hydrate production experiments were conducted at different CO{sub 2} and water flow rates and for pressures and temperatures equivalent to intermediate ocean depths (1100-1700 m). The pilot-scale reactor with the novel injection system successfully increased hydrate production rates and efficiency.

  6. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-07-15

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  7. Pilot scale evaluation of peroxone for treatment of contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.; Swindle, R.; Harvey, S.; Morgan, R.; Strang, D.; Smith, J.

    1994-12-31

    Advance oxidation processes (AOPS) are treatment processes that rely on the hydroxyl radical to destroy contaminants in polluted waters. Peroxone is an advanced oxidation process that utilizes the reaction of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals without the requirement of ultraviolet light. The USAE Waterways Experiment Station (WES) evaluated the use of peroxone at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) for treatment of groundwater contaminated with diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) and low levels of pesticides. This evaluation was performed at RMA using a pilot scale treatment system. Results indicate that DIMP was easily oxidized to below detection limit levels. Optimization of the process indicated that a 250 mg/l hydrogen peroxide dose in four columns plumbed in series that were all sparged with 2.2% ozonated air at a rate of 2.S scfm.

  8. Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

    2003-09-30

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

  9. Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. PMID:22537399

  10. Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data

    SciTech Connect

    Bolczak, R.

    1981-09-01

    A pilot scale trommel test at a laboratory in upper Marlboro, Maryland, was initiated to support theoretical work on development of a model performance and to supplement data collected in full scale testing at Recovery 1 in New Orleans. Descriptions and summaries of the project through July 1981 are presented. The feedstocks were identical nearsized flakes and wooden blocks. Three groupings of results are provided. The first group, Feedstock Tests, contains data on feedstock properties. This group includes description of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency, and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize. (MCW)

  11. Pilot-scale verification test for Hanford grout

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Powell, W.J.

    1993-02-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes on the Hanford Site, to produce a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), mixes liquid wastes with cementitious materials and pumps the resulting grout slurry into large [5,300 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] concrete vaults. Once in the vault, the grout cures to produce a waste form that immobilizes radioactive and hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Although this disposal scheme has several advantages, pouring grout into large vaults raises concerns about how to handle the heat generated from the exothermic hydration reactions that occur as the grout cures. WHC`s current strategy for addressing the problem of hydration heat is to fill the vault in stages and use forced ventilation in the airspace above the grout to speed heat removal. The varying composition of Hanford tank waste requires that each tank be processed in a separate campaign using a grout formulation specifically designed for that waste. The next tank scheduled for treatment is DST 241-AN-106. A four-phase process for developing the grout formulation development process is used to assure that the formulation will meet various processing and waste form requirements. These phases are: (1) laboratory formulation development studies and modeling with simulated wastes, (2) laboratory variability studies with simulated waste, (3) pilot-scale verification tests with simulated wastes, and (4) laboratory verification tests with actual waste. This paper presents an overview of the pilot-scale verification tests conducted as part of the grout formulation development for the 241-AN-106 tank waste. The paper specifically discusses results dealing with (1) the grout slurry critical flow rate and (2) the ability to handle grout hydration heat with forced ventilation.

  12. Fireside corrosion of superheater materials in chlorine containing flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, T.

    2001-10-01

    Corrosion resistance of three types of candidate materials for superheater sections under simulated waste incineration conditions was evaluated. A 9Cr1Mo steel, an AISI 310SS, and the Ni-based alloy Sanicro 28 were tested on a laboratory and on a pilot scale with different flue gas compositions (up to 2500 mg/Nm3 of HCl and 1500 mg/Nm3 of fly ash). Laboratory tests were carried out in a furnace up to 200 h. Metal and gas temperature were kept constant at 500 °C. Pilot scale tests were carried out by using a 0.3 × 0.3 m cross-sectional combustor, with flue gas velocity of 5 m/s. Air-cooled probes, designed to operate at a metal temperature of 500 °C and facing gas temperatures as high as 600 °C, were used for 200 h as maximum test time. Qualitative correspondence was found between results obtained by the two sets of experimental tests, but quantitative values were not comparable. Metallographic evaluations, metal loss measurements, and weight loss analysis evidenced as the most suitable alloy Sanicro28. Maximum metal loss observed was 240, 182, and 107 µm, respectively, for 9Cr1Mo, AISI310SS, and Sanicro 28 under the most aggressive conditions. Intergranular corrosion attack was evidenced for AISI310SS, limiting the choice of materials to 9Cr1Mo and Sanicro 28, depending upon the lifetime expected at the design stage.

  13. SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

    2007-07-02

    Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

  14. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (BEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (BEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these radioactively contaminated filters will be dissolved using caustic solutions. As a result of these tests, a simple dissolution process was developed. In this process, the contaminated filter is first immersed in boiling 5% caustic solution for 24 hours and then water is sprayed on the filter. These steps break down the filter first chemically and then mechanically. The metal cage is rinsed and considered low level waste. The dissolved filter is pumpable and mixed with high level waste. Compared to earlier dissolution studies using caustic-acid-caustic solutions, the proposed method represents a 66% savings in cycle time and amount of liquid waste generated. This paper provides the details of filter mockups and results of the dissolution tests.

  15. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  16. Characterization of membrane foulants in a pilot-scale tunnel construction wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jeong, Se-Uk; Cho, Hyun Uk; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Young Mo

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale combination of a microfiltration (MF) and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system was applied on-site to treat tunnel construction wastewater. The MF membrane system initially removed contaminants (turbidity of less than 0.3 NTU) in the form of particulate materials in the feed water, thereby allowing the combined MF-RO system to efficiently remove more than 99% of known organic and inorganic contaminants and qualify the reclaimed water for reuse. The MF membrane autopsy analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed that the dominant foulants were inorganic deposits involving Si, Al and Fe, comprising the main components of cement materials, as well as deposits involving heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Zn in the form of particles. Thus, thick cake contaminants shown by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images might be induced via suspended solids consisting of cement and clay materials and metals. PMID:25222740

  17. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

  18. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  19. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  20. CHLORINE DECAY AND BIOFILM STUDIES IN A PILOT SCALE DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION DEAD END PIPE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine decay experiments using a pilot-scale water distribution dead end pipe system were conducted to define relationships between chlorine decay and environmental factors. These included flow rate, biomass concentration and biofilm density, and initial chlorine concentrations...

  1. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  2. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  3. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE COMBUSTION OF SOME CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors governing the occurence of trace amounts of residual organic substance emmissions (ROSEs) in full-scale incierators are not fully understood. Pilot-scale spray combustion expereiments involving some liquid chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their dilute mixtures with hy...

  5. Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Naomi J; Plumb, Jason J; Tilbury, Amanda L; Nyeboer, Hugh J; Sumich, Matt E; McKinnon, Anthony J; Franzmann, Peter D; Sutton, David C; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-04-01

    Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed. Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives but the microbial ecology and physiology of these treatment processes are poorly understood. Analysis of samples obtained from two pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and one aerobic suspended growth bioreactor (ASGB) using polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria subgroups were prominent in all three processes. Despite differing operating conditions, the composition of the microbial communities in the three reactors was conserved. MBBR2 was the only configuration that showed complete degradation of oxalate from the influent and the ASGB had the highest degradation rate of all three configurations. Several strains of the genus Halomonas were isolated from the bioreactors and their morphology and physiology was also determined. PMID:20835754

  6. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  7. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  8. Pilot-scale two-stage process: a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Kim, S H; Kim, H W; Shin, H S

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to optimize both acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis, and then to develop a pilot-scale two-stage process producing not only CH4 but also H2. Firstly, acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was examined in pilot-scale leaching-bed reactors using dilution rate (D) as a tool to improve the environmental conditions. The maximum efficiency of 71.4% was obtained by adjusting D from 4.5 to 2.5 d(-1) depending on the state of degradation. Secondly, the wastewater from acidogenic hydrogenesis was converted to CH4 in a pilot-scale UASB reactor. The COD removal efficiency exceeded 95% up to the loading rates of 13.1 g COD/Ld, which corresponded to HRT of 0.25 d (6 h). Lastly, a pilot-scale two-stage process was devised based on a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. Over 120 days, the pilot-scale process resulted in large VS reduction of 70.9% at the high loading rate of 12.5 kg VS/m3/d in a short SRT of 8 days. PMID:16180419

  9. Removal of Waterborne Particles by Electrofiltration: Pilot-Scale Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theoretical analysis using a trajectory approach indicated that in the presence of an external electric field, charged waterborne particles are subject to an additional migration velocity which increases their deposition on the surface of collectors (e.g. sand filter). In this st...

  10. [Start-up and process control of a pilot-scale Anammox bioreactor at ambient temperature].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chongjian; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Shangxing; Ding, Gesheng

    2009-03-01

    Start-up and process control of a pilot-scale anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (Anammox) bioreactor were studied at ambient temperature. Inoculated with a mixture of nitrification-denitrification sludge, nitritation sludge, anaerobic floc sludge and anaerobic granular sludge, the pilot-scale Anammox bioreactor was successfully started up within 255 days at 5 degrees C-27 degrees C. The nitrogen removal rate reached 1.30 kg/(m3 x d). Three facets were taken into account to facilitate the process initiation. First, in terms of alkalization in Anammox, influent pH was kept at about 6.8. Besides, nitrite concentration was kept as low as 13-36 mg/L. Finally, 2% (volumetric ratio) of Anammox sludge from lab-scale bioreactors was supplemented to the pilot-scale one. PMID:19621582

  11. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  12. A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

    2003-03-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside corrosion in a reliable and timely manner can provide significant benefits to the plant operation. Current corrosion inspection and measurement are typically performed during scheduled maintenance outages, which is often after the damage is done. In the past, there have been many attempts to develop real time continuous corrosion monitoring technologies. However, there is still no short-term, online corrosion monitoring system commercially available for fireside corrosion to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. This report describes the results of a laboratory feasibility study on the development effort of a novel sensor for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. A novel sensor principle and thin-film technologies were employed in the corrosion sensor design and fabrication. The sensor and the measurement system were experimentally studied using laboratory muffle furnaces. The results indicated that an accurate measure of corrosion rate could be made with high sensitivity using the new sensor. The investigation proved the feasibility of the concept and demonstrated the sensor design, sensor fabrication, and measurement instrumentation at the laboratory scale. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system was also performed to provide a basis for further improvement of the system for future pilot or full scale testing.

  13. Development of fireside performance indices - task 8. Topical report, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The primary goal of the Fireside Performance Indices (FPI) research project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to develop a series of indices to reliably predict the fireside performance of subbituminous coals in utility boilers. Individual utilities must respond quickly and effectively to changing fuel markets because of competition within the U.S. coal-fired power industry. Spot-market purchases of coal have become commonplace. The economics associated with sulfur emissions control have caused many utilities to use Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coals. The PRB coals usually provide a lower-cost, medium-heating-value, low-sulfur fuel option. Although these coals possess similar overall or bulk compositional properties, their fireside performance characteristics vary considerably within a given boiler. Consequently, bulk compositional parameters and, hence, conventional indices such as the base-to-acid ratio, stagging factor, and fouling factor are inappropriate for predicting the fireside performance of PRB coals. The development of the computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and chemical fractionation methods, however, has enabled a more thorough characterization of the inorganic constituents of PRB, coals that contribute to the following adverse operational effects: stagging, fouling, opacity, erosion and poor grindability, slag tapping, and sootblower performance. Eight predictive indices have been developed based primarily on CCSEM and chemical fractionation analysis parameters to predict the propensity of a given coal or coal blend to cause operational problems. The indices were formulated using bench-, pilot-, and full-scale combustion testing data from previous research projects combined with bench-scale data from this project to identify the primary coal inorganic properties that cause ash-related problems in utility boilers.

  14. Characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Reimus, M.A.; Martin, P.F.C.; Geldart, S.E.

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of a pilot-scale grout test were to determine the homogeneity of the grout produced under conditions similar to those planned for the TGF, to evaluate performance of candidate grout processing equipment for the TGF, and to evaluate properties of grout that was produced during continuous operation over an extended time period and cured in a large monolith. This report addresses the first and third objectives. Tests were conducted on pilot-scale grout slurry, simulated waste solution, dry solids blend samples, and cured grout samples. Grout slurry collected at two points during the pilot-scale test and slurry produced in the laboratory were characterized by measuring rheology, drainable liquid, and penetration resistance. Cured grout samples included samples collected during the pilot-scale test and cured in the laboratory, samples produced in the laboratory, samples obtained from tubes inserted into the monolith, and samples from cored sections of the monolith. Tests conducted on the cured samples included compressive strength, density, ultrasonic pulse velocity, leachability, and microstructural characterization. 10 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  16. REBURNING THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL PILOT-SCALE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an experimental investigation of the thermal and chemical processes influencing NOx reduction by natural gas reburning in a two-dimensional pilot-scale combustion system. Reburning effectiveness for initial NOx levels of 50-500 ppm and reburn stoichiometric ra...

  17. PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

  18. PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION OF CLOSED-LOOP FLY ASH SLUICING. VOLUME 1. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale demonstration of the technical feasibility of closed-loop operation of fly ash sluicing systems. Chemical species leached from the ash increase the dissolved solids concentration of recycled sluice water to a point where equipment scaling...

  19. APPLYING FABRIC FILTRATION TO REFUSE-FIRED BOILERS: A PILOT-SCALE INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot-scale investigation to determine the techno-economic feasibility of applying fabric filter dust collectors to solid refuse fired boilers. The pilot facility, installed on a slipstream of a 135,000 lb/hr boiler, was sized to handle 9000 acfm at ...

  20. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  1. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  2. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  3. EVALUATION OF SOLIDS DEWATERING FOR A PILOT-SCALE THIOSORBIC LIME SO2 SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of solids dewatering for a pilot-scale thiosorbic lime SO2 scrubber. Pilot plant data showed that the dissolved magnesium in thiosorbic lime caused deterioration of solids dewatering properties. The slurry settling rate increased when the ...

  4. PILOT SCALE PROCESS EVALUATION OF REBURNING FOR IN-FURNACE NOX REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of coal and natural gas reburning application tests to a pilot scale 3.0 MWt furnace to provide the scaling information required for commercial application of reburning to pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Initial parametric studies had been conducted in a 2...

  5. SYSTEMS RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE: PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CHLORINATED BENZENES AT THE COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 34 test burns was conducted between August 1983 and January 1984 in the pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system at the USEPA Combustion Research Facility (CRF), using chlorinated benzenes as surrogate Principal Organic Hazardous Components (POHCs), over a range of...

  6. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

  7. Pilot-scale fractionation of whey proteins with supercritical CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new pilot-scale process is being developed and optimized for the separation of whey proteins into two enriched, highly functional fractions that are free of contaminants. The fractionation of whey protein isolate (WPI), which contains approximately 32% alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) and 61% beta-lac...

  8. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  9. ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. ive reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. he soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. he pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum of...

  10. ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

  11. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  12. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  13. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  14. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  15. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  16. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2006-08-01

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

  17. Test report for the trial burn of Dinoseb in a pilot-scale incinerator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberacker, D.; Wool, M.; Villa, F.; Mason, H.

    1989-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that the herbicide Dinoseb represents a significant human health hazard. EPA estimates that there are approximately 5 million gallons affected by this action. As part of a program by the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to determine which technically viable disposal option is appropriate, pilot-scale test burns were made of a mixture of Dinoseb products at the John Zink Company Research Incineration Facility in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The mixture represented the various Dinoseb products to be destroyed. The rationale for doing the pilot-scale test was that specific performance data were needed to address, with confidence, any public or permitting questions that may arise in authorizing a full-scale incineration disposal operation. The test burns were successfully performed between February 18 and February 26, 1988. The report gives an overall summary of the test program.

  18. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-06-08

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described.

  19. Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

  20. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

  1. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  2. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  3. Pilot-scale tests to optimize the treatment of net-alkaline mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Kwon, Hyunho

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant consisting of an oxidation basin (OB), a neutralization basin (NB), a reaction basin (RB), and a settling basin (SB) was designed and built to conduct pilot-scale experiments. With this system, the effects of aeration and pH on ferrous oxidation and on precipitation of the oxidized products were studied systemically. The results of pilot-scale tests showed that aeration at 300 L/min was optimum for oxidation of Fe(II) in the OB, and the efficiency of oxidation of Fe(II) increased linearly with increasing retention time. However, Fe(II) was still present in the subsequent basins-NB, RB, and SB. Results from pilot-scale tests in which neutralization was excluded were used to obtain rate constants for heterogeneous and homogeneous oxidation. Oxidation of Fe(II) reached almost 100% when the pH of the mine drainage was increased to more than 7.5, and there was a linear relationship between total rate constant, log (K(total)), and pH. Absorbance changes for samples from the NB under different pH conditions were measured to determine the precipitation properties of suspended solids in the SB. Because ferrous remained in the inflow to the SB, oxidation of Fe(II) was dominant initially, resulting in increased absorbance, and the rate of precipitation was slow. However, the absorbance of the suspension in the SB rapidly dropped when pH was higher than 7.5. PMID:21046432

  4. High-temperature gas filtration. Volume 2, Operating performance of a pilot-scale filter: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, H.P.; Laux, S.; Renz, U.

    1992-10-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure filtration is important to the development of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology. This volume describes the commissioning and testing of a pilot-scale filter module rated at 1 to 4 bar pressure and up to 900{degrees}C. The module consists of an array of six porous sintered silicon carbide filter elements, designed to be cleaned on-line by jet pulses of compressed air. More than 2000 hours of exposure were achieved with FBC combustion gas with inlet dust concentrations of 500 to 40,000 ppM{sub w} at 200 to 650{degrees}C. Another 3500 hours of operation were achieved with simulated gas and injected dust. The filter elements were subjected to 60,000 cleaning cycles. No dust penetration through the filter modules was detected. After an initial stabilizing period, pressure drop remained moderate at less that 50 mbar (0.7 psi). The energy expended in pulse cleaning was negligible. No crusty deposits of dust were found on the filter elements during inspections, and no irreversible blinding occurred.

  5. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  6. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  7. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  8. Pilot-scale production and characterization of paramyosin, a vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis japonica.

    PubMed

    Jiz, Mario; Wu, Hai-Wei; Meng, Rui; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Reynolds, Mindy; Friedman, Jennifer F; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Kurtis, Jonathan D

    2008-07-01

    Despite effective chemotherapy, schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in the developing world, with at least 200 million active infections resulting in significant morbidity. Rapid reinfection after treatment, accompanied by extensive residual morbidity, mandates alternative control strategies, including vaccine development. Paramyosin, a myofibrillar protein found only in invertebrates, has been widely studied as a vaccine candidate for both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Recently, we demonstrated that Th2-biased immune responses to paramyosin are associated with resistance to reinfection with S. japonicum in humans; however, challenges in the pilot-scale production of schistosome paramyosin have hampered further studies of this promising vaccine candidate. Here we report a method for the pilot-scale expression and purification of recombinant S. japonicum paramyosin (rSj97). rSj97 was extracted from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies and purified with sequential anion-exchange, hydroxyapatite, and size exclusion chromatography. The purified rSj97 was >95% pure as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis and was free of significant endotoxin contamination. We demonstrate that, like native paramyosin, rSj97 adopts an alpha-helical coiled-coil tertiary structure and binds immunoglobulin and collagen. Naïve mice infected with S. japonicum produce anti-rSj97 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies as early as 4 weeks postinfection, while sera collected from S. japonicum-infected individuals contain anti-rSj97 IgE antibodies. Our method for pilot-scale production of recombinant full-length paramyosin will facilitate preclinical evaluation of paramyosin as a vaccine for schistosomiasis. PMID:18426875

  9. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  10. Pilot-scale production and characterization of PEGylated human FGF-21 analog.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Yu, Dan; Li, Shujie; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Yunzhou; Ren, Guiping; Han, Jun; Li, Deshan

    2016-06-20

    FGF-21 has become a potential drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that PEGylation of FGF-21 could significantly increase its in vivo half-life and provide its long-lasting blood glucose-lowering effect. To accelerate the development of PEGylated FGF-21 for clinical application as a long-acting antidiabetes drug, we prepared ahmFGF-21 (FGF-21 mutant) and PEGylated ahmFGF-21 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) by high cell density fermentation at a 50-L scale and pilot-scale purification. The physical and chemical properties of the purified proteins were analyzed in this study, including purity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, bacterial endotoxin, PEGylated site and second structure. As well as the in vitro glucose uptake activity and in vivo anti-diabetic effect were evaluated. Under the optimal fermentation and purification conditions, the average bacterial yield and expression level of target protein of three batches attained 52.2±4.6g/L and 223.92±5.41mg/L, respectively. The purity of pilot product was above 98% by SDS-PAGE (non-reducing or reducing) and HPLC (SEC or RPC) analysis and the final yield of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was 87.91±1.49mg/L, which indicated that the pilot-scale production process was relatively stable. N-terminal sequencing and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy results showed that modification site of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was alanine at N-terminal and the second structure of ahmFGF-21 had no obvious changes after PEGylation. Compared with ahmFGF-21, the long-acting hypoglycemic effect of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 prepared in the pilot-scale production was significantly improved in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Our results demonstrated that the pilot-scale production process of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was successfully established, which was very important for the clinical application. PMID:27109774

  11. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  12. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L M

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.

  13. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  14. Pilot-scale bioelectrochemical system for efficient conversion of 4-chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; You, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Na; Gong, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Xiu-Heng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-01-01

    4-Chloronitrobenzene (4-CNB) is one of the highly toxic contaminants that may lead to acute, chronic or persistent physiological toxicity to ecology and environment. Conventional methods for removing 4-CNB from aquatic environment may be problematic due to inefficiency, high cost and low sustainability. This study develops a pilot-scale bioelectrochemical system (BES, effective volume of 18 L) and examines its performance of bioelectrochemical transformation of 4-CNB to 4-chloroaniline (4-CAN) under continuous operation. The results demonstrate that the initial 4-CNB concentration in the influent and hydraulic retention time (HRT) has a significant impact on 4-CNB reduction and 4-CAN formation. Compared with the conventional anaerobic process in the absence of external power supplied, the 4-CNB conversion efficiency can be enhanced with power supplied due to microbial-mediated electron transfer at the negative cathode potential. At a voltage of 0.4 V and HRT of 48 h, the 4-CNB reduction and 4-CAN formation efficiency reached 99% and 94.1%, respectively. Based on a small external voltage applied, the pilot-scale BES is effective in the conversion of 4-CNB to 4-CAN, an intermediate that is of less toxicity and higher bioavailability for subsequent treatment. This study provides a new strategy and methods for eliminating 4-CNB, making wastewater treatment more economical and more sustainable. PMID:25650667

  15. Second-order chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation in a pilot-scale water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Yu, Jieze; Zhang, Tu-qiao; Mao, Xinwei; Shao, Weiyun

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments were run to investigate the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of trihalomethanes (THMs) in pilot-scale water distribution systems. Experimental results show that the rate constants of chlorine decay, including wall decay and bulk decay, increasing with temperature. Moreover, the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of THMs describe experiment data of pilot-scale water distribution systems. The effect of different piping material on chlorine decay and THMs formation were also investigated. The rate constants of chlorine decay are ranked in order: stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because wall decay is the largest in stainless steel pipe than that in other piping material. Correspondingly, the rate of THMs formation follows the order of stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because of less chlorine in bulk water reacting with the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). PMID:22953450

  16. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities. PMID:23315361

  17. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-10-15

    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. PMID:25952841

  18. [Pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina plantensis with digested piggery wastewater ].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-qing; Liu, Rui; Luo, Jin-fei; Wang, Gen-rong; Chen, Lii-jun; Liu, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    The swine waste pretreated with coagulation sedimentation was used for the outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina platensis isolated from digested piggery wastewater (DPW) in a raceway pond. The growth of S. platensis and removal of nitrogen/ phosphorus were studied, moreover, the conversion efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) from DPW to S. platensis was calculated. On this basis, the existing problems and countermeasures during outdoor pilot-scale culture were analyzed and summarized combined with the laboratory research. We conducted 6 batches culture experiments, only 3 of which could reach the S. platensis harvest requirements (D560 >0. 8). Meanwhile, the 3 successful batches achieved removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN, TP with corresponding 28. 6% -48. 5% , 0.4% -48. 5% , 41. 8% -48. 6% , 14. 3% -94. 5% , and the conversion efficiency of TN or TP from DPW to S. platensis reached 12. 1% -98. 5% , 21.2% -83.7% , respectively. High concentration of ammonia nitrogen and insect attack of remaining egg hatching in the pretreated swine waste were the main factors to cause the slow-growing of the 3 batches of S. platensis. Therefore, it is highly necessary for the removal of ammonia nitrogen with biological treatment technology and insect eggs with membrane to achieve a stable high productivity. PMID:25518669

  19. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  20. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Lane; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2009-05-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) was designed and built to decrease the concentration and toxicity of constituents of concern in ash basin water from coal-burning power plants. The CWTS was designed to promote the following treatment processes for metals and metalloids: precipitation as non-bioavailable sulfides, co-precipitation with iron oxyhydroxides, and adsorption onto iron oxides. Concentrations of Zn, Cr, Hg, As, and Se in simulated ash basin water were reduced by the CWTS to less than USEPA-recommended water quality criteria. The removal efficiency (defined as the percent concentration decrease from influent to effluent) was dependent on the influent concentration of the constituent, while the extent of removal (defined as the concentration of a constituent of concern in the CWTS effluent) was independent of the influent concentration. Results from toxicity experiments illustrated that the CWTS eliminated influent toxicity with regard to survival and reduced influent toxicity with regard to reproduction. Reduction in potential for scale formation and biofouling was achieved through treatment of the simulated ash basin water by the pilot-scale CWTS. PMID:19223060

  1. Pilot scale thin film plate reactors for the photocatalytic treatment of sugar refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saran, S; Kamalraj, G; Arunkumar, P; Devipriya, S P

    2016-09-01

    Pilot scale thin film plate reactors (TFPR) were fabricated to study the solar photocatalytic treatment of wastewater obtained from the secondary treatment plant of a sugar refinery. Silver-impregnated titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by a facile chemical reduction method, characterized, and immobilized onto the surface of ceramic tiles used in the pilot scale reactors. On 8 h of solar irradiation, percentage reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater by Ag/TiO2, pure TiO2, and control (without catalyst) TFPR was about 95, 86, and 22 % respectively. The effects of operational parameters such as, flow rate, pH, and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were optimized as they influence the rate of COD reduction. Under 3 h of solar irradiation, 99 % COD reduction was observed at an optimum flow rate of 15 L h(-1), initial pH of 2, and addition of 5 mM of H2O2. The results show that Ag/TiO2 TFPR could be effectively used for the tertiary treatment of sugar refinery effluent using sunlight as the energy source. The treated water could be reused for industrial purposes, thus reducing the water footprint of the industry. Graphical Abstract Sugar refinery effluent treatment by solar photocatalytic TFPR. PMID:27246562

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded. PMID:26393620

  3. Pilot-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by physicochemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K

    2013-01-01

    The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute. PMID:24191487

  4. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  5. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven; Gates, Bill; Podesta, John

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  6. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  7. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2012-03-21

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  8. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings was exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy are being exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after approximately 4,400 hours of exposure.

  9. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1997-08-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4,000 hours of exposure.

  10. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  11. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  12. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  13. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  14. Nitrogen mass balances for pilot-scale biofilm stabilization ponds under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Babu, M A; van der Steen, N P; Hooijmans, C M; Gijzen, H J

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen removal in biofilm waste stabilization ponds were modeled using nitrogen mass balance equations. Four pilot-scale biofilm maturation ponds were constructed in Uganda. Pond 1 was control; the others had 15 baffles in each of them. Two loading conditions were investigated (period 1, 18.2g and period 2, 26.8 g NH(4)-Nd(-1)). Total nitrogen and TKN mass balances were made. Bulk water and biofilm nitrification rates were determined and used in the TKN mass balance. Results for total nitrogen mass balance showed that for both periods, denitrification was the major removal mechanism. Nitrogen uptake by algae was more important during period 1 than in period 2. The TKN mass balance predicted well effluent TKN for period 2 than period 1. This could be due to fluctuations in algae density and ammonia uptake during period 1, no conclusions on reliability of mass balance model in period 1 was made. PMID:21183339

  15. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  16. Influence of particle size on performance of a pilot-scale fixed-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renzhan; Liu, Ronghou; Wu, Jinkai; Wu, Xiaowu; Sun, Chen; Wu, Ceng

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size on the gasification performance of a pilot-scale (25 kg/h) downdraft fixed bed gasification system was investigated using prunings from peach trees at five different size fractions (below 1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 cm). The gas and hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. With increasing particle size, gas yield increased while tar and dust content decreased. The lower heating value of the gas decreased slightly with particle size. At a smaller particle size, more hydrocarbons were detected in the producer gas. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide contents increased with the decrease in particle size, reaching 16.09% and 14.36% at particle size below 1cm, respectively. Prunings with a particle size of 1-2 cm were favorable for gasification in the downdraft gasifier used in this study. PMID:22728176

  17. Vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic waste from olive oil industry: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E; Sainz, H; Melgar, R; Nogales, R

    2002-04-01

    The vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of dry olive cake, a lignocellulosic waste produced during the extraction of olive oil, either alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, was studied in a nine-month pilot scale experiment. Number and biomass of earthworms and enzyme activities were periodically monitored and relevant properties of the final products were determined. In the assayed substrates, the total biomass of earthworms increased at the end of the experimental period between 9 and 12-fold respectively in comparison with the earthworm biomass initially inoculated. The increase in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activity during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the olive cake and resulted in the disappearance of the initial phytotoxicity of the substrate. However, the recalcitrant lignocellulosic nature of the dry olive cake prevented suitable humification during the vermicomposting process. For this reason, in addition to organic amendments, other management procedures should be considered. PMID:12058819

  18. Mercury emissions control by wet FGD systems: EPRI pilot-scale results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Seeger, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results from pilot-scale tests that investigated mercury removal across wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The program was conducted at EPRIs Environmental Control Technology Center, located in Barker, NY. The test results showed that mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was efficiently removed across the FGD system, while elemental mercury was not collected. The practical implication of this study is that although FGD systems efficiently remove some forms of mercury from flue gas, the overall mercury removal efficiency, and therefore the total mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant equipped with an FGD system, will depend on the chemical form of the mercury in the flue gas. Unfortunately, no validated gas sampling method is available for speciating the different forms of mercury in flue gas. It is, therefore, difficult to predict mercury removal across FGD systems and to interpret any mercury removal data that have been collected.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Pilot scale evaluation of peroxone for treatment of contaminated groundwater. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.; Swindle, R.; Harvey, S.; Morgan, R.; Strang, D.

