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Sample records for pimiento capsicum annuurn

  1. Capsicum

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart and blood vessels including poor circulation, excessive blood clotting, high cholesterol, and preventing heart disease. Other uses ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Capsicum might slow blood clotting. ...

  2. Capsicum

    MedlinePlus

    ... capsicum to the skin for pain caused by shingles, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia. It is also ... follows:Pain from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, psoriasis, shingles and nerve pain due to diabetes (diabetic neuropathy), ...

  3. Pepper, sweet (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Heidmann, Iris; Boutilier, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the low frequency of cells that are both susceptible for Agrobacterium infection and have the ability to regenerate. Here, we describe a protocol for the efficient regeneration of transgenic sweet pepper (C. annuum) through inducible activation of the BABY BOOM (BBM) AP2/ERF transcription factor. Using this approach, we can routinely achieve a transformation efficiency of at least 0.6 %. The main improvements in this protocol are the reproducibility in transforming different genotypes and the ability to produce fertile shoots. An added advantage of this protocol is that BBM activity can be induced subsequently in stable transgenic lines, providing a novel regeneration system for clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25300852

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  5. Inheritance of Value Added Traits in Capsicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable diversity exists in Capsicum germplasm for fruit and leaf shape and size, as well as plant habit. This morphological diversity, together with diverse ripe fruit color and varying hues of green to purple foliar pigmentation, affords a myriad of opportunities to develop novel cultivars f...

  6. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M. K.; McGrath, Desmond J.; Persley, Denis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion/Significance DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and

  8. Screening Capsicum accessions for capsaicinoids content.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Jarret, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Ninety Capsicum accessions selected from the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection were screened for their capsaicinoids content using gas hromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). Fresh fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were extracted with methanol and analyzed for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, 307, and 293, which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively, have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in pepper fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected. Capsaicin concentrations were typically greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from not detectable to 11.2 mg fruit(-1). Statistical analysis revealed that accession PI-441624 (C. chinense) had the highest capsaicin content (2.9 mg g(-1) fresh fruit) and accession PI-497984 (C. frutescens) had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (2.3 mg g(-1) fresh fruit). Genebank accessions PI-439522 (C. frutescens) and PI-497984 contained the highest concentrations of total capsaicinoids. PMID:16785178

  9. Genetic relationships within and between Capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Ince, Ayşe Gul; Karaca, Mehmet; Onus, A Naci

    2010-02-01

    Genetic relationships were estimated among 24 accessions belonging to 11 species of Capsicum, using 2,760 RAPD markers based on touch-down polymerase chain reactions (Td-RAPD-PCR). These markers were implemented in analyses of principal coordinates, unweighted pair group mean average, and 2,000 bootstrap replications. The accessions were divided into four groups, corresponding to previously described Capsicum complexes: C. annuum complex (CA), C. baccatum complex (CB), C. pubescens complex (CP), and C. chacoense accessions (CA/B). Their overall mean genetic similarity index was 0.487 +/- 0.082, ranging from 0.88 to 0.32, based on Jaccard's coefficient. The highest genetic variation was observed among the accessions in CP; the accessions in CB had a low level of variation as judged from the standard deviations of the genetic similarity indices. Based on the Td-RAPD-PCR markers, the 24 accessions were divided into four major groups, three of which corresponded to the three distinct Capsicum complexes. Accessions of C. chacoense were found to be equally related to complexes CA, CB, and CP. PMID:19916044

  10. Antioxidants in Capsicum chinense: Variation among countries of origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide search for sources of beneficial phytochemicals continues. In this vein, many pepper (Capsicum L.) species and their cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of the health-promoting antioxidants ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenols, or capsaicin. Capsicum chinense has be...

  11. Pungency in Capsicum Chinense: Variation Among Countries of Origin.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of 63 accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were analyzed for two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, content using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detectin (GC/NPD). The objectives of the present investigation were:...

  12. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  13. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  14. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  15. New Insights into Capsicum spp Relatedness and the Diversification Process of Capsicum annuum in Spain

    PubMed Central

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E.; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain. PMID

  16. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain. PMID

  17. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the ‘Breaker stage’. Whether ethylene, and components of the ethylene pathway such as 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS) and the ethylene receptor (ETR), contribute to non-climacteric ripening in capsicum has not been studied in detail. To elucidate the behaviour of ethylene pathway components in capsicum during ripening, further analysis is therefore needed. The effects of ethylene or inhibitors of ethylene perception, such as 1-methylcyclopropene, on capsicum fruit ripening and the ethylene pathway components may also shed some light on the role of ethylene in non-climacteric ripening. Results The expression of several isoforms of ACO, ACS and ETR were limited during capsicum ripening except one ACO isoform (CaACO4). ACS activity and ACC content were also low in capsicum despite the increase in ACO activity during the onset of ripening. Ethylene did not stimulate capsicum ripening but 1-methylcyclopropene treatment delayed the ripening of Breaker-harvested fruit. Some of the ACO, ACS and ETR isoforms were also differentially expressed upon treatment with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. Conclusions ACS activity may be the rate limiting step in the ethylene pathway of capsicum which restricts ACC content. The differential expression of several ethylene pathway components during ripening and upon ethylene or 1-methylclopropene treatment suggests that the ethylene pathway may be regulated differently in non-climacteric capsicum compared to the climacteric tomato

  18. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Gloria E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here. PMID:22171173

  19. Carotenoid Extraction and Quantification from Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Richins, Richard D.; Kilcrease, James; Rodgriguez-Uribe, Laura; O'Connell, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments that play key roles in photosynthesis and also accumulate to high levels in fruit and flowers. Specific carotenoids play essential roles in human health as these compounds are precursors for Vitamin A; other specific carotenoids are important sources of macular pigments and all carotenoids are important anti-oxidants. Accurate determination of the composition and concentration of this complex set of natural products is therefore important in many different scientific areas. One of the richest sources of these compounds is the fruit of Capsicum; these red, yellow and orange fruit accumulate multiple carotenes and xanthophylls. This report describes the detailed method for the extraction and quantification of specific carotenes and xanthophylls.

  20. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine.

    PubMed

    Cichewicz, R H; Thorpe, P A

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the Mayan pharmacopoeia revealed that tissues of Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are included in a number of herbal remedies for a variety of ailments of probable microbial origin. Using a filter disk assay, plain and heated aqueous extracts from fresh Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinese, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum pubescens varieties were tested for their antimicrobial effects with fifteen bacterial species and one yeast species. Two pungent compounds found in Capsicum species (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) were also tested for their anti-microbial effects. The plain and heated extracts were found to exhibit varying degrees of inhibition against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:8735449

  1. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features. PMID:23479174

  2. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level. PMID:26549520

  3. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in Capsicum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsicum fruit contain a number of phytochemicals, including the newly characterized capsinoids that have been shown to have positive effects on human health (10-15). Closely related to the pungent capsaicinoids, the non-pungent casinoids exhibit antioxidant activity, promote energy metabolism and r...

  4. Variability for free sugars and organic acids in Capsicum Chinense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of 216 genotypes of Capsicum chinense Jacq. were analyzed for concentrations of the simple sugars sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the organic acids; citric, malic, succinic, fumaric and ascorbic. Concentrations [mg/100g Fresh Weight (FW) of whole fruit] of sucrose, glucose and fructose in fru...

  5. Pharmacological importance of an ethnobotanical plant: Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan A; Mahmood, Tariq; Ali, Muhammad; Saeed, Abdul; Maalik, Aneela

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L., a fruit plant from tropical and subtropical regions, contains a range of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds which are known to exhibit a range of bioactivities including free radical scavenging (antioxidant), antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the literature published on pharmacological behaviours of C. annuum L. PMID:24650229

  6. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  7. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  8. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum. PMID:26125877

  9. Determination of capsinoids by HPLC-DAD in capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyavan; Jarret, Robert; Russo, Vincent; Majetich, George; Shimkus, Joel; Bushway, Rodney; Perkins, Brian

    2009-05-13

    Capsicum fruits contain a newly discovered phytochemical called capsinoids. Because little is known about the quantities of these compounds in both sweet and pungent pepper fruits, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify and quantify the capsinoids (naturally present E-capsiate and dihydrocapsiate) utilizing fruit obtained from a variety of Capsicum spp. in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Capsicum germplasm collection. Capsinoids were extracted with acetonitrile, filtered, and analyzed using an HPLC system equipped with a C(18) monolithic column, gradient pump, and diode array detector. The elution solvents were acetonitrile and water (60:40) with an isocratic flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Forty-nine samples representing distinct morphotypes of four cultivated species ( C. annuum var. annuum, C. annuum var. glabriusculum, C. baccatum , C. chinense , and C. frutescens ) contained detectable levels (11-369 microg/g) of E-capsiate quantified at a wavelength of 280 nm. Nine of the E-capsiate-containing samples also had dihydrocapsiate (18-86 micro/g). Gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) confirmed the presence of these compounds in the Capsicum spp. PMID:19415923

  10. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  11. Paprika rhinoconjunctivitis case reveals new occupational Capsicum allergens.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Liisa; Riekki, Riitta; Vuokko, Aki; Puustinen, Anne

    2015-07-01

    No allergens related to paprika or cayenne respiratory allergy have been identified thus far. We describe a previously healthy 28-year woman who developed work-related rhinoconjunctivitis after four years of kebab-restaurant work. The allergy was studied using skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and nasal provocation tests. Specific IgE protein reactions were studied by Western blot analysis. Paprika, cayenne and curry allergens were identified from the strongest immunoblot bands using tandem mass spectrometry. A positive skin prick test, high specific IgE and positive nasal provocation test confirmed occupational rhinoconjunctivitis from Capsicum spices. Defensin J1 and Vicilin were identified as major paprika and cayenne allergens in this case. Vicilin was detected also from the curry ingredients. Two new occupational respiratory allergens from the Capsicum species were identified. These differ from previously reported bell pepper allergens. We emphasize that substantial spice handling at work poses an allergy risk. PMID:25944018

  12. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    PubMed

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  13. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  14. Unilateral Incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): Occurrence and Taxonomic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    ONUS, A. NACI; PICKERSGILL, BARBARA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. • Methods All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3–24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. • Key results Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. • Conclusions Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C

  15. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a "hot" tool for genomic research.