    1994-12-31

    Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) are treatment processes that rely on the hydroxyl radical to destroy contaminants in polluted waters. Peroxone is an advanced oxidation process that utilizes the reaction of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals without the requirement of ultraviolet light. The USAE Waterways Experiment Station (WES) evaluated the use of peroxone at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) for treatment of groundwater contaminated with diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) and low levels of pesticides. This evaluation was performed at RMA using a pilot scale treatment system. Results indicate that DIMP was easily oxidized to below detection limit levels. Optimization of the process indicated that a 250 m1/1 hydrogen peroxide dose in four columns plumbed in series that were all sparged with 2.2% ozonated air at a rate of 2.5 scfm.

  1. [Pilot-scale opposite folded plate hybrid anaerobic reactor (OFPHAR) in treatment of sewage].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang-Kui; Ye, Chang-Bing; Zhuang, Jin-Peng; Bi, Dong; Wang, Lei

    2008-11-01

    Based on the theories of mass-transfer and two-double integrated staged multi-phase anaerobe (TSMPA), a pilot-scale opposite folded plate hybrid anaerobic reactor (OFPHAR) was designed to treat low concentration sewage. All the trial lasted 12 months and the results indicated that the optimal HRT was 6h. At this HRT, the COD, TP and TN removal rate were 78.58%, 35.15%, 39.17%, respectively, at 25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C. The optimal rate of anaerobic section was 45%-65%. Controlled HRT = 6 h, the COD, TP and TN removal rate were 64.37%, 20.72%, 23.65%, respectively, and the specific methane production capacity were 1.85 mL/(g x h) when the temperature decreased to 7 degrees C. The results of trial indicated that apply this OFPHAR to treat low concentration sewage at low temperature in north China is feasible. PMID:19186805

  2. Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

    2011-05-01

    Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

  3. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. PMID:25497055

  4. Slag Characterization: A Necessary Tool for Modeling and Simulating Refractory Corrosion on a Pilot Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Reiter, V.; Studnicka, H. L.; Spanring, A.

    2014-09-01

    The slag in pyrometallurgical operations plays a major role affecting the life of furnace refractory. As such, comprehensive mineralogical and chemical slag examination, physical property determination including the slag melting point or liquidus, and viscosity are necessary for precise understanding of a slag. At the RHI Technology Center Leoben, Austria, the main objective of slag characterization work is to reach a better understanding of refractory corrosion. This corrosion testwork is performed at the laboratory and pilot scale. Typically, corrosion tests are performed in an induction furnace or rotary kiln, with the main purpose being the improved selection of the most suitable refractory products to improve refractory performance in operating metallurgical furnaces. This article focuses on characterization of samples of six non-ferrous, customer-provided slags. This includes slag from a copper Peirce-Smith converter, a short rotary furnace for lead smelting, a titania-processing furnace, and a Ni-Cu top blowing rotary converter (TBRC) plant.

  5. Recovery of phosphorus from dairy manure: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Lo, Victor K; Thompson, James R; Koch, Frederic A; Liao, Ping H; Lobanov, Sergey; Mavinic, Donald S; Atwater, James W

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from dairy manure via a microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) followed by struvite crystallization in a pilot-scale continuous flow operation. Soluble phosphorus in dairy manure increased by over 50% after the MW/H2O2-AOP, and the settleability of suspended solids was greatly improved. More than 50% of clear supernatant was obtained after microwave treatment, and the maximum volume of supernatant was obtained at a hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0.3% and pH 3.5. By adding oxalic acid into the supernatant, about 90% of calcium was removed, while more than 90% of magnesium was retained. As a result, the resulting solution was well suited for struvite crystallization. Nearly 95% of phosphorus in the treated supernatant was removed and recovered as struvite. PMID:25420588

  6. Design and analysis of a pilot scale biofiltration system for odorous air

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, J.J.; Young, J.S.; Bottcher, R.W.; Westerman, P.W.

    2000-02-01

    Three pilot-scale biofilters and necessary peripheral equipment were built to clean odorous air from the pit of a swine gestation building at North Carolina State University. A computer measured temperatures, flow rates, and pressure drops. It also controlled and measured the moisture content of a biofilter medium comprised of a 3:1 mixture of yard waste compost to wood chips mixture (by volume). The system was evaluated to ensure that the biofilters would be useful for performing scientific experiments concerning the reduction of swine odor on future research projects. The capability of the biofilters to remove odor was measured using a cotton swatch absorption method and an odor panel. The average odor reductions measured by odor intensity, irritation intensity, and unpleasantness for five tests were 61%, 58%, and 84%, respectively. No significant differences in odor reduction performance were found between the biofilters.

  7. Production and basic morphology of struvite crystals from a pilot-scale crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Mavinic, D S; Lo, K V; Koch, F A

    2006-03-01

    A pilot-scale, struvite crystallization process was operated using anaerobic digester supernatants from two, full-scale, treatment plants as influent. It was found that the produced struvite crystals were easily separated from the process and were composed of very pure struvite (91.2 % to 94.1 % purity), with small amounts of calcium and carbonate, and traces of iron and aluminum. Most of the harvested struvite crystals, which were an aggregation of numerous fine crystals, were round, hard and larger than 1.5 mm in mean diameter. The crystal retention time in the reactor and the magnesium dosage in the supernatant appeared to have a significant effect on the crystal size, hardness and morphology. PMID:16548204

  8. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  9. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP. PMID:25545090

  10. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  11. Improvement of mixing patterns in pilot-scale anaerobic ponds treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Peña, M R; Mara, D D; Piguet, J M

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic ponds are customarily designed as completely mixed reactors. However, evidence from experiments on full-scale facilities shows large deviations from ideal flow models, which in turn cause a reduced process performance. Thus, modified pilot scale anaerobic ponds receiving domestic sewage were developed and studied in parallel. A factorially designed experiment evaluated horizontal and vertical baffling, ponds fitted with cross-sectional plastic nets and a pond with a mixing pit. The hydrodynamic behaviour and process performance of these modified configurations were monitored for four flow rates (1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 l/s). The results showed that baffling (vertical and horizontal) and the mixing pit configuration had the best hydrodynamic behaviours and removal efficiencies. Consequently, the development of high-rate anaerobic ponds, through improvements of hydrodynamic behaviour, seems feasible. PMID:14510216

  12. Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data - a working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bolczak, R.

    1982-11-01

    Descriptions and summaries are provided of testing from July 1980 to July 1981 on a pilot scale trommel at the National Center for Resource Recovery's Laboratory in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. There are three groupings of results. The first group, Feedstock Tests, includes descriptions of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize.

  13. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-04-24

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described.

  14. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Transformation of bisphenol A in water distribution systems: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Zilong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Liu, Jingqing; Mao, Xinwei; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of a cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated. The water in the pilot-scale WDS was chlorinated with a free chlorine concentration of 0.7 mg L(-1) using sodium hypochlorite, and with an initial BPA concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was spiked in the WDS. Halogenated compounds in the BPA experiments were identified using EI/GC/MS and GC. Several BPA congeners, including 2-chlorobisphenol A (MCBPA), dichlorobisphenol A (D2-CBPA), 2,2',6-trichlorobisphenol A (T3CBPA), 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobisphenol A (T4CBPA), 2-bromobisphenol A (MBBPA), and bromochlorobisphenol A (MBMCBPA) were found. Moreover, further halogenation yielded other reaction intermediates, including 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (T3CP), dichlorobisphenol A, bromodichlorophenol, and dibromochlorophenol. After halogenation for 120min, most of the abovementioned reaction intermediates disappeared and were replaced by trihalomethanes (THMs). Based on these experimental findings, the halogenation process of BPA oxidation in a WDS includes three stages: (1) halogenation on the aromatic ring; (2) chlorine or bromine substitution followed by cleavage of the α-C bond on the isopropyl moiety with a positive partial charge and a β'-C bond on the benzene moiety with a negative partial charge; and (3) THMs and a minor HAA formation from phenolic intermediates through the benzene ring opening with a chlorine and bromine substitution of the hydrogen on the carbon atoms. The oxidation mechanisms of the entire transformation from BPA to THM/HAA in the WDS were proposed. PMID:25550112

  16. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  17. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas. PMID:19620003

  18. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  19. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  20. Pilot-scale On-farm Pretreatment of Perennial Grasses with Dilute Acid and Alkali for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated with sulfuric acid or calcium hydroxide 50 g/kg DM at both the laboratory (250 g DM) and pilot-scale (250 kg DM) and anaerobically stored for two durations, 60 and 180 days. Pretreated and untreated samp...

  1. Development of a Pilot Scale Process to Sequester Aflatoxin and Release Bioactive Peptides from Highly Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut oil. PM applications are limited because of typical high concentrations of aflatoxin. For the first time, pilot-scale extraction of protein and sequestration of aflatoxin from PM were evaluated. Aqueous...

  2. EVALUATION OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES ON A REFUSE AND COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project report describes the operation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices to gather data on air pollution efficiency versus several different operating parameters on various waste-as-fuel combustio processes. It also includes a test of a full scale fabric filter use...

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. he waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. olume I give...

  4. CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION SOURCES: FIELD EVALUATIONS OF PILOT-SCALE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot scale air pollution control devices supplied by Hydro-Sonic Systems, ETS, Inc., and Vulcan Engineering Company were installed at the ENSCO, Inc. Incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas, in the spring of 1984. Each of these units treated an uncontrolled slipstream of the incinera...

  5. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  6. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  7. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1189 Ferguson*, T.D., Chen, A.S.C., and Stencel, N. Recycling a Nonionic Aqueous-Based Metal-Cleaning Solution with a Ceramic Membrane: Pilot Scale Evaluation. Published in: Environmental Progress 20 (2):123-132 (2001). The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) ...

  8. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. PMID:25194265

  9. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

  10. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE PRECURSORS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF MIXED BROMO-CHLORO DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experiments in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected fly-ash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products...

  11. SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF TRACE METALS IN FLUE GAS PARTICULATE FROM A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distributions of nine trace metals in flue gas particulate by particle size range were determined as part of a pilot-scale hazardous waste incineration test program. hese tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incinerator system at the U.S. EPA's Incineration Research Facili...

  12. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 3. PILOT SCALE TEST RESULTS FOR MAGNESIUM OXIDE SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was conducted to determine the feasibility of applying the magnesium oxide (MgO) scrubbing system to smelter off-gas streams containing approximately one percent SO2. Pilot scale (4000 cu Nm/hr) tests of the MgO system using a packed tower absorber with no rege...

  13. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  14. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. he technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with microorganisms to enhance the...

  15. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  16. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Pilot-Scale Warehouses Treated with B-Cyfluthrin: Are Residual Insecticides and Trapping Compatible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...

  17. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A.

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  18. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S.

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  19. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  20. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F.

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  2. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  3. Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5% ± 1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction

  4. Stability and maturity of thickened wastewater sludge treated in pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Stefanakis, Alexandros I; Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2011-12-01

    Thickened wastewater activated sludge was treated in 13 pilot-scale sludge treatment wetlands of various configurations that operated continuously for three years in North Greece. Sludge was loaded for approximately 2.5 years, and the beds were left to rest for the remaining period. Three different sludge loading rates were used that represented three different population equivalents. Residual sludge stability and maturity were monitored for the last year. Sludge was regularly sampled and microbial respiration activity indices were measured via a static respiration assay. The phytotoxicity of sludge was quantified via a seed germination bioassay. Measurements of total solids, organic matter, total coliforms, pH and electrical conductivity were also made. According to microbial respiration activity measurements, the sludge end-product was classified as stable. The germination index of the final product exceeded 100% in most wetland units, while final pH values were approximately 6.5. The presence of plants positively affected the stability and maturity of the residual sludge end-product. Passive aeration did not significantly affect the quality of the residual sludge, while the addition of chromium at high concentrations hindered the sludge decomposition process. Conclusively, sludge treatment wetlands can be successfully used, not only to dewater, but also to stabilize and mature wastewater sludge after approximately a four-month resting phase. PMID:22027385

  5. Nitrogen mass balance across pilot-scale algae and duckweed-based wastewater stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Zimmo, O R; van der Steen, N P; Gijzen, H J

    2004-02-01

    Nitrogen removal processes and nitrogen mass balances in algae-based ponds (ABPs) and duckweed (Lemna gibba)-based ponds (DBPs) were assessed during periods of 4 months, each under different operational conditions. During periods 1 and 2, the effect of cold and warm temperature was studied. During periods 2 and 3, the effect of low- and high-system organic loading (OL) was studied in warm seasons operation. The pilot-scale systems consisted of four similar ponds in series fed with domestic sewage with hydraulic retention time of 7 days in each pond. Overall nitrogen removal was higher during warm temperature in both ABPs and DBPs, but similar during periods 2 and 3. Nitrogen removal in DBPs was lower than in ABPs by 20%, 12% and 8% during cold temperature, warm temperature and high-OL periods, respectively. Depending on temperature and OL rate, ABPs showed higher nitrogen removal via sedimentation (46-245% higher) compared to DBPs. Also, ABPs also showed higher nitrogen removal via denitrification (7-37% higher) compared to DBPs. Ammonia volatilisation in both systems did not exceed 1.1% of influent total nitrogen during the entire experimental period. N uptake by duckweed corresponds to 30% of the influent nitrogen during warm/low OL period and decreased to 10% and 19% during the cold and warm/high OL period, respectively. Predictive models for nitrogen removal presented a good reflection of nitrogen fluxes on overall nitrogen balance under the prevailing experimental conditions. PMID:14769411

  6. Assessing struvite precipitation in a pilot-scale fluidized bed crystallizer.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Bhuiyan, H; Mavinic, D S

    2008-11-01

    The recovery of phosphates from biological wastewater treatment plants, through struvite crystallization, minimizes operational downtime and offers the potential for cost-effective recovery. The pilot-scale, fluidized bed reactor developed at the University of British Columbia (UBC) was found to be effective in recovering phosphate in the form of nearly pure struvite product, from an anaerobic digester centrate. The desired degree of phosphate removal was achieved by maintaining operating pH 8.0-8.2, and recycle ratio 5-9, to control the supersaturation conditions inside the reactor. The performance of the system was found to be optimal when the in-reactor supersaturation ratio was 2-6. In-reactor magnesium to phosphate molar ratio was found to be an important parameter to maintain system performance. In-reactor ammonium to phosphate molar ratio was also found to maintain a good correlation with phosphate removal. The influence of organic ligands on the struvite precipitation was investigated for a small molecular weight organic ligand, acetate, using a chemical equilibrium model PHREEQC. An acetate concentration below about 100 mg l(-1) was not found to affect the precipitation potential of struvite. Calcium and carbonate ion did not have any noticeable effect in struvite crystallization of struvite, under the operational concentrations utilized. Since the precipitation of calcium and carbonate compounds was controlled by kinetic factors, rather than thermodynamic solubility alone, the solid precipitates harvested were pure struvite, with undetectable impurities. PMID:18975848

  7. Characterization results for 106-AN grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Martin, P.F.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford. Washington, will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over one million gallons of phosphate/sulfate waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank waste scheduled for treatment is 106-AN (the waste from Tank 241-AN-106). After laboratory studies were conducted to select the grout formulation, tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) were conducted as part of the formulation verification process. The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilotscale equipment. to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat, and to characterize the solidified grout.

  8. Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O.; Hess, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell·mL−1 at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day−1, with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day−1. After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures. PMID:22822378

  9. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  10. Solvent sublation for waste minimization in a process water stream - a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Bryson, B G; Valsaraj, K T

    2001-03-19

    Solvent sublation, an adsorptive bubble separation process, was carried out on a pilot scale to separate dilute concentrations (30-100ppmw) of naphthalene from a process water stream at a temperature of 140 degrees F. The test was conducted at the Borden Chemicals and Plastics (BCP) acetylene plant site located in Geismar, Louisiana. A carbon steel column of 6" i.d. and 17' high was constructed. White mineral oil supplied by Texaco Inc., was used as the organic solvent for solvent sublation. A special annular shear sparger was used for nitrogen gas sparging into the vessel. The process was conducted in two-phase continuous and three-phase continuous modes. The naphthalene recovery from the process water was independent of the oil flow rate, but depended on the nitrogen-to-water flow rate ratio. The release of naphthalene to the overhead gas space during the solvent sublation process was substantially less than that during conventional gas stripping. The improved performance of solvent sublation over both conventional gas stripping and solvent extraction operations was apparent. PMID:11165062

  11. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics. PMID:12655806

  12. Titer improvement and pilot-scale production of platensimycin from Streptomyces platensis SB12026.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pan, Jian; Liu, Ling; Yang, Dong; Lu, Songquan; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Shen, Ben; Duan, Yanwen; Huang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), isolated from several strains of Streptomyces platensis are potent antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. PTM was also shown to have antidiabetic and antisteatotic activities in mouse models. Through a novel genome-mining method, we have recently identified six PTM and PTN dual-producing strains, and generated several mutants with improved production of PTM or PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific transcriptional repressor gene ptmR1. Among them, S. platensis SB12026 gave the highest titer of 310 mg/L for PTM. In this study, we now report titer improvement by medium and fermentation optimization and pilot-scale production and isolation of PTM from SB12026. The fermentation medium optimization was achieved by manipulating the carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the inorganic salts. The highest titer of 1560 mg/L PTM was obtained in 15-L fermentors, using a formulated medium mainly containing soluble starch, soybean flour, morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt and CaCO3. In addition, a polyamide chromatographic step was applied to facilitate the purification and 45.14 g of PTM was successfully obtained from a 60 L scale fermentation. These results would speed up the future development of PTM as human medicine. PMID:27126098

  13. Ammonium removal from groundwater using a zeolite permeable reactive barrier: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengpin; Huang, Guoxin; Kong, Xiangke; Yang, Yingzhao; Liu, Fei; Hou, Guohua; Chen, Honghan

    2014-01-01

    In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal. PMID:25401319

  14. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  15. Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dotro, Gabriela; Castro, Silvana; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Piovano, Nancy; Paris, Marta; Faggi, Ana; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel; Fitch, Mark

    2012-11-15

    Tannery operations consist of converting raw animal skins into leather through a series of complex water- and chemically-intensive batch processes. Even when conventional primary treatment is supplemented with chemicals, the wastewater requires some form of biological treatment to enable the safe disposal to the natural environment. Thus, there is a need for the adoption of low cost, reliable, and easy-to-operate alternative secondary treatment processes. This paper reports the findings of two pilot-scale wetlands for the secondary treatment of primary effluents from a full tannery operation in terms of resilience (i.e., ability to produce consistent effluent quality in spite of variable influent loads) and reliability (i.e., ability to cope with sporadic shock loads) when treating this hazardous effluent. Areal mass removal rates of 77.1 g COD/m2/d, 11 g TSS/m2/d, and 53 mg Cr/m2/d were achieved with a simple gravity-flow horizontal subsurface flow unit operating at hydraulic loading rates of as much as 10 cm/d. Based on the findings, a full-scale wetland was sized to treat all the effluent from the tannery requiring 68% more land than would have been assumed based on literature values. Constructed wetlands can offer treatment plant resilience for minimum operational input and reliable effluent quality when biologically treating primary effluents from tannery operations. PMID:22999657

  16. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    PubMed

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes. PMID:26931536

  17. Pilot-scale pressurized base hydrolysis of HMX plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.A.; Brewer, G.R.; Harradine, D.M.; Polston, C.E.; Le, L.A.; Bishop, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Flesner, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    A pilot-scale, pressurized, base hydrolysis reactor has been designed and its construction is nearly completed. Up to 120 L of 1--6 M NaOH aqueous solutions will convert as much as 25 kg of consolidated, explosive pieces to non-energetic compounds. Temperatures approaching 155 C in the pressurized unit will reduce reaction times significantly for the destruction of plastic-bonded explosives compared to previous atmospheric-pressure reactors. The hydrolysis effluent is then pumped into a holding tank where it is fed into a hydrothermal oxidation reactor for complete destruction to non-hazardous products. The hydrothermal unit operates at 480 C and 100 MPa and hydrogen peroxide fed into the reactor at two points will ensure complete destruction of all organic species and nitrogen-containing salts. The entire system is comprised of eight major components and is assembled on five separate and transportable skids. Following construction and preliminary testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the unit will be shipped to the Pantex Plant where it will be used for continuous demilitarization activities.

  18. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate. PMID:25594127

  19. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  20. Suppression of dioxins by S-N inhibitors in pilot-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Fu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-08-01

    S-N inhibitors like thiourea and sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG) are relatively novel dioxins suppressants and their efficiencies are proven in numerous lab-scale experiments. In this study, the suppression effects of both thiourea and SDG on the formation of dioxins are systematically tested in a pilot-scale system, situated at the bypass of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, a flue gas recirculation system is used to get high dioxin suppression efficiencies. Operating experience shows that this system is capable of stable operation and to keep gaseous suppressant compounds at a high and desirable molar ratio (S + N)/Cl level in the flue gas. The suppression efficiencies of dioxins are investigated in flue gas both without and with addition of S-N inhibitors. A dioxin reduction of more than 80 % is already achieved when the (S + N)/Cl molar ratio is increased to ca. 2.20. When this (S + N)/Cl molar ratio has augmented to 4.18 by applying suppressant recirculation, the residual PCDD/Fs concentration in the flue gas shrank from 1.22 to 0.08 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Furthermore, the congener distribution of dioxins is analysed to find some possible explanation or suppression mechanism. In addition, a correlation analysis between (S + N)/Cl molar ratios and PCDD/Fs is also conducted to investigate the chief functional compounds for dioxin suppression. PMID:27164888

  1. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  2. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. PMID:23995560

  3. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  4. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality. PMID:26943602

  5. Enhanced degradation of VOCs: Laboratory and pilot-scale field demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, R.W.; O`Hannesin, S.F.; Odziemkowski, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    The potential for using zero-valent metals to remediate contaminated groundwater has been recognized since the early 1990s. This paper reports on possible enhancements achieved by plating small amounts of nickel onto the iron surfaces. The half-life for trichloroethene, for example, was shown to decrease from about 30 min in the presence of granular iron to about 3 min with the enhanced iron. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, an above-ground pilot-scale field test using the enhanced iron was initiated in New Jersey in July 1996. Groundwater at the site contains dissolved tetrachloroethene, cis 1,2-dichloroethene and trichloroethene at concentrations of up to 15, 1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. A granular iron treatment canister has been in operation at the site since November 1994. Performance of a canister containing only iron, but the performance was substantially below expectations based on the results of the laboratory tests. Investigations are continuing in an attempt to determine the cause of the difference in laboratory and field performance.

  6. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation. PMID:25037928

  7. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments. PMID:20492165

  8. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron I.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day−1. Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  9. Pilot-scale production of mesoporous silica-based adsorbent for CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hou Chuan; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling; Hwang, Jyh Feng; Lee, Hsiu Hsia; Chen, Wang; Kang, Yuhao; Chen, Shing-Ting; Su, Fengsheng; Kuo, Shih-Chun; Hu, Fang-Chun

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a pilot-scale spray drying system designed to manufacture spherical mesoporous silica particles (MSP) that is capable of producing up to 100 g per hour. The MSP fabricated via a nozzle pressure of 4 kg/cm2 and a drying temperature of 200 °C possess a high specific area of 1012 m2/g, a narrow pore size distribution with an average pore diameter of 2.4 nm, and large pore volume of 0.81 cm3/g. They were further modified with a tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA-MSP) to enhance CO2 adsorption selectivity from gas streams. The adsorption capacity of 15% CO2 on TEPA-MSP was significantly influenced by adsorption temperature and water vapor of air streams, and reached a maximum of 87.05 mg/g (1.98 mmol/g) at 60 °C and 129.19 mg/g (2.94 mmol/g) at a water vapor of 6.98%. The adsorption capacities and the physicochemical properties of TEPA-MSP were preserved through 20 cycles of adsorption-desorption operation. A comparative study revealed that the TEPA-MSP had better adsorption performance of 15% CO2 than the TEPA-modified granular activated carbon and zeolite. These results suggest that the TEPA-MSP can be stably employed in the prolonged cyclic CO2 adsorption and that they possess good potential for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  10. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption. PMID:27533867

  11. Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

  12. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  13. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  14. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M; Turchi, C; Pacheco, J; Boegel, A J; Merrill, T; Stanley, R

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors.

  15. Operating a pilot-scale nitrification/distillation plant for complete nutrient recovery from urine.

    PubMed

    Fumasoli, Alexandra; Etter, Bastian; Sterkele, Bettina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2016-01-01

    Source-separated urine contains most of the excreted nutrients, which can be recovered by using nitrification to stabilize the urine before concentrating the nutrient solution with distillation. The aim of this study was to test this process combination at pilot scale. The nitrification process was efficient in a moving bed biofilm reactor with maximal rates of 930 mg N L(-1) d(-1). Rates decreased to 120 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after switching to more concentrated urine. At high nitrification rates (640 mg N L(-1) d(-1)) and low total ammonia concentrations (1,790 mg NH4-N L(-1) in influent) distillation caused the main primary energy demand of 71 W cap(-1) (nitrification: 13 W cap(-1)) assuming a nitrogen production of 8.8 g N cap(-1) d(-1). Possible process failures include the accumulation of the nitrification intermediate nitrite and the selection of acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Especially during reactor start-up, the process must therefore be carefully supervised. The concentrate produced by the nitrification/distillation process is low in heavy metals, but high in nutrients, suggesting a good suitability as an integral fertilizer. PMID:26744953

  16. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. PMID:26551262

  18. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi-jun; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Liu, Yong-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju; Jin, Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4 x H2O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate (L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and heavy metals, last product MnSO4 x H2O was obtained which quality could reach China GB1622-86, the industry grade standards. PMID:16313012

  19. Pilot scale studies on nitritation-anammox process for mainstream wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Process of partial nitritation-anammox for mainstream wastewater at low temperature was run in a pilot scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system for about 300 days. The biofilm history in the reactor was about 3 years of growth at low temperature (down to 10 °C). The goal of the studies presented in this paper was to achieve effective partial nitritation-anammox process. Influence of nitrogen loading rate, hydraulic retention time, aeration strategy (continuous versus intermittent) and sludge recirculation (integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) mode) on deammonification process' efficiency and microbial activity in the examined system was tested. It was found that the sole intermittent aeration strategy is not a sufficient method for successful suppression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in MBBR. The best performance of the process was achieved in IFAS mode. The highest recorded capacity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria in biofilm was 1.4 gN/m(2)d and 0.5 gN/m(2)d, respectively, reaching 51% in nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:26901718

  20. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  1. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  2. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. PMID:26081434

  3. Ammonia oxidizers in a pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  4. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  5. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  6. Pilot-scale washing of metal contaminated garden soil using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-05-15

    Ten batches (75kg each) of garden soil with >50% of silt and clay and average 1935mgkg(-1) Pb, 800mgkg(-1) Zn, 10mgkg(-1) Cd and 120mgkg(-1) As were remediated in a pilot-scale chemical extraction plant. Washing with 60mmol ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) per kg of soil on average removed 79, 38, 70, and 80% of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively, and significantly reduced the leachability, phyto-accessibility and oral-availability of residual toxic metals, as assessed using deionised water, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid extraction (DTPA) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) tests. The used soil washing solution was treated before discharge using an electrochemical advanced oxidation process with graphite anode: EDTA was removed by degradation and toxic metals were electro-precipitated onto a stainless steel cathode. The novelty of the remediation technique is separation of the soil from the washing solution and soil rinsing (removal of mobilized contaminants) carried out in the same process step. Another novelty is the reuse of the soil rinsing solution from the previous batch for cleansing the soil sand, soil rinsing and for preparation of the washing solution in subsequent batches. The cost of energy and material expenses and disposal of waste products amounted to approximately 75€ton(-1) of soil. PMID:22410723

  7. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination. PMID:26411352

  8. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. PMID:27359065

  9. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  10. Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A

    2015-04-01

    A pilot-scale process was operated over 22 months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55 °C) produced centrate (6-9.4 gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42 °C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39 gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5 gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities. PMID:25638407

  11. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  12. Chemical disinfection of Legionella in hot water systems biofilm: a pilot-scale 1 study.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Maha; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Forêt, Christophe; Hater, Wolfgang; Moletta-Denat, Marina; Robine, Enric; Frère, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Legionella bacteria encounter optimum growing conditions in hot water systems and cooling towers. A pilot-scale 1 unit was built in order to study the biofilm disinfection. It consisted of two identical loops, one used as a control and the other as a 'Test Loop'. A combination of a bio-detergent and a biocide (hydrogen peroxide + peracetic acid) was applied in the Test Loop three times under the same conditions at 100 and 1,000 mg/L with a contact time of 24 and 3-6 hours, respectively. Each treatment test was preceded by a three week period of biofilm re-colonization. Initial concentrations of culturable Legionella into biofilm were close to 10(3) CFU/cm2. Results showed that culturable Legionella spp. in biofilm were no longer detectable three days following each treatment. evertheless, initial Legionella spp. concentrations were recovered 7 days after the treatments (in two cases). Before the tests, Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila PCR counts were both about 10(4) GU/cm2 in biofilm and they both decreased by 1 to 2 log units 72 hours after each treatment. The three tests had a good but transient efficiency on Legionella disinfection in biofilm. PMID:22097051

  13. Semi-pilot Scale Microbial Oil Production by Trichosporon cutaneum Using Medium Containing Corncob Acid Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gao-Xiang; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Can; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Shi, Si-Lan; Yang, Dan; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-06-01

    In this study, semi-pilot scale microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum using medium containing corncob acid hydrolysate was carried out in a 50-L fermentor. Scale up showed no negative influence on lipid fermentation that no obvious lag phase was observed. Both glucose and xylose could be utilized simultaneously by T. cutaneum, but the utilization rate of xylose was much slower than that of glucose. After 7.6 days of fermentation, the biomass, lipid content, and lipid yield were 21.8 g/L, 53.7 %, and 11.7 g/L, respectively. Also, a high lipid coefficient (lipid yield on sugars consumption) of 26.3 was obtained. Besides microbial oil, polysaccharide was another main product of lipid fermentation that the remaining biomass residue full of polysaccharides after lipid extraction could be one important by-product in future. Overall, this study showed the great potential of industrialization for lipid production by T. cutaneum on low-cost substrates especially for lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26906119

  14. Anaerobic hydrolysis of a municipal wastewater in a pilot-scale digester.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J A; Zapico, C A; Gómez, M; Presas, J; Soto, M

    2003-01-01

    Raw domestic wastewater from the city of Santiago de Compostela (Northwest Spain) was fed into a pilot-scale hydrolytic up flow sludge bed (HUSB) digester with an active volume of 25.5 m3. The total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 360 to 470 mg/l, the influent SS varied from 190 to 370 mg/l, and the temperature was between 17 degrees and 20 degrees C. The organic load rate (OLR) applied increased step by step from 1.2 to 3.9 kgCOD/m3 x d, while the hydraulic retention time (HRT) decreased from 7.1 h to 2.9 h. A high suspended solids (SS) removal of about 82-85% from the influent was reached, most of which (81 to 88%) was eliminated by hydrolysis, while the rest remained in the purge stream. The total COD removal ranged from 46 to 59%. On the other hand, a high acidification of the COD remaining in the effluent was obtained, so the percent COD in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFA(COD)) with respect to total effluent COD was about 43% for the highest HRT applied, and about 27% for the lowest HRT. The soluble to total COD ratio (CODs/CODt) increased from 25-32% for the influent to 71-86% for the effluent. The results obtained confirm the viability and interest of direct anaerobic hydrolytic pre-treatment of domestic wastewater. PMID:12926692

  15. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  16. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers. PMID:25660089

  17. Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2009-06-01

    The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

  18. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-09-27

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained.