    PubMed

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  16. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  17. Variation for Fruit Morphological Characteristics within a Germplasm Collection of Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature fruit of 330 accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, weight and color. Mean fruit length was determined to be 47 mm with a range from 7.9 mm to 113.7 mm. Mean fruit width was 21.17 mm with a range of 6...

  18. Morphological Variation for Fruit Characteristics in the USDA/ARS Capsicum Baccatum L. Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature fruit of two hundred and ninety-five accessions of Capsicum baccatum from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, and color. Mean fruit weight was determined to be 5.91 g with a range from 0.15 g to 22.8 g. Mean fruit length was 6.01 cm with a ...

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, M A; Prina, A R; Moscone, E A; Kwasniewska, J

    2013-09-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. "Cayenne", with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. PMID:23747514

  20. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Otsu, Keigo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-24

    Capsiconinoid is a group of nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues produced in Capsicum fruits, which we recently identified. Capsiconinoids have agonist activity for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which is reported to be a receptor for capsaicin. It is, therefore, important to screen cultivars containing high levels of capsiconinoid for their use as a vegetable or dietary supplement. This study describes the quantitative analysis of capsiconinoid content in fruits of 35 Capsicum cultivars: 18 cultivars of C. annuum, 7 of C. baccatum, 5 of C. chinense, 4 of C. frutescens, and 1 of C. pubescens. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found that 10 cultivars contained capsiconinoids. Capsiconinoid Baccatum (CCB) (C. baccatum var. praetermissum) showed the highest capsiconinoid content (3314 microg/g DW) and Charapita (C. chinense) had the second highest content. The other 8 cultivars had much lower capsiconinoid content than these two cultivars (<300 microg/g DW). Time-course analysis during fruit development clarified that capsiconinoid content in CCB fruits increased until 30 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased rapidly until 40 DAF. PMID:19489540

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Donghwan; Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Jung-Ro; Lee, Gi-An; Ro, Na-Young; Jeon, Young-Ah; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Lee, Ho-Sun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We report the complete sequence of the chloroplast genome of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), a species of chili pepper. Methods and Results: Using an Illumina platform, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of C. frutescens. The total length of the genome is 156,817 bp, and the overall GC content is 37.7%. A pair of 25,792-bp inverted repeats is separated by small (17,853 bp) and large (87,380 bp) single-copy regions. The C. frutescens chloroplast genome encodes 132 unique genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Of these, seven genes are duplicated in the inverted repeats and 12 genes contain one or two introns. Comparative analysis with the reference chloroplast genome revealed 125 simple sequence repeat motifs and 34 variants, mostly located in the noncoding regions. Conclusions: The complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. frutescens reported here is a valuable genetic resource for Capsicum species. PMID:27213127

  2. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  3. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species. PMID:24441736

  4. [Analysis of microsatellite loci of the chloroplast genome in the genus Capsicum (Pepper)].

    PubMed

    Ryzhova, N N; Kochieva, E Z

    2004-08-01

    Six plastome microsatellites were examined in 43 accessions of the genus Capsicum. In total, 33 allelic variants were detected. A specific haplotype of chloroplast DNA was identified for each Capsicum species. Species-specific allelic variants were found for most wild Capsicum species. The highest intraspecific variation was observed for the C. baccatum plastome. Low cpDNA polymorphism was characteristic of C. annuum: the cpSSRs were either monomorphic or dimorphic. The vast majority of C. annuum accessions each had alleles of one type. Another allele type was rare and occurred only in wild accessions. The results testified again to genetic conservation of C. annuum and especially its cultivated forms. The phylogenetic relationships established for the Capsicum species on the basis of plastome analysis were similar to those inferred from the morphological traits, isozyme patterns, and molecular analysis of the nuclear genome. PMID:15523848

  5. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

  6. Method for the flotation oil extraction of light filth from ground capsicums.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1977-05-01

    The present official first action method for ground capsicums, 44.123, was adopted in 1945 and there have been great changes in processing and examination of spices since that time. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, followed by wet sieving and extraction of the light filth from 60% ethanol with flotation oil. The filter papers were clean and recoveries were good (95%) for 5 different lots of capsicums and annato spiked with insect fragments and rodent hairs. PMID:870482

  7. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  8. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  9. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1, Bs2 and Bs3, and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  10. Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.

    PubMed

    Haas, J S; Whipple, R E; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Volpe, A M; Pelkey, G E

    1997-01-01

    In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted. PMID:9022856

  11. Properties and detection of two cryptoviruses from pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) contains a range of endogenous dsRNA molecules resembling the genomes of cryptoviruses. In this work, we have completed the molecular characterization of Pepper cryptic virus 1 (PCV-1) from cv "Jalapeño M" and generated complete genomic sequences of another cryptovirus from cv "Hungarian Wax" designated Pepper cryptic virus 2 (PCV-2). The two viruses share limited identical amino acid content in both genomic segments and appear phylogenetically closer to cryptoviruses reported from other crops (i.e. Raphanus sativus cryptic virus 3, Black raspberry cryptic virus) than to each other. Two sets of virus-specific primers were successfully used in RT-PCR tests for the simultaneous and discriminative detection of these two viruses in pepper leaves and seeds. Both viruses were detected in several pepper cultivars tested, either as single or mixed infections. PMID:21695493

  12. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  13. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E.; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  14. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  15. The occurrence and control of pepper mild mottle virus(PMMoV)in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four-thousand-four-hundred and three seed inventories of Capsicum spp. obtained from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were tested for the presence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV). Approximately 32% of these inventories tested positive for PMMoV and the virus distribution was nearly un...

  16. Chromosomal localization and sequence variation of 5S rRNA gene in five Capsicum species.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Park, K C; Park, C H; Kim, N S

    2000-02-29

    Chromosomal localization and sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA gene were carried out in five Capsicum species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that chromosomal location of the 5S rRNA gene was conserved in a single locus at a chromosome which was assigned to chromosome 1 by the synteny relationship with tomato. In sequence analysis, the repeating units of the 5S rRNA genes in the Capsicum species were variable in size from 278 bp to 300 bp. In sequence comparison of our results to the results with other Solanaceae plants as published by others, the coding region was highly conserved, but the spacer regions varied in size and sequence. T stretch regions, just after the end of the coding sequences, were more prominant in the Capsicum species than in two other plants. High G x C rich regions, which might have similar functions as that of the GC islands in the genes transcribed by RNA PolII, were observed after the T stretch region. Although we could not observe the TATA like sequences, an AT rich segment at -27 to -18 was detected in the 5S rRNA genes of the Capsicum species. Species relationship among the Capsicum species was also studied by the sequence comparison of the 5S rRNA genes. While C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum formed one lineage, C. baccatum was revealed to be an intermediate species between the former three species and C. pubescens. PMID:10774742

  17. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. PMID:27006220

  18. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  19. Stress inducible proteomic changes in Capsicum annuum leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Neha S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore attack induces defense responses in plants, activating several signaling cascades. As a result, molecules deterrent to the herbivores are produced and accumulated in plants. Expression of defense mechanism/traits requires reorganization of the plant metabolism, redirecting the resources otherwise meant for growth. In the present work, protein profile of Capsicum annuum leaves was examined after herbivore attack/induction. Majority of proteins identified as differentially accumulated, were having roles in redox metabolism and photosynthesis. For example, superoxide dismutase and NADP oxidoreductase were upregulated by 10- and 6-fold while carbonic anhydrase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were downregulated by 9- and 4-fold, respectively. Also, superoxide dismutase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase and NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase transcripts showed a higher accumulation in induced leaf tissues at early time points. In general, proteins having role in defense and damage repair were upregulated while those involved in photosynthesis appeared downregulated. Thus metabolic reconfiguration to balance defense and tolerance was evident in the stress-induced leaves. PMID:24316010

  20. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified recombinant enzyme. The enzyme accepted pyruvate, and oxaloacetate but not 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrate, which is in accordance with other characterised transaminases from the plant kingdom. The enzyme was also able to convert (S)-1-phenylethylamine into acetophenone with high stereo-selectivity. Additionally, it was shown to be active at a broad pH range. Conclusions We suggest PAMT to be renamed to VAMT (vanillin aminotransferase, abbreviation used in this study) as formation of vanillin from vanillylamine could be demonstrated. Furthermore, due to high stereoselectivity and activity at physiological pH, VAMT is a suitable candidate for biocatalytic transamination in a recombinant whole-cell system. PMID:24712445

  1. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  2. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species. PMID:25867359

  3. Potent production of capsaicinoids and capsinoids by Capsicum peppers.

    PubMed

    Kobata, Kenji; Sugawara, Mai; Mimura, Makoto; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-11-20

    The fundamental structure of capsinoids is a fatty acid ester with vanillyl alcohol, whereas in capsaicinoids, a fatty acid amide is linked to vanillylamine. To clarify the relationship between their biosynthesis in Capsicum plants, we carried out an in vivo tracer experiment using stable isotopically labeled putative precursors. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the uptake of isotopes into metabolites after injection of the labeled precursors into intact fruits of a pungent cultivar, Peru, and a non-pungent cultivar, CH-19 Sweet. Labeled vanillylamine was incorporated into capsaicinoids in both cultivars. While labeled vanillyl alcohol was incorporated into capsinoids in both cultivars, the accumulation of intact capsaicinoids in Peru was suppressed by over 60% after administration of vanillyl alcohol. In Peru, labeled vanillin was converted to both vanillylamine and, in 5-fold excess, vanillyl alcohol. Moreover, labeled vanillin was converted exclusively to vanillyl alcohol in CH-19 Sweet. These data are consistent with the incorporation of labeled vanillin into capsaicinoids and capsinoids in both cultivars. We conclude that pungent cultivars are highly potent producers of vanillyl alcohol that is incorporated into capsinoids and that biosynthesis of capsinoids is catalyzed by capsaicin synthase. PMID:24147886

  4. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F.; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  5. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  6. First report of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Dutta, Ram; Roy, Somnath; Ngachan, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India. PMID:24426324

  7. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  8. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  9. Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C A; Crouch, D J; Yost, G S

    2001-05-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants. PMID:11372985

  10. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  11. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  12. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  13. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  14. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

    2012-06-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  15. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. PMID:23692768