  19. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S.D.; King, R.W.; Durstine, K.R.; Eberl, C.S.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded spent metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic, and metal waste forms. Equipment is being developed at ANL which will precondition irradiated oxide fuel and demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels as well. The oxide reduction process preconditions irradiated oxide fuel such that uranium and transuranic (TRU) constituents are chemically reduced into metallic form via a molten Li/LiCl-based reduction system. In this form the spent fuel is further conditioned in an electrorefiner and waste handling equipment, thereby placing the uranium, TRU elements, and fissions products into stable forms suitable for placement in a long-term repository. Development of the Li/LiCl-based oxide reduction process has proceeded at lab- (nominally 50 grams of heavy metal (HM)) and engineering-scale (nominally 10-kg of HM) for unirradiated oxide fuel. The presentation described the process and equipment design for scale-up from lab- and engineering-scale reduction of unirradiated oxide fuel in gloveboxes to pilot-scale (up to 100-kg of HM) reduction of irradiated oxide fuel in a hot cell. [Abstract only.

  20. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. PMID:25233473

  1. A semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying soybean (Glycine max) lectin.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Yewande O; Swaisgood, Harold E; Garlich, Jim D; Classen, Henry L

    2003-07-30

    Availability of gram quantities of purified soybean lectin (SBL) to scientists will foster discovery of novel biomedical applications of the lectin and provide the opportunity to investigate the antinutritional effects of SBL in soybean-consuming food animals and poultry. Therefore, a semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying SBL was designed. Defatted soyflour was extracted overnight with 0.9% NaCl at 4 degrees C. The extract obtained was filtered (0.45 microm membrane) and subjected to affinity chromatography using a column containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine resin that is specific for SBL. Bound SBL was eluted off the column with 0.14 M galactose solution. The eluent was ultrafiltered (30 kDa), and the resulting solution (SBL and water) was freeze-dried. Electrophoretic analysis and hemagglutination assay revealed that the freeze-dried SBL was similar to Sigma-grade SBL in purity and activity (35 and 33 HU/mg protein, respectively). The procedure yielded 141 mg of SBL/100 g of soyflour. PMID:14705873

  2. Indirect measurement of water content in an aseptic solid substrate cultivation pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peña Y Lillo, M; Pérez-Correa, R; Agosin, E; Latrille, E

    2001-01-01

    A lack of models and sensors for describing and monitoring large-scale solid substrate cultivation (SSC) bioreactors has hampered industrial development and application of this type of process. This study presents an indirect dynamic measurement model for a 200-kg-capacity fixed-bed SSC bioreactor under periodic agitation. Growth of the filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on wheat bran was used as a case study. Real data were preprocessed using previously reported methodology. The model uses CO2 production rate and inlet air conditions to estimate average bed water content and average bed temperature. The model adequately reproduces the evolution of the average bed water content and can therefore be used as an on-line estimator in pilot-scale SSC bioreactors. To obtain a reasonable fit of the bed temperature, however, inlet air humidity measurements will have to be adjusted with a data reconciliation algorithm. Good estimation of temperature is important for the future design of improved water content estimation using state observers. The model also provides insight into understanding the complex behavior of the dynamic system, which could prove useful when establishing advanced model-based operational and control strategies. PMID:11400105

  3. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of marigold at high pressures: comparison of analytical and pilot-scale extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Dietmar; Adler, Sven; Griiner, Sabine; Otto, Frank; Weinreich, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    The effects of pressure and co-solvent on the extraction of anti-inflammatory faradiol esters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were investigated by supercritical fluid extraction at laboratory and pilot scales. Pressures higher than 300 bar and modifier (ethanol) concentrations ranging from 0 to 20% (v/v) were used at an extraction temperature of 50 degrees C. With an analytical extractor, exhaustive extraction of the drug and highest concentrations in the extracts were achieved with 0.5% ethanol at the maximum pressure of 689 bar. Increased modifier concentrations improved the extractability at lower pressure, but the higher amount of total extractables led to a lower concentration of faradiol esters in the extracts. The HPLC fingerprints of the extracts, the yields of total extract and the concentration of faradiol esters obtained with analytical and pilot scale extractors under the same conditions were comparable. PMID:15311841

  4. Behaviour of the constitutive biota of two types of Spanish dry-sausages ripened in a pilot-scale chamber.

    PubMed

    López, Carmen; Medina, L M; Priego, R; Jordano, R

    2006-05-01

    The behaviour of the constitutive biota in eighty four samples belonging to two different types of Spanish dry-cured sausages during the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber was investigated. Samples were analyzed in three stages during production: fresh product, first drying stage and finished product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were identified by the API system. In general, evolution of LAB and CNC during the ripening process of Spanish dry-cured sausages increased during the first days after which numbers of these organisms remained stable. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus, were the dominant species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus simulans and Kocuria varians were also present. The results obtained show that the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes to a more homogeneous behaviour of the constitutive biota, in comparison with commercial production standards. PMID:22062067

  5. Investigation of SO2, HCl and NOx, control from waste incinerators using a novel additive in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Nimmo, W; Patsias, A; Hall, W

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale experimental investigation of the use of a novel additive, calcium magnesium acetate, for the simultaneous control of SO2, HCl and NOx has been carried out. The pilot scale reactor simulated the furnace and flue gas conditions of a typical large scale waste incinerator and was a vertical 4m high reactor operated at 80 kW. The calcium magnesium acetate was added as a wet spray to the reactor at temperatures above 750 degrees C. The influence of the calcium magnesium acetate dose rate was investigated on the simultaneous removal of SO2, HCl and NOx. Maximum reductions were achieved at a Ca/S ratio (or Ca/Cl ratio) of 2.5 and were, 70% for SO2, 45% for HCl and 18% for NOx for each of the pollutant gases respectively. PMID:16749624

  6. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

  7. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  8. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

  9. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725 L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (⩾ 3.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)) was used. PMID:25192798

  11. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months. PMID:25342265

  12. Kinetics of hydrocarbon and pesticide removal from clay soils during thermal treatment in a pilot-scale rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Silcox, G.D.; Larsen, F.S.; Owens, W.D.; Choroszy-Marshall, M.

    1995-12-31

    The kinetics of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated clay soils during thermal treatment in rotary kilns were studied experimentally, and kinetic parameters were obtained for simple first-order models. Results are given for seven hydrocarbons: toluene, naphthalene, n-hexadecane, lindane ({gamma}-HCH or 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (1,1{prime}-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), DDD (1,1{prime}-(2,2-dichloroethylidene) bis [4-chlorobenzene]), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene). The activation energies ranged from 18 kJ/mol for toluene on wet soil, to 90 kJ/mol for the chlorinated pesticides. All the kinetic data were obtained in a 130 kW pilot-scale rotary kiln. The wall temperature of the kiln was 700 C for the pesticides. Three of the hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene and n-hexadecane, were studied on both wet soil (5.0 and 8.5 wt%) and on oven-dried soil at temperatures ranging from 300 to 650 C in order to understand better the effects of water on desorption rates. Water increases the rate of desorption of toluene but decreases the rates for the heavier compounds. The pilot-scale data and correlations should be useful to those who are operating and/or designing rotary kilns to remediate soils thermally. A methodology for taking pilot-scale results and using them to estimate full-scale performance is given.

  13. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). PMID:26874321

  14. Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

  15. Effect of Biochar on Nitrate Removal in a Pilot-Scale Denitrifying Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Emily M; Coleman, Brady; Easton, Zachary M

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs) harness the natural capacity of microorganisms to convert bioavailable nitrogen (N) into inert nitrogen gas (N) by providing a suitable anaerobic habitat and an organic carbon energy source. Woodchip systems are reported to remove 2 to 22 g N m d, but the potential to enhance denitrification with alternative substrates holds promise. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding biochar, an organic carbon pyrolysis product, to an in-field, pilot-scale woodchip DNBR. Two 25-m DNBRs, one with woodchips and the other with woodchips and a 10% by volume addition of biochar, were installed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. Performance was assessed using flood-and-drain batch experiments. An initial release of N was observed during the establishment of both DNBRs, reflecting a start-up phenomenon observed in previous studies. Nitrate (NO-N) removal rates observed during nine batch experiments 4 to 22 mo after installation were 0.25 to 6.06 g N m d. The presence of biochar, temperature, and influent NO-N concentration were found to have significant effects on NO-N removal rates using a linear mixed effects model. The model predicts that biochar increases the rate of N removal when influent concentrations are above approximately 5 to 10 mg L NO-N but that woodchip DNBRs outperform biochar-amended DNBRs when influent concentrations are lower, possibly reflecting the release of N temporarily stored in the biochar matrix. These results indicate that in high N-yielding systems the addition of biochar to standard woodchip DNBRs has the potential to significantly increase N removal. PMID:27136140

  16. Fuel-grade ethanol transport and impacts to groundwater in a pilot-scale aquifer tank.

    PubMed

    Cápiro, Natalie L; Stafford, Brent P; Rixey, William G; Bedient, Philip B; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2007-02-01

    Fuel-grade ethanol (76L of E95, 95%v/v ethanol, 5%v/v hydrocarbon mixture as a denaturant) was released at the water table in an 8150-L continuous-flow tank packed with fine-grain masonry sand. Ethanol, which is buoyant and hygroscopic, quickly migrated upwards and spread laterally in the capillary zone. Horizontal migration of ethanol occurred through a shallow thin layer with minimal vertical dispersion, and was one order of magnitude slower than the preceding bromide tracer. Dyes, one hydrophobic (Sudan-IV) and one hydrophilic (Fluorescein) provided evidence that the fuel hydrocarbons phase separated from the E95 mixture as ethanol was diluted by pore water and its cosolvent effect was diminished. Most of the added ethanol (98%) was recovered in the effluent wells that captured the flow through the high water content regions above the water table. Complementary bench-scale 2-D visualization experiments with E95 confirmed hydrocarbon phase separation, residual NAPL formation and migration within the capillary fringe. These results corroborate previous bench-scale studies showing that ethanol has high affinity for vadose-zone pore water and can migrate through the capillary zone. The pilot-scale tank experiment provides the first hydrocarbon and ethanol concentration measurements (and thus, quantification of impacts to groundwater quality) from a subsurface spill of E95 in a well-characterized system with a well-defined source. It also provides the first quantitative near-field-scale evidence that capillarity can significantly retard the vertical dispersion and horizontal advection of ethanol. Such effects could be important determinants of the extent of ethanol migration and longevity as well as groundwater impacts. PMID:17126874

  17. Performance of a pilot-scale compost biofilter treating gasoline vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.F.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Romstad, K.

    1997-06-01

    A pilot-scale compost biofiltration system was operated as gasoline soil vapor extraction site in Hayward, California for one year. The media was composed of equal volumes of compost and perlite, a bulking agent. Supplements added included nitrogen (as KNO{sub 3}), a gasoline degrading microbial inoculum, buffer (crushed oyster shell), and water. The biofiltration system was composed of four identical units with outside dimensions of 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m (4 x 4 x 4 ft) operated in an up-flow mode. The units were configured in parallel during the first eight months and then reconfigured to two parallel systems of two units in series. Air flux values ranged from 0.29 to 1.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per min. Inlet total petroleum hydrogen hydrocarbon (TPH{sub gas}) concentrations ranged from 310 to 2,700 mg/m{sup 3}. The average empty bed contact time was 2.2 min. Following start-up, performance of the individual biofilters varied considerably for a seven-month period. The principal factor affecting performance appeared to be bed moisture content. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals reached 90% for short periods in one unit, and BTEX removals were typically above 90%. Drying resulted in channeling and loss of bed activity. Management of bed moisture content improved over the study period, and recovery of system performance was achieved without replacement of bed media. Overall TPH{sub gas} removals exceeded 90% during the final 50 days of the study.

  18. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  19. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiying; Wu, Wei-Min; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; Luo, Jian; Carley, Jack; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Gentry, Terry J; Gu, Baouhua; Watson, David; Jardine, Philip M; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M; Hazen, Terry; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-08-01

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 microg l(-1)) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions. PMID:20237512

  20. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. PMID:26057343

  1. Pilot-scale Tests to Vitrify Korean Low-Level Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Kim, C.-W.; Park, J. K.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M.-J.; Brunelot, P.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    Korea is under preparation of its first commercial vitrification plant to handle LLW from her Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The waste streams include three categories: combustible Dry Active Wastes (DAW), borate concentrates, and spent resin. The combustible DAW in this research contains vinyl bag, paper, and protective cloth and rubber shoe. The loaded resin was used to simulate spent resin from NPPs. As a part of this project, Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) has tested an operation mode utilizing its pilot-scale plant and the mixed waste surrogates of resin and DAW. It has also proved, with continuous operation for more than 100 hours, the consistency and operability of the plant including cold crucible melter and its off-gas treatment equipment. Resin and combustible DAW were simultaneously fed into the glass bath with periodic addition of various glass frits as additives, so that it achieved a volume reduction factor larger than 70. By adding various glass frits, this paper discusses about maintaining the viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass bath within their operable ranges, but not about obtaining a durable glass product. The operating mode starts with a batch of glass where a titanium ring is buried. When the induced power ignites the ring, the joule heat melts the surrounding glass frit along with the oxidation heat of titanium. As soon as the molten bath is prepared, in the first stage of the mode, the wastes consisting of loaded resin and combustible DAW are fed with no or minimum addition of glass frits. Then, in the second stage, the bath composition is kept as constant as possible. This operation was successful in terms of maintaining the glass bath under operable condition and produced homogeneous glass. This operation mode could be adapted in commercial stage.

  2. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  3. Pilot-scale carbon injection for mercury control at Comanche Station

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Smith, J.; Anderson, G.; Hunt, T.; Fox, M.; Chang, R.; Brown, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring an investigation of the applicability of using activated carbon sorbents for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There is a significant level of federal regulatory interest regarding the need and feasibility of controlling these emissions. This interest arises from the status of coal-fired power plants as responsible for approximately 33% of the estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions in the U.S. EPA decided in April 1998 that although current technologies and emission data were not sufficiently developed to require implementation today, the results of further study and testing would determine regulatory direction within three to five years. DOE, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), and EPRI are funding pilot and field tests to evaluate the feasibility of carbon injection as a potential mercury control technology. ADA Technologies performs the fabrication, pilot operation, and reporting. The work described in this paper is a summary of test results on a 600- actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) pilot-scale particulate collector, configurable as an ESP or baghouse. This pilot is installed at PSCo's Comanche Station, and has been operating since mid-1996. Testing to determine the efficacy of carbon injection as a mercury control technology on this pilot, has provided mixed results and many questions remain concerning this technology. One of the challenges encountered in this project has been in mercury measurement and test repeatability. Improvements have been made in sampling methodology which have resulted in improved repeatability among replicate tests. Mercury removal rates as a function of flue gas temperature and carbon injection rate have been quantified and preliminary results are presented in this paper. The transferability of results to full-scale or to other coal-fired power plants is still being evaluated under this program.

  4. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  5. Pilot-scale evaluation of anammox-based mainstream nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; Hu, Z; Kartal, B; de Kreuk, M K; van Erp Taalman Kip, C; Kruit, J; Hendrickx, T L G; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal in the mainstream wastewater treatment process is suggested to be a prerequisite of energy autarkic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process at mainstream conditions is still under development. Lower operating temperature and ammonium concentration, together with required high nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to face in order to reach this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the evaluation of the process in a plug-flow granular sludge-based pilot-scale reactor (4 m3) continuously fed with the actual effluent of the A-stage of the WWTP of Dokhaven, Rotterdam. The one-stage partial nitritation-anammox system was operated for more than 10 months at 19±1°C. Observed average N-removal and ammonium conversion rates were comparable or higher than those of conventional N-removal systems, with 182±46 and 315±33 mg-N L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand was also oxidized in the system with an average removal efficiency of 90%. Heterotrophic biomass grew preferentially in flocs and was efficiently washed out of the system. Throughout the experimentation, the main bottleneck was the nitritation process that resulted in nitrite-limiting conditions for the anammox conversion. Anammox bacteria were able to grow under mainstream WWTP conditions and new granules were formed and efficiently retained in the system. PMID:25411102

  6. Pilot-scale testing of a leachbed for anaerobic digestion of livestock residues on-farm.

    PubMed

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S

    2016-04-01

    A leachbed is a relatively simple anaerobic digester suitable for high-solids residues and on-farm applications. However, performance characteristics and optimal configuration of leachbeds are not well-understood. In this study, two 200 L pilot-scale leachbeds fed with spent straw bedding from pigs/swine (methane potential, B0 = 195-218 L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed) were used to assess the effects of leachate recirculation mode (trickling vs. flood-and-drain) on the digestion performance. Results showed comparable substrate solubilisation extents (30-45% of total chemical oxygen demand fed) and methane conversion (50% of the B0) for the trickling and flood-and-drain modes, indicating that digestion performance was insensitive to the mode of leachate flow. However, the flood-and-drain leachbed mobilised more particulates into the leachate than the trickling leachbed, an undesirable outcome, because these particulates were mostly non-biodegradable. Inoculation with solid residues from a previous leachbed (inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 0.22 on a VS basis) hastened the leachbed start-up, but methane recovery remained at 50% of the B0 regardless of the leachate recirculation mode. Post-digestion testing indicated that the leachbeds may have been limited by microbial activity/inhibition. The high residual methane potential of leachate from the trickling (residual Bo = 732 ± 7 L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed) and flood-and-drain leachbeds (582 ± 8 L CH4 kg(-1) VS fed) indicated an opportunity for further processing of leachate via a separate methanogenic step. Overall, a trickling leachbed appeared to be more favourable than the flood-and-drain leachbed for treating spent bedding at farm-scale due to easier operation. PMID:26948667

  7. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  8. Ultrasonic pilot-scale reactor for enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Idalina; Herrero-Yniesta, Victor; Perales Arce, Iratxe; Escrigas Castañeda, Monica; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Silva, Carla

    2014-07-01

    The potential of ultrasound-assisted technology has been demonstrated by several laboratory scale studies. However, their successful industrial scaling-up is still a challenge due to the limited pilot and commercial sonochemical reactors. In this work, a pilot reactor for laccase-hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching assisted by ultrasound was scaled-up. For this purpose, an existing dyeing machine was transformed and adapted by including piezoelectric ultrasonic devices. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that both low frequency, high power (22 kHz, 2100 W) and high frequency, low power ultrasounds (850 kHz, 400 W) were required to achieve satisfactory results. Standard half (4 g/L H2O2 at 90 °C for 60 min) and optical (8 g/L H2O2 at 103 °C for 40 min) cotton bleaching processes were used as references. Two sequential stages were established for cotton bleaching: (1) laccase pretreatment assisted by high frequency ultrasound (850 kHz, 400 W) and (2) bleaching using high power ultrasound (22 kHz, 2100 W). When compared with conventional methods, combined laccase-hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching with ultrasound energy improved the whitening effectiveness. Subsequently, less energy (temperature) and chemicals (hydrogen peroxide) were needed for cotton bleaching thus resulting in costs reduction. This technology allowed the combination of enzyme and hydrogen peroxide treatment in a continuous process. The developed pilot-scale reactor offers an enhancement of the cotton bleaching process with lower environmental impact as well as a better performance of further finishing operations. PMID:24618529

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  10. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

  11. Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG. PMID:22925866

  12. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). PMID:23764593

  13. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  14. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of <0.05 (29%), <0.15 (77%) and <0.30 (95%), while addition of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved <0.05 (18%), <0.15 (63%) and <0.30 (95%). Analysis of the concentration of iron(II) in the supernatant indicated that phosphorus was mainly removed via adsorption to amorphous iron oxyhydroxides particles in both dosing scenarios. However, analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data of the reactor indicated that severe short-circuiting from the dosing point to the membrane outlet could occur when the ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. PMID:24709534

  15. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  16. Removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages during drinking water treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Boudaud, Nicolas; Machinal, Claire; David, Fabienne; Fréval-Le Bourdonnec, Armelle; Jossent, Jérôme; Bakanga, Fanny; Arnal, Charlotte; Jaffrezic, Marie Pierre; Oberti, Sandrine; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-05-15

    The removal of MS2, Qβ and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Qβ surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than 1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of

  17. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  18. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( < 0.05) greater than that in CON and CAP throughout the feeding period, whereas the ratio of feed to gain (G:F) was significantly ( < 0.05) lower. Broilers in P1, P2, CAPP1, and CAPP2 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater levels of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, IgG, and cluster of differentiation 3 than those in CON. Furthermore, broilers in CAPP1 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater richness and diversity of intestinal microorganisms, particularly of , than those in all other dietary treatments. In summary, our results indicate that large-scale microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can

  19. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  20. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  1. Experimental analysis of the fundamental two-phase flow characteristics of a pilot-scale airlift fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Carbonell, G.; Ollis, D.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the fundamental two-phase flow characteristics impacting fermentor mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer are presented. Studies using air and water were performed in a pilot-scale (160 liter), external-loop airlift fermentor. The dependence of flow characteristics upon fermentor design and operating parameters is examined through the use of different downcomer-to-riser diameter ratios (0.47 and 0.73), superficial gas velocities (1 to 8 cm/s), and two different ring sparger designs.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  3. In-Situ Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Pilot-Scale Treatability Test at the 300 Area, Hanford Site - 8187

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2008-06-02

    This paper describes the pilot-scale treatability test that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of using a polyphosphate injection approach to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ within the 300 Area aquifer at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Primary test objectives were to assess 1) direct treatment of available uranium contributing to the groundwater plume through precipitation of the uranyl phosphate mineral autunite, and 2) emplacement of secondary-treatment capacity via precipitation of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite, which acts as a long-term sorbent for uranium.

  4. Pipeline treatment of a copper-zinc waste stream: A pilot-scale evaluation. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hustwit, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    The In-Line System (ILS) replaces the basins, mechanical mixers, and aerators normally used in the chemical neutralization process with a jet pump and static mixer. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of the ILS could be extended from CMD treatment to MMD treatment. The study consisted of a series of pilot-scale treatments of an MMD from a copper and zinc mine. The principal metals at high concentrations in the untreated MMD were copper, zinc, iron, manganese, aluminum, and cadium. Three neutralizing reagent was evaluated at four treatment pH values. A fourth neutralizing reagent was evaluated at one treatment pH.

  5. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  6. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

  8. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to

  9. CO2 monitoring at the pilot-scale CO2 injection site in Nagaoka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, D.; Xue, Z.; Watanabe, J.; Saito, H.

    2005-12-01

    A pilot-scale CO2 sequestration project supported by the Japanese Government (METI) has been conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in co-operation with Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA). The test site is located at the South Nagaoka gas field operated by Teikoku Oil Co., Ltd. in Nagaoka city, Niigata Prefecture, 200 km north of Tokyo. The targeted layer for the CO2 injection is a thin permeable zone intercalated in a 60 m thick sandstone bed of early Pleistocene age, which lies about 1,100 m below the ground surface. One injection well (IW-1) and three observation wells (OB-2, -3, -4) were drilled at the site. The CO2 injection started on 7 July 2003 and ended on 11 January 2005 with the total injected amount of 10,400 tonnes within eighteen months. Purchased CO2 of 99.9 % pure was injected in the supercritical state at the rate of 20-40 tonnes per day. A series of time-lapse CO2 monitoring consisted of geophysical well logging and cross-well seismic tomography has been performed at the injection site and the results provide valuable insight into the CO2 movement in the sandstone reservoir. Time-lapse well loggings of induction, gamma ray, neutron and sonic were performed almost once a month to monitor CO2 breakthrough at the three observation wells. On 10 March 2004, a breakthrough was first detected at OB-2, 40 m apart from the injection well, after the cumulative injection of 4,000 tonnes. As an evidence of CO2 breakthrough changes appeared in results of sonic, induction and neutron logs. The sonic P-wave velocity decreased significantly up to 23% after the breakthrough, and then results of sonic logging showed the CO2-bearing zone getting wider during the injection of CO2. Differences appeared also in widths of CO2-bearing zone of induction and neutron logs. On 16 July 2004, another breakthrough of CO2 was detected at OB-4 of 60 m away from the injection well as changes in sonic and neutron logs. No sign

  10. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  11. Characterization of microbial communities in a pilot-scale constructed wetland using PLFA and PCR-DGGE analyses.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Timothy R

    2007-09-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to determine microbial communities and predominant microbial populations in water samples collected from a pilot-scale constructed wetland system. This pilot-scale constructed wetland system consists of three types: subsurface-flow (SSF), surface-flow (SF) and a floating aquatic plant (FAP) system. Analysis of PLFA profiles indicated primarily eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, protozoa, and diatoms were observed in all three wetland systems. Biomarkers for Gram-negative bacteria were also detected in all samples analyzed while low proportions of biomarkers for Gram-positive bacteria were observed. Biomass content (total PFLA/sample) was highest in water samples collected from both SF and FAP system while highest metabolic activity was observed in FAP system. This is consistent with the observed highest metal removal rate in FAP system. Sequence analysis of the predominant PCR-DGGE DNA fragments showed 0.92 to 0.99 similarity indices to Beta-proteobacteria, Flavobacterium sp. GOBB3-206, Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group, and Gram-positive bacteria. Results suggest diverse microbial communities including microorganisms that may significantly contribute to biogeochemical elemental cycles. PMID:17849306

  12. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  13. Electrochemical pilot-scale plant for oil field produced wastewater by M/C/Fe electrodes for injection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo

    2006-05-20

    Oil field produced water by separated with crude oil were treated by an electrochemical process in laboratory pilot-scale plant, using double anodes with active metal (M) and graphite (C) and iron as cathode and a noble metal content catalyst with big surface. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced (Cl(2), O(2), OCl(-), HO and so on), when the wastewater pass through the laboratory pilot-scale plant the organic pollutants including bacteria were oxidized and coagulated by produced M(n+) ion. It can be concluded that the catalytic electrochemical treatment of oil field produced wastewater is effective. Both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were reduced by over 90% in 6 min, suspense solids (SS) by 99%, Ca(2+) content by 22%, corrosion rate by 98% and bacteria (sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), saprophytic bacteria (TGB) and iron bacteria) by 99% in 3 min under 15V/120A. These results indicate that this catalytic electrochemical method could be used for effective oil field wastewater treatment for injection purpose. PMID:16300884

  14. Measurement and capture of fine and ultrafine particles from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor with an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Suriyawong, Achariya; Daukoru, Michael; Zhuang, Ye; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) were used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) in the range of 17 nm to 10 microm at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). At the ESP inlet, a high number concentration of ultrafine particles was found, with the peak at approximately 75 nm. A trimodal PSD for mass concentration was observed with the modes at approximately 80-100 nm, 1-2 microm, and 10 microm. The penetration of ultrafine particles through the ESP increased dramatically as particle size decreased below 70 nm, attributable to insufficient or partial charging of the ultrafine particles. Injection of nanostructured fine-particle sorbents for capture of toxic metals in the flue gas caused high penetration of the ultrafine particles through the ESP. The conventional ESP was modified to enhance charging using soft X-ray irradiation. A slipstream of flue gas was introduced from the pilot-scale facility and passed through this modified ESP. Enhancement of particle capture was observed with the soft X-ray irradiation when moderate voltages were used in the ESP, indicating more efficient charging of fine particles. PMID:19583155

  15. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    PubMed

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units. PMID:21252428

  16. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  17. Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: transformation products and ecotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Osorio, V; Perez, S; Petrovic, M; Zapata, A; Malato, S; Barceló, D; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-07-15

    The pilot-scale solar degradation of trimethoprim (TMP) in different water matrices (demineralized water: DW, simulated natural freshwater: SW; simulated wastewater: SWW; and real effluent: RE) was investigated in this study. DOC removal was lower in the case of SW compared to DW, which can be attributed to the presence of inorganic anions which may act as scavengers of the HO·. Furthermore, the presence of organic carbon and higher salt content in SWW and RE led to lower mineralization per dose of hydrogen peroxide compared to DW and SW. Toxicity assays in SWW and RE were also performed indicating that toxicity is attributed to the compounds present in RE and their by-products formed during solar Fenton treatment and not to the intermediates formed by the oxidation of TMP. A large number of compounds generated by the photocatalytic transformation of TMP were identified by UPLC-QToF/MS. The degradation pathway revealed differences among the four matrices; however hydroxylation, demethylation and cleavage reactions were observed in all matrices. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that TMP degradation products have been identified by adopting a solar Fenton process at a pilot-scale set-up, using four different aqueous matrices. PMID:22647240

  18. Design of experiments reveals critical parameters for pilot-scale freeze-and-thaw processing of L-lactic dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roessl, Ulrich; Humi, Sebastian; Leitgeb, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Freezing constitutes an important unit operation of biotechnological protein production. Effects of freeze-and-thaw (F/T) process parameters on stability and other quality attributes of the protein product are usually not well understood. Here a design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to characterize the F/T behavior of L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in a 700-mL pilot-scale freeze container equipped with internal temperature and pH probes. In 24-hour experiments, target temperature between -10 and -38°C most strongly affected LDH stability whereby enzyme activity was retained best at the highest temperature of -10°C. Cooling profile and liquid fill volume also had significant effects on LDH stability and affected the protein aggregation significantly. Parameters of the thawing phase had a comparably small effect on LDH stability. Experiments in which the standard sodium phosphate buffer was exchanged by Tris-HCl and the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 was added to the protein solution showed that pH shift during freezing and protein surface exposure were the main factors responsible for LDH instability at the lower freeze temperatures. Collectively, evidence is presented that supports the use of DoE-based systematic analysis at pilot scale in the identification of F/T process parameters critical for protein stability and in the development of suitable process control strategies. PMID:25820483

  19. Pilot-scale cultivation of wall-deficient transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains expressing recombinant proteins in the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Julie A Z; Gangl, Doris; Guerra, Tiago; Santos, Edgar; Verdelho, Vitor V; Robinson, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae have emerged as potentially powerful platforms for the production of recombinant proteins and high-value products. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a potentially important host species due to the range of genetic tools that have been developed for this unicellular green alga. Transformation of the chloroplast genome offers important advantages over nuclear transformation, and a wide range of recombinant proteins have now been expressed in the chloroplasts of C. reinhardtii strains. This is often done in cell wall-deficient mutants that are easier to transform. However, only a single study has reported growth data for C. reinhardtii grown at pilot scale, and the growth of cell wall-deficient strains has not been reported at all. Here, we report the first pilot-scale growth study for transgenic, cell wall-deficient C. reinhardtii strains. Strains expressing a cytochrome P450 (CYP79A1) or bifunctional diterpene synthase (cis-abienol synthase, TPS4) were grown for 7 days under mixotrophic conditions in a Tris-acetate-phosphate medium. The strains reached dry cell weights of 0.3 g/L within 3-4 days with stable expression levels of the recombinant proteins during the whole upscaling process. The strains proved to be generally robust, despite the cell wall-deficient phenotype, but grew poorly under phototrophic conditions. The data indicate that cell wall-deficient strains may be highly amenable for transformation and suitable for commercial-scale operations under mixotrophic growth regimes. PMID:26969037

  20. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters. PMID:22988609

  1. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoning; Li, Yang; Wu, Zhisheng; Zhang, Qiao; Zheng, Zhou; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS) alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR) sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS) and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS) were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM. PMID:25875194

  2. Performance evaluation of the pilot-scale, double-shell tank ventilation system using simulated aerosol streams

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Peterson, M.E.