  16. Efficacy of capsicum oleoresin nanocapsules formulation by the modified emulsion-diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Surassmo, Suvimol; Min, Sang-Gi; Bejrapha, Piyawan; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of high pressure homogenizer on the physico-chemical properties of capsicum oleoresin loaded nanoemulsion (NE) or nanocapsules (NCs) based on the emulsion-diffusion method. According to the application stage of high pressure process at principle emulsion-diffusion method, NCs was prepared by conventional-emulsion-diffusion method (CED), modified-emulsion-microfluidization-diffusion method (MEMD) and modified-emulsion-diffusion-microfluidization method (MEDM). The nanocapsules of MEMD showed homogeneous and the smallest particle size as compared with CED. In addition, MEMD presented the surface tension at the value 36.5 mN/m. The encapsulated capsicum oleoresin was generated the bright color and suppressed the dark red color. Furthermore, MEMD gave the high encapsulation efficiency of capsicum oleoresin around 95% and showed the slow release rate. On the other hand, MEDM presented the non-homogeneous and agglomerate of the particle, low percentage of encapsulation efficiency and the high initial release rate when compared with CED and MEMD methods. According these results, it was supposed that the microfluidization was interesting technique to ameliorate the physical properties and efficiency of NCs. However, it was depending on the appropriate combination of microfluidization based on the emulsion-diffusion method. PMID:21446515

  17. Molecular profiling for genetic variability in Capsicum species based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Thul, Sanjog T; Darokar, Mahendra P; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-06-01

    The taxonomic identity of Capsicum species is found to be difficult as it displays variations at morpho-chemical characters. Twenty-two accessions of six Capsicum species, namely, C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, and C. luteum were investigated for phenotypic diversity based on flower color and for genetic differences by molecular makers. The genetic cluster analyses of 27 RAPD and eight ISSR primers, respectively, revealed genetic similarities in the ranges of 23-88% and 11-96%. Principal component analysis of the pooled RAPD and ISSR data further supports the genetic similarity and groupings. Different species showed variations in relation to corolla shade of flower. C. annuum accessions formed a single cluster in the molecular analysis as maintaining their flower characteristic. C. chinense accession shared flower features with the accessions of C. frutescens and were found to be closer at genotypic level. C. luteum was found to be rather closer to C. baccatum complex, both phenotypically and genetically. The only accession of C. eximium presenting purple flowers falls apart from the groupings. The floral characteristics and the molecular markers are found to be useful toward the delineation of the species specificity in Capsicum collection and identification of genetic stock. PMID:21861246

  18. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-01-01

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test. PMID:27525842

  19. The capsicum transcriptome DB: a “hot” tool for genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fajardo-Jaime, Rubén; Fernández-Cortes, Araceli; Jofre-Garfias, Alba E; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Martínez, Octavio; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an economically important crop with no available public genome sequence. We describe a genomic resource to facilitate Capsicum annuum research. A collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived from five C. annuum organs (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit) were sequenced using the Sanger method and multiple leaf transcriptomes were deeply sampled using with GS-pyrosequencing. A hybrid assembly of 1,324,516 raw reads yielded 32,314 high quality contigs as validated by coverage and identity analysis with existing pepper sequences. Overall, 75.5% of the contigs had significant sequence similarity to entries in nucleic acid and protein databases; 23% of the sequences have not been previously reported for C. annuum and expand sequence resources for this species. A MySQL database and a user-friendly Web interface were constructed with search-tools that permit queries of the ESTs including sequence, functional annotation, Gene Ontology classification, metabolic pathways, and assembly information. The Capsicum Transcriptome DB is free available from http://www.bioingenios.ira.cinvestav.mx:81/Joomla/ PMID:22359434

  20. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  1. Tolerability of Capsaicinoids from Capsicum Extract in a Beadlet Form: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Jayant; Jeyakodi, Shankaranarayanan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    A single center, open-label, dose-finding adaptive study was conducted in twelve healthy overweight female subjects. The study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the capsaicinoids (CAPs) from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form compared to placebo in a healthy overweight population. The investigational product capsaicinoids (CAPs) from Capsicum extract in a beadlet form (Capsimax®) a proprietary encapsulated form of Capsicum extract in beadlet form supplemented at 2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg and 10 mg of CAPs. An ascending dose protocol evaluated a total dose of 10 mg daily given in five divided doses (2 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg, 8 mg and 10 mg of CAPs). Each dose was given for a week. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Primary outcomes were tolerability assessments and reports of adverse events. Tolerability assessments were observed on skin color and any changes in skin, bowel movement, digestion, mouth or throat, hair color or changes in hair color, urination includes frequency and burning sensations, breathing, any changes in their health. Secondary outcomes were body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (SBP/DBP), vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical chemistry parameters including liver function tests, lung function tests and kidney function tests and complete blood count (CBC). No dose effective changes were observed. The escalating dose levels of CAPs in a beadlet form product found was tolerable and safe for weight management studies. Tolerability assessments and safety blood markers showed no significant changes from baseline. No significant serious adverse events were reported throughout the duration of the study. Further longer term studies are required to explore the tolerability of the product. This trial is registered with ISRCTN: #  ISRCTN10975080. PMID:27066073

  2. Analysis of acute impact of oleoresin capsicum on rat nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Catli, Tolgahan; Acar, Mustafa; Olgun, Yüksel; Dağ, İlknur; Cengiz, Betül Peker; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of acute cellular changes seen in nasal mucosa of Wistar-Albino rats exposed to different doses of oleoresin capsicum for various time periods by means of scanning electron microscopy. Thirty-five Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each. 6-gram oleoresin capsicum per second was sprayed into cages of the groups except group 1. Spray times and duration of exposure to pepper gasses were different for each group. Thirty minutes after the exposure, the animals were killed and specimens from their nasal mucosas were harvested and examined under scanning electron microscope. Mucosal damage was scored from 0-4 points. Mean values of nasal mucosa damage scores of the groups were calculated and compared statistically. Average damage scores of the groups exposed to identical doses of oleoresin capsicum for various exposure times were compared and a statistically significant difference was seen between Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05), however the difference between Groups 4 and 5 was insignificant (p > 0.05). Average damage scores of the groups exposed to various doses for identical exposure times were compared, and statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 2 and 4 and also Groups 3 and 5 (p < 0.05). Outcomes of our study have demonstrated that pepper gas exerts destructive changes on rat nasal mucosa. The extent of these destructive changes increases with the prolonged exposure to higher doses. Besides, exposure time also stands out as an influential factor on the extent of the destructive changes. PMID:24627077

  3. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    PubMed

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues. PMID:27075215

  4. EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EcoTILLING technique allows polymorphisms in target genes of natural populations to be quickly analysed or identified and facilitates the screening of genebank collections for desired traits. We have developed an EcoTILLING platform to exploit Capsicum genetic resources. A perfect example of the utility of this EcoTILLING platform is its application in searching for new virus-resistant alleles in Capsicum genus. Mutations in translation initiation factors (eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E, eIF4G and eIF(iso)4G) break the cycle of several RNA viruses without affecting the plant life cycle, which makes these genes potential targets to screen for resistant germplasm. Results We developed and assayed a cDNA-based EcoTILLING platform with 233 cultivated accessions of the genus Capsicum. High variability in the coding sequences of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes was detected using the cDNA platform. After sequencing, 36 nucleotide changes were detected in the CDS of eIF4E and 26 in eIF(iso)4E. A total of 21 eIF4E haplotypes and 15 eIF(iso)4E haplotypes were identified. To evaluate the functional relevance of this variability, 31 possible eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E combinations were tested against Potato virus Y. The results showed that five new eIF4E variants (pvr210, pvr211, pvr212, pvr213 and pvr214) were related to PVY-resistance responses. Conclusions EcoTILLING was optimised in different Capsicum species to detect allelic variants of target genes. This work is the first to use cDNA instead of genomic DNA in EcoTILLING. This approach avoids intronic sequence problems and reduces the number of reactions. A high level of polymorphism has been identified for initiation factors, showing the high genetic variability present in our collection and its potential use for other traits, such as genes related to biotic or abiotic stresses, quality or production. Moreover, the new eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E alleles are an excellent collection for searching for new resistance against other RNA

  5. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  6. Oil flotation extraction of light filth from ground capsicums excluding paprika: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J; Colliflower, E J

    1978-07-01

    A collaborative study has been completed on an improved method for the isolation of light filth from ground capsicums other than paprika. The proposed method involves isopropanol pretreatment, wet-sieving, and extraction from cooled 60% ethanol with a mineral oil-heptane mixture. The collaborative tests by the proposed method showed an approximate 2-fold increase in recoveries of insect fragments and rodent hairs with acceptable coefficients of variation and clean filter papers. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.123. PMID:681260

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum annuum (Bird's Eye Chili) and Capsicum chinense (Yellow Lantern Chili), Respectively.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Savka, Michael A; Triassi, Alexander J; Wheatley, Matthew S; Naqvi, Kubra F; Foxhall, Taylor E; Anauo, Michael J; Baldwin, Mariah L; Burkhardt, Russell N; O'Bryon, Isabelle G; Dailey, Lucas K; Busairi, Nurfatini Idayu; Keith, Robert C; Khair, Megat Hazmah Megat Mazhar; Rasul, Muhammad Zamir Mohd; Rosdi, Nur Aiman Mohd; Mountzouros, James R; Rhoads, Aleigha C; Selochan, Melissa A; Tautanov, Timur B; Polter, Steven J; Marks, Kayla D; Caraballo, Alexander A; Hudson, André O

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum spp. Annotation revealed gene clusters for the synthesis of bacilysin, lichensin, and bacillibactin and sporulation killing factor (skfA) in Bacillus safensis RIT372 and turnerbactin and carotenoid in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370. PMID:25883290

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Annotation of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum annuum (Bird’s Eye Chili) and Capsicum chinense (Yellow Lantern Chili), Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Savka, Michael A.; Triassi, Alexander J.; Wheatley, Matthew S.; Naqvi, Kubra F.; Foxhall, Taylor E.; Anauo, Michael J.; Baldwin, Mariah L.; Burkhardt, Russell N.; O’Bryon, Isabelle G.; Dailey, Lucas K.; Busairi, Nurfatini Idayu; Keith, Robert C.; Khair, Megat Hazmah Megat Mazhar; Rasul, Muhammad Zamir Mohd; Rosdi, Nur Aiman Mohd; Mountzouros, James R.; Rhoads, Aleigha C.; Selochan, Melissa A.; Tautanov, Timur B.; Polter, Steven J.; Marks, Kayla D.; Caraballo, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequences of Bacillus safensis RIT372 and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370 from Capsicum spp. Annotation revealed gene clusters for the synthesis of bacilysin, lichensin, and bacillibactin and sporulation killing factor (skfA) in Bacillus safensis RIT372 and turnerbactin and carotenoid in Pseudomonas oryzihabitans RIT370. PMID:25883290

  9. A survey of insect populations in Capsicum chinense L. plantings in Georgetown, St. Vincent, using modified CC traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect populations in hot pepper, Capsicum chinense L., were surveyed in Georgetown, St. Vincent, during the 2004 wet and 2005 dry seasons. Modified white, blue, and yellow CC traps were used to capture insects in the plantings. Overall, 69 insect families were captured, 41 of which were capture...

  10. Capsicum and capsaicin--a review: case report of the use of hot peppers in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Tominack, R L; Spyker, D A

    1987-01-01

    Capsaicin, the active principle of hot peppers of the genus Capsicum, exhibits broad bioactivity. It targets neuronal structures which contain substance P, clinically seen as gastrointestinal and dermatologic irritation, bronchospasm and fibrinolysis. As a research tool, capsaicin profoundly alters neurologic anatomy and function. We review the toxicity of capsaicin and comment briefly on the use of hot peppers in child abuse. PMID:3328791

  11. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  12. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  13. High-throughput gene expression analysis of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes following oral feeding of Carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or capsicum oleoresin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among dietary phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin are well-known for their anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effects in human and veterinary medicine. To further define the molecular and genetic mechanisms responsible for these properties, broiler chickens were fed a st...

  14. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  15. Analysis of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by flow cytometry and Feulgen densitometry.

    PubMed

    Moscone, Eduardo A; Baranyi, Monika; Ebert, Irma; Greilhuber, Johann; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Hunziker, Armando T

    2003-07-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare 'Ditta', 1C = 5.063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa 'Stuttgarter Riesen', 1C = 16.75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C-values range from 3.34-3.43 pg (3273-3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4.53-5.77 pg (4439-5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component. PMID:12824068

  16. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  17. Cold tolerance in thiourea primed capsicum seedlings is associated with transcript regulation of stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Manoj, Kamble; Kumari, Maya; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-12-01

    Benefits of seed priming in seedling establishment and tolerance to subsequent stress exposure are well reported. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the priming mediated benefits are not much discovered. Results of our earlier experiments established that thiourea (TU) seed priming imparts cold tolerance to capsicum seedlings. Therefore, to understand molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated cold stress tolerance, quantitative transcript expression of stress responsive genes involved in transcript regulation (CaCBF1A, CaCBF1B, Zinc Finger protein, CaWRKY30), osmotic adjustment (PROX1, P5CS, Osmotin), antioxidant defence (CAT2, APX, GST, GR1, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, Fe SOD), signaling (Annexin), movement of solutes and water (CaPIP1), and metabolite biosynthesis through phenylpropanoid pathway (CAH) was studied in response to cold (4 °C; 4 and 24 h) stress in seedlings grown from the TU primed, hydroprimed and unsoaked seeds. The transcript expression of CaWRKY30, PROX1, Osmotin, Cu/Zn SOD and CAH genes was either higher or induced earlier on cold exposure in thiourea priming than that of hydroprimed and unsoaked over the respective unstressed controls. The results thus suggest that the TU priming modulate expression of these genes thereby imparting cold tolerance in capsicum seedlings. PMID:23053959

  18. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analysis for pharmacopoeial qualification of industrial Capsicum extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Mónika; Fodor, Krisztina; Boros, Borbála; Perjési, Pál

    2015-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamid), dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide) and the main capsaicinoid contents of Capsicum extracts. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C8 column using isocratic mobile phase consisting of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 60% (v/v) orthophosphoric acid solution with flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The concentration of the eluting compounds was monitored by a diode-array detector at wavelength of 281 nm. The method was evaluated for number of validation characteristics (selectivity, accuracy (confidence intervals <1%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD% < 2.5%), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and calibration range). The LOD was 0.25 µg/mL and the LOQ was 0.5 µg/mL. Using methanolic solutions of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Reference Standards, the method was linear over the concentration range 0.0005-0.5000 mg/mL for both capsaicinoids. The method was applied to qualify capsaicinoid content of two industrial capsicum extracts according to the USP 29. PMID:24557717

  19. Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

  20. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

  1. Analysis of Nuclear DNA Content in Capsicum (Solanaceae) by Flow Cytometry and Feulgen Densitometry

    PubMed Central

    MOSCONE, EDUARDO A.; BARANYI, MONIKA; EBERT, IRMA; GREILHUBER, JOHANN; EHRENDORFER, FRIEDRICH; HUNZIKER, ARMANDO T.

    2003-01-01

    Flow cytometric measurements of nuclear DNA content were performed using ethidium bromide as the DNA stain (internal standard, Hordeum vulgare ‘Ditta’, 1C = 5·063 pg) in 25 samples belonging to nine diploid species and four varieties of Capsicum: C. chacoense, C. parvifolium, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. baccatum var. umbilicatum, C. eximium and C. pubescens, all with 2n = 24, and C. campylopodium with 2n = 26. In addition, one sample each of C. annuum var. annuum and C. pubescens were also analysed using Feulgen densitometry (standard, Allium cepa ‘Stuttgarter Riesen’, 1C = 16·75 pg). Both staining methods resulted in very similar relative values. Genome size displays significant variation between but not within species (except in C. campylopodium), and contributes to their taxonomic grouping. 1C‐values range from 3·34–3·43 pg (3273–3361 Mbp) in C. chacoense and the C. annuum complex to 4·53–5·77 pg (4439–5655 Mbp) in C. campylopodium and C. parvifolium. The data obtained support conclusions on phylogenetic relationships in the genus derived from karyotype analyses using chromosome banding approaches. In Capsicum, constitutive heterochromatin amount is correlated with genome size, except in C. parvifolium, and is regarded as an additive genomic component. PMID:12824068

  2. A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars.

    PubMed

    Prince, J P; Lackney, V K; Angeles, C; Blauth, J R; Kyle, M M

    1995-04-01

    Interspecific genetic variation was examined in the genus Capsicum based on shared restriction fragments in Southern analyses. Four distinct clusters were delineated among 21 accessions of cultivated and wild pepper (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chacoense, C. chinense, and C. frutescens). Three tight clusters comprised of accessions belonging to C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. baccatum, respectively, were formed, along with a fourth cluster comprised of one accession each of C. chinense and C. chacoense. All accessions were differentiated by this technique, and the clusters corresponded closely to previous morphology-based classification. Sufficient DNA polymorphism exists among these accessions that segregating populations useful for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping could be constructed using any two pepper accessions as parents. Regression analysis indicates that genetic distance is a good predictor (R2 = 0.872) of the level of mappable DNA polymorphism in Capsicum. Intraspecific variability was examined among four C. annuum cultivars (NuMex R Naky, Jupiter, Perennial, and Criollo de Morelos 334) using both RFLPs and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), allowing a comparative evaluation of the two techniques. Seventeen percent of the clones used singly in RFLP analyses were sufficient for the differentiation of these varieties, as were 12.5% of the RAPD PCR amplifications. Dendrograms constructed from RFLP and RAPD analyses of the intraspecific data are similar but not identical. Southern analysis and RAPD PCR should be useful for DNA fingerprinting and the discrimination of closely related C. annuum genotypes. PMID:7774796

  3. Identification, validation and survey of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency in Capsicum spp.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Claver, Ana; Fellman, Shanna Moore; Gil-Ortega, Ramiro; Jahn, Molly; Arnedo-Andrés, María S

    2007-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with pungency was detected within an expressed sequence tag (EST) of 307 bp. This fragment was identified after expression analysis of the EST clone SB2-66 in placenta tissue of Capsicum fruits. Sequence alignments corresponding to this new fragment allowed us to identify an SNP between pungent and non-pungent accessions. Two methods were chosen for the development of the SNP marker linked to pungency: tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence. Results showed that both methods were successful in distinguishing genotypes. Nevertheless, tetra-primer ARMS-PCR was chosen for SNP genotyping because it was more rapid, reliable and less cost-effective. The utility of this SNP marker for pungency was demonstrated by the ability to distinguish between 29 pungent and non-pungent cultivars of Capsicum annuum. In addition, the SNP was also associated with phenotypic pungent character in the tested genotypes of C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. galapagoense, C. eximium, C. tovarii and C. cardenasi. This SNP marker is a faster, cheaper and more reproducible method for identifying pungent peppers than other techniques such as panel tasting, and allows rapid screening of the trait in early growth stages. PMID:17882396

  4. Development, characterization, and transferability to other Solanaceae of microsatellite markers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, István; Stágel, Anikó; Sasvári, Zsuzsanna; Röder, Marion; Ganal, Martin

    2007-07-01

    A novel set of informative microsatellite markers for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is provided. Screening of approximately 168 000 genomic clones and 23 174 public database entries resulted in a total of 411 microsatellite-containing sequences that could be used for primer design and functional testing. A set of 154 microsatellite markers originated from short-insert genomic libraries and 257 markers originated from database sequences. Of those markers, 147 (61 from genomic libraries and 86 from database sequences) showed specific and scoreable amplification products and detected polymorphisms between at least 2 of the 33 lines of a test panel consisting of cultivated and wild Capsicum genotypes. These informative markers were subsequently surveyed for allelic variation and information content. The usefulness of the new markers for diversity and taxonomic studies was demonstrated by the construction of consistent phylogenetic trees based on the microsatellite polymorphisms. Conservation of a subset of microsatellite loci in pepper, tomato, and potato was proven by cross-species amplification and sequence comparisons. For several informative pepper microsatellite markers, homologous expressed sequence tag (EST) counterparts could be identified in these related species that also carry microsatellite motifs. Such orthologs can potentially be used as reference markers and common anchoring points on the genetic maps of different solanaceous species. PMID:17893745