    1989-12-01

    Radioactive waste slurries are currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The slurries that are being stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) are various mixtures of radioactive solids, liquids, and aqueous wastes. The tanks must be maintained at a negative pressure relative to atmospheric pressure to safeguard against pressurization and the subsequent leakage of entrained radioactive aerosols to the environment. A ventilation system must be capable of withdrawing the total volume of off gas generated from the tanks while maintaining the tanks at a negative pressure. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has identified a need to improve the efficiency of the ventilation system being used on the tank farms to meet the more restrictive release limits for radioactive isotopes. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) has been contracted by WHC to design the new ventilation system for the existing tank farms. WHC contracted the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to fabricate and test the prototypic pilot-scale design prior to finalizing the design of the ventilation system. The PNL has conducted tests to determine (1) the effectiveness of the system for removal of vapors condensable at 35{degrees}F, (2) the effectiveness for removal of soluble and insoluble aerosols, and (3) the life span of the mist eliminators to be used in the new system. The results of extensive testing of the pilot-scale system with condensables and both soluble and insoluble aerosols are presented in this report. 7 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

    1999-12-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an

  4. Effects of different pretreatments on the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane during the treatment of oil sands tailings pond recycle water: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2015-03-15

    Membrane filtration is an effective treatment method for oil sands tailings pond recycle water (RCW); however, membrane fouling and rapid decrease in permeate flux caused by colloids, organic matter, and bitumen residues present in the RCW hinder its successful application. This pilot-scale study investigated the impact of different pretreatment steps on the performance of a ceramic ultrafiltration (CUF) membrane used for the treatment of RCW. Two treatment trains were examined: treatment train 1 consisted of coagulant followed by a CUF system, while treatment train 2 included softening (Multiflo™ system) and coagulant addition, followed by a CUF system. The results indicated that minimum pretreatment (train 1) was required for almost complete solids removal. The addition of a softening step (train 2) provided an additional barrier to membrane fouling by reducing hardness-causing ions to negligible levels. More than 99% removal of turbidity and less than 20% removal of total organic carbon were achieved regardless of the treatment train used. Permeate fluxes normalized at 20 °C of 127-130 L/m(2) h and 111-118 L/m(2) h, with permeate recoveries of 90-93% and 90-94% were observed for the treatment trains 1 and 2, respectively. It was also found that materials deposited onto the membrane surface had an impact on trans-membrane pressure and influenced the required frequencies of chemically enhanced backwashes (CEBs) and clean-in-place (CIP) procedures. The CIP performed was successful in removing fouling and scaling materials such that the CUF performance was restored to baseline levels. The results also demonstrated that due to their low turbidity and silt density index values, permeates produced in this pilot study were suitable for further treatment by high pressure membrane processes. PMID:25596922

  5. Pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced PCE solubilization at the Bachman Road site. 1. Site characterization and test design.

    PubMed

    Abriola, Linda M; Drummond, Chad D; Hahn, Ernest J; Hayes, Kim F; Kibbey, Tohren C G; Lemke, Lawrence D; Pennell, Kurt D; Petrovskis, Erik A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Rathfelder, Klaus M

    2005-03-15

    A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) was conducted to recover dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a sandy glacial outwash aquifer underlying a former dry cleaning facility at the Bachman Road site in Oscoda, MI. Part one of this two-part paper describes site characterization efforts and a comprehensive approach to SEAR test design, effectively integrating laboratory and modeling studies. Aquifer coring and drive point sampling suggested the presence of PCE-DNAPL in a zone beneath an occupied building. A narrow PCE plume emanating from the vicinity of this building discharges into Lake Huron. The shallow unconfined aquifer, characterized by relatively homogeneous fine-medium sand deposits, an underlying clay layer, and the absence of significant PCE transformation products, was judged suitable for the demonstration of SEAR. Tween 80 was selected for application based upon its favorable solubilization performance in batch and two-dimensional sand tank treatability studies, biodegradation potential, and regulatory acceptance. Three-dimensional flow and transport models were employed to develop a robust design for surfactant delivery and recovery. Physical and fiscal constraints led to an unusual hydraulic design, in which surfactant was flushed across the regional groundwater gradient, facilitating the delivery of concentrations of Tween 80 exceeding 1% (wt) throughout the treatment zone. The potential influence of small-scale heterogeneity on PCE-DNAPL distribution and SEAR performance was assessed through numerical simulations incorporating geostatistical permeability fields based upon available core data. For the examined conditions simulated PCE recoveries ranged from 94to 99%. The effluent treatment system design consisted of low-profile air strippers coupled with carbon adsorption to trap off-gas PCE and discharge of treated aqueous effluent to a local wastewater treatment plant. The

  6. EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath

    2002-08-01

    Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U

  7. Vitrification of high-level radioactive waste in a pilot-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorklund, W.J.; Holton, L.K.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP), a high-level radioactive waste vitrification system has been installed in a Radiochemical Engineering Facility at Hanford, Washington. The facility is designed for remote operation of equipment using master-slave manipulators and overhead cranes. The pilot-scale radioactive system consists of a melter, canister handling turntable, glass-level detection system and supporting waste preparation, offgas treatment and condensate treatment systems. The vitrification system will be operated with radioactive wastes to test remote equipment features and process performance. Destructive and nondestructive methods will be used in the characterization of the waste glass product after canisters are filled with specific waste compositions. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Yearlong evaluation of performance and durability of a pilot-scale Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Wen, Zhiyou

    2014-11-01

    Current algal cultivation has been mainly performed in open ponds or photobioreactors in which algal cells are suspended and harvested through flocculation and centrifugation. A unique attachment based Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system was recently developed for easy biomass harvest with enhanced biomass productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance (durability, algal growth, and the geometry) of the RAB system at pilot-scale. A yearlong test of the RAB system was successfully conducted at a greenhouse facility at Boone, Iowa, USA. The RAB resulted in an average of 302% increase in biomass productivity compared to a standard raceway pond, with a maximum biomass productivity (ash free) of 18.9 g/m(2)-day being achieved. The RAB with a vertical configuration generated higher productivity than the triangular RAB. Collectively, the research shows that the RAB as an efficient algal culture system has great potential for being deployed at commercial scale. PMID:25189508

  9. Pilot-Scale In-situ Biosequestration of Uranium in Groundwater at the Monument Valley UMTRA Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Gutierrez, D. I.; Abel, E. J.; Johnson, R. H.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ biosequestration, wherein electron-donating substrates are injected to promote microbial-associated sequestration of contaminants, is one promising enhanced-attenuation technique for remediation of groundwater containing arsenic, uranium, selenium, and similar constituents. A pilot-scale test of in-situ biosequestration for uranium in groundwater was conducted at a former uranium mining site in Monument Valley, Arizona. Approximately 20 m3 of 0.5% ethanol solution was injected into a test zone of the alluvial aquifer. Groundwater was sampled periodically before, during, and after the injection. The relevant constituents, such as uranium, nitrogen species, sulfur species, anions/cations, ethanol, and S and N isotopes, were monitored to characterize the biosequestration process. Sediment samples were also collected before and after the injection for monitoring changes in sediment properties, mineral geochemical composition, microbial community composition, and microbial activity.

  10. Suspended sludge and biofilm shaped different anammox communities in two pilot-scale one-stage anammox reactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingyu; Zhang, Liang; Guo, Jianhua; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Anming; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-07-01

    The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria was investigated in two pilot-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors treating high ammonium wastewater. Reactor A was inoculated with nitrifying sludge, while Reactor B was inoculated with suspended anammox sludge with the dominant anammox bacteria of Candidatus 'Kuenenia'. After 180days' operation, the predominate anammox bacteria was Candidatus 'Brocadia' (65%) in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (86%) outcompeted with other anammox bacteria in suspended sludge in Reactor A. Candidatus 'Kuenenia' were dominated in suspended sludge through the entire experiment in Reactor B. In contrast, the predominated species shifted from Candidatus 'Kuenenia' (89%) into Candidatus 'Brocadia' (66%) in the biofilm of Reactor B. This study indicated that Candidatus 'Brocadia' preferred to grow in the biofilm, while Candidatus 'Kuenenia' would dominant over other anammox bacteria in the suspended sludge. Further studies are required to identify the internal factors affecting the distribution of anammox bacteria. PMID:27023382

  11. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  12. Xylanase and laccase based enzymatic kraft pulp bleaching reduces adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleach effluents: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abha; Thakur, Vasanta Vadde; Shrivastava, Anita; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mathur, Rajeev Mohan; Gupta, Rishi; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-10-01

    In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10 kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50 kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper. PMID:25036336

  13. Prediction of Solids Circulation Rate of Cork Particles in an Ambient-Pressure Pilot-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yue; Turton, Richard; Famouri, Parviz; Boyle, Edward J.

    2009-01-07

    Circulating fluidized beds (CFB) are currently used in many industrial processes for noncatalytic and catalytic because its effective control is the key to smooth operation of a CFB system. This paper presents a method for solids flow metering from pressure drop measurements in the standpipe dense phase. A model based on the Ergun equation is developed to predict the solids flow rate and voidage in the dense phase of the standpipe. The profile of the solids flow rate under unsteady state is also presented. With the use of this method, the dynamic response time at different locations along the standpipe of a pilot-scale fluidized bed operating at ambient conditions with 812 mu m cork particles is estimated successfully. Through the use of a pressure balance analysis, solids flow models for the standpipe, riser, and other sections of the flow loop are combined to give an integrated CFB model.

  14. Mass balance of pilot-scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion followed by alkaline delignification.

    PubMed

    Rocha, George J M; Martín, Carlos; da Silva, Vinícius F N; Gómez, Edgardo O; Gonçalves, Adilson R

    2012-05-01

    Five pilot-scale steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse followed by alkaline delignification were explored. The solubilised lignin was precipitated with 98% sulphuric acid. Most of the pentosan (82.6%), and the acetyl group fractions were solubilised during pretreatment, while 90.2% of cellulose and 87.0% lignin were recovered in the solid fraction. Approximately 91% of the lignin and 72.5% of the pentosans contained in the steam-exploded solids were solubilised by delignification, resulting in a pulp with almost 90% of cellulose. The acidification of the black liquors allowed recovery of 48.3% of the lignin contained in the raw material. Around 14% of lignin, 22% of cellulose and 26% of pentosans were lost during the process. In order to increase material recovery, major changes, such as introduction of efficient condensers and the reduction in the number of washing steps, should be done in the process setup. PMID:22391588

  15. Assessment of syngas composition variability in a pilot-scale downdraft biomass gasifier by an extended equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2013-07-01

    A new simplified approach based on equilibrium modeling is proposed in this work to describe the correlations among syngas species experimentally observed in a pilot scale downdraft biomass gasifier operated with different feedstocks (biomass pellets and vine prunings). The modeling approach is based on experimental evidence on the presence of devolatilization products in the syngas and fluctuations of syngas composition during stationary operation, accounted for by introducing two empirical parameters, a by-pass index and a permeability index. The simplified model correctly reproduces the correlations among the main syngas species (including methane and ethylene) resulting from experimental data of pilot tests with different feedstocks and under a wide range of operating conditions. PMID:23672938

  16. Treatment of oil and grease in produced water by a pilot-scale constructed wetland system using biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2014-05-01

    Constructed wetland treatment systems (CWTSs) can effectively remove many constituents that limit beneficial use of oilfield produced water. The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to assess the effect of mass loadings of oil and grease (O & G) on treatment performance in pilot-scale subsurface flow and free water surface CWTS series having sequential reducing and oxidizing cells, and (2) to evaluate effects on treatment performance of adding a pilot-scale oil-water separator. Increase in O & G mass loading from 5 to 20 mg min(-1) caused decreases in both dissolved oxygen concentration and sediment redox potential, which affected treatment performance. Biogeochemical pathways for removal of O & G, iron, and manganese operate under oxidizing conditions, and removal rate coefficients for these constituents decreased (0.905-0.514 d(-1) for O & G, 0.773-0.452 d(-1) for iron, and 0.970-0.518 d(-1) for manganese) because greater mass loading of O & G promoted reducing conditions. With increased mass loading, removal rate coefficients for nickel and zinc increased from 0.074 to 0.565 d(-1) and from 0.196 to 1.08 d(-1), respectively. Although the sequential reducing and oxidizing cells in the CWTS were very effective in treating the targeted constituents, an oil-water separator was added prior to wetland cells to enhance O & G removal at high inflow concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The oil-water separator removed approximately 50% of the O & G, and removal extents and efficiencies approximated those observed at 50 mg L(-1) inflow concentration during treatment without an oil-water separator. PMID:24321330

  17. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  18. Improvement and Validation of Pilot-Scale Emerging Pathogen Removal Studies: The Effects of Spiking Concentration and Sampling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, B. L.; Harrington, G. W.; Hoffman, R. M.; Borchardt, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    The presence of waterborne enteric pathogens in domestic water supplies represents a potentially significant human health risk. To evaluate the removal of these pathogens in drinking water treatment processes, researchers have needed to spike raw water with at least 106 pathogens/L in order to reliably detect the pathogens in treated water. Unfortunately, occurrence surveys have shown that pathogen concentrations in raw waters are significantly smaller than 106 pathogens/L (LeChevallier and Norton, 1995; States et al., 1997). Since regulatory decisions are based on results from pilot-scale experiments, it is necessary to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate removal capacities based on unrealistic spike doses. Recent advances have been made in sample concentration and pathogen detection that allows removal studies to be conducted at more realistic spike concentrations. The overall goal of this project is to use continuous separation channel centrifugation (CSCC) and flow cytometry with cell sorting (FCCS) to evaluate Cryptosporidium removals in water treatment processes at concentrations nearer to those found in the aquatic environment. This project evaluates Cryptosporidium removal with a unique combination of experimental, concentration, and analytical methods. In order to characterize the removal of Cryptosporidium, pilot-scale experiments will be conducted between March and April 2004 with different initial Cryptosporidium concentrations (range from 102 to 106 Cryptosporidium/L) and sampling methods (grab versus continuous). CSCC will be used for concentration of pathogens in samples collected from the pilot plant. FCCS capability will be used for Cryptosporidium detection. These methods will achieve significantly higher pathogen recoveries and more precise pathogen counts than the methods that have traditionally been used for pilot plant studies. This research will provide the water industry with a way of validating previous removal studies and insight

  19. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  20. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

  2. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  3. Pretreatment of corn stover by low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMMA) in a pilot-scale reactor and bioconversion to fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50%, 66% and 70% moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70% moisture CS was treated at 90 degree C and 100 degree C whereas the others were treated at 90 degree C only. The...

  4. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  5. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  7. Comparison of aluminum thermal-death-time disks with a pilot-scale pasteurizer on the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare thermal inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider using conventional glass tubes, aluminum thermal-death-time (TDT) disks, and a pilot-scale pasteurizer. D-values of E. coli K12 in glass tubes and TDT disks were determined at 56, 58, and 60C. D-...

  8. Hearth and campfire influences on arterial blood pressure: defraying the costs of the social brain through fireside relaxation.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Christopher Dana

    2014-01-01

    The importance of fire in human evolutionary history is widely acknowledged but the extent not fully explored. Fires involve flickering light, crackling sounds, warmth, and a distinctive smell. For early humans, fire likely extended the day, provided heat, helped with hunting, warded off predators and insects, illuminated dark places, and facilitated cooking. Campfires also may have provided social nexus and relaxation effects that could have enhanced prosocial behavior. According to this hypothesis, calmer, more tolerant people would have benefited in the social milieu via fireside interactions relative to individuals less susceptible to relaxation response. Using a randomized crossover design that disaggregated fire's sensory properties, pre-posttest blood pressure measures were compared among 226 adults across three studies with respect to viewing simulated muted-fire, fire-with-sound, and control conditions, in addition to tests for interactions with hypnotizability, absorption, and prosociality. Results indicated consistent blood pressure decreases in the fire-with-sound condition, particularly with a longer duration of stimulus, and enhancing effects of absorption and prosociality. Findings confirm that hearth and campfires induce relaxation as part of a multisensory, absorptive, and social experience. Enhancements to relaxation capacities in the human social brain likely took place via feedback involving these and other variables. PMID:25387270

  9. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics in a pilot-scale constructed wetland using a multi-tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkigt, Jan; Stumpp, Christine; Małoszewski, Piotr; Richnow, Hans H.; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, constructed wetland systems have become into focus as means for organic contaminant removal. The use of constructed wetlands as part of water treatment offers great opportunities to realize significant savings in future wastewater treatment costs for small communities and the adaptation of large wastewater treatment plants. Wetland systems provide a highly reactive environment in which several elimination pathways of organic chemicals may be present at the same time; however, these elimination processes and hydraulic conditions are usually poorly understood. Previously, in our study site monochlorobenzene removal was observed in a pilot-scale wetland system which treats contaminated groundwater from the regional aquifer in Bitterfeld. The degradation was linked to either aerobic or anaerobic, iron- or sulfate- reduction or multiple processes, in parallel. However, it was unclear how the groundwater flows through this system, precluding a more founded understanding of the flow and transport processes. Therefore, we investigated the flow system in this three dimensional pilot-scale constructed wetland applying a multi tracer test combined with a mathematical model to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics. The pilot system consisted of a 6 m length x 1 m wide x 0.5 m depth gravel filter with a triple inflow distributed evenly approx. 5 cm from the bottom at the inflow. Three conservative tracers (uranine, bromide and deuterium) were injected as a pulse at the inflow and analyzed at 4 meters distance from the inflow at three different depths to obtain residence time distributions of groundwater flow in the gravel bed of the wetland. A mathematical multi-flow dispersion model was used to model the tracer breakthrough curves of the different sampling levels, which assumes parallel combinations of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. The model was successfully applied to fit the experimental tracer breakthrough curves by assuming three flow

  10. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling primarily

  11. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  12. Bioavailability of metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in naturally occurring vegetation: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Nandhini, S

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale study was conducted to find out the different forms of metals if fly ash (FA) and bioaccumulation of these metals in the naturally growing vegetation on FA dumps. The total, acid extractable, bioavailable and water soluble fraction of metals of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb, and their bioaccumulation coefficients (BAC) on naturally growing vegetation were determined. FA samples had a neutral pH, low electrical conductivity, low organic C and trace amounts of N and P. The relative abundance of total metals in FA were found in the order Fe >Mn >Zn >Ni >Co>Cu. The concentration of bioavailable (DTPA) metals depend on the type and nature of coal used in thermal power stations. In the water the extract solution, only Fe and Zn were found above detection limits. After one year only four species of naturally occurring herbaceous vegetation were found growing and Cynodon dactylon (grass) covered almost entire surface of the FA. Iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Co. The sequence of BAC for different metals were Fe (202)>Mn(90)>Zn (63)>Pb(49)>Ni(41)>Cu(24). The experimental study revealed that Cynodon grass could be used for remediation of fly ash without any amendments, as this grass species act as metal excluder type. PMID:16779594

  13. Performance and microbial community analysis of a pilot-scale UASB for corn-ethanol wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Xiao, Ling; Xi, Chunhui

    2015-04-01

    The performance and microbial community structure of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with flocculent sludge were investigated over 52 days. The characteristics of corn-ethanol wastewater were as follows: CODCr, 1,050-4,970 mg l(-1); ammonia, 14-298 mg l(-1); and alkalinity, 332-2,867 mg l(-1). The UASB could start up smoothly with a hydraulic loading rate lower than 180 l h(-1) and a ratio of volatile fatty acid versus alkalinity between 0.04 and 0.48. The maximum gas production rate was 432 l h(-1) and the highest volumetric loading rate of 7.2 kg m(-3) day(-1) was obtained after 48 days. The 1 mm granules could form a complex network and were composed of many Methanosaeta. Aceticlastic methanogens served as a dominant methanogenic group, which accounted for the relatively high resistance to shock loading. PMID:25537339

  14. New ORP/pH based control strategy for chlorination and dechlorination of wastewater: pilot scale application.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kwon, S; Han, S; Yu, M; Kim, J; Gong, S; Colosimo, M F

    2006-01-01

    Due to its efficiency and low capital demands, chlorination has been widely used for disinfection in many wastewater treatment plants. Since the oxidation power of free chlorine is bigger than combined chlorines which are formed from the reaction between chlorine and reducing agents in water (especially, NH4+ and organic nitrogen), for effective disinfection, excess amount of chlorine is added until all the reducing agents are oxidized and free chlorine is available. After chlorination, chlorine residues in wastewater are usually reduced with SO2 or sulfites before the treated wastewater is discharged, since they are toxic to aquatic life. Addition of excess amount of SO2 or sulfite should be avoided. Otherwise, they consume dissolved oxygen in a river or stream and may have adverse impact on the aquatic life. Determination of wastewater chlorine demand and of sulfite dosages for dechlorination has been a challenge to WWTP operators, due to the dynamic characteristics of wastewater. Recently, a new ORP/pH based approach to determine chlorine demand and sulfite dosage was proposed. The method utilizes significant points occurring on the pH and ORP profiles during chlorination and dechlorination titrations. In this study, the proposed automatic titration system has been implemented into a control system to optimize chlorine and sulfite doses for a pilot scale chlorination/dechlorination system. In short, the disinfection system with the pH/ORP based controller showed very successful results; complete inactivation of total coliforms, and almost zero residual chlorines and high DO in its effluent. PMID:16749451

  15. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation. PMID:19728494

  16. Impact of Microscale and Pilot-Scale Freeze-Drying on Protein Secondary Structures: Sucrose Formulations of Lysozyme and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Leskinen, Jari T T; Molnár, Ferdinand; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-11-01

    Microscale (MS) freeze-drying offers rapid process cycles for early-stage formulation development. The effects of the MS approach on the secondary structures of two model proteins, lysozyme and catalase, were compared with pilot-scale (PS) vial freeze-drying. The secondary structures were assessed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Formulations were made with increasing sucrose-protein ratios. Freeze-drying protocols involved regular cooling without thermal treatment and annealing with MS and PS equipment, and cooling rate variations with the MS. Principal component analysis of smoothed second-derivative amide I spectra revealed sucrose-protein ratio-dependent shifts toward α-helical structures. Transferability of sucrose-protein formulations from MS to PS vial freeze-drying was evidenced at regular cooling rates. Local differences in protein secondary structures between the bottom and top of sucrose-catalase samples could be detected at the sucrose-catalase ratios of 1 and 2, this being related to the initial filling height and ice crystal morphology. Annealing revealed temperature, protein, formulation, and sample location-dependent effects influencing surface morphology at the top, or causing protein secondary structure perturbation at the bottom. With the MS approach, protein secondary structure differences at different cooling rates could be detected for sucrose-lysozyme samples at the sucrose-lysozyme ratio of 1. PMID:26305147

  17. Potential of duckweed in the conversion of wastewater nutrients to valuable biomass: a pilot-scale comparison with water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Bao, Shu; Fu, Tian; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2014-07-01

    The application potential of duckweed (Lemna japonica 0234) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were compared in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than one year. The results indicated duckweed had the same total nitrogen (TN) recovery rate as water hyacinth (0.4 g/m(2)/d) and a slightly lower total phosphorus (TP) recovery rate (approximately 0.1g/m(2)/d) even though its biomass production was half that of water hyacinth. The higher content of crude protein (33.34%), amino acids (25.80%), starch (40.19%), phosphorus (1.24%), flavonoids (2.91%) and lower fiber content provided duckweed with more advantages in resource utilization. Additionally, microbial community discovered by 454 pyrosequencing indicated that less nitrifying bacteria and more nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rhizosphere of duckweed provided it with higher nitrogen recovery efficiency (60%) than water hyacinth (47%). Under the presented condition, duckweed has more application advantages than water hyacinth because it more effectively converted the wastewater nutrients into valuable biomass. PMID:24787320

  18. A pilot-scale evaluation of magnetic ion exchange treatment for removal of natural organic material and inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Singer, Philip C

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a magnetic ion exchange process (MIEX) for the removal of natural organic material (NOM) and bromide on a continuous-flow pilot-scale basis under different operating conditions and raw water characteristics. The most important operating variable was the effective resin dose (ERD), which is the product of the steady-state resin concentration in the contactor and the regeneration ratio. The raw water employed in this study had a moderate concentration of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing substances and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and a low turbidity, alkalinity, and concentration of competing anionic species. Experiments were conducted using the ambient raw water and raw water spiked with bromide, chloride, and sulfate. Substantial removal of UV-absorbing substances and DOC was achieved at ERDs as low as 0.16mL/L. Moderate bromide removal was achieved, depending on the ERD. Increasing the sulfate concentration resulted in decreased removal of UV-absorbing substances, DOC, and bromide. Consistent results were observed between the continuous-flow pilot plant tests and batch equilibrium studies. PMID:16844182

  19. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. PMID:25528019

  20. Application of polycolloid-releasing substrate to remediate trichloroethylene-contaminated groundwater: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T T; Liu, J K; Chang, Y M; Chen, K F; Kao, C M

    2014-03-15

    The objectives of this pilot-scale study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater with the supplement of slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) (contained vegetable oil, cane molasses, surfactants) under reductive dechlorinating conditions, (2) apply gene analyses to confirm the existence of TCE-dechlorinating genes, and (3) apply the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the variations in TCE-dechlorinating bacteria (Dehalococcoides spp.). Approximately 350L of SPRS solution was supplied into an injection well (IW) and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from IW and monitor wells periodically. Results show that the SPRS caused a rapid increase of the total organic carbon concentration (up to 5794mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. TCE dechlorination byproducts were observed and up to 99% of TCE removal (initial TCE concentration=1872μg/L) was observed after 50 days of operation. The population of Dehalococcoides spp. increased from 4.6×10(1) to 3.41×10(7)cells/L after 20 days of operation. DNA sequencing results show that there were 31 bacterial species verified, which might be related to TCE biodegradation. Results demonstrate that the microbial analysis and real-time PCR are useful tools to evaluate the effectiveness of TCE reductive dechlorination. PMID:24468531

  1. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

  2. Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-03-01

    A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO ₄⁻ and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (∼250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO₄⁻ reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO₄⁻ reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO₄⁻ in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO₄⁻ of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. PMID:22015922

  3. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce>soybean>watermelon>corn>okra≈millet>sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  4. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  5. Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

    1999-02-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

  6. The treatment of solvent recovery raffinate by aerobic granular sludge in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-zhu; Pu, Wen-hong; Yang, Jia-kuan; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Dan, Jing-feng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated for the start-up of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of high concentration solvent recovery raffinate (SRR). The proportion of simulated wastewater (SW) (w/w) in the influent gradually decreased to zero during the operation, while volume of SRR gradually increased from zero to 10.84 L. AGS was successfully domesticated after 48 days, which maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was orange, irregular, smooth and compact. Sludge volume index (SVI), SV30/SV5, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids/mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS/MLSS), extracellular polymeric substances, proteins/polysaccharides, average particle size, granulation rate, specific oxygen utilization rates (SOUR)H and (SOUR)N of AGS were about 38 mL/g, 0.97, 0.52, 39.73 mg/g MLVSS, 1.17, 1.51 mm, 96.66%, 47.40 mg O2/h g volatile suspended solids (VSS) and 8.96 mg O2/h g VSS, respectively. Good removal effect was achieved by the reactor. Finally, the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) were more than 98%, 96%, 97% and 97%, respectively. The result indicated gradually increasing the proportion of real wastewater in influent was a useful domestication method, and the feasibility of AGS for treatment of high C/N ratio industrial wastewater. PMID:26322760

  7. First-order kinetics of landfill leachate treatment in a pilot-scale anaerobic sequence batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Contrera, Ronan Cleber; da Cruz Silva, Katia Cristina; Morita, Dione Mari; Domingues Rodrigues, José Alberto; Zaiat, Marcelo; Schalch, Valdir

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the kinetics evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatment in a pilot-scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was carried out at room temperature (23.8 ± 2.1 °C) in the landfill area in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Biomass from the bottom of a local landfill leachate stabilization pond was used as inoculum. After acclimated and utilizing leachate directly from the landfill, the AnSBBR presented efficiency over 70%, in terms of COD removal, with influent COD ranging from 4825 mg L(-1) to 12,330 mg L(-1). To evaluate the kinetics of landfill leachate treatment, temporal profiles of CODFilt. concentration were performed and a first-order kinetics model was adjusted for substrate consumption, obtaining an average k1 = 4.40 × 10(-5) L mgTVS(-1) d(-1), corrected to 25 °C. Considering the temperature variations, a temperature-activity coefficient θ = 1.07 was obtained. Statistical "Randomness" and "F" tests were used to successfully validate the model considered. Thus, the results demonstrate that the first-order kinetic model is adequate to model the anaerobic treatment of the landfill leachate in the AnSBBR. PMID:25127066

  8. Combustion and NO emission of high nitrogen content biomass in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Qian, F P; Chyang, C S; Huang, K S; Tso, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of biomass of various nitrogen contents and its NO emission were investigated experimentally in this study. All the experiments were conducted in an I.D. 0.45 m pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). Rice husk, corn, and soybean were used as feeding materials. Urea was added into the feeding materials for the purpose of adjusting nitrogen content. The effects of various operating parameters on NO emission, such as bed temperature, excess air ratio, and flow rate of secondary air, were investigated. The effects of nitrogen content of fuels on NO emissions were also investigated by using the mixtures of rice husk/soybean, rice husk/urea, corn/soybean, and corn/urea in various weight ratios. The NO concentrations at various positions in the combustor were sampled and recorded. The experimental results show that most nitric oxide is formed at just above the bed surface. Temperature and excess air ratio are the major operating parameters for NO emission. For biomass with high nitrogen content, NO emission decreases with excess air, and increases with bed temperature. Compared with char-N, volatile-N is the more dominant reactant source for NO emission. PMID:20800476

  9. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m(2) h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  10. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wei; Peng Jinhui Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  11. Simultaneous removal of organic and strong nitrogen from sewage in a pilot-scale BNR process supplemented with food waste.

    PubMed

    Chae, S R; Lee, S H; Kim, J O; Paik, B C; Song, Y C; Park, H S; Shin, H S

    2004-01-01

    As the sewerage system is incomplete, sewage in Korea lacks easily biodegradable organics for nutrient removal. In this country, about 11,400 tons of food waste of high organic materials is produced daily. Therefore, the potential of food waste as an external carbon source was examined in a pilot-scale BNR (biological nutrient removal) process for a half year. It was found that as the supply of the external carbon increased, the average removal efficiencies of T-N (total nitrogen) and T-P (total phosphorus) increased from 53% and 55% to 97% and 93%, respectively. VFAs (volatile fatty acids) concentration of the external carbon source strongly affected denitrification efficiency and EBPR (enhanced biological phosphorus removal) activity. Biological phosphorus removal was increased to 93% when T-N removal efficiency increased from 78% to 97%. In this study, several kinds of PHAs (poly-hydroxyalkanoates) in cells were observed. The observed PHAs was composed of 37% 3HB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate), 47% 3HV (poly-3-hydroxyvalerate), 9% 3HH (poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate), 5% 3HO (poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate), and 2% 3HD (poly-3-hydroxydecanoate). PMID:15137432

  12. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  13. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. PMID:24412856

  14. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2014-10-17

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification. PMID:25459803

  15. Determine the operational boundary of a pilot-scale single-stage partial nitritation/anammox system with granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yandong; Zhang, Liang; Han, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    The partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) process has been applied to ammonium-rich wastewater treatment, but the operational boundary has not been well determined for long-term stability. This pilot-scale study was targeted at a single-stage PN/A process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) (volume: 53 m(3)) and granulated activated sludge. The maximum nitrogen removal rate reached 0.83 kg N/(m(3)·d). Microbial analysis suggested that ammonium oxidizing bacteria were mainly present in small sludge flocs while anammox bacteria were prone to grow in large sludge granules. The PN/A performance was enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) was increased from 0.25 to 0.76 mg/L, and deteriorated at DO higher than 1.15 mg/L. The PN/A was inhibited at free ammonia (FA) over 77.0 mg/L. High DO or FA concentrations inhibited anammox activity and further induced high and inhibitory nitrite concentrations. Therefore, appropriate DO and FA concentrations should be controlled to achieve single-stage PN/A in SBRs. PMID:27148709

  16. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of 'fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10-17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids - SS, BOD, nitrogen - N and phosphorus - P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  17. Fast start-up, performance and microbial community in a pilot-scale anammox reactor seeded with exotic mature granules.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Gao, Bao-Yu; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Jih-Gaw; Sung, Shihwu

    2011-02-01

    The possibility to introduce the exotic anammox sludge to seed the pilot-scale anammox granular reactor and its fast start-up for treating high nitrogen concentration wastewater were evaluated in this study. The reactor was started up successfully in two weeks; in addition, high nitrogen removal was achieved for a long period. Stoichiometry molar ratios of nitrite conversion and nitrate production to ammonium conversion were calculated to be 1.26±0.02:1 and 0.26±0.01:1, respectively. The Stover-Kincannon model which was first applied in granular anammox process indicated that the granular anammox reactor possessed high nitrogen removal potential of 27.8 kg/m(3)/d. The anammox granules in the reactor were characterized via microscope observation and fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Moreover, the microbial community of the granules was quantified to be composed of 91.4-92.4% anammox bacteria by real-time polymerase chain reaction. This pilot study can elucidate further information for industrial granular anammox application. PMID:21145732

  18. Melting characteristics during the vitrification of MSWI fly ash with a pilot-scale diesel oil furnace.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tian, Shulei; Wang, Qunhui; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Jie

    2008-12-30

    Treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is becoming an important issue in China. A pilot-scale experiment was carried out to treat MSWI fly ash by using a diesel oil furnace (DOF) for more than 6 months. The effects of melting temperature on volume reduction, weight loss, compositional changes, and toxicity of leach water for molten slag have been investigated and reported. Results indicated that the volume reduction fraction of raw fly ash (RFA) and washed-fly ash (WFA) was 75-80% and the weight loss fraction was 23.8-30% at 1260-1350 degrees C. During the vitrification, CaO, A12O3, and SiO2 percentages in fly ash increased as the temperature increased, especially for SiO2, which was caused by both the decomposition of carbonates or sulfates and the volatilization of metal chlorides because the main components in secondary fly ash collected from fabric filter bags were NaCl and KCl. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals in molten slag were lower than the standard values of TCLP. The releasing levels of dioxin and other pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, CO, NOx, etc.) in flue gas were all lower than the Chinese standard. PMID:18439755

  19. Alkylphenol polyethoxylate removal in a pilot-scale reed bed and phenotypic characterization of the aerobic heterotrophic community.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Cristiana; Pizzo, Anna Maria; Tiscione, Emilia; Burrini, Daniela; Messeri, Luca; Lepri, Luciano; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2006-07-01

    The removal of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100, dosed at 30 and 300 mg/L in a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow reed bed, and the aerobic heterotrophic cultivable community associated with the roots and with the substrate gravel in both absence and presence of Triton X-100 were investigated. t-Octylphenol (OP) and its mono-, di- and tri-ethoxyl derivatives, among others, were found in the outlet. A mass balance allowed us to calculate that approximately 40% of the Triton X-100 metabolites OP and octylphenol polyethoxylate derivatives flowed out of the reed bed during the dosage and postdosage experiments. More aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms adhered to the roots than to the gravel. The appearance of new strains (Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Aquaspirillum) and the increased presence of others (Pseudomonas) during the dosage of Triton may be linked to the capacity of these bacteria to adapt to the presence of the surfactant or to use it as a nourishment. PMID:16929647

  20. Drug loaded and ethylcellulose coated mesoporous silica for controlled drug release prepared using a pilot scale fluid bed system.

    PubMed

    Hacene, Youcef Chakib; Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-06-15

    The goal of this study was to test the feasibility to load non-ordered, non-spherical mesoporous silica with the model drug paracetamol, and subsequently coat the loaded particles using one single pilot scale fluid bed system equipped with a Wurster insert. Mesoporous silica particles (Davisil(®)) with a size ranging from 310 to 500μm and an average pore diameter of 15nm were loaded with paracetamol to 18.8% drug content. Subsequently, loaded cores were coated with ethylcellulose to obtain controlled drug release. Coating processing variables were varied following a full factorial design and their effect on drug release was assessed. Increasing coating solution feed rate and decreasing fluidizing air temperature were found to increase drug release rates. Increasing pore former level and decreasing coating level were found to increase drug release rates. The release medium's osmolality was varied using different sodium chloride concentrations, which was found to affect drug release rates. The results of this study clearly indicate the potential of non-ordered, non-spherical mesoporous silica as a reservoir carrier for the controlled release of drugs. Although non-spherical, we were able to reproducibly coat this carrier using a bottom spray fluid bed system. However, a major hurdle that needs to be tackled is the attrition the material suffers from during fluid bed processing. PMID:27107901

  1. An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread. PMID:21535595

  2. A pilot-scale study of Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals from swimming pools via sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Amburgey, James E

    2016-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species are the most common cause of gastrointestinal illness in treated recreational water venues. In order to protect public health during swimming, Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals by high-rate sand filtration with six coagulants were evaluated with a 5.5 m(3) pilot-scale swimming pool. A sand filter without coagulation removed 20-63% of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres. Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals exceeded 98% by sand filtration with five of the six tested coagulants. Continuously feeding coagulants A, B, and F (i.e., organic polymers) led to coagulant accumulation in the system and decreased removals over time (<2 days). Coagulant E (polyaluminum chloride) consistently removed more than 90% of microspheres at 30 m/h while the removals dropped to approximately 50% at a filtration rate of 37 m/h. Coagulant C was a chitosan-based product that removed fewer microspheres compared with other products, <75%, under the studied conditions. Results indicated aluminum-based coagulants (coagulants D and E) had an overall performance advantage over the organic polymer based coagulants primarily in terms of their tendency not to accumulate in the water and cease to be effective at improving filter efficiency. PMID:26837835

  3. Minimization of nitrous oxide emission in a pilot-scale oxidation ditch: generation, spatial variation and microbial interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Maosheng; Tian, Yuhao; Liu, Tang; Ma, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Can; Ahmad, Muhammad; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2015-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has received increasing attention. This paper presented how N2O emission was significantly reduced in a pilot-scale Carrousel oxidation ditch under reasonable nitrification and denitrification. N2O emission from the reactor was found as low as 0.027% of influent nitrogen, which was much less than that from other processes. Further measurements on spatial variation of N2O emission in the alternative aerobic/anoxic zones with help of a series of batch experiments demonstrated that about 90% of the emission was contributed by nitrifier denitrification (ND). Moreover, the taxonomic analysis based on high through-put 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the high abundance of denitrifying bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was responsible for low nitrite accumulations and consequent low N2O emissions. However, N2O generation would be greatly increased upon the normal operation being shocked by either ammonia overload or aeration failure of the oxidation ditch system. PMID:25575212

  4. Ammonia removal from wastewaters using natural Australian zeolite. 2. Pilot-scale study using continuous packed column process

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, E.L.; Booker, N.A.; Shallcross, D.C.; Stevens, G.W.

    1999-10-01

    A pilot-scale process was designed and operated to investigate the continuous removal of ammonia from sewage using natural zeolite from Australia. The process consisted of a fixed-bed ion-exchange system operated in the downflow mode. Evaluation of the pilot process was initially undertaken for ammonia removal from tap water spiked with ammonium chloride to provide performance data in the absence of competing cations. The performance of the pilot process was then assessed using sewage as feed. Breakthrough curves were constructed for a range of treatment flow rates. Existing models for packed bed performance were shown to be able to predict the breakthrough behavior of the process. The results of a study are presented that show that Australian natural zeolite, clinoptilolite, may be successfully employed in a fixed-bed ion-exchange process to achieve high ammonia removal efficiencies from aqueous solution at rates commensurate with sand filtration. The rate of uptake of ammonium by the zeolite is sufficient to support a continuous high rate process.

  5. Cultivating Chlorella sp. in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using centrate wastewater for microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Mohr, Michael J; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Wenguang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2011-09-01

    This study is concerned with a novel mass microalgae production system which, for the first time, uses "centrate", a concentrated wastewater stream, to produce microalgal biomass for energy production. Centrate contains a high level of nutrients that support algal growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics of a locally isolated microalgae strain Chlorella sp. in centrate and its ability to remove nutrients from centrate. A pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was constructed at a local wastewater treatment plant. The system was tested under different harvesting rates and exogenous CO(2) levels with the local strain of Chlorella sp. Under low light conditions (25 μmol·m(-2)s(-1)) the system can produce 34.6 and 17.7 g·m(-2)day(-1) biomass in terms of total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids, respectively. At a one fourth harvesting rate, reduction of chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and soluble total phosphorus were 70%, 61%, and 61%, respectively. The addition of CO(2) to the system did not exhibit a positive effect on biomass productivity or nutrient removal in centrate which is an organic carbon rich medium. The unique PBR system is highly scalable and provides a great opportunity for biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment. PMID:21494756

  6. Pilot-scale synthesis and rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers: perspectives for medical application.

    PubMed

    Linan, Lamia Zuniga; Nascimento Lima, Nádson M; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Sabino, Marcos A; Kozlowski, Mark T; Manenti, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    This work presents the rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymers synthesized in a dedicated pilot-scale plant. This material is to be used for the construction of scaffolds via Rapid Prototyping (RP). The polymers were prepared to match the physical and biological properties required for medical applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) measurements verified that the synthesized polymers were atactic, amorphous and linear in chains. Rheological properties such as viscosity, storage and loss modulus, beyond the loss factor, and creep and recovery were measured in a plate-plate sensor within the viscoelastic linear region. The results showed the relevant influence of the molecular weight on the viscosity and elasticity of the material, and how, as the molecular weight increases, the viscoelastic properties are getting closer to those of human bone. This article demonstrates that by using the implemented methodology it is possible to synthesize a polymer, with properties comparable to commercially-available PMMA. PMID:25842114

  7. An evaluation of a pilot-scale nonthermal plasma advanced oxidation process for trace organic compound degradation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Stanford, Benjamin D; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a pilot-scale nonthermal plasma (NTP) advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of trace organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The degradation of seven indicator compounds was monitored in tertiary-treated wastewater and spiked surface water to evaluate the effects of differing water qualities on process efficiency. The tests were also conducted in batch and single-pass modes to examine contaminant degradation rates and the remediation capabilities of the technology, respectively. Values for electrical energy per order (EEO) of magnitude degradation ranged from <0.3 kWh/m(3)-log for easily degraded compounds (e.g., carbamazepine) in surface water to 14 kWh/m(3)-log for more recalcitrant compounds (e.g., meprobamate) in wastewater. Changes in the bulk organic matter based on UV(254) absorbance and excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were also monitored and correlated to contaminant degradation. These results indicate that NTP may be a viable alternative to more common AOPs due to its comparable energy requirements for contaminant degradation and its ability to operate without any additional feed chemicals. PMID:19822343

  8. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  9. Effect of a microbiota activator on accumulated ammonium and microbial community structure in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Ronald, Navarro R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota activators (MAs) have been used to improve the reactor performances of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, to remove ammonium (NH4(+)) accumulated during the pre-operation of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) under high-organic-loading conditions, an MA was added to the MBR system and the resulting changes in reactor performances and microbial communities were monitored for 12 days. The NH4(+) concentrations in the sludge and effluent decreased (from 427 to 246 mg/L in the sludge (days 1-9)), and mixed liquor suspended solid increased (from 6,793 to 11,283 mg/L (days 1-12)) after the addition of MA. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial community structure changed along with the NH4(+) removal resulting from the MA addition. In particular, the relative abundance of an Acidovorax-related operational taxonomic unit (OTU) increased significantly, accounting for approximately 50% of the total microbial population at day 11. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea showed low abundances (<0.05%), and no anaerobic ammonia oxidizers were detected. These results suggested that the Acidovorax-related OTU was mainly involved in the NH4(+) removal in the MBR, probably due to its ammonia-assimilating metabolism. PMID:26377133

  10. Pilot-scale evaluation the enological traits of a novel, aromatic wine yeast strain obtained by adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Cadière, Axelle; Aguera, Evelyne; Caillé, Soline; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    In the competitive context of the wine market, there is a growing interest for novel wine yeast strains that have an overall good fermentation capacity and that contribute favorably to the organoleptic quality of wine. Using an adaptive evolution strategy based on growth on gluconate as sole carbon source, we recently obtained wine yeasts with improved characteristics in laboratory-scale fermentations. The characteristics included enhanced fermentation rate, decreased formation of acetate and greater production of fermentative aroma. We report an evaluation of the potential value of the evolved strain ECA5™ for winemaking, by comparing its fermentation performance and metabolite production to those of the parental strain in pilot-scale fermentation trials, with various grape cultivars and winemaking conditions. We show that the evolved strain has outstanding attributes relative to the parental wine yeast strain, and in particular the production of less volatile acidity and greater production of desirable volatile esters, important for the fruity/flowery character of wines. This study highlights the potential of evolutionary engineering for the generation of strains with a broad range of novel properties, appropriate for rapid application in the wine industry. PMID:22986198

  11. Taxonomic and functional metagenomic analysis of anodic communities in two pilot-scale microbial fuel cells treating different industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K; Ma, Hongwu; Simpson, David J W; Fedorovich, Viatcheslav; Cohen, Michael F; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The combined processes of microbial biodegradation accompanied by extracellular electron transfer make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) a promising new technology for cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment. Although a number of microbial species that build biofilms on the anode surfaces of operating MFCs have been identified, studies on the metagenomics of entire electrogenic communities are limited. Here we present the results of whole-genome metagenomic analysis of electrochemically active robust anodic microbial communities, and their anaerobic digester (AD) sludge inocula, from two pilot-scale MFC bioreactors fed with different distillery wastewaters operated under ambient conditions in distinct climatic zones. Taxonomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were abundant in AD sludge from distinct climatic zones, and constituted the dominant core of the MFC microbiomes. Functional analysis revealed species involved in degradation of organic compounds commonly present in food industry wastewaters. Also, accumulation of methanogenic Archaea was observed in the electrogenic biofilms, suggesting a possibility for simultaneous electricity and biogas recovery from one integrated wastewater treatment system. Finally, we found a range of species within the anode communities possessing the capacity for extracellular electron transfer, both via direct contact and electron shuttles, and show differential distribution of bacterial groups on the carbon cloth and activated carbon granules of the anode surface. Overall, this study provides insights into structural shifts that occur in the transition from an AD sludge to an MFC microbial community and the metabolic potential of electrochemically active microbial populations with wastewater-treating MFCs. PMID:26673789

  12. A corrosion mechanism for the fireside wastage of superheater materials in waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Tsukaue, Y.; Nakagawa, K.; Kawahara, Y.; Yukawa, K.

    1997-08-01

    Heat of fusion of twenty-three boiler tube deposits taken from corrosion test probes in existing waste incinerators exposed at 550 C for 700 h and 3,000 h was measured by DSC in a simulated flue gas atmosphere. Heat of fusion was summed for up to 550 C, and the sum was considered to represent the relative amount of fused salts in the deposits at 550 C. The sum of heat of fusion was related to the corrosion rates of the corresponding corrosion probes of TP347H and Alloy 625. For ashes taken from the bottom portion of the tube deposits, the corrosion rates of TP347H and Alloy 625, exposed at 550 C for 3,000 h, were higher for ashes of greater sum of heat of fusion, suggesting that the corrosion of steels and alloys becomes more severe when the ashes contain greater amount of fused salt constituents on the surface side of the boiler tubes.

  13. VALIDATION OF FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE INDICES: FOULING/CORROSION EVALUATION OF MDF PARTICLEBOARD AND BLENDS WITH WHEAT STRAW BOARD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Jay R. Gunderson; Donald P. McCollor

    1999-02-01

    Sauder Woodworking currently fires a large portion of all wood wastes in a boiler producing process steam. It is investigating using particleboard made from wheat straw in its manufacturing process and is concerned with the effects of the inorganics on its boiler. Wheat straw board contains higher ash contents and increased levels of potassium, creating concern over fouling characteristics in Sauder's tight boiler design. In addition, the wheat straw board contains high concentrations of chlorine, which may affect boiler tube corrosion when fired in combination with the particleboard wastes currently generated. Sauder has engaged the services of the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota to investigate the potential detrimental effects of firing blends containing wheat straw on boiler tube fouling and corrosion. Additional funding for this project was provided through the U.S. Department of Energy Jointly Sponsored Research Program (DOE JSRP) project ''Validation of Fireside Performance Indices'' to validate, improve, and expand the PCQUEST (Predictive Coal Quality Effects Screening Tool) program. The PCQUEST fuel database is constantly expanding and adding new fuels, for which the algorithms may need refinement and additional verification in order to accurately predict index values. A key focus is on performing advanced and conventional fuel analyses and adding these analyses to the PCQUEST database. Such fuels include coals of all ranks and origins, upgraded coals, petroleum coke, biomass and biomass-coal blends, and waste materials blended with coal. Since there are differences in the chemical and mineral form of the inorganic content in biomass and substantial differences in organic matrix characteristics, analysis and characterization methods developed for coal fuels may not be applicable. The project was seen to provide an excellent opportunity to test and improve the ability of PCQUEST to handle nontypical soil and

  14. Pilot-scale experimental and theoretical investigations into the thermal destruction of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate embedded in building decontamination residue bundles.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Lemieux, Paul; Betancourt, Doris; Kariher, Peter; Griffin, Nicole

    2008-08-01

    Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores were released through the U.S. mail system in 2001, highlighting the need to develop efficacious methods of decontaminating and disposing of materials contaminated with biological agents. Incineration of building decontamination residue is a disposal option for such material, although the complete inactivation of bacterial spores via this technique is not a certainty. Tests revealed that under some circumstances, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (G. stearothermophilus; a surrogate for B. anthracis) spores embedded in building materials remained active after 35 min in a pilot-scale incinerator and survived with internal material bundle temperatures reaching over 500 degrees C. A model was also developed to predict survival of a bacterial spore population undergoing thermal treatment in an incinerator using the thermal destruction kinetic parameters obtained in a laboratory setting. The results of the pilot-scale incinerator experiments are compared to model predictions to assess the accuracy of the model. PMID:18754498

  15. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. PMID:26056780

  16. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  17. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  18. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.; Ho, K.

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  19. Pilot scale treatment of chromite ore processing residue using sodium sulfide in single reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Hernández, Sergio; Schmidt, Winfried; Revah, Sergio

    2012-03-15

    Single Cr(VI) reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization (R/S) processes were evaluated at pilot scale to determine their effectiveness to treat chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Sodium sulfide was used as the reducing agent and cement, gypsum and lime were tested as the stabilizing agents. The pilot experiments were performed in a helical ribbon blender mixer with batches of 250 kg of COPR and mixing time up to 30 min. Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratios of 4.6, 5.7 and 6.8 were evaluated in the single reduction process to treat COPR with Cr(VI) concentration of ≈4.2 g/kg. The R/S process was tested with a Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratio of 5.7 and including stabilizing agents not exceeding 5% (w/w(COPR)), to treat COPR with a Cr(VI) content of ≈5.1g/kg. The single reduction process with a ratio of 6.8, reached Cr(VI) reduction efficiencies up to 97.6% in the first days, however these values decreased to around 93% after 380 days of storage. At this point the total Cr level was around 12.5 mg/L. Cr(VI) removal efficiencies exceeding 96.5% were reached and maintained during 380 days when the coupled R/S process was evaluated. Total Cr levels lower than 5 mg/l were attained at the initials days in all R/S batch tested, however after 380 days, concentrations below the regulatory limit were only found with gypsum (2%) as single agent and with a blend of cement (4%) and lime (1%). These results indicated that the coupled R/S process is an excellent alternative to stabilize COPR. PMID:21543156

  20. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation. PMID:26818608

  1. Impacts of Residual Surfactant on Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Degradation Following Pilot-Scale SEAR Treatment at a Chloroethene-Impacted Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.; Pennell, K. D.; Löffler, F. E.; Gamache, M.; Petrovskis, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    A pilot-scale surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) demonstration was completed during the summer of 2000 at the Bachman Road site (Oscoda, MI USA). For this test, an aqueous solution of 60 g/L Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) was used to recover tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a suspected source zone, located underneath a former dry-cleaning facility. Tween 80 was selected for use based upon its demonstrated capacity to solubilize PCE, “food-grade” status, and biodegradative potential. Hydraulic control was maintained throughout the test, with 95% of the injected surfactant mass recovered by a single extraction well. Source-zone monitoring conducted 15 months after SEAR treatment revealed the presence of previously undetected volatile fatty acids (acetate and formate) and PCE degradation products (trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichlorethene, and vinyl chloride), in conjunction with PCE concentration reductions of approximately two orders-of-magnitude. The detection of volatile fatty acids is relevant, as they are likely fermentation products of residual Tween 80. Microbial reductive dechlorination is limited by available electron donors, and microcosm studies demonstrated that both acetate and formate support reductively dechlorinating populations present at the oligotrophic Bachman Road site aquifer. Surfactant transport simulations, using a regional flow model developed for the site, were employed to determine appropriate down-gradient monitoring locations. Drive point samples taken 15 months post-treatment in the vicinity of the simulated residual surfactant plume, contained elevated concentrations of acetate and PCE daughter products. Ongoing efforts include continued site-monitoring, and microcosm studies to corroborate a causal relationship between Tween 80 fermentation and PCE dechlorination.