  5. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  6. Genetic variability in domesticated Capsicum spp as assessed by morphological and agronomic data in mixed statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Riva-Souza, E M; Bento, C Dos S

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously. PMID:20198584

  7. Induction of hairy roots by various strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in different types of Capsicum species explants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, also known as “chilies”, belong to the Solanaceae family and have tremendous beneficial properties. The application of hairy root culture may become an alternative method for future development of these species by adding value, such as by increasing secondary metabolites and improving genetic and biochemical stability compared with normal Capsicum plants. Therefore, in this research, different types of explants of both species were infected with various Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains to provide more information about the morphology and induction efficiency of hairy roots. After 2 weeks of in vitro seed germination, young seedling explants were cut into three segments; the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radical. Then, the explants were co-cultured with four isolated A. rhizogenes strains in Murashige & Skoog culture media (MS) containing decreasing carbenicillin disodium concentrations for one month. Results In this experiment, thick and short hairy roots were induced at all induction sites of C. annuum while thin, elongated hairy roots appeared mostly at wound sites of C. frutescens. Overall, the hairy root induction percentages of C. frutescens were higher compared with C. annuum. Hairy root initiation was observed earliest using radicles (1st week), followed by cotyledons (2nd week), and hypocotyls (3rd week). Cotyledon explants of both species had the highest induction frequency with all strains compared with the other explants types. Strains ATCC 13333 and ATCC 15834 were the most favourable for C. frutescens while ATCC 43056 and ATCC 43057 were the most favourable for C. annuum. The interactions between the different explants and strains showed significant differences with p-values < 0.0001 in both Capsicum species. Conclusions Both Capsicum species were amenable to A. rhizogenes infection and hairy root induction is recommended for use as an alternative explants in future plant-based studies. PMID

  8. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  9. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods

    PubMed Central

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-01-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum ‘PBC80’ derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance. PMID:24273429

  10. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. PMID:26920284

  11. Antibacterial activity of Capsicum annuum extract and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Santos, Moema Mocaiber Peralva; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Gonçalves, Paula Santos; Maria, Edmilsom José; Terra, Wagner Silva; Rodrigues, Rosana; Souza, Claudio Luiz Melo

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of the ethyl acetate extract and capsaicin (1) and dihydrocapsaicin (2) isolated from fruits of Capsicum annuum chili pepper type, and synthetic capsaicinoid derivatives (N-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl)decamide (3), (E)-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3,7-dimethylocta- 2,6-dienamide (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-N-((E)-3, 7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)benzamide (5) andN-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxybenzyl)decamide (6) at different concentrations were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration at which the ethyl acetate extract prevented the growth of S. mutans was 2.5 mg/mL; those of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were 1.25 μg/mL, while 3 was 5.0 μg/mL, and 4, 5 and 6 were 2.5 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:21858615

  12. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    PubMed

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance. PMID:24273429

  13. Recombinant inbred line differential identifies race-specific resistance to phytophthora root rot in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Sy, O; Steiner, R; Bosland, P W

    2008-08-01

    A differential series is the normal method for identification of races within a plant pathogen and a host interaction. A host differential is extremely useful for phytopathological as well as breeding purposes. A set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed and characterized for race differentiation of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. The highly resistant Capsicum annuum accession Criollo de Morelos-334 was hybridized to a susceptible cultivar, Early Jalapeno, to generate the RIL population. The host differential characterized 17 isolates of P. capsici into 13 races. The establishment of a stable host differential for the P. capsici and C. annuum interaction will assist researchers in understanding the complex inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora root rot and to develop resistant cultivars. PMID:18943204

  14. Transferability of microsatellite markers of Capsicum annuum L. to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Oliveira, I B; Amaral, Z P S; Reifschneider, F J B; Faleiro, F G; Buso, G S C

    2015-01-01

    In order to support further genetic, diversity, and phylogeny studies of Capsicum species, the transferability of a Capsicum annuum L. simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite set was analyzed for C. frutescens L. ("malagueta" and "tabasco" peppers) and C. chinense Jacq. (smell peppers, among other types). A total of 185 SSR primers were evaluated in 12 accessions from 115 C. frutescens L. and 480 C. chinense Jacq, representing different types within each species. Transferability to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. occurred for 116 primers (62.7%). Nineteen (16.37%) were polymorphic in C. frutescens L. and 36 (31.03%) in C. chinense Jacq., 17 of which were coincident and could be used to analyze samples obtained for the 2 species. Among these primers, CA49 showed a different amplitude range of alleles between the 2 species (130-132 base pairs for C. frutescens L. and 120-128 base pairs for C. chinense Jacq.), and could differentiate the species. A total of 55 alleles were identified among the 19 polymorphic SSR loci among accessions of C. frutescens L., with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 5, a mean of 2.89, and the polymorphic information content ranging from 0.30 to 0.65. The number of alleles identified in C. chinense Jacq. was 119, ranging from 2 to 5 alleles per locus, an average of 3.30, and polymorphic information content from 0.19 to 0.68. The C. annuum L. SSR primers were most often transfer-able and polymorphic for C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq., and we present a set of SSR for each species. PMID:26214475

  15. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C H; Pelgrom, Koen T B; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC-MS and headspace GC-MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum-C. chinense-C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of Capsicum spp germplasm bank accessions based on α/β-esterase polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, E R; Bronzato, A R; Orasmo, G R; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure were analyzed in 10 accessions belonging to Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Capsicum located at Federal University of Piauí in northwestern Brazil that receives pepper samples grown in community gardens in various regions and Brazilian states. Selections were made from seeds of C. chinense (4 accessions), C. annuum (5 accessions), and C. baccatum (1 accession). Samples consisting of leaves were collected from 4-10 plants of each accession (a total of 85 plants). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify α- and β-esterase polymorphisms. Polymorphism was clearly detected in 5 loci. Sixteen alleles were found at 5 α/β-esterase loci of the three Capsicum species. In the C. chinense samples, the highest HO and HE values were 0.3625 and 0.4395, respectively, whereas in C. annuum samples, HO and HE values were 0.2980 and 0.3310, respectively; the estimated HO and HE values in C. chinense samples were higher than those detected in C. annuum samples. A deficit of homozygous individuals was found in C. chinense (FIS = -0.6978) and C. annuum (FIS = 0.7750). Genetic differentiation between C. chinense and C. annuum at these loci was high (FST = 0.1867) indicating that C. chinense and C. annuum are genetically structured species for α/β- esterase isozymes. The esterase analysis showed high genetic diversity among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and very high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6321) among the C. chinense and C. annuum samples and the C. baccatum accession. PMID:23661440

  17. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum L. with Rhizobium strains. 2. Changes in sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are consumed worldwide, imparting flavor, aroma, and color to foods, additionally containing high concentrations of biofunctional compounds. This is the first report about the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Generally, inoculation with strain TVP08 led to the major changes, being observed a decrease of sterols and triterpenes and an increase of fatty acids, which are related to higher biomass, growth, and ripening of pepper fruits. The increase of volatile compounds may reflect the elicitation of plant defense after inoculation, since the content on methyl salicylate was significantly increased in inoculated material. The findings suggest that inoculation with Rhizobium strains may be employed to manipulate the content of interesting metabolites in pepper leaves and fruits, increasing potential health benefits and defense abilities of inoculated plants. PMID:24405510

  18. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus. PMID:26959315

  19. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  20. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum. PMID:26739748

  1. Effect of sowing time and crop geometry on the Capsaicinoid content in Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Sanju Singh; Gogoi, Sailen; Thongbam, Premila Devi; Ramya, K T; Fiyaz, R Abdul; Pandey, D S

    2014-09-01

    Capsicum species are not only cultivated as vegetable and condiment crop but are also incorporated into a number of medicinal preparations in the ancient literature around the world. 'Naga chilli' or 'Bhoot Jolokia' (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is a chilli variety indigenous to the northeast region of India and has been recognized as one of the hottest chilli in the world. It has also been used conventionally in treating various human ailments since time immemorial by the indigenous people of the northeast India. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are the two major members of the so-called capsaicinoid family, which includes other minor analogues, and usually account for at least 90 % of the pungency trait in chilli fruits. In the present study, determination of Capsaicinoid content of Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) under different sowing time and spacing was done. In the Scoville Organoleptic test, the highest Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) value was found in September 15 sowing fruits and the lowest in the February 15 sowing fruits. Fruit produced from spacing 105 cm × 105 cm showed highest Scoville Heat Unit. In High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis, highest amount of capsaicinoid was also found in September 15 sowing while fruits produced from spacing 105 cm × 105 cm showed highest amount of capsaicinoid. Identification of Nordihydrocapsaicin, Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin was done by comparing the retention time of sample with those of standard. PMID:25190853

  2. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum. PMID:26739748

  3. Characterization of Capsicum annuum Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Based on Parallel Polymorphism Discovery with a 30K Unigene Pepper GeneChip

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Theresa A.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W.; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  4. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    PubMed

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  5. Genome mapping in capsicum and the evolution of genome structure in the solanaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, K D; Lackney, V K; Blauth, J R; van Wijk, R; Jahn, M K

    1999-01-01

    We have created a genetic map of Capsicum (pepper) from an interspecific F2 population consisting of 11 large (76.2-192.3 cM) and 2 small (19.1 and 12.5 cM) linkage groups that cover a total of 1245.7 cM. Many of the markers are tomato probes that were chosen to cover the tomato genome, allowing comparison of this pepper map to the genetic map of tomato. Hybridization of all tomato-derived probes included in this study to positions throughout the pepper map suggests that no major losses have occurred during the divergence of these genomes. Comparison of the pepper and tomato genetic maps showed that 18 homeologous linkage blocks cover 98.1% of the tomato genome and 95.0% of the pepper genome. Through these maps and the potato map, we determined the number and types of rearrangements that differentiate these species and reconstructed a hypothetical progenitor genome. We conclude there have been 30 breaks as part of 5 translocations, 10 paracentric inversions, 2 pericentric inversions, and 4 disassociations or associations of genomic regions that differentiate tomato, potato, and pepper, as well as an additional reciprocal translocation, nonreciprocal translocation, and a duplication or deletion that differentiate the two pepper mapping parents. PMID:10388833

  6. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Gene Family in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Wei-Ping; Snyder, John C.; Wang, Shu-Bin; Liu, Jin-Bing; Pan, Bao-Gui; Guo, Guang-Jun; Wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper. PMID:26941768

  8. Antihyperglucolipidaemic and anticarbonyl stress properties in green, yellow and red sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Srishti; Kumar, Dommati Anand; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Effect of aqueous methanol extract of different colour sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) on parameters of diabesity and carbonyl stress was analysed in vitro. Yellow pepper displayed significantly (p < 0.001) higher intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than green and red pepper. Porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity was significantly (p < 0.01) high in yellow and red pepper than in green pepper. Green and red pepper inhibited vesperlysine-type advanced glycation end products (AGEs) more potently than yellow pepper; however, pentosidine-type AGEs were similarly inhibited by all three peppers. Yellow and red pepper inhibited lipid peroxidation more potently (p < 0.01) than green pepper. Total polyphenol content and free radicals scavenging activities in yellow and red bell peppers were higher than in green pepper. Total flavonoid content was high in green pepper than that present in yellow and red peppers. Green pepper displayed presence of proanthocyanins; however, oligomeric anthocyanins were detected in yellow and red peppers. PMID:25868614

  9. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  10. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. PMID:27416068

  11. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

  12. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Is a Dead-End Host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Morilla, G; Janssen, D; García-Andrés, S; Moriones, E; Cuadrado, I M; Bejarano, E R

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. The disease is caused by a complex of begomovirus species, two of which, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), are responsible for epidemics in Southern Spain. TYLCV also has been reported to cause severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants collected from commercial crops were found to be infected by isolates of two TYLCV strains: TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99], an isolate of the mild strain similar to other TYLCVs isolated from tomato crops in Spain, and TYLCV-[Alm], an isolate of the more virulent TYLCV type strain, not previously reported in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, common bean, and tomato were tested for susceptibility to TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99]and TYLCV-[Alm] by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration, biolistic bombardment, or Bemisia tabaci inoculation. Results indicate that both strains are able to infect plants of these species, including pepper. This is the first time that infection of pepper plants with TYLCV clones has been shown. Implications of pepper infection for the epidemiology of TYLCV are discussed. PMID:18943307

  13. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  14. The color and size of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) influence Hep-G2 cell growth.

    PubMed

    Popovich, David G; Sia, Sharon Y; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Mon L

    2014-11-01

    Four types of chili (Capsicum annuum) extracts, categorized according to color; green and red, and size; small and large were studied in Hep-G2 cells. Red small (RS) chili had an LC50 value of 0.378 ± 0.029 compared to green big (GB) 1.034 ± 0.061 and green small (GS) 1.070 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Red big (RB) was not cytotoxic. Capsaicin content was highest in RS and produced a greater percentage sub-G1 cells (6.47 ± 1.8%) after 24 h compared to GS (2.96 ± 1.3%) and control (1.29 ± 0.8%) cells. G2/M phase was reduced by GS compared to RS and control cells. RS at the LC50 concentration contained 1.6 times the amount of pure capsaicin LC50 to achieve the same effect of capsaicin alone. GS and GB capsaicin content at the LC50 value was lower (0.2 and 0.66, respectively) compared to the amount of capsaicin to achieve a similar reduction in cell growth. PMID:24958520

  15. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  16. Generic characterization of apolar metabolites in red chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) by orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Zhani, Kaouther; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-05-21

    The aim of the present study was to develop a generic analytical method for the identification and quantitation of apolar plant metabolites in biomass using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS). During this study, a single generic sample preparation protocol was applied to extract apolar plant metabolites. Compound identification was performed using a single generic screening method for apolar compounds without the need for dedicated fractionation. Such a generic approach renders vast amounts of information and is virtually limited by only the solubility and detector response of the metabolites of interest. Method validation confirmed that this approach is applicable for quantitative purposes. Furthermore, an identification-quantitation strategy based on amMS and molar extinction coefficients was used for carotenoids, eliminating the need for reference standards for each carotenoid. To challenge the validated method, chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.) were analyzed to unravel their complex phytochemical composition (carotenoids, glycolipids, glycerolipids, capsaicinoids, lipid-soluble vitamins). PMID:24762165

  17. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Capsicum annuum varieties Mandarin and Blackcluster: assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Cho, Young-Il; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun; Woo, Jong-Gyu; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul

    2014-01-10

    Next generation sequencing technologies have proven to be a rapid and cost-effective means to assemble and characterize gene content and identify molecular markers in various organisms. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., Solanaceae) is a major staple vegetable crop, which is economically important and has worldwide distribution. High-throughput transcriptome profiling of two pepper cultivars, Mandarin and Blackcluster, using 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing yielded 279,221 and 316,357 sequenced reads with a total 120.44 and 142.54Mb of sequence data (average read length of 431 and 450 nucleotides). These reads resulted from 17,525 and 16,341 'isogroups' and were assembled into 19,388 and 18,057 isotigs, and 22,217 and 13,153 singletons for both the cultivars, respectively. Assembled sequences were annotated functionally based on homology to genes in multiple public databases. Detailed sequence variant analysis identified a total of 9701 and 12,741 potential SNPs which eventually resulted in 1025 and 1059 genotype specific SNPs, for both the varieties, respectively, after examining SNP frequency distribution for each mapped unigenes. These markers for pepper will be highly valuable for marker-assisted breeding and other genetic studies. PMID:24125952

  19. Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study aims to evaluate zootechnic parameters and blood sugar in rabbits submitted to diets containing different levels of pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Materials and Methods: To this end, 30 rabbits weighing on average 1252±35 g at the beginning of the experiment were subjected to five rations with three repetitions for 56 days: The food R0 (or control) which is floury provender contains 0% of C. frutescens; R5, R10, R15, and R20 provender containing, respectively, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of C. frutescens fruits’ powder. Rabbits consumed on average from 75.47 to 80.97 g dry matter. Results: Digestibility ranged from 52.39% to 61.01%. The average daily gain and feed consumption index were similar for all diets. Blood glucose was amended by the various servings is 0.98 g/L and 0.88 g/L, respectively, for doses. Conclusion: It appears from this study that rabbits consumed well diets containing C. frutescens. However, C. frutescens’ effect on the growth performances of rabbits is not noticeable. Furthers experiments will be useful to evaluate C. frutescens’ mechanism of action on blood sugar. PMID:27057112

  20. Characterization and genetic diversity of pepper (Capsicum spp) parents and interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Costa, M P S D; do Rêgo, M M; da Silva, A P G; do Rêgo, E R; Barroso, P A

    2016-01-01

    Pepper species exhibit broad genetic diversity, which enables their use in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity between the parents of different species and their interspecific hybrids using morphological and molecular markers. The parents of Capsicum annuum (UFPB-01 and -137), C. baccatum (UFPB-72), and C. chinense (UFPB-128) and their interspecific hybrids (01x128, 72x128, and 137x128) were used for morphological and molecular characterization. Fruit length and seed yield per fruit (SYF) traits showed the highest variability, and three groups were formed based on these data. CVg/CVe ratio values (>1.0) were calculated for leaf length (1.67) and SYF (5.34). The trait that most contributed to divergence was the largest fruit diameter (26.42%), and the trait that least contributed was pericarp thickness (0.33%), which was subject to being discarded. The 17 primers produced 58 polymorphic bands that enabled the estimation of genetic diversity between parents and hybrids, and these results confirmed the results of the morphological data analyses. The principal component analysis results also corroborated the morphological and random-amplified polymorphic DNA data, and three groups that contained the same individuals were identified. These results confirmed reports in the literature regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the species used as parents, which demonstrated that C. annuum was closer to C. chinense as compared to C. baccatum. PMID:27173311

  1. Genetic diversity of Capsicum chinensis (Solanaceae) accessions based on molecular markers and morphological and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Finger, F L; Lannes, S D; Schuelter, A R; Doege, J; Comerlato, A P; Gonçalves, L S A; Ferreira, F R A; Clovis, L R; Scapim, C A

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 49 accessions of the hot pepper species Capsicum chinensis through analyses of 12 physicochemical traits of the fruit, eight multi-categorical variables, and with 32 RAPD primers. Data from the physicochemical traits were submitted to analysis of variance to estimate the genetic parameters, and their means were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. The matrices from the individual and combined distance were estimated by multivariate analyses before applying Tocher's optimization method. All physicochemical traits were examined for genetic variability by analysis of variance. The responses of these traits showed more contribution from genetic than from environmental factors, except the percentage of dry biomass, content of soluble solids and vitamin C level. Total capsaicin had the greatest genetic divergence. Nine clusters were formed from the quantitative data based on the generalized distance of Mahalanobis, using Tocher's method; four were formed from the multi-categorical data using the Cole-Rodgers coefficient, and eight were formed from the molecular data using the Nei and Li coefficient. The accessions were distributed into 14 groups using Tocher's method, and no significant correlation between pungency and origin was detected. Uni- and multivariate analyses permitted the identification of marked genetic diversity and fruit attributes capable of being improved through breeding programs. PMID:20882481

  2. The effect of oleoresin capsicum "pepper" spray inhalation on respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Chan, Theodore C; Vilke, Gary M; Clausen, Jack; Clark, Richard F; Schmidt, Paul; Snowden, Thomas; Neuman, Tom

    2002-03-01

    We performed a randomized, cross-over controlled trial to assess the effect of Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray inhalation on respiratory function by itself and combined with restraint. Thirty-five subjects were exposed to OC or placebo spray, followed by 10 min of sitting or prone maximal restraint position (PMRP). Spirometry, oximetry, and end-tidal CO2 levels were collected at baseline and throughout the 10 min. Data were compared between groups (ANOVA) and with predefined normal values. In the sitting position, OC did not result in any significant changes in mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (%predFVC), percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%predFEV1), oxygen, or CO2 levels. In PMRP, mean %predFVC and %predFEV1 fell 14.4 and 16.5% for placebo and 16.2 and 19.1% for OC, but were not significantly different by exposure. There was no evidence of hypoxemia or hypercapnia in either groups. OC exposure did not result in abnormal spirometry, hypoxemia, or hypoventilation when compared to placebo in either sitting or PMRP. PMID:11908598

  3. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    PubMed

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  4. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (C. chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent C. annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16–20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. PMID:24388515

  5. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations. PMID:21628269

  6. The use of seed protein electrophoresis in the study of phylogenetic relationships in Chili pepper (Capsicum L.).

    PubMed

    Panda, R C; Aniel Kumar, O; Raja Rao, K G

    1986-08-01

    The seed protein profile of eight taxa of Chili peppers obtained by disc electrophoresis was found to be a diagnostic character in the study of phylogenetic relationships. The distinctness of each species and the wild and cultivated nature of concerned taxa has been confirmed. While the clustering of wildC. annuum var. 'glabriusculum' withC. baccatum types indicated that the former is the progenitor of the latter group, the marked differences discernible in the seed protein profile of all other taxa suggest a polyphyletic origin for the genusCapsicum. PMID:24248078

  7. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  8. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Naegele, Rachel P; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  9. Microspore-derived embryogenesis in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): subcellular rearrangements through development.