  2. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35°C), thermophilic (55°C) and temperature phased (65+55°C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m(3)d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m(3)/kgVS(fed) at 35, 55, and 65+55°C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65°C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 g COD (soluble) per gVS(fed). The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor. PMID:22305642

  3. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future. PMID:26111620

  4. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-10-01

    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use. PMID:25899246

  5. Functional maintenance and structural flexibility of microbial communities perturbed by simulated intense rainfall in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Intense rainfall is one of the most serious and common natural events, causing the excessive inflow of rainwater into wastewater treatment plants. However, little is known about the impacts of rainwater dilution on the structure and function of the sludge microorganisms. Here, high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was implemented to describe the microbial community dynamics during the simulated intense rainfall situation (event i) in which approximately 45 % of the sludge biomass was artificially overflowed by massive water supply in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Thereafter, we investigated the functional and structural responses of the perturbed microbial communities to subsequent conditional changes, i.e., an increase in organic loading rate from 225 to 450 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1) day(-1) (event ii) and an addition of a microbiota activator (event iii). Due to the event i, the COD removal declined to 78.2 %. This deterioration coincided with the decreased microbial diversity and the proliferation of the oligotrophic Aquabacterium sp. During the succeeding events ii and iii, the sludge biomass increased and the COD removal became higher (86.5-97.4 %). With the apparent recovery of the reactor performance, microbial communities became diversified and the compositions dynamically changed. Notably, various bacterial micropredators were highly enriched under the successive conditions, most likely being involved in the flexible reorganization of microbial communities. These results indicate that the activated sludge harbored functionally redundant microorganisms that were able to thrive and proliferate along with the conditional changes, thereby contributing to the functional maintenance of the membrane bioreactor. PMID:27020291

  6. NO and N{sub 2}O emission characteristics from a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor firing different fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chien-Song Chyang; Fu-Ping Qian; Yen-Chin Lin; Sheng-Hong Yang

    2008-03-15

    This study investigated experimentally the effects of various operating conditions, such as bed temperature, excess air, fuel property, and the method of temperature control on NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. All the experiments are conducted in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). The cross section of the combustion chamber is 0.64 x 0.32 m{sup 2}, and the inner diameter of the freeboard is 0.45 m. Rice husk, soybean, and high sulfur subbituminous coal are used as fuels. Silica sand is employed as the bed material. The experimental results reveal that NO emissions increase with excess air and are almost independent of the bed temperature (600-760{sup o}C). In addition, the amount of NO and N{sub 2}O increases while water is injected into the combustor. The high-volatile fuel appears to form a significant amount of NO and N{sub 2}O above the bed surface, However, NO emission detected at the outlet of the combustor decreases with the volatile content. Compared with the primary air, the bed temperature is the dominant factor for the trade off NO and N{sub 2}O. Most of the NO is formed above the bed surface, achieves a maximum value at the position below the inlet of second air, and is reduced considerably within the freeboard. Moreover, the most remarkable feature about them is that N{sub 2}O emission from combustion can be neglected no matter what the feeding material is. 39 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. In-Situ Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Pilot-Scale Treatability Test at the 300 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, V.R.; Fruchter, J.S.; Fritz, B.G.; Mackley, R.D.; Wellman, D.M.; Williams, M.D.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the pilot-scale treatability test that was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of using a polyphosphate injection approach to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ within the 300 Area aquifer at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Primary test objectives were to assess 1) direct treatment of available uranium contributing to the groundwater plume through precipitation of the uranyl-phosphate mineral autunite, and 2) emplacement of secondary-treatment capacity via precipitation of the calcium-phosphate mineral apatite, which acts as a long-term sorbent for uranium. Based on an injection design analysis that incorporated results from both bench-scale testing and site-specific characterization activities, a three-phase injection approach was selected for field-scale testing. This approach consisted of 1) an initial polyphosphate injection to facilitate direct treatment of aqueous uranium in the pore space, 2) a second phase consisting of a calcium chloride injection to provide an available calcium source for the creation of apatite, and 3) a subsequent polyphosphate injection to supply a phosphate source for the formation of apatite. The total-solution volume injected during this field test was approximately 3.8 million L (1 million gal). Results from this investigation will be used to identify implementation challenges and investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives. In addition, data from this test will provide valuable information for designing a full-scale remedial action for uranium in groundwater beneath the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, and a detailed understanding of the fundamental underpinnings necessary to evaluate the efficacy and potential for utilization of the polyphosphate technology at other sites with varying geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. (authors)

  8. Dynamic Simulation of Pilot Scale CO2 Injection in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer at Wellington Field in Southern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubnyak, Y.; Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.; Birdie, T. R.; Fazelalavi, M.; Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arbuckle Group saline aquifer is a thick (>800 ft) and deeply buried (>3,500 ft) siliceous dolomite with interbedded shales. This aquifer is part of the Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas. It is identified as an excellent candidate for geological CO2 storage due to its location and proximity to major CO2 emission sources, high storage capacity potential, and multiple overlying sealing units, which can ensure safe CO2 storage for the long term. A DOE sponsored pilot-scale project has been funded in which 40,000 metric tons of CO2 from a nearby biofuel plant will be injected in the lower part of the Arbuckle reservoir over a period of 9 months at Wellington field in Sumner County, KS. This work focuses on development of various dynamic simulation scenarios in order to assess potential risks in support of the EPA class VI (CO2 sequestration) well permit application. The key objective is to estimate the resulting rise in pore fluid pressure, the extent of CO2 plume migration, and geomechanical and geochemical stability of the formation rock and any structural features that may be present. The over arching goal for the EPA is to ensure that the injected CO2 does not negatively impact the underground sources of drinking water in the area. A detailed geocellular model of the Arbuckle reservoir was produced based on the existing well-logs, seismic data, drill stem tests, step rate test, core analysis, and geochemical evaluations. The data from this modeled was upscaled to the CMG-based dual-permeability compositional model. Base case and alternative dynamic model simulations were conducted by varying key reservoir properties of the formation fluids, rock, and structural features.

  9. Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Karaolia, Popi; Michael, Irene; García-Fernández, Irene; Agüera, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-01-15

    The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity

  10. Phytoremediation of sulfonated Remazol Red dye and textile effluents by Alternanthera philoxeroides: An anatomical, enzymatic and pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Rane, Niraj R; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Patil, Tejas S; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-10-15

    Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated textile dye Remazol Red (RR) completely within 72 h at a concentration of 70 mg L(-1). An induction in the activities of azoreductase and riboflavin reductase was observed in root and stem tissues; while the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase and DCIP reductase were induced in leaf tissues. Some enzymes namely tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase displayed an increase in their activity in all the tissues in response of 72 h exposure to Remazol Red. There was a marginal reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (20%), chlorophyll b (5%) and carotenoids (16%) in the leaves when compared to control plants. A detailed anatomical study of the stem during uptake and treatment revealed a stepwise mechanism of dye degradation. UV-vis spectrophotometric and high performance thin layer chromatographic analyses confirmed the removal of parent dye from solution. Based on the enzymes activities and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis of degradation products, a possible pathway of phytotransformation of RR was proposed which revealed the formation of 4-(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ol, naphthalene-1-ol and 3-(ethylsulfonyl)phenol. Toxicity study on Devario aequipinnatus fishes showed that the anatomy of gills of fishes exposed to A. philoxeroides treated RR was largely protected. The plants were further explored for rhizofiltration experiments in a pilot scale reactor. A. philoxeroides could decolorize textile industry effluent of varying pH within 96 h of treatment which was evident from the significant reductions in the values of American dye manufacturers' institute color, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved and total suspended solids. PMID:26164661

  11. Characterization and modelling of the heat transfers in a pilot-scale reactor during composting under forced aeration

    SciTech Connect

    Guardia, A. de; Petiot, C.; Benoist, J.C.; Druilhe, C.

    2012-06-15

    The paper focused on the modelling of the heat transfers during composting in a pilot-scale reactor under forced aeration. The model took into account the heat production and the transfers by evaporation, convection between material and gas crossing the material, conduction and surface convection between gas and material in bottom and upper parts of the reactor. The model was adjusted thanks to the measurements practised during fifteen composting experiments in which five organic wastes were, each, composted under three constant aeration rates. Heat production was considered proportional to oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy per mole oxygen consumed was assumed constant. The convective heat transfer coefficients were determined on basis of the continuous measurements of the temperatures of both the lid and the bottom part of the reactor. The model allowed a satisfying prediction of the temperature of the composting material. In most cases, the mean absolute discard between the experimental and the simulated temperatures was inferior to 2.5 Degree-Sign C and the peaks of temperature occurred with less than 8 h delay. For the half of the experiments the temperature discard between the simulated peak and the experimental one was inferior to 5 Degree-Sign C. On basis of the calculation of a stoichiometric production of water through oxidation of the biodegradable organic matter, the simulation of water going out from material as vapour also allowed a rather satisfying prediction of the mass of water in final mixture. The influence of the aeration rate on every type of heat loss was characterized. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the impacts on material temperature caused by the change of the insulation thickness, the ambient temperature, take the lid away, the increase or the decrease of the mass of waste to compost.

  12. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25096393

  13. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems. PMID:25218258

  15. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  17. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL). PMID:25253061

  18. Identifying microbial carbon sources during ethanol and toluene biodegradation in a pilot-scale experimental aquifer system using isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S.; McLeod, H.; Smith, J. E.; Roy, J. W.; Slater, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Combining ethanol with gasoline has become increasingly common in order to create more environmentally conscience transportation fuels. These blended fuels are favourable alternatives since ethanol is a non-toxic and highly labile renewable biomass-based resource which is an effective fuel oxygenate that reduces air pollution. Recent research however, has indicated that upon accidental release into groundwater systems, the preferential microbial metabolism of ethanol can cause progressively reducing conditions leading to slower biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the presence of ethanol can result in greater persistence of BTEX compounds and longer hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater systems. Microbial biodegradation and community carbon sources coupled to aqueous geochemistry were monitored in a pilot-scale laboratory tank (80cm x 525cm x 175cm) simulating an unconfined sand aquifer. Dissolved ethanol and toluene were continuously injected into the aquifer at a controlled rate over 330 days. Carbon isotope analyses were performed on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) samples collected from 4 different locations along the aquifer. Initial stable carbon isotope values measured over days 160-185 in the bacterial PLFA ranged from δ13C = -10 to -21‰, which is indicative of dominant ethanol incorporation by the micro-organisms based on the isotopic signature of ethanol derived from corn, a C4 plant. A negative shift to δ13C = -10 to -30‰ observed over days 185-200, suggests a change in microbial metabolisms associated with less ethanol incorporation. This generally corresponds to a decrease in ethanol concentrations from day 40 to full attenuation at approximately day 160, and the onset of toluene depletion observed on day 120 and continuing thereafter. In addition, aqueous methane concentrations first detected on day 115 continued to rise to 0.38-0.70 mmol/L at all monitoring locations, demonstrating a significant redox shift to low energy methanogenic

  19. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  20. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  1. Laboratory corrosion tests for simulating fireside wastage of superheater materials in waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Kawahara, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Hosoda, T.

    1999-11-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were performed to clarify the effects of relative amounts of fused salts in tube deposits on corrosion rates of superheater materials in WTE plants. All test exposures were at 550 C and of 100 hour duration. The nine synthetic ashes used as corrodents consisted of mixtures of chlorides, sulfates and oxides. The test materials were alloy steel T22, stainless steels TP347H, TP310HCbN, and alloys HR11N and 625. The gas atmosphere consisted of 500 to 3000 ppm HCl-30ppm SO{sub 2}-10%O{sub 2}-10%CO{sub 2}-20%H{sub 2}O-bal.N{sub 2}. Generally, the relative amount of fused salts in non-fused ash constituents at 550 C increased with increasing the chlorine content of the ashes. The corrosion rate of T22 steel did not depend directly on ash chlorine content, but for ashes of 7.7 wt.%Cl, the corrosion rate depended on the calculated amount of fused salt at 500 C. The corrosion rates of TP347H steel and alloy 625 were maximum for ashes of 6--8 wt%Cl. For ashes of 7.7 wt.%Cl, the corrosion rates of T22 steel, stainless steels, and alloys increased with ashes having higher amounts of fused salts. Increased HCl content of the gas caused higher corrosion of the stainless steels and high-nickel alloys, but there was no clear corrosion-exacerbating effect with T22 steel.

  2. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  3. Pilot-Scale Production of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters by an Engineered Escherichia coli Strain Harboring the p(Microdiesel) Plasmid▿

    PubMed Central

    Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were produced in this study by the use of an engineered Escherichia coli p(Microdiesel) strain. Four fed-batch pilot scale cultivations were carried out by first using glycerol as sole carbon source for biomass production before glucose and oleic acid were added as carbon sources. Cultivations yielded a cell density of up to 61 ± 3.1 g of cell dry mass (CDM) per liter and a maximal FAEE content of 25.4% ± 1.1% (wt/wt) of CDM. PMID:20453138

  4. On-line monitoring for control of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor using a submersible UV/VIS spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Langergraber, G; Gupta, J K; Pressl, A; Hofstaedter, F; Lettl, W; Weingartner, A; Fleischmann, N

    2004-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrometer was used to monitor a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The instrument utilises the whole UV/VIS range between 200 and 750 nm. With just one single instrument nitrate, organic matter and suspended solids can be measured simultaneously. The spectrometer is installed directly in the reactor, measures in real-time, and is equipped with an auto-cleaning system using pressured air. The paper shows the calibration results for measurements in the SBR tank, time series for typical SBR cycles, and proposes possible ways for optimisation of the operation by using these measurements. PMID:15656298

  5. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  6. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3). PMID:22233912

  7. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges. PMID:26433363

  8. Solar photocatalitycal treatment of carbofuran at lab and pilot scale: effect of classical parameters, evaluation of the toxicity and analysis of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Alvarez, Blady; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2011-07-15

    In this work the TiO(2) solar-photocatalytical degradation of the pesticide carbofuran (CBF) in water, at lab and pilot scale, was studied. At lab scale the evaluation of CBF concentration (14-282 μmol L(-1)) showed that the system followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics type. TiO(2) concentration (0.05-2 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-9) were also evaluated and optimized using the surface response methodology and the Pareto diagram. In the range of variables studied, initial pH 7.60 and 1.43 g L(-1) of TiO(2) favoured the efficiency of the process. Under optimal conditions the evolution of substrate, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, toxicity and organics by-products were evaluated. In the pilot scale tests, using direct sunlight, 55 mg L(-1) of CBF in a commercial formulation was eliminated after 420 min; while after 900 min of treatment 80% of toxicity (1/E(50) on Vibrium Fischeri), 80% of chemical oxygen demand and 60% of dissolved organic carbon were removed. The analysis and evolution of five CBF by-products, as well the evaluation of the treatment in the presence of isopropanol or using acetonitrile as a solvent suggest that the degradation is mainly carried out by OH radical attack. Finally, a schema depicting the main degradation pathway is proposed. PMID:21592651

  9. Upscaling of the hot-melt extrusion process: comparison between laboratory scale and pilot scale production of solid dispersions with miconazole and Kollicoat IR.

    PubMed

    Guns, Sandra; Mathot, Vincent; Martens, Johan A; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2012-08-01

    Since only limited amount of drug is available in early development stages, the extruder design has evolved towards smaller batch sizes, with a more simple design. An in dept study about the consequences of the differences in design is mandatory and little can be found in literature. Miconazole and Kollicoat IR were used as model drug and carrier for this study. Two series of solid dispersions were made with a laboratory scale (internal circulation-simple screw design) and a pilot scale extruder (continuous throughput-modular screw design). Efforts were made to match the operating parameters as close as possible (residence time, extrusion temperature and screw speed). The samples were analyzed with modulated DSC straight after production and after exact 24h and 15 days storage at -26 °C. The kinetic miscibility of the samples prepared with the laboratory scale extruder was slightly higher than the samples prepared with the pilot scale extruder. As the solid dispersions with high drug load were unstable over time, demixing occurred, slightly faster for the samples prepared with the laboratory scale extruder. After 15 days, the levels of molecular mixing were comparable, pointing to the predictive value of samples prepared on laboratory scale. PMID:22521332

  10. Comparative research on phosphorus removal by pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands using steel slag and modified steel slag as substrates.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yupan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly focused on the phosphorus removal performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with steel slag (SS) and modified steel slag (MSS). First, bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus adsorption capacity. Results showed that the Langmuir model could better describe the adsorption characteristics of the two materials; the maximum adsorption of MSS reached 12.7 mg/g, increasing by 34% compared to SS (9.5 mg/g). Moreover, pilot-scale constructed wetlands with SS and MSS were set up outdoors. Then, the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and phosphorus concentration in phosphorus removal for two wetlands were investigated. Results revealed that better performance of the two systems could be achieved with an HRT of 2 d and phosphorus concentration in the range of 3-4.5 mg/L; the system with MSS had a better removal efficiency than the one with SS in the same control operation. Finally, the study implied that MSS could be used as a promising substrate for wetlands to treat wastewater with a high phosphorus concentration. However, considering energy consumption, SS could be regarded as a better alternative for substrate when treating sewage with a low phosphorus concentration. PMID:25860701

  11. Pilot-scale road subbase made with granular material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and stabilized APC fly ash: environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Prieto, M; Nadal, R; Niubó, M; Chimenos, J M

    2014-02-15

    A granular material (GM) to be used as road sub-base was formulated using 80% of weathered bottom ash (WBA) and 20% of mortar. The mortar was prepared separately and consisted in 50% APC and 50% of Portland cement. A pilot-scale study was carried on by constructing three roads in order to environmentally evaluate the performance of GM in a real scenario. By comparing the field results with those of the column experiments, the overestimations observed at laboratory scale can be explained by the potential mechanisms in which water enters into the road body and the pH of the media. An exception was observed in the case of Cu, whose concentration release at the test road was higher. The long-time of exposure at atmospheric conditions might have favoured oxidation of organic matter and therefore the leaching of this element. The results obtained showed that immobilization of all heavy metals and metalloids from APC is achieved by the pozzolanic effect of the cement mortar. This is, to the knowledge of the authors, the only pilot scale study that is considering reutilization of APC as a safe way to disposal. PMID:24394668

  12. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year. PMID:24527646

  13. Evaluation of Salmonella thermal inactivation model validity for slow cooking of whole-muscle meat roasts in a pilot-scale oven.

    PubMed

    Breslin, T J; Tenorio-Bernal, M I; Marks, B P; Booren, A M; Ryser, E T; Hall, N O

    2014-11-01

    Sublethal heating can increase subsequent thermal resistance of bacteria, which may compromise the validity of thermal process validations for slow-roasted meats. Therefore, this research evaluated the accuracy of a traditional log-linear inactivation model, developed via prior laboratory-scale isothermal tests, and a novel path-dependent model accounting for sublethal injury, applied to pilot-scale slow cooking of whole-muscle roasts. Irradiated turkey breasts, beef rounds, and pork loins were inoculated with an eight-serovar Salmonella cocktail via vacuum tumble marination in a salt-phosphate marinade. The resulting initial Salmonella population in the geometric center (core) was 7.0, 6.3, and 6.3 log CFU/g for turkey, beef, and pork, respectively. Seven different cooking schedules representing industry practices were evaluated in a pilot-scale, moist-air convection oven. Core temperatures recorded during cooking were used to calculate lethality real-time via the log-linear model. The path-dependent model reduced the bias (mean residual) and root mean square error by 4.24 and 4.60 log CFU/g respectively, in turkey; however, the new model did not reduce the prediction error in beef or pork. Overall, results demonstrated that slow-cooked roasts, processed to a computed lethality at or near that required by the regulatory performance standards, as calculated with a state-dependent model, may be underprocessed. PMID:25364923

  14. A pilot scale trickling filter with pebble gravel as media and its performance to remove chemical oxygen demand from synthetic brewery wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Habte Lemji, Haimanot; Eckstädt, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing beer was the aim of this study. A pilot scale trickling filter filled with gravel was used as the experimental biofilter. Pilot scale plant experiments were made to evaluate the performance of the trickling filter aerobic and anaerobic biofilm systems for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients from synthetic brewery wastewater. Performance evaluation data of the trickling filter were generated under different experimental conditions. The trickling filter had an average efficiency of (86.81±6.95)% as the hydraulic loading rate increased from 4.0 to 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). Various COD concentrations were used to adjust organic loading rates from 1.5 to 4.5 kg COD/(m3∙d). An average COD removal efficiency of (85.10±6.40)% was achieved in all wastewater concentrations at a hydraulic loading of 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). The results lead to a design organic load of 1.5 kg COD/(m3∙d) to reach an effluent COD in the range of 50–120 mg/L. As can be concluded from the results of this study, organic substances in brewery wastewater can be handled in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner using the gravel-filled trickling filter. PMID:24101209

  15. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204

  16. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  17. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Dingwall, Paul A.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-09-01

    High power, phase-pure Nb-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles are synthesised using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process (production rate of 6 kg per day) in the range 0.01-2.00 at% Nb with respect to total transition metal content. EDS analysis suggests that Nb is homogeneously distributed throughout the structure. The addition of fructose as a reagent in the hydrothermal flow process, followed by a post synthesis heat-treatment, affords a continuous graphitic carbon coating on the particle surfaces. Electrochemical testing reveals that cycling performance improves with increasing dopant concentration, up to a maximum of 1.0 at% Nb, for which point a specific capacity of 110 mAh g-1 is obtained at 10 C (6 min for the charge or discharge). This is an excellent result for a high power cathode LFP based material, particularly when considering the synthesis was performed on a large pilot-scale apparatus.

  18. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in PMID:24520735

  19. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances. PMID:26067493

  20. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  1. Application of glyco-blotting for identification of structures of polysaccharides causing membrane fouling in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Katsuki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Risho; Hoque, Asiful; Miyoshi, Taro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-03-01

    A new approach for the analysis of polysaccharides in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is proposed in this study. Enrichment of polysaccharides by glyco-blotting, in which polysaccharides are specifically collected via interactions between the aldehydes in the polysaccharides and aminooxy groups on glycoblotting beads, enabled MALDI-TOF/MS analysis at a high resolution. Structures of polysaccharides extracted from fouled membranes used in a pilot-scale MBR treating municipal wastewater and those in the supernatant of the mixed liquor suspension in the MBR were investigated. It was found that the overlap between polysaccharides found in the supernatants and those extracted from the fouled membrane was rather limited, suggesting that polysaccharides that dominate in supernatants may not be important in membrane fouling in MBRs. Analysis using a bacterial carbohydrate database suggested that capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and/or lipo-polysaccharides (LPS) produced by gram-negative bacteria are key players in the evolution of membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:25544495

  2. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  3. A pilot-scale study of cryolite precipitation from high fluoride-containing wastewater in a reaction-separation integrated reactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Zhou, Kanggen; Yang, Youcai; Du, Hu

    2013-07-01

    Fluoride removal by traditional precipitation generates huge amounts of a water-rich sludge with low quality, which has no commercial or industrial value. The present study evaluated the feasibility of recovering fluoride as low water content cryolite from industrial fluoride-containing wastewater. A novel pilot-scale reaction-separation integrated reactor was designed. The results showed that the seed retention time in the reactor was prolonged to strengthen the induced crystallization process. The particle size of cryolite increased with increasing seed retention time, which decreased the water content. The recovery rate of cryolite was above 75% under an influent fluoride concentration of 3500 mg/L, a reaction temperature of 500C, and an influent flow of 40 L/hr. The cryolite products that precipitated from the reactor were small in volume, large in particle size, low in water content, high in crystal purity, and recyclable. PMID:24218844

  4. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  5. Denitrification and biofilm growth in a pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers for biological nitrogen removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunhong; Wu, Guangxue; Wei, Nan; Hu, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Tertiary denitrification is an effective method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. A pilot-scale biofilter packed with suspended carriers was operated for tertiary denitrification with ethanol as the organic carbon source. Long-term performance, biokinetics of denitrification and biofilm growth were evaluated under filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr. The pilot-scale biofilter removed nitrate from the secondary effluent effectively, and the nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) removal percentage was 82%, 78% and 55% at the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. At the filtration velocities of 6 and 10 m/hr, the nitrate removal loading rate increased with increasing influent nitrate loading rates, while at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr, the removal loading rate and the influent loading rate were uncorrelated. During denitrification, the ratio of consumed chemical oxygen demand to removed NO3-N was 3.99-4.52 mg/mg. Under the filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, the maximum denitrification rate was 3.12, 4.86 and 4.42 g N/(m2·day), the half-saturation constant was 2.61, 1.05 and 1.17 mg/L, and the half-order coefficient was 0.22, 0.32 and 0.24(mg/L)1/2/min, respectively. The biofilm biomass increased with increasing filtration velocity and was 2845, 5124 and 7324 mg VSS/m2 at filtration velocities of 6, 10 and 14 m/hr, respectively. The highest biofilm density was 44 mg/cm3 at the filtration velocity of 14 m/hr. Due to the low influent loading rate, biofilm biomass and thickness were lowest at the filtration velocity of 6m/hr. PMID:26040729

  6. Effects of operation parameters on nutrient removal from wastewater and high-protein biomass production in a duckweed-based (Lemma aequinoctialis) pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Bao, Shu; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    The effects of water depth, coverage rate and harvest regime on nutrient removal from wastewater and high-protein biomass production were assessed in a duckweed-based (Lemna aequinoctialis) pilot-scale wastewater treatment system (10 basins × 12 m(2)) that is located near Dianchi Lake in China. The results indicated that a water depth of 50 cm, a coverage rate of 150% and a harvest regime of 4 days were preferable conditions, under which excellent records of high-protein duckweed (dry matter production of 6.65 g/m(2)/d with crude protein content of 36.16% and phosphorus content of 1.46%) were obtained at a temperature of 12-21 °C. At the same time, the system achieved a removal efficiency of 66.16, 23.1, 48.3 and 76.52% for NH4(+)-N, TN, TP and turbidity, respectively, with the considerable removal rate of 0.465 g/m(2)/d for TN and 0.134 g/m(2)/d for TP at a hydraulic retention time of 6 days. In additionally, it was found that a lower duckweed density could lead to higher dissolved oxygen in the water and then a higher removal percentage of NH4(+)-N by nitrobacteria. This study obtains the preferable operation conditions for wastewater treatment and high-protein biomass production in a duckweed-based pilot-scale system, supplying an important reference for further large-scale applications of duckweed. PMID:25325544

  7. Characterization of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) barrier system for groundwater remediation: a pilot-scale flow-tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung Seok; Woo, Nam Chil; Schwartz, Franklin W; Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Ki Churl; Woo, Myung Ha; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2008-03-01

    Release and spreading of permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) in the well-based controlled-release potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) barrier system (CRP system) was investigated by conducting column release tests, model simulations, soil oxidant demand (SOD) analyses, and pilot-scale flow-tank experiments. A large flow tank (L x W x D=8m x 4m x 3m) was constructed. Pilot-scale CRP pellets (OD x L=0.05 m x1.5m; n=110) were manufactured by mixing approximately 198 kg of KMnO(4) powders with paraffin wax and silica sands in cylindrical moulds. The CRP system (L x W x D=3m x 4m x 1.5m) comprising 110 delivery wells in three discrete barriers was constructed in the flow tank. Natural sands (organic carbon content=0.18%; SOD=3.7-11 g MnO(4)(-)kg(-1)) were used as porous media. Column release tests and model simulations indicated that the CRP system could continuously release MnO(4)(-) over several years, with slowly decreasing release rates of 2.5 kg d(-1) (day one), 109 g d(-1) (day 100), 58 g d(-1) (year one), 22 g d(-1) (year five), and 12 g d(-1) (year 10). Mean MnO(4)(-) concentrations within the CRP system ranged from 0.5 to 6 mg l(-1) during the 42 days of testing period. The continuously releasing MnO(4)(-) was gradually removed by SOD limiting the length of MnO(4)(-) zone in the porous media. These data suggested that the CRP system could create persistent and confined oxidation zone in the subsurface. Through development of advanced tools for describing agent transport and facilitating lateral agent spreading, the CRP system could provide new approach for long-term in situ treatment of contaminant plumes in groundwater. PMID:18207217

  8. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  9. TRACE ORGANICS VARIATION ACROSS THE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM OF A CLASS-B REFINERY AND ESTIMATE OF REMOVAL OF REFRACTORY ORGANICS BY ADD-ON MIXED-MEDIA FILTRATION AND GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON AT PILOT SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of research to evaluate the efficiency of pilot-scale granular activated carbon for the removal of organic compounds refractory to the activated-sludge treatment system of a Class B petroleum refinery that met BPT ('best practicable technology') i...