    PubMed

    Bárány, Ivett; González-Melendi, Pablo; Fadón, Begoña; Mitykó, Judit; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2005-09-01

    Background information. In vitro-cultured microspores, after an appropriate stress treatment, can switch towards an embryogenic pathway. This process, known as microspore embryogenesis, is an important tool in plant breeding. Basic studies on this process in economically interesting crops, especially in recalcitrant plants, are very limited and the sequence of events is poorly understood. In situ studies are very convenient for an appropriate dissection of microspore embryogenesis, a process in which a mixture of different cell populations (induced and non-induced) develop asynchronically.Results. In the present study, the occurrence of defined subcellular rearrangements has been investigated during early microspore embryogenesis in pepper, an horticultural crop of agronomic interest, in relation to proliferation and differentiation events. Haploid plants of Capsicum annuum L. (var. Yolo Wonder B) have been regenerated from in vitro anther cultures by a heat treatment at 35 degrees C for 8 days. Morphogenesis of microspore-derived embryos has been analysed, at both light and electron microscopy levels, using low-temperature-processed, well-preserved specimens. The comparison with the normal gametophytic development revealed changes in cell organization after embryogenesis induction, and permitted the characterization of the time sequence of a set of structural events, not previously defined in pepper, related to the activation of proliferative activity and differentiation. These changes mainly affected the plastids, the vacuolar compartment, the cell wall and the nucleus. Further differentiation processes mimicked that of the zygotic development.Conclusions. The reported changes can be considered as markers of the microspore embryogenesis. They have increased the understanding of the mechanisms controlling the switch and progression of the microspore embryogenesis, which could help to improve its efficiency and to direct strategies, especially in agronomically

  10. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  11. Characterization of a new male sterility-related gene Camf1 in Capsicum annum L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang Ming; Hao, Xue Feng; Chen, Guo Ju; Cao, Bi Hao; Chen, Qing Hua; Liu, Shao Qun; Lei, Jian Jun

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of screening novel genes related to the male sterility in chili pepper for studying the molecular mechanism of plant male sterility, the gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annum L., and a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterility material. Camf1, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in fertile line flower buds was further investigated. The Camf1 has 1,854 bp in length with no introns containing a 1,707-bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of Camf1 shares higher similarity to some members from a glyoxal oxidase-related protein family, and has a glyoxal oxidase conserved domain at the N-terminus and a domain of unknown function (DUF1929) at C-terminal end. Expression analysis showed that Camf1 expressed only in stage 3-7 flower buds of male fertile of C. annum L. 114AB, and no detection in all organs of male sterility. The peak of expression level of Camf1 appeared at stage 4 flower buds of fertile line. Furthermore, expression analysis of different organs revealed that Camf1 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves and open flowers. These results suggested that Camf1 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of C. annum L. PMID:21559833

  12. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, JungEun; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hye-Sun; Kim, Woo Taek; Choi, Doil; Hur, Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat). The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i) identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii) analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii) comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at . Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome. PMID:18844979

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  14. Identification of two new genes conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum in Capsicum baccatum.

    PubMed

    Mahasuk, P; Taylor, P W J; Mongkolporn, O

    2009-09-01

    Resistance to anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum capsici and C. acutatum, was investigated in Capsicum baccatum PBC80 and PBC1422 and C. chinense PBC932. Mature green and ripe fruit were inoculated with 13 isolates of the two Colletotrichum species PBC80 contained the broadest spectrum of resistance to both Colletotrichum species because none of the isolates were able to infect the genotype. At both fruit maturity stages, PBC1422 was infected by only Colletotrichum acutatum. PBC932 at ripe fruit stage was infected by both C. capsici and C. acutatum, except for one isolate, 158ci, that did not infect PBC932. PBC932 at the mature green fruit stage was infected by only C. acutatum. An intraspecific cross between PBC80 and PBC1422 was developed to determine inheritance of resistance to C. acutatum. Anthracnose resistance was assessed at mature green and ripe fruit stages using 0 to 9 disease severity scores. Frequency distribution of the disease scores in the F(2) and BC(1) populations suggested a single recessive gene responsible for the resistance at mature green fruit stage and a single dominant gene for the resistance at ripe fruit stage. Linkage analysis between the two genes identified in both fruit maturity stages showed the genes to be independent. Based on phenotypic data, the two newly identified genes, co4 and Co5, from PBC80 appeared to be different loci from the co1 and co2 previously identified from PBC932 and will be valuable sources of resistance to anthracnose in chili breeding programs. PMID:19671013

  15. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  16. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  17. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  18. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Properties of Hot Pepper Flower (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-09-01

    At present, the various medical treatments of obesity involve side effects. The aim of the research is therefore to find natural compounds that have anti-obesity activity with minimum disadvantages. In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from Capsicum annuum L. was examined through the evaluation of inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Phytochemical analysis indicated that total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract was 128.7 ± 4.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent/g of crude extract and 17.66 ± 0.11 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited pancreatic lipase with IC50 value equal to 3.54 ± 0.18 mg/ml. It also inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 value of 27.61 ± 2.25 μg/ml after 30 min of incubation and 41.69 ± 1.13 μg/ml after 60 min of incubation. The IC50 value of radical scavenging activity was 51.90 ± 2.03 μg/ml. The extract was also able to inhibit NO production (IC50 = of 264.3 ± 7.98 μg/ml) without showing any cytotoxic effect. PMID:27372805

  19. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  20. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088

  1. Comparison between the N and Me3 gene conferring resistance to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in genetically different pepper lines (Capsicum annuun).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been well characterized for the N and Me3 resistance genes. However, there are no studies comparing the effects of these two genes directly or are there studies investigating the combined effects when both genes are pres...

  2. Interactive effects of salinity and N on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yield, water use efficiency and root zone and drainage salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt tolerance of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions and to examine the interactive effects of salinity and nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on yield. The present study shows the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels (270 ...

  3. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS(*) scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe(2+) and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  4. Identification of Gene-Specific Polymorphisms and Association with Capsaicin Pathway Metabolites in Capsicum annuum L. Collections

    PubMed Central

    Abburi, Venkata L.; Alaparthi, Suresh Babu; Unselt, Desiree; Hankins, Gerald; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important crop with added nutritional value. Production of capsaicin is an important quantitative trait with high environmental variance, so the development of markers regulating capsaicinoid accumulation is important for pepper breeding programs. In this study, we performed association mapping at the gene level to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with capsaicin pathway metabolites in a diverse Capsicum annuum collection during two seasons. The genes Pun1, CCR, KAS and HCT were sequenced and matched with the whole-genome sequence draft of pepper to identify SNP locations and for further characterization. The identified SNPs for each gene underwent candidate gene association mapping. Association mapping results revealed Pun1 as a key regulator of major metabolites in the capsaicin pathway mainly affecting capsaicinoids and precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids. Six different SNPs in the promoter sequence of Pun1 were found associated with capsaicin in plants from both seasons. Our results support that CCR is an important control point for the flux of p-coumaric acid to specific biosynthesis pathways. KAS was found to regulate the major precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids and may play a key role in capsaicinoid production. Candidate gene association mapping of Pun1 suggested that the accumulation of capsaicinoids depends on the expression of Pun1, as revealed by the most important associated SNPs found in the promoter region of Pun1. PMID:24475113

  5. Identification of a new species of Cercospora causing leaf spot disease in Capsicum assamicum in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    Northeastern India is one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, hot and humid climatic conditions of the region favor growth and development of foliar fungal phytopathogens such as cercosporoid fungi. The genus Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes. Species of Cercospora are known to cause leaf spot disease in several cultivated and non-cultivated plants leading to considerable losses. In this study, we describe a new species of Cercospora which was isolated from the leaves of Naga chilli (Capsicum assamicum Purkayastha & Singh) grown in northeastern India. Comparison of the detailed morphological characteristics along with the DNA sequences for four gene regions, namely actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1α of this isolate, was made with those of some previously reported Cercospora species infecting Capsicum and other similar species of Cercospora from other hosts. The results suggested that our isolate represents an undescribed taxon and warrants the establishment of a new species, Cercospora tezpurensis sp. nov. PMID:23994144

  6. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions: variation in health-related compounds and implications for breeding.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2011-08-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that composition and level of metabolites in fruits varied greatly between accessions and was independent of species and geographical location. Fruit color was determined by the accumulation of specific carotenoids leading to salmon, yellow, orange, red and brown colored fruits. Levels of both O- and C-glycosides of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin varied strongly between accessions. All non-pungent accessions were devoid of capsaicins, whereas capsaicinoid levels ranged from 0.07 up to 80 mg/100g fr. wt. in fruit pericarp. In general, pungent accessions accumulated the highest capsaicinoid levels in placenta plus seed tissue compared to pericarp. The non-pungent capsaicinoid analogs, capsiates, could be detected at low levels in some pungent accessions. All accessions accumulated high levels of vitamin C, up to 200 mg/100g fr. wt. The highest vitamin E concentration found was 16 mg/100g fr. wt. Based on these metabolic data, five accessions were selected for further metabolic and molecular analysis, in order to isolate key genes involved in the production of these compounds and to assist future breeding programs aimed at optimizing the levels of health-related compounds in pepper fruit. PMID:21514607

  7. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern) was further supported by the pattern of spatial population structure. Conclusions