  10. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Pilot-scale in situ bioremediation of uranium in a highly contaminated aquifer. 1. Conditioning of a treatment zone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Min; Carley, Jack; Fienen, Michael; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Lowe, Kenneth; Nyman, Jennifer; Luo, Jian; Gentile, Margaret E; Rajan, Raj; Wagner, Daniel; Hickey, Robert F; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David; Cirpka, Olaf A; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig S

    2006-06-15

    To evaluate the potential for in situ bioremediation of U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV), we constructed a pilot test facility at Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. The facility is adjacent to the former S-3 Ponds which received trillions of liters of acidic plating wastes. High levels of uranium are present, with up to 800 mg kg(-1) in the soil and 84-210 microM in the groundwater. Ambient groundwater has a highly buffered pH of approximately 3.4 and high levels of aluminum (12-13 mM), calcium (22-25 mM), and nitrate (80-160 mM). Adjusting the pH of groundwater to approximately 5 within the aquifer would deposit extensive aluminum hydroxide precipitate. Calcium is present in the groundwater at levels that inhibit U(VI) reduction, but its removal by injection of a high pH solution would generate clogging precipitate. Nitrate also inhibits U(VI) reduction and is present at such high concentrations that its removal by in situ denitrification would generate large amounts of N2 gas and biomass. To establish and maintain hydraulic control, we installed a four well recirculation system parallel to geologic strike, with an inner loop nested within an outer loop. For monitoring, we drilled three boreholes perpendicular to strike across the inner loop and installed multilevel sampling tubes within them. A tracer pulse with clean water established travel times and connectivity between wells and enabled the assessment of contaminant release from the soil matrix. Subsequently, a highly conductive region of the subsurface was prepared for biostimulation by removing clogging agents and inhibitors and increasing pH. For 2 months, groundwater was pumped from the hydraulically conductive zone; treated to remove aluminum, calcium, and nitrate, and supplemented with tap water; adjusted to pH 4.3-4.5; then returned to the hydraulically conductive zone. This protocol removed most

  13. Pilot-Scale In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium in a Highly Contaminated Aquifer. 1. Conditioning of a Treatment Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weimin; Carley, Jack M; Fienen, Michael; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Nyman, Jennifer L; Luo, Jian; Rajan, Rajagopalan; Wagner, Daniel J; Hickey, Robert; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Cirpka, Olaf; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the potential for in situ bioremediation of U(VI) to sparingly soluble U(IV), we constructed a pilot test facility at Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. The facility is adjacent to the former S-3 Ponds which received trillions of liters of acidic plating wastes. High levels of uranium are present, with up to 800 mg kg-1 in the soil and 84-210 {micro}M in the groundwater. Ambient groundwater has a highly buffered pH of {approx}3.4 and high levels of aluminum (12-13 mM), calcium (22-25 mM), and nitrate (80-160 mM). Adjusting the pH of groundwater to {approx}5 within the aquifer would deposit extensive aluminum hydroxide precipitate. Calcium is present in the groundwater at levels that inhibit U(VI) reduction, but its removal by injection of a high pH solution would generate clogging precipitate. Nitrate also inhibits U(VI) reduction and is present at such high concentrations that its removal by in situ denitrification would generate large amounts of N2 gas and biomass. To establish and maintain hydraulic control, we installed a four well recirculation system parallel to geologic strike, with an inner loop nested within an outer loop. For monitoring, we drilled three boreholes perpendicular to strike across the inner loop and installed multilevel sampling tubes within them. A tracer pulse with clean water established travel times and connectivity between wells and enabled the assessment of contaminant release from the soil matrix. Subsequently, a highly conductive region of the subsurface was prepared for biostimulation by removing clogging agents and inhibitors and increasing pH. For 2 months, groundwater was pumped from the hydraulically conductive zone; treated to remove aluminum, calcium, and nitrate, and supplemented with tap water; adjusted to pH 4.3-4.5; then returned to the hydraulically conductive zone. This protocol removed most of the

  14. Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part I.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown great potential in previous laboratory and field bench-top scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and nutrients from various industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for five months. Results show that the hZVI process could simultaneously reduce selenate-Se from 1 to 3 mg/L to below 10 μg/L and mercury from over 100 μg/L to below 10 ng/L in compliance with the new stringent effluent discharge limits planned by the U.S. EPA for Se and Hg. A three-stage hZVI system with a combined hydraulic retention time of 12 h is sufficient for Se treatment, while a single-stage system can meet Hg treatment requirement. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI process is scalable and could be a reliable, low-cost, high-performance treatment platform with many application potentials, particularly, for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems. PMID:23128616

  15. Pilot-scale tertiary MBBR nitrification at 1°C: characterization of ammonia removal rate, solids settleability and biofilm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley; Delatolla, Robert; Ren, Baisha; Kennedy, Kevin; Laflamme, Edith; Stintzi, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is used to investigate the kinetics and biofilm response of municipal, tertiary nitrification at 1°C. The research demonstrates that significant rates of tertiary MBBR nitrification are attainable and stable for extended periods of operation at 1°C, with a maximum removal rate of 230 gN/m(3) d at 1°C. At conventional nitrogen loading rates, low ammonia effluent concentrations below 5 mg-N/L were achieved at 1°C. The biofilm thickness and dry weight biofilm mass (massdw) were shown to be stable, with thickness values showing a correlation to the protein/polysaccharide ratio of the biofilm extracellular polymeric substances. Lastly, tertiary MBBR nitrification is shown to increase the effluent suspended solids concentrations by approximately 3 mg total suspended solids /L, with 19-60% of effluent solids being removed after 30 min of settling. The settleability of the effluent solids was shown to be correlated to the nitrogen loading of the MBBR system. PMID:26789700

  16. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98. PMID:20609515

  17. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  18. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  19. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Influence of combustion temperature on formation of nitro-PAHs and decomposition and removal behaviors in pilot-scale waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Noma, Yukio

    2009-04-01

    To gain a better understanding of the formation and decomposition behaviors of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in solid waste combustion, incineration experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Nitro-PAHs were formed during primary combustion, although the amounts formed were several orders of magnitude lower than those of the PAHs, PCDD/Fs, and the dioxin-like PCBs. Increasing the temperature of primary combustion from 690 to 890 degrees C resulted in a significant decrease in the formation of most of the nitro-PAH compounds studied. More than 99% of nitro-PAHs formed in the primary combustion zone were decomposed in the secondary combustion chamber at 900 degrees C with a 3-s residence time. The results indicate that appropriate secondary combustion conditions are the key to controlling emissions of nitro-PAHs. Under optimized conditions, the amounts of nitro-PAHs in the final off gases and in the ashes were significantly lower than those present in the incinerator input. Overall destruction efficiencies of nitro-PAHs reported in this study were 95.81-98.33%, indicating that emission of nitro-PAHs from solid waste combustion can be minimized by appropriate combustion control. PMID:19452909

  1. A field pilot-scale study of biological treatment of heavy oil-produced water by biological filter with airlift aeration and hydrolytic acidification system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Junming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Zhaozheng; Zhang, Zhenjia; Zhang, Beiyu; Zhang, Guangqing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heavy oil-produced water (HOPW) is a by-product during heavy oil exploitation and can cause serious environmental pollution if discharged without adequate treatment. Commercial biochemical treatment units are important parts of HOPW treatment processes, but many are not in stable operation because of the toxic and refractory substances, salt, present. Therefore, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of hydrolytic acidification-biological filter with airlift aeration (HA-BFAA), a novel HOPW treatment system. Four strains isolated from oily sludge were used for bioaugmentation to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants. The isolated bacteria were evaluated using 3-day biochemical oxygen demand, oil, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as evaluation indices. Bioaugmentation enhanced the COD removal by 43.5 mg/L under a volume load of 0.249 kg COD/m(3) day and hydraulic retention time of 33.6 h. The effluent COD was 70.9 mg/L and the corresponding COD removal was 75.0 %. The optimum volumetric air-to-water ratio was below 10. The removal ratios of the total extractable organic pollutants, alkanes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were 71.1, 94.4, and 94.0 %, respectively. Results demonstrated that HA-BFAA was an excellent HOPW treatment system. PMID:26549708

  2. Long-term operation of a novel pilot-scale six tanks alternately operating activated sludge process in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R N; Abu-Alhail, S; Xi-Wu, L

    2014-08-01

    The performance of a new pilot-scale six tanks activated sludge process has been evaluated for 303 d, receiving real domestic wastewater with a flow rate of 15-24.4 L/h. Partial nitrification via nitrite and microbial community structure were investigated in this system. The result shows that the nitrite accumulation rate was achieved successfully over 94% in the last aerobic compartment through a combination of short hydraulic retention time and low dissolved oxygen (DO) level. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to correlate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) numbers with nutrient removal via nitrite. It was shown that in response to complete and partial nitrification modes, the numbers of AOB population were 7.7 x 10(7) cells/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 5.31 x 10(8) cells/g MLSS, respectively. The morphology of the sludge indicated that there is a small rod-shaped and spherical cluster which was mainly dominantly bacterial according to scanning electron microscope. Higher pollutant removal efficiencies of 86.2%, 98%, and 96.1%, for total nitrogen, NH4+ - N, and total phosphorus, respectively, were achieved by a long-term operation of the six tanks activated sludge process at a low DO concentration and low chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-ldenitrification with the addition of an external carbon source at a concentration of 1.5-2.5 mg/L. PMID:24956781

  3. Exploring the potential synergistic effects of chemical disinfectants and UV on the inactivation of free-living bacteria and treatment of biofilms in a pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Vankerckhoven, E; Verbessem, B; Crauwels, S; Declerck, P; Muylaert, K; Willems, K A; Rediers, H

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to explore possible synergistic or additive effects of combinations of chemical disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide) and UV in their efficacy in inactivating free-living bacteria and removing biofilms. In contrast to most studies, this study examines disinfection of municipal water in a pilot-scale system using a mixed bacterial suspension, which enables a better simulation of the conditions encountered in actual industrial environments. It was shown that the combination of either hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, or chlorine dioxide with UV yielded additive effects on the inactivation of free-living bacteria. Actual synergy was observed for the combination of UV and 5 ppm hydrogen peroxide. Regarding biofilm treatment, additive effects were observed using the combination of hydrogen peroxide and UV. The promising results obtained in this study indicate that the combination of UV and chemical disinfectants can considerably reduce the amount of chemicals required for the effective disinfection and treatment of biofilms. PMID:22214077

  4. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter. PMID:27231880

  5. Degradation of emergent contaminants by UV, UV/H2O2 and neutral photo-Fenton at pilot scale in a domestic wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Esquius, L; Grandjean, D; Magnet, A; Tungler, A; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the removal of 22 selected micropollutants in an effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) at pilot scale. A reactor of 37 L with five low pressure mercury lamps emitting at 254 nm (UV254) was used. The 22 micropollutants include 15 pharmaceuticals, 2 X-Ray contrast medias, 1 corrosion inhibitor and 4 biocides/pesticides. Five of these 22 compounds were used as indicative substances as proposed by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) (carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole and mecoprop). Treatments included UV254 light alone, UV254 + H2O2 and UV254 + H2O2+Fe(3+). Wastewater coming from the MWTP already contained iron with an average total iron of 1.6 mg L(-1). Original pH was not modified and remained between 6 and 7. The parameters changed during the experiments to find the optimal conditions were: wastewater flow rate (2-14 m(3) h(-1)), H2O2 concentration (20-50 mg L(-1)) and Fe (III) concentration (0-4 mg L(-1)). Chemicals removal rates were greater than 80% for the majority of the flow rates tested. Operating costs for the different conditions evaluated were also estimated and compared. PMID:23910229

  6. Evaluation of options for harvest of a recombinant E. Coli fermentation producing a domain antibody using ultra scale-down techniques and pilot-scale verification.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, Ioannis; Chatel, Alex; Hoare, Mike; Finka, Gary; Uden, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Ultra scale-down (USD) methods operating at the millilitre scale were used to characterise full-scale processing of E. coli fermentation broths autolysed to different extents for release of a domain antibody. The focus was on the primary clarification stages involving continuous centrifugation followed by depth filtration. The performance of this sequence was predicted by USD studies to decrease significantly with increased extents of cell lysis. The use of polyethyleneimine reagent was studied to treat the lysed cell broth by precipitation of soluble contaminants such as DNA and flocculation of cell debris material. The USD studies were used to predict the impact of this treatment on the performance and here it was found that the fermentation could be run to maximum productivity using an acceptable clarification process (e.g., a centrifugation stage operating at 0.11 L/m(2) equivalent gravity settling area per hour followed by a resultant required depth filter area of 0.07 m(2) /L supernatant). A range of USD predictions was verified at the pilot scale for centrifugation followed by depth filtration. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:382-392, 2016. PMID:26698375

  7. Analysis of switchgrass-derived bio-oil and associated aqueous phase generated in a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbé, Ncole

    2016-03-30

    To efficiently utilize water-soluble compounds in bio-oil and evaluate the potential effects of these compounds on processes such as microbial electrolysis, our study investigated the physico-chemical properties of bio-oil and the associated aqueous phase generated from switchgrass using a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer. Combining separation and detection strategies with organic solvent extraction, an array of analytical instruments and methods were used to identify and quantify the chemical constituents. Separation of an aqueous phase from crude bio-oil was achieved by adding water (water: crude bio-oil at 4:1 in weight), which resulted in a partition of 61 wt.% of the organic compoundsmore » into a bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP). GC/MS analysis for BOAP identified over 40 compounds of which 16 were quantified. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and levoglucosan are the major components in BOAP. In addition, a significant portion of chemicals that have the potential to be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels were extracted to BOAP (77 wt.% of the alcohols, 61 wt.% of the furans, and 52 wt.% of the phenolic compounds in crude bio-oil). Valorization of the BOAP may require conversion methods capable of accommodating a very broad substrate specificity. Ultimately, a better separation strategy is needed to selectively remove the acidic and polar components from crude bio-oil to improve economic feasibility of biorefinery operations.« less

  8. Laccase mediator systems for eco-friendly production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) on a pilot scale: physicochemical analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Euring, Markus; Rühl, Martin; Ritter, Nina; Kües, Ursula; Kharazipour, Alireza

    2011-10-01

    Increasing prices of petrochemical resins and possible harmful formaldehyde emissions from conventionally produced wood composites have resulted in increased interest in enzymatic binder systems as environmentally friendly alternatives for gluing lignocellulosic products. In this study, laccase mediator systems (LMSs) were used to activate lignin on wood fiber surfaces in the pilot-scale production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) using a dry process. Three different mediators were applied: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), and acetosyringone (AS) of which HBA performed best. The mechanical properties of the manufactured boards produced with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers, laccase, and HBA fulfilled all required European standards for wood-based panels. Oxygen consumption rates of the different LMSs and (13)C NMR spectroscopy results for treated TMP fibers were obtained for qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin activation. The results show that reactions were most effective within the first 30 min of incubation. Oxygen consumption was fastest and highest for the LMS using HBA. (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated the highest decrease of aromatic groups in the wood fiber lignin with this LMS. The data correlated well with the quality of the MDF. The required enzymatic reaction times allowed direct integration of the LMS into standard MDF production techniques. The results indicate that application of LMSs has a high potential for environmentally friendly MDF production. PMID:22081820

  9. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. PMID:24045203

  10. Partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate using a pilot-scale continuous activated sludge process at low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, YongYuan; Mirino, Markus W; Yuan, Yanlei

    2016-10-01

    Controlling of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.1-0.5mg/L), a cost-effective strategy, was applied to a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic-oxic-anoxic process for partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate. High ammonium removal efficiency, stable nitrite accumulation rate and total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher than 95.0%, 90.0% and 66.4%, respectively, implying potential application of this process for nitrogen removal of mature landfill leachate. Efficient nitrite accumulation in the first oxic reactor depended on low DO conditions and sufficient alkalinity. However, operational limit was mainly decided by actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) of the first oxic reactor and appeared with AHRT less than 13.9h under DO of 0.3-0.5mg/L. High-throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated significant change of bacterial diversity in the first oxic reactor after a long-term operation and dominant bacteria genus Nitrosomonas was shown to be responsible for NH4(+)-N removal and nitrite accumulation under low DO levels. PMID:27403860

  11. A pilot-scale study on PVA gel beads based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) plant for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar Singh, Nitin; Singh, Jasdeep; Bhatia, Aakansha; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a pilot-scale reactor incorporating polyvinyl alcohol gel beads as biomass carrier and operating in biological activated sludge mode (a combination of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and activated sludge) was investigated for the treatment of actual municipal wastewater. The results, during a monitoring period of 4 months, showed effective removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and NH3-N at optimum conditions with 91%, ∼92% and ∼90% removal efficiencies, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) values of activated sludge varied in the range of 25-72 mL/g, indicating appreciable settling characteristics. Furthermore, soluble COD and BOD in the effluent of the pilot plant were reduced to levels well below discharge limits of the Punjab Pollution Control Board, India. A culture dependent method was used to enrich and isolate abundant heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. In addition to this, 16S rRNA genes analysis was performed to identify diverse dominant bacterial species in suspended and attached biomass. Results revealed that Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas communis played a significant role in biomass carrier, while Acinetobactor sp. were dominant in activated sludge of the pilot plant. Identification of ciliated protozoa populations rendered six species of ciliates in the plant, among which Vorticella was the most dominant. PMID:26744941

  12. Performance Modeling and Cost Analysis of a Pilot-Scale Reverse Osmosis Process for the Final Purification of Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h−1 m−2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h−2 m−2 bar−1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day−1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m−3 total costs for the RO process were estimated. PMID:24957058

  13. Trace metal distribution and control in the pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed combustor equipped with the pulse-jet fabric filter, limestone injection, and the humidification reactor.

    PubMed

    Kouvo, Petri

    2003-04-01

    This work focused on trace metal behavior and removal in a fabric filter or in a humidification reactor during the cofiring of sawdust and refuse-derived fuels (RDFs) in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. Trace metal emissions measurements before and after the fabric filter revealed that removal efficiency in the fabric filter was in the range of 80-100%, and that the European Union (EU) Directive on Incineration of Waste restrictions for trace metal emissions are easily achieved even if addition of RDFs substantially increases the concentration of trace metals in fuel blends. Limestone injection enhanced the removal of As and Se but had no noticeable effect on the removal of other trace metals. Extensive formation of HgCl2 and condensation on fly ash particles during sawdust plus 40% RDF cofiring resulted in a 92% Hg removal efficiency in the fabric filter. Limestone injection had no effect on the Hg removal in the fabric filter but decreased the Hg removal in a humidification reactor from 40 to 28%. Results of the bed material and fly ash analysis suggested capture of Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn in the bed material but also suggested that these metals may be released from the bed if the fuel characteristics or process conditions are changed. PMID:12708504

  14. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of a medium strength industrial wastewater at low-temperature and short hydraulic retention time: a pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Esparza Soto, M; Solís Morelos, C; Hernández Torres, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of cereal-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (17 degrees C) for more than 300 days. The applied organic loading rate (OLR(appl)) was gradually increased from 4 to 6 and 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d by increasing the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(sol)), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (5.2 h). The removal efficiency was high (82 to 92%) and slightly decreased after increasing the influent COD(sol) and the OLR(appl). The highest removed organic loading rate (OLR(rem)) was reached when the UASB reactor was operated at 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d and it was two times higher than that obtained for an OLR(appl) of 4 kg COD(sol)/m3d. Some disturbances were observed during the experimentation. The formation of biogas pockets in the sludge bed significantly complicated the biogas production quantification, but did not affect the reactor performance. The volatile fatty acids in the effluent were low, but increased as the OLR(appl) increased, which caused an increment of the effluent COD(sol). Anaerobic treatment at low temperature was a good option for the biological pre-treatment of cereal processing industry wastewater. PMID:22335105

  16. Microbial community and removal of nitrogen via the addition of a carrier in a pilot-scale duckweed-based wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Ma, Xinrong; He, Kaize; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Carriers were added to a pilot-scale duckweed-based (Lemna japonica 0223) wastewater treatment system to immobilize and enhance microorganisms. This system and another parallel duckweed system without carriers were operated for 1.5 years. The results indicated the addition of the carrier did not significantly affect the growth and composition of duckweed, the recovery of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and CO2 or the removal of TP. However, it significantly improved the removal efficiency of TN and NH4(+)-N (by 19.97% and 15.02%, respectively). The use of 454 pyrosequencing revealed large differences of the microbial communities between the different components within a system and similarities within the same components between the two systems. The carrier biofilm had the highest bacterial diversity and relative abundance of nitrifying bacteria (3%) and denitrifying bacteria (24% of Rhodocyclaceae), which improved nitrogen removal of the system. An efficient N-removal duckweed system with enhanced microorganisms was established. PMID:25579229

  17. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield. PMID:27003085

  18. Pilot-scale experience with biological nutrient removal and biomass yield reduction in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse; Islam, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor was developed at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada, to study its commercial viability for biological nutrient removal. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier media. The LSCFB removed approximately 90% organic, 80% nitrogen, and 70% phosphorus at loading rates of 4.12 kg COD/m3 x d, 0.26 kg N/m3 x d, and 0.052 kg P/m3 x d, and an empty bed contact time of 1.5 hours. Effluent characterized by < 1.0 mg NH4-N/L, < 5.0 mg NO3-N/ L, < 1.0 mg PO4-P/L, < 10 mg TN/L, < 10 mg SBOD/L, and 10 to 15 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L can easily meet the criteria for nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater. The system removed nutrients without using any chemicals, and the secondary clarifier removed suspended solids removal without chemicals. A significant reduction (approximately 75%) in biomass yield to 0.12 to 0.16 g VSS/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed, primarily because of long biological solids retention time (SRT) of 20 to 39 days and a combination of anoxic and aerobic COD consumption. PMID:20942332

  19. Development of TDLAS sensor for diagnostics of CO, H2O and soot concentrations in reactor core of pilot-scale gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepman, A.; Ögren, Y.; Gullberg, M.; Wiinikka, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy sensor near 4350 cm-1 (2298 nm) for measurements of CO and H2O mole fractions and soot volume fraction under gasification conditions. Due to careful selection of the molecular transitions [CO ( υ″ = 0 → υ' = 2) R34-R36 and H2O at 4349.337 cm-1], a very weak (negligible) sensitivity of the measured species mole fractions to the temperature distribution inside the high-temperature zone (1000 K < T < 1900 K) of the gasification process is achieved. The selected transitions are covered by the tuning range of single diode laser. The CO and H2O concentrations measured in flat flames generally agree better than 10 % with the results of 1-D flame simulations. Calibration-free absorption measurements of studied species in the reactor core of atmospheric pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier operated at 0.1 MW power are reported. Soot concentration is determined from the measured broadband transmittance. The estimated uncertainties in the reactor core CO and H2O measurements are 15 and 20 %, respectively. The reactor core average path CO mole fractions are in quantitative agreement with the µGC CO concentrations sampled at the gasifier output.

  20. Pilot-scale steam explosion for xylose production from oil palm empty fruit bunches and the use of xylose for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Duangwang, Sairudee; Ruengpeerakul, Taweesak; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Yamsaengsung, Ram; Sangwichien, Chayanoot

    2016-03-01

    Pilot-scale steam explosion equipments were designed and constructed, to experimentally solubilize xylose from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) and also to enhance an enzyme accessibility of the residual cellulose pulp. The OPEFB was chemically pretreated prior to steam explosion at saturated steam (SS) and superheated steam (SHS) conditions. The acid pretreated OPEFB gave the highest xylose recovery of 87.58 ± 0.21 g/kg dried OPEFB in the liquid fraction after explosion at SHS condition. These conditions also gave the residual cellulose pulp with high enzymatic accessibility of 73.54 ± 0.41%, which is approximately threefold that of untreated OPEFB. This study has shown that the acid pretreatment prior to SHS explosion is an effective method to enhance both xylose extraction and enzyme accessibility of the exploded OPEFB. Moreover, the xylose solution obtained in this manner could directly be fermented by Candida shehatae TISTR 5843 giving high ethanol yield of 0.30 ± 0.08 g/g xylose. PMID:26735880

  1. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: a pilot-scale evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J Y; Chandra, M Subhosh; Gu, Feng; Gleisner, Roland; Reiner, Rick; Sessions, John; Marrs, Gevan; Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid-liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the ground forest harvest residue with no further mechanical size reduction, at a low temperature of 145°C and calcium bisulfite or total SO2 loadings of only 6.5 or 6.6 wt% on oven dry forest residue, respectively. The low temperature pretreatment facilitated high solids fermentation of the un-detoxified pretreated whole slurry. An ethanol yield of 282 L/tonne, equivalent to 70% theoretical, with a titer of 42 g/L was achieved. SPORL solubilized approximately 45% of the wood lignin as directly marketable lignosulfonate with properties equivalent to or better than a commercial lignosulfonate, important to improve the economics of biofuel production. PMID:25553570

  2. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). PMID:26987737

  3. Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (LMAA) in a Pilot-Scale Reactor and Bioconversion to Fuel Ethanol and Industrial Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Senske, Gerard E; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50, 66, and 70 % moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70 % moisture CS was treated at 90 and 100 °C whereas the others were treated at 90 °C only. The 70 % moisture pretreated CS then was subjected to a storage study under non-sterile conditions for 3 months. It was found that storage time did not have significant effects on the compositions of the pretreated materials and their hydrolysis by commercial enzymes. The 70 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was used for preparation of a mix sugar hydrolysate (MSH) using combination of cellulase and xylanase. The MSH was used to prepare a corn mash at 9.5 wt% solid then subjected to ethanol fermentation by Escherichia coli KO11. The 66 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was hydrolyzed with xylanase to make a xylose-rich hydrolysate (XRH), which was subsequently used for butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The resultant cellulose-enriched residue was hydrolyzed with cellulase to make a glucose-rich hydrolysate (GRH), which was subsequently used for succinic acid fermentation by E. coli AFP184. PMID:26769706

  4. Succession of microbial functional communities in response to a pilot-scale ethanol-blended fuel release throughout the plume life cycle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-03-01

    GeoChip, a comprehensive gene microarray, was used to examine changes in microbial functional gene structure throughout the 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume, including 2-year continuous released followed by plume disappearance after source removal. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Mantel tests showed that dissolved O2 (which was depleted within 5 days of initiating the release and rebounded 194 days after source removal) was the most influential environmental factor on community structure. Initially, the abundance of anaerobic BTEX degradation genes increased significantly while that of aerobic BTEX degradation genes decreased. Gene abundance for N fixation, nitrification, P utilization, sulfate reduction and S oxidation also increased, potentially changing associated biogeochemical cycle dynamics. After plume disappearance, most genes returned to pre-release abundance levels, but the final functional structure significantly differed from pre-release conditions. Overall, observed successions of functional structure reflected adaptive responses that were conducive to biodegradation of ethanol-blend releases. PMID:25603154

  5. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption. PMID:24817263

  6. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    PubMed

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%. PMID:25017863

  7. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs. PMID:26141283

  8. Long-term operation of a pilot scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of municipal wastewater under psychrophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, J; Plaza, F; Garralon, G; Fdz-Polanco, F; Peña, M

    2015-06-01

    The performance of a pilot scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), comprising an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor coupled to an external ultrafiltration membrane treating municipal wastewater at 18±2°C, was evaluated over three years of stable operation. The reactor was inoculated with a mesophilic inoculum without acclimation. The AnMBR supported a tCOD removal efficiency of 87±1% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7h, operating at a volumetric loading rate (VLR) of between 2 and 2.5kgtCOD/m(3)d, reaching effluent tCOD concentrations of 100-120mg/L and BOD5 concentrations of 35-50mgO2/L. Specific methane yield varied from 0.18 to 0.23Nm(3)CH4/kgCODremoved depending on the recirculation between the membrane module and the UASB reactor. The permeate flow rate, using cycles of 15s backwash, 7.5min filtration, and continuous biogas sparging (40-60m/h), ranged from 10 to 14Lm(2)/h with trans-membrane pressure (TMP) values of 400-550mbar. PMID:25770470

  9. Treatment of a chocolate industry wastewater in a pilot-scale low-temperature UASB reactor operated at short hydraulic and sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater. PMID:23508162

  10. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications. PMID:19943672

  11. Coupling between high-frequency ultrasound and solar photo-Fenton at pilot scale for the treatment of organic contaminants: an initial approach.

    PubMed

    Papoutsakis, Stefanos; Miralles-Cuevas, Sara; Gondrexon, Nicolas; Baup, Stéphane; Malato, Sixto; Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a novel pilot-scale coupled system consisting of a high frequency ultrasonic reactor (400kHz) and a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The benefits of the concurrent application of ultrasound and the photo-Fenton process were studied in regard to the degradation behavior of a series of organic pollutants. Three compounds (phenol, bisphenol A and diuron) with different physicochemical properties have been chosen in order to identify possible synergistic effects and to obtain a better estimate of the general feasibility of such a system at field scale (10L). Bisphenol A and diuron were specifically chosen due to their high hydrophobicity, and thus their assumed higher affinity towards the cavitation bubble. Experiments were conducted under ultrasonic, photo-Fenton and combined treatments. Enhanced degradation kinetics were observed during the coupled treatment and synergy factors clearly in excess of 1 have been calculated for phenol as well as for saturated solutions of bisphenol A and diuron. Although the relatively high cost of ultrasound compared to photo-Fenton still presents a significant challenge towards mainstream industrial application, the observed behavior suggests that its prudent use has the potential to significantly benefit the photo-Fenton process, via the decrease of both treatment time and H2O2 consumption. PMID:24857683

  12. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E.

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  14. Aerobic granulation and nitrogen removal with the effluent of internal circulation reactor in start-up of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Si, Wei; Zhang, Yongfang; Qiao, Zhuangming; Yao, Zhenxing; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Guodong; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated with the effluent of internal circulation (IC) reactor in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as seeding sludge. N removal was investigated in the start-up of aerobic granulation process. Initially, the phenomenon of partial nitrification was observed and nitrite accumulation rates (NO(2) (-)-N/NO (x) (-) -N) were between 84.6 and 99.1 %. It was potentially caused by ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the seeding activated sludge, high external environmental temperature (~32 °C) and free ammonia (FA) concentration. After 50 days' running, the aerobic granules-based bioreactor demonstrated perfect performance in simultaneous removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, and average removal efficiencies were maintained above 93 and 96 %, respectively. The maximum nitrogen removal efficiency of 83.1 % was achieved after the formation of aerobic granules. The average diameter of mature aerobic granular sludge mostly ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Furthermore, one typical cyclic test indicated that pH and DO profiles could be used as effective parameters for biological reactions occurring in the aerobic/anoxic process. The obtained results could provide further information on the cultivation of aerobic granular sludge with practical wastewater, especially with regard to nitrogen-rich industrial wastewater. PMID:22562444

  15. Pilot-scale study on nitrogen and aromatic compounds removal in printing and dyeing wastewater by reinforced hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Erqin; Tang, Siyuan; Li, Yi; Cao, Jiashun

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to efficiently dispose printing and dyeing wastewater with "high organic nitrogen and aromatic compounds, but low carbon source quality", the reinforced anaerobic hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process, based on improved UASB reactors and segregated collection-disposition strategy, was designed and applied at the pilot scale. Results showed that the coupling process displayed efficient removal for these two kinds of pollutants (nitrogen and aromatics), since the concentration of NH3-N (shortened as ρ (NH3-N)) < 8 mg/L, ρ (TN) < 15 mg/L with long-term stability for the effluent, and both species and abundances of aromatics reduced greatly by UASBs according to GC-MS. Microbial community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant communities in the bioreactors and some kinds of VFAs-producing, denitrifying and aromatic ring opening microorganisms were discovered. Further, the nirK and bcrA genes quantification also indicated the coupling process owned outstanding denitrification and aromatic compound-degrading potential, which demonstrates that the coupling process owns admirable applicability for this kind of wastewater treatment. PMID:25613804

  16. Bench- and Pilot-Scale Studies of Reaction and Regeneration of Ni-Mg-K/Al2O3 for Catalytic Conditioning of Biomass-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Jablonski, W. S.; Parent, Y. O.; Yung, M. M.

    2012-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is collaborating with both industrial and academic partners to develop technologies to help enable commercialization of biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The focus of this paper is to report how various operating processes, utilized in-house and by collaborators, influence the catalytic activity during conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Efficient cleaning and conditioning of biomass-derived syngas for use in fuel synthesis continues to be a significant technical barrier to commercialization. Multifunctional, fluidizable catalysts are being developed to reform undesired tars and light hydrocarbons, especially methane, to additional syngas, which can improve utilization of biomass carbon. This approach also eliminates both the need for downstream methane reforming and the production of an aqueous waste stream from tar scrubbing. This work was conducted with NiMgK/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. These catalysts were assessed for methane reforming performance in (i) fixed-bed, bench-scale tests with model syngas simulating that produced by oak gasification, and in pilot-scale, (ii) fluidized tests with actual oak-derived syngas, and (iii) recirculating/regenerating tests using model syngas. Bench-scale tests showed that the catalyst could be completely regenerated over several reforming reaction cycles. Pilot-scale tests using raw syngas showed that the catalyst lost activity from cycle to cycle when it was regenerated, though it was shown that bench-scale regeneration by steam oxidation and H{sub 2} reduction did not cause this deactivation. Characterization by TPR indicates that the loss of a low temperature nickel oxide reduction feature is related to the catalyst deactivation, which is ascribed to nickel being incorporated into a spinel nickel aluminate that is not reduced with the given activation protocol. Results for 100 h time-on-stream using a recirculating/regenerating reactor suggest

  17. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  18. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  19. Heavy metal distribution between contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa, in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study: influence of different complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Doumett, S; Lamperi, L; Checchini, L; Azzarello, E; Mugnai, S; Mancuso, S; Petruzzelli, G; Del Bubba, M

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn between a contaminated soil and the tree species Paulownia tomentosa was investigated in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study. The influence of the addition of EDTA, tartrate and glutamate at 1, 5 and 10mM concentrations on metal accumulation by the plant and on metal mobilization in soil was evaluated. Root/shoot metal concentration ratios were in the range of 3-5 for Zn, 7-17 for Cu, 9-18 for Cd and 11-39 for Pb, depending on the type and concentration of complexing agent. A significant enhancement of metal uptake in response to complexing agent application was mainly obtained in roots for Pb (i.e. 359 mg kg(-1) for EDTA 10mM and 128 mg kg(-1) for the control), Cu (i.e. 594 mg kg(-1) for glutamate 10mM and 146 mg kg(-1) for the control) and, with the exception of glutamate, also for Zn (i.e. 670 mg kg(-1) for tartrate 10mM and 237 mg kg(-1) for the control). Despite its higher metal mobilization capacity, EDTA produced a metal accumulation in plants quite similar to those obtained with tartrate and glutamate. Consequently the concentration gradient between soil pore water and plant tissues does not seem to be the predominant mechanism for metal accumulation in Paulownia tomentosa and a role of the plant should be invoked in the selection of the chemical species taken up. Metal bioavailability in soil at the end of the experiment was higher in the trials treated with EDTA than in those treated with tartrate and glutamate, the latter not being significantly different from the control. These findings indicated the persistence of a leaching risk associated to the use of this chelator, while an increase of the environmental impact is not expected when glutamate and tartrate are applied. PMID:18558420

  20. Effects of two different nutrient loads on microalgal production, nutrient removal and photosynthetic efficiency in pilot-scale wastewater high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2014-12-01

    When wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (HRAP) are coupled with resource recovery processes, such as biofuel production, short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are often favoured to increase the microalgal biomass productivity. However, short HRT can result in increased nutrient load to the HRAP which may negatively impact on the performance of the microalgae. This paper investigate the effects of high (NH4-N mean concentration 39.7 ± 17.9 g m(-3)) and moderate ((NH4-N mean concentration 19.9 ± 8.9 g m(-3)) nutrient loads and short HRT on the performance of microalgae with respect to light absorption, photosynthesis, biomass production and nutrient removal in pilot-scale (total volume 8 m(3)) wastewater treatment HRAPs. Microalgal biomass productivity was significantly higher under high nutrient loads, with a 133% and 126% increase in the chlorophyll-a and VSS areal productivities, respectively. Microalgae were more efficient at assimilating NH4-N from the wastewater under higher nutrient loads compared to moderate loads. Higher microalgal biomass with increased nutrient load resulted in increased light attenuation in the HRAP and lower light absorption efficiency by the microalgae. High nutrient loads also resulted in improved photosynthetic performance with significantly higher maximum rates of electron transport, oxygen production and quantum yield. This experiment demonstrated that microalgal productivity and nutrient removal efficiency were not inhibited by high nutrient loads, however, higher loads resulted in lower water quality in effluent discharge. PMID:25189477

  1. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water. PMID:26164269

  2. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    PubMed

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. PMID:25157746

  3. Effect of impeller type and agitation on the performance of pilot scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Saratt, Bruna Luckmann; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Ribeiro, Rogers; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of agitation rate and impeller type in two mechanically stirred sequencing batch reactors: one containing granulated biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (denominated AnSBBR). Each configuration, with total volume of 1 m(3), treated 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater at ambient temperature in 8-h cycles. Three impeller types were assessed for each reactor configuration: flat-blade turbine impeller, 45 degrees -inclined-blade turbine impeller and helix impeller, as well as two agitation rates: 40 and 80 rpm, resulting in a combination of six experimental conditions. In addition, the ASBR was also operated at 20 rpm with a flat-blade turbine impeller and the AnSBBR was operated with a draft tube and helix impeller at 80 and 120 rpm. To quantify how impeller type and agitation rate relate to substrate consumption rate, results obtained during monitoring at the end of the cycle, as well as the time profiles during a cycle were analyzed. Increasing agitation rate from 40 rpm to 80 rpm in the AnSBBR improved substrate consumption rate whereas in the ASBR this increase destabilized the system, likely due to granule rupture caused by the higher agitation. The AnSBBR showed highest solids and substrate removal, highest kinetic constant and highest alkalinity production when using a helix impeller, 80 rpm, and no draft tube. The best condition for the ASBR was achieved with a flat-blade turbine impeller at 20 rpm. The presence of the draft tube in the AnSBBR did not show significant improvement in reactor efficiency. Furthermore, power consumption studies in these pilot scale reactors showed that power transfer required to improve mass transfer might be technically and economically feasible. PMID:20363066

  4. Pilot-scale comparison of four duckweed strains from different genera for potential application in nutrient recovery from wastewater and valuable biomass production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Fang, Y; Jin, Y; Huang, J; Bao, S; Fu, T; He, Z; Wang, F; Wang, M; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The application potential of four duckweed strains from four genera, Wolffia globosa 0222, Lemna japonica 0223, Landoltia punctata 0224 and Spirodela polyrhiza 0225, were compared in four parallel pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than 1 year. The results indicated that each duckweed strain had unique potential advantages. Unlike L. japonica 0223 and La. punctata 0224, which grow throughout the year, S. polyrhiza 0225 and W. globosa 0222 do not survive cold weather. For year round performance, L. japonica 0223 was best not only in dry biomass production (6.10 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), but also in crude protein (35.50%), total amino acid (26.83%) and phosphorus (1.38%) content, plus recovery rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and CO2 (0.31, 0.085 and 7.76 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively) and removal rates of TN and TP (0.66 and 0.089 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively). This strongly demonstrates that L. japonica 0223 performed best in wastewater treatment and protein biomass production. Under nutrient starvation conditions, La. punctata 0224 had the highest starch content (45.84%), dry biomass production (4.81 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ) and starch accumulation (2.9 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), making it best for starch biomass production. W. globosa 0222 and S. polyrhiza 0225 showed increased flavonoid biomass production, with higher total flavonoid content (5.85% and 4.22%, respectively) and high dominant flavonoids (>60%). This study provides useful information for selecting the appropriate local duckweed strains for further application in wastewater treatment and valuable biomass production. PMID:24942851

  5. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m−3 h−1 with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis–Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and Ks and Vm values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m−3 h−1, respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  6. Scale-up of Escherichia coli growth and recombinant protein expression conditions from microwell to laboratory and pilot scale based on matched k(L)a.

    PubMed

    Islam, R S; Tisi, D; Levy, M S; Lye, G J

    2008-04-01

    Fermentation optimization experiments are ideally performed at small scale to reduce time, cost and resource requirements. Currently microwell plates (MWPs) are under investigation for this purpose as the format is ideally suited to automated high-throughput experimentation. In order to translate an optimized small-scale fermentation process to laboratory and pilot scale stirred-tank reactors (STRs) it is necessary to characterize key engineering parameters at both scales given the differences in geometry and the mechanisms of aeration and agitation. In this study oxygen mass transfer coefficients are determined in three MWP formats and in 7.5 L and 75 L STRs. k(L)a values were determined in cell-free media using the dynamic gassing-out technique over a range of agitation conditions. Previously optimized culture conditions at the MWP scale were then scaled up to the larger STR scales on the basis of matched k(L)a values. The accurate reproduction of MWP (3 mL) E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture kinetics at the two larger scales was shown in terms of cell growth, protein expression, and substrate utilization for k(L)a values that provided effective mixing and gas-liquid distribution at each scale. This work suggests that k(L)a provides a useful initial scale-up criterion for MWP culture conditions which enabled a 15,000-fold scale translation in this particular case. This work complements our earlier studies on the application of DoE techniques to MWP fermentation optimization and in so doing provides a generic framework for the generation of large quantities of soluble protein in a rapid and cost-effective manner. PMID:17969169

  7. Solar photo-Fenton process on the abatement of antibiotics at a pilot scale: Degradation kinetics, ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessment and removal of antibiotic resistant enterococci.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Varela, A R; Kyriakou, S; Manaia, C M; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-11-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar photo-Fenton), for the degradation of antibiotics at low concentration level (μg L(-1)) in secondary treated domestic effluents at a pilot-scale. The examined antibiotics were ofloxacin (OFX) and trimethoprim (TMP). A compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant was used for the photocatalytic experiments. The process was mainly evaluated by a fast and reliable analytical method based on a UPLC-MS/MS system. Solar photo-Fenton process using low iron and hydrogen peroxide doses ([Fe(2+)](0) = 5 mg L(-1); [H(2)O(2)](0) = 75 mg L(-1)) was proved to be an efficient method for the elimination of these compounds with relatively high degradation rates. The photocatalytic degradation of OFX and TMP with the solar photo-Fenton process followed apparent first-order kinetics. A modification of the first-order kinetic expression was proposed and has been successfully used to explain the degradation kinetics of the compounds during the solar photo-Fenton treatment. The results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial wastewater toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba) and the water flea Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of the treated samples, expressed as root growth inhibition, was higher compared to that observed on the inhibition of seed germination. Enterococci, including those resistant to OFX and TMP, were completely eliminated at the end of the treatment. The total cost of the full scale unit for the treatment of 150 m(3) day(-1) of secondary wastewater effluent was found to be 0.85 € m(-3). PMID:22901406

  8. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  9. Assessment of the functionality of a pilot-scale reactor and its potential for electrochemical degradation of calmagite, a sulfonated azo-dye.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shirish; Cluxton, Phillip; Kemper, Mark; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2008-10-01

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in situ remediation of diversely contaminated environmental matrices by application of a low level electric potential gradient. This investigation, prompted by successful bench-scale ECD of trichloroethylene, involved development, parametric characterization and evaluation of a pilot-scale electrochemical reactor for degradation of calmagite, a sulfonated azo-dye used as a model contaminant. The reactor has two chambers filled with granulated graphite for electrodes. The system has electrical potential, current, conductivity, pH, temperature, water-level and flow sensors for automated monitoring. The reactor supports outdoor and fail-safe venting, argon purging, temperature regulation and auto-shutdown for safety. Treatment involves recirculating the contaminated solution through the electrode beds at small flow velocities mimicking low fluid-flux in groundwater and submarine sediments. The first phase of the investigation involved testing of the reactor components, its parametric probes and the automated data acquisition system for performance as designed. The results showed hydraulic stability, consistent pH behavior, marginal temperature rise (<5 degrees C) and overall safe and predictable performance under diverse conditions. Near complete removal of calmagite was seen at 3-10V of applied voltage in 8-10h. The effects of voltage and strength of electrolyte on degradation kinetics have been presented. Further, it was observed from the absorption spectra that as calmagite degrades over time, new peaks appear. These peaks were associated with degradation products identified using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A reaction mechanism for ECD of calmagite has also been proposed. PMID:18676003

  10. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge. PMID:26541428

  11. Experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of urea-based selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) in a pilot-scale flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh D.B. Nguyen; Young-Il Lim; Seong-Joon Kim; Won-Hyeon Eom; Kyung-Seun Yoo

    2008-11-15

    A turbulent reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model involving a droplet size distribution function in the discrete droplet phase is first built for selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) processes using urea solution as a NOx removal reagent. The model is validated with the experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale urea-based SNCR reactor installed with a 150 kW gas burner. New kinetic parameters of seven chemical reactions for the urea-based NOx reduction are identified and incorporated into the three-dimensional turbulent flow CFD model. The two-phase droplet model with the non-uniform droplet size is also combined with the CFD model to predict the trajectory of the droplets and to examine the mixing between the flue gas and reagents. The maximum NO reduction efficiency of about 80%, experimentally measured at the reactor outlet, is obtained at 940{degree}C and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) = 2.0 under the conditions of 11% excess air and low CO concentration (10-15 ppm). At the reaction temperature of 940{degree}C, the difference of a maximum of 10% between experiments and simulations of the NO reduction percentage is observed for NSR = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The ammonia slip is overestimated in CFD simulation at low temperatures, especially lower than 900{degree}C. However, the CFD simulation results above 900{degree}C show a reasonable agreement with the experimental data of NOx reduction and ammonia slip as a function of the NSR. 31 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. A novel cleaning process for industrial production of xylose in pilot scale from corncob by using screw-steam-explosive extruder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Jia; Fan, Xiao-Guang; Qiu, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Ya; Li, Shuang-Xi; Deng, Li-Hong; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Wei, Dong-Sheng; Yuan, Qi-Peng

    2014-12-01

    Steam explosion is the most promising technology to replace conventional acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose for biomass pretreatment. In this paper, a new screw-steam-explosive extruder was designed and explored for xylose production and lignocellulose biorefinery at the pilot scale. We investigated the effect of different chemicals on xylose yield in the screw-steam-explosive extrusion process, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 3 h, corncob was treated at 1.55 MPa with 9 mg sulfuric acid/g dry corncob (DC) for 5.5 min, followed by countercurrent extraction (3 recycles), decoloration (activated carbon dosage 0.07 g/g sugar, 75 °C for 40 min), and ion exchange (2 batches). Using this process, 3.575 kg of crystal xylose was produced from 22 kg corncob, almost 90 % of hemicellulose was released as monomeric sugar, and only a small amount of by-products was released (formic acid, acetic acid, fural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenolic compounds were 0.17, 1.14, 0.53, 0.19, and 1.75 g/100 g DC, respectively). All results indicated that the screw-steam-explosive extrusion provides a more effective way to convert hemicellulose into xylose and could be an alternative method to traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery. PMID:24890135

  13. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis-Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and K s and V m values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m(-3) h(-1), respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  14. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  15. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald HW; Bakker, Robert R; Boersma, Arjen R; Bisschops, Iemke; Pels, Jan R; de Jong, Ed; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Reith, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis). PMID

  16. Impact of organic load on Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce with acidified sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of three chlorine treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on surfaces of a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and held for 24 h at 4°C before processing. Lettuce was shredded using a Urschel TransSlicer, step conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using water alone or one of three different sanitizing treatments (50 ppm of total chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid or T-128) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Next, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were processed identically. Various product (25 g), water (50 ml), and equipment surface swab (100 cm(2)) samples were homogenized in neutralizing buffer, diluted appropriately, and plated on tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% (wt/vol) yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration to quantify E. coli O157:H7. Organic load negatively impacted the efficacy of all three chlorine treatments (P < 0.05) at the end of processing, with typical E. coli O157:H7 reductions of >5 and 0.9 to 3.7 log CFU/ml for organic loads of 0 and 10%, respectively. Organic load rarely had a significant impact (P < 0.05) on the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine plus citric acid, or chlorine plus T-128 against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce. Reduced sanitizer efficacy generally corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and maximum filterable volume, indicating that these tests may be

  17. Are UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process efficient to treat estrogens in waters? Chemical and biological assessment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Cédat, Bruno; de Brauer, Christine; Métivier, Hélène; Dumont, Nathalie; Tutundjan, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In this study, UV based treatments were implemented at pilot scale to assess their ability to remove hormones from treated wastewater, especially with the view to equip small and medium size Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs). To this end, the degradation of a mixture of estrogenic hormones (Estrone (E1), β-Estradiol (E2), and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol (EE2)) in waters by UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process was investigated in real conditions. A particular attention was paid at designing a well validated laboratory scale pilot in order to optimise oxidant concentrations and UV fluence. A Low pressure lamp (254 nm) was used in a flow through commercial reactor. The effects of water matrices (drinking water and treated wastewater) and H2O2 concentrations (10, 40, and 90 mg/L) on the pilot efficiency were first determined. Only E1 could be partially degraded by UV photolysis whereas hormones were all well removed by UV/H2O2 process in both matrices. The second part of the study focused on a chemical and biological assessment of UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process (30 and 50 mg/L). Degradation rate constants of hormones as well as changes in estrogenic activity (YES bioassay) and toxicity (Vibrio fischeri) were followed at the same time. UV photolysis could not remove neither estrogens nor estrogenic activity at relevant UV fluence in waters. However 80% of initial estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity could be removed from treated wastewater by combining UV fluence of 423 and 520 mJ/cm(2) with 50 and 30 mg/L of H2O2, respectively. No high estrogenic or toxic by-products were detected by the two bioassays following UV photolysis or UV/H2O2 process. Operating costs were estimated for a full scale pilot. H2O2 was the major cost. By combining the appropriate concentration of H2O2 and UV fluence, it could be possible to design a cost effective treatment for treating estrogens in small and medium size WTPs. PMID:27214348

  18. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  19. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3). PMID:24815102

  20. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  1. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  2. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup

    SciTech Connect

    Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D.

    2007-07-01

    Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of

  3. Petroleum and petroleum/coal blends as feedstocks in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale cokers to obtain carbons of potentially high value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escallon, Maria M.

    2008-12-01

    biphenyls. Five-membered ring compounds were not detected in decant oils EI-134 and EI-138. The viscosity of the system has been reported to be crucial for the coke quality, via mesophase growth. This study was performed by using a laboratory-scale coker operated under autogenous pressure and 465°C (LSCclose), which keeps the gases in the reactor so that the viscosity of the system is reduced. The hierarchy in coke quality was found to be completely different to when the LSCopen was used. The coke EI-107, which is derived from the highest polycondensed feedstock, displayed the highest quality. The cokes EI-134, EI-135 and EI-138, which are the cokes derived from the hydrotreated decant oils, displayed the lowest. In summary, there is an optimum viscosity to obtain a high coke quality. When viscosity is too low, mesophase spheres do not coalesce. Last but not least, this work also studied blends of coal and the four selected decant oils as a feedstock to produce coke; the blend was pyrolyzed using the reactors LSCopen, LSCclose and the pilot-scale coker (PSC). Miscibility and chemical interactions (hydrogen transferability) between coal and decant oil were calculated in order to study their influence on the co-coke quality. When the reactors operated under atmospheric and near-atmospheric pressure (LSCopen and PSC), no correlation was found between miscibility or chemical interactions with co-coke quality. However, chemical interaction appears to correlate when LSCclose is used. This is attributed to the higher contact time between coal and decant oil, which occurs at the operational conditions of the reactor LSCclose.

  4. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW

  5. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimisation of COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal from recycled paper wastewater in a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR).

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Rakmi; Hasan Kadhum, Abdul Amir

    2013-05-30

    In this study, the potential of a pilot-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from recycled paper wastewater was assessed. For this purpose, the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed, using a central composite face-centred design (CCFD), to optimise three of the most important operating variables, i.e., hydraulic retention time (HRT), aeration rate (AR) and influent feed concentration (IFC), in the pilot-scale GAC-SBBR process for recycled paper wastewater treatment. Quadratic models were developed for the response variables, i.e., COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal, based on the high value (>0.9) of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal conditions were established at 750 mg COD/L IFC, 3.2 m(3)/min AR and 1 day HRT, corresponding to predicted COD, NH3-N and 2,4-DCP removal percentages of 94.8, 100 and 80.9%, respectively. PMID:23542216

  6. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  7. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. PMID:23434489

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  9. Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Matsunaga, Y.

    2012-12-04

    This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

  10. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  11. Suitability assessment of a continuous process combining thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single pilot-scale twin-screw extruder for six different biomass sources.

    PubMed

    Vandenbossche, Virginie; Brault, Julien; Hernandez-Melendez, Oscar; Evon, Philippe; Barzana, Eduardo; Vilarem, Gérard; Rigal, Luc

    2016-07-01

    A process has been validated for the deconstruction of lignocellulose on a pilot scale installation using six types of biomass selected for their sustainability, accessibility, worldwide availability, and differences of chemical composition and physical structure. The process combines thermo-mechano-chemical and bio-catalytic action in a single twin-screw extruder. Three treatment phases were sequentially performed: an alkaline pretreatment, a neutralization step coupled with an extraction-separation phase and a bioextrusion treatment. Alkaline pretreatment destructured the wall polymers after just a few minutes and allowed the initial extraction of 18-54% of the hemicelluloses and 9-41% of the lignin. The bioextrusion step induced the start of enzymatic hydrolysis and increased the proportion of soluble organic matter. Extension of saccharification for 24h at high consistency (20%) and without the addition of new enzyme resulted in the production of 39-84% of the potential glucose. PMID:27015021

  12. The effect of operating conditions on resistance parameters of filter media and limestone dust cake for uniformly loaded needle felts in a pilot scale test facility at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-09-01

    Resistance parameters are essential for the prediction of pressure drop in bag filters. The reported values for limestone dust differ in magnitude and also depend on operating parameters. In this work, experimental data is provided from a pilot scale pulse-jet regenerated bag filter test facility for three types of needle felts using air and limestone dust at ambient conditions. Results reveal that specific resistance of filter media is independent of velocity while the specific resistance of filter cake increases linearly with filtration velocity. Residual pressure drop is almost constant, independent of upper pressure drop limit. The cake resistance at constant velocity fits to a second degree polynomial whereas it increases linearly with the velocity. A linear relation is reported here for all the cases. The resistance of filter cake decreases at higher upper pressure drop limit. PMID:24415803

  13. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  14. Pilot scale validation of the RIVER/FISH bioaccumulation modeling program for nonpolar hydrophobic organic compounds using the model compounds 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.D.; Hinton, S.W.; Borton, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The interactive and user-friendly PC-computer-based RIVER/FISH mechanistic modeling procedure was evaluated and found to provide credible simulations of aquatic organisms bioaccumulation for nonpolar hydrophobic organic chemicals (NPHOCs) using a four-trophic-level food web calculation methodology. Model evaluation included calibration to observations of tetrachlorinated dibenzodioxin and -furan (TCDD/F) bioaccumulation in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that were exposed in pilot-scale experimental streams receiving biologically treated pulp mill effluent and subsequent comparison of model predictions without bioaccumulation parameter adjustment (validation) to similar but independently obtained bioaccumulation observations. When calibrated with site-specific information on NPHOC loading rates and organism feeding habits, model prediction uncertainty was within US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established standards averaging 1.1 pg/g for the observations used for model validation, which all measured < 20 pg/g. The procedure appears suitable for field-scale applications provided the site-specific feeding habits of each organisms in the simulated food web can be stimulated accurately, all significant chemical loadings are quantified, and the natural variability of bioaccumulation processes is considered when interpreting simulation results.

  15. Thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste for bio-hythane production: effect of recirculation sludge on process stability and microbiology over a long-term pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, A; Zanetti, L; Micolucci, F; Cavinato, C

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for the concurrent production of hydrogen and methane through the treatment of the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was carried out over a long-term pilot scale experience. Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated for about 1 year. The results showed that stable production of bio-hythane without inoculum treatment could be obtained. The pH of the dark fermentation reactor was maintained in the optimal range for hydrogen-producing bacteria activity through sludge recirculation from a methanogenic reactor. An average specific bio-hythane production of 0.65 m(3) per kg of volatile solids fed was achieved when the recirculation flow was controlled through an evaporation unit in order to avoid inhibition problems for both microbial communities. Microbial analysis indicated that dominant bacterial species in the dark fermentation reactor are related to the Lactobacillus family, while the population of the methanogenic reactor was mainly composed of Defluviitoga tunisiensis. The archaeal community of the methanogenic reactor shifted, moving from Methanothermobacter-like to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales, the latter found also in the dark fermentation reactor when a considerable methane production was detected. PMID:24901613

  16. Pilot-scale continuous recycling of growth medium for the mass culture of a halotolerant Tetraselmis sp. in raceway ponds under increasing salinity: a novel protocol for commercial microalgal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Fon Sing, S; Isdepsky, A; Borowitzka, M A; Lewis, D M

    2014-06-01

    The opportunity to recycle microalgal culture medium for further cultivation is often hampered by salinity increases from evaporation and fouling by dissolved and particulate matter. In this study, the impact of culture re-use after electro-flocculation of seawater-based medium on growth and biomass productivity of the halotolerant green algal strain Tetraselmis sp., MUR 233, was investigated in pilot-scale open raceway ponds over 5months. Despite a salinity increase from 5.5% to 12% (w/v) NaCl, Tetraselmis MUR 233 grown on naturally DOC-enriched recycled medium produced 48-160% more ash free dry weight (AFDW) biomass daily per unit pond area than when grown on non-recycled medium. A peak productivity of 37.5±3.1gAFDWm(-2)d(-1) was reached in the recycled medium upon transition from ∼14% to ∼7% NaCl. The combination of high biomass-yielding mixotrophic growth under high salinity has been proven to be a successful sustainable cultivation strategy. PMID:24681683

  17. A pilot-scale hybrid municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis: removal of nutrients and micropollutants, and characterization of membrane foulants.

    PubMed

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2013-08-01

    A pilot-scale municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration (CC-DF), ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane has been built to investigate removal of water contaminants and fouling mitigation. The reclaimed water using the pilot system could meet draft regulations on wastewater reuse of the California Department of Public Health (DOC: 0.5 mgC/L; TN: 5 mgN/L). The removal of micropolluants by the CC-DF process and UF could not be evaluated by their MW, Log D, and charge characteristics. However, they were identified as governing factors affecting the removal of micropollutants by the RO. The CC-DF process might effectively remove particulate materials capable of contributing to cake layer formation on the UF membrane surfaces but the residual coagulants provided a strong effect on fouling formation of the UF membrane. Thus, hydrophobic fractions of the desorbed UF membrane foulants were higher than those of the desorbed RO membrane foulants. PMID:23611699

  18. Development of the integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for tasks No. 8 and No. 10 entitled: Laboratory and pilot scale experiments of Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Sa V.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated W and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the lab and pilot sized Lasagna{trademark} experiments conducted at Monsanto. Experiments were conducted with kaofinite and an actual Paducah soil in units ranging from bench-scale containing kg-quantity of soil to pilot-scale containing about half a ton of soil having various treatment zone configurations. The obtained data support the feasibility of scaling up this technology with respect to electrokinetic parameters as well as removal of organic contaminants. A mathematical model was developed that was successful in predicting the temperature rises in the soil. The information and experience gained from these experiments along with the modeling effort enabled us to successfully design and operate a larger field experiment at a DOE TCE-contaminated clay site.

  19. Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2016-06-01

    Copper electrorefining tests were conducted in a pilot-scale cell under commercial tankhouse environment to study the effects of anode compositions, current density, cathode blank width, and flow rate on anode slime behavior and cathode copper purity. Three different types of anodes (high, mid, and low impurity levels) were used in the tests and were analyzed under SEM/EDS. The harvested copper cathodes were weighed and analyzed for impurities concentrations using DC Arc. The adhered slimes and released slimes were collected, weighed, and analyzed for compositions using ICP. It was shown that the lead-to-arsenic ratio in the anodes affects the sintering and coalescence of slime particles. High current density condition can improve anode slime adhesion and cathode purity by intensifying slime particles' coalescence and dissolving part of the particles. Wide cathode blanks can raise the anodic current densities significantly and result in massive release of large slime particle aggregates, which are not likely to contaminate the cathode copper. Low flow rate can cause anode passivation and increase local temperatures in front of the anode, which leads to very intense sintering and coalescence of slime particles. The results and analyses of the tests present potential solutions for industrial copper electrorefining process.

  20. Parameters affecting HS emissions removal and re-circulating water quality in a pilot-scale sequential biological treatment system at a wastewater lift station in Brownsville, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Karre, Anand K; Bairu, Pavan; Jones, Kim D; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a pilot-scale sequential biological treatment system combining a biotrickling filter and biofilter was used to optimize the removal of variable emission H(2)S loadings ranging from 30 to 120 g m(-3) h(-1)at a wastewater lift station in Brownsville, Texas USA. The biotrickling filter recycle water pH remained between 2.0 to 3.0 during the four months of unit operation and the overall removal efficiency for H(2)S was >99%. The biotrickling filter removal efficiency was 70 ± 8%, with an elimination capacity of 10 to 80 g m(-3) h(-1) while the biofilter elimination capacity ranged from 10 to 40 g m(-3) h(-1). The sequential treatment system was operated initially at an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 120 s (50 s for the biotrickling filter and 70 s for biofilter) for two months and then at an EBRT of 60 s (25 s for biotrickling filter and 35s for biofilter) for the remainder of the operating period; remarkably, there was only a slight decrease in removal efficiency at 60 s EBRT. In order to qualitatively evaluate the changes in recycle water quality in the system on the performance of the unit in precipitating sulfur species, the equilibrium chemical model, Visual MINTEQ was employed. The model predicted speciation results based on the feed water quality and sulfur loadings, and also forecast some iron-sulfur complexes which have potential to form some complex precipitates. This research demonstrated that low pH re-circulating water quality in the biological treatment of H(2)S was possible without compromising the high removal efficiency, and that an improved understanding of the recycle water chemistry of the trickling unit of a sequential treatment system could be useful in the overall optimization of the process. PMID:22486667