  8. Reduced tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing a Capsicum annuum multiprotein bridging factor 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pepper fruit is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide. However, low temperature affects the vegetative development and reproduction of the pepper, resulting in economic losses. To identify cold-related genes regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in pepper seedlings, cDNA representational difference analysis was previously performed using a suppression subtractive hybridization method. One of the genes cloned from the subtraction was homologous to Solanum tuberosum MBF1 (StMBF1) encoding the coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1. Here, we have characterized this StMBF1 homolog (named CaMBF1) from Capsicum annuum and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Results Tissue expression profile analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that CaMBF1 was expressed in all tested tissues, and high-level expression was detected in the flowers and seeds. The expression of CaMBF1 in pepper seedlings was dramatically suppressed by exogenously supplied salicylic acid, high salt, osmotic and heavy metal stresses. Constitutive overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis aggravated the visible symptoms of leaf damage and the electrolyte leakage of cell damage caused by cold stress in seedlings. Furthermore, the expression of RD29A, ERD15, KIN1, and RD22 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants. On the other hand, seed germination, cotyledon greening and lateral root formation were more severely influenced by salt stress in transgenic lines compared with wild-type plants, indicating that CaMBF1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were hypersensitive to salt stress. Conclusions Overexpression of CaMBF1 in Arabidopsis displayed reduced tolerance to cold and high salt stress during seed germination and post-germination stages. CaMBF1 transgenic Arabidopsis may reduce stress tolerance by downregulating stress-responsive genes to aggravate the leaf damage caused by cold stress. CaMBF1 may be useful for genetic engineering of novel

  9. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Barroso, Juan B.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. Methods The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Key Results Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. Conclusions The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of

  10. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes

  11. A host-plant specialist, Helicoverpa assulta, is more tolerant to capsaicin from Capsicum annuum than other noctuid species.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung-Joon; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R; Heckel, David G

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary compounds not only play an important role in plant defense, but have been a driving force for host adaptation by herbivores. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), an alkaloid found in the fruit of Capsicum spp. (Solanaceae), is responsible for the pungency of hot pepper fruits and is unique to the genus. The oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a specialist herbivore feeding on solanaceous plants including Capsicum annuum, and is one of a very few insect herbivores worldwide capable of feeding on hot pepper fruits. To determine whether this is due in part to an increased physiological tolerance of capsaicin, we compared H. assulta with another specialist on Solanaceae, Heliothis subflexa, and four generalist species, Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera, and Helicoverpa zea, all belonging to the family Noctuidae. When larvae were fed capsaicin-spiked artificial diet for the entire larval period, larval mortality increased in H. subflexa and H. zea but decreased in H. assulta. Larval growth decreased on the capsaicin-spiked diet in four of the species, was unaffected in H. armigera and increased in H. assulta. Food consumption and utilization experiments showed that capsaicin decreased relative consumption rate (RCR), relative growth rate (RGR) and approximate digestibility (AD) in H. zea, and increased AD and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) in H. armigera; whereas it did not significantly change any of these nutritional indices in H. assulta. The acute toxicity of capsaicin measured by injection into early fifth instar larvae was less in H. assulta than in H. armigera and H. zea. Injection of high concentrations produced abdominal paralysis and self-cannibalism. Injection of sub-lethal doses of capsaicin resulted in reduced pupal weights in H. armigera and H. zea, but not in H. assulta. The results indicate that H. assulta is more tolerant to capsaicin than

  12. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 490 genes (280 up, 210 down), and feeding garlic botanical altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 64 genes (33 up, 31 down), while feeding turmeric oleoresin altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 327 genes (232 up, 95 down). Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) < 0.05] the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE < 0.05) the cell cycle pathway. Feeding each of the 3 plant extracts enhanced (EASE < 0.05) the expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions

  13. Microarray analyses for identifying genes conferring resistance to pepper leaf curl virus in chilli pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap

    2016-09-01

    Pepper leaf curl virus (PepLCV) is a serious threat to pepper (Capsicum spp.) production worldwide. Molecular mechanism underlying pepper plants response to PepLCV infection is key to develop PepLCV resistant varieties. In this study, we generated transcriptome profiles of PepLCV resistant genotype (BS-35) and susceptible genotype (IVPBC-535) after artificial viral inoculation using microarray technology and detail experimental procedures and analyses are described. A total of 319 genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible genotypes were identified, out of that 234 unique genes were found to be up-regulated > 2-fold in resistant line BS-35 when compared to susceptible, IVPBC-535. The data set we generated has been analyzed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of resistance against PepLCV. The raw data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE41131. PMID:27556012

  14. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiological and biochemical properties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Alpas, Hami

    2015-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology, which also has several successful applications in different areas besides food processing. In this study, Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) seeds are subjected to 50, 100, 200 and 300 MPa pressure for 5 min at 25°C and the seedlings of HHP processed seeds are used to compare percentage of seed germination and biochemical properties such as chlorophyll a, b and a/b, proline content, total protein, carotenoid, malondialdehyde, glucose, fructose and phenolic compounds concentrations. As a result of the study, it was observed that there are remarkable changes in terms of biochemical properties especially for seedlings, whose seeds were pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa. More detailed studies are needed to put forward the mechanism behind the changes in biochemical properties.

  15. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum (L.) with Rhizobium strains. 1. Effect on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important agricultural crop and an excellent dietary source of natural colors and antioxidant compounds. The levels of these compounds can vary according to agricultural practices, like inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this work we evaluated for the first time the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on C. annuum metabolites and bioactivity. The results revealed a decrease of organic acids and no effect on phenolics and capsaicinoids of leaves from inoculated plants. In the fruits from inoculated plants organic acids and phenolic compounds decreased, showing that fruits from inoculated plants present a higher ripeness stage than those from uninoculated ones. In general, the inoculation with Rhizobium did not improve the antioxidant activity of pepper fruits and leaves. Considering the positive effect on fruit ripening, the inoculation of C. annuum with Rhizobium is a beneficious agricultural practice for this nonlegume. PMID:24404842

  16. Within-day Changes in the Polyribosome Content and in Synthesis of Proteins in Leaves of Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Barrie T.; Blackwood, Graeme C.

    1978-01-01

    Capsicum annuum cv. California Wonder was grown in controlled environment with a 12-hour photoperiod. The polyribosome content of leaves varied from 60 to 72% of total ribosomes with the highest level occurring in the middle of the photoperiod and the lowest in the middle of the dark period. The variation was accounted for by changes in the content of large polyribosomes (hexamers and larger). There was no indication of an immediate effect on polyribosome content of light-on or light-off. The synthesis of proteins at two times in the 24-hour cycle was compared using a dual isotope technique. Statistically significant results were obtained that suggested that protein(s) with molecular weights of 26,000 daltons were preferentially synthesized in the photoperiod compared to the dark period. No evidence was found for the differential synthesis of proteins within the photoperiod. PMID:16660636

  17. Phenolic content and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of fruits of Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Virginia D; Costa, Geison M; Scola, Gustavo; Silva, Francilene A; Landell, Melissa F; Valente, Patrícia; Souza, Daiana G; Vanz, Danielli C; Reginatto, Flávio H; Moreira, José C F

    2008-06-01

    The phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of extracts of different parts of the fruit from Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum were investigated. The analysis of phenolic content was performed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by the total reactive antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity index. The antioxidant activity was positively correlated with the amount of phenolics found in each sample. The ex vivo antioxidant potential was assessed using the rat liver slice model. The antimicrobial activity was screened using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All the extracts revealed antioxidant activity and a weak antimicrobial activity. PMID:18598168

  18. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Kobata, Kenji; Tate, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohtsu, Keigo; Yazawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2008-03-01

    Coniferyl esters--capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate--were isolated from the fruits of the pepper, Capsicum baccatum L. var. praetermissum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be coniferyl (E)-8-methyl-6-nonenoate (capsiconiate) and coniferyl 8-methylnonanoate (dihydrocapsiconiate). This finding was further confirmed by the lipase-catalyzed condensation of coniferyl alcohol with its corresponding fatty acid derivative. The agonist activity of the esters for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was evaluated by conducting an analysis of the intracellular calcium concentrations in TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. The EC50 values of capsiconiate and dihydrocapsiconiate were 3.2 and 4.2 microM, respectively. PMID:18190936

  19. [Edible coating effects on the sensory quality of green bell pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) during storage].

    PubMed

    Uquiche Carrasco, Edgar; Villarroel Tudesca, Mario; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2002-03-01

    Edible coating based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and stearic acid were applied on green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) samples in order to investigate its effects as protecting agent to enhance natural characteristics of products. Samples were submitted to three lots according to: (T1) uncoated; (T2) coated in lower part of the stem; (T3) coated all over the surface (T3). During storage at 5 +/- 1 degrees C, for 28 days, sensory quality and weight loss were evaluated. Sensory characteristics such as color, appearance and firmness were controlled using a composite scoring test. At the end of the study, T3 treatment showed better sensory stability than T1 (p < 0.05), none significant changes between T2 and T3 were found. The coated samples showed less firmness deterioration compared with control samples. The color was the attribute that changed less, without significant difference between treatments (p > 0.05). PMID:12214553

  20. Capsaicin production by Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus from Capsicum annum; LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Devari, Shekaraiah; Jaglan, Sundeep; Kumar, Manjeet; Deshidi, Ramesh; Guru, Santosh; Bhushan, Shashi; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Gandhi, Sumit G; Sharma, Jai P; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

    2014-02-01

    Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus capable of producing capsaicin (1) was isolated from Capsicum annum. The endophyte was found to produce capsaicin upto three generations. Upscaling of the fermentation broth led to the isolation of one known and one compound characterized as 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2) and alternariol-10-methyl ether (3) respectively. Compound 1 and 3 were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Furthermore, compound 3 displayed a range of cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and was found to induce apoptosis evidenced by Hoechst staining and loss of mitochondrial-membrane potential in HL-60 cells. PMID:24378219

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of capsaicinoids from Capsicum frutescens on a lab- and pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Boonkird, Sumate; Phisalaphong, Chada; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

    2008-09-01

    The influence of operating parameters (solvent type, powder to solvent ratio and temperature) on the ultrasonically assisted extraction of capsaicinoids from dried Capsicum frutescens (fruit) was studied. From the economic perspective, the suitable condition for capsaicinoid extraction by indirect sonication in an ultrasonic bath with a working frequency of 35 kHz was at a ratio of 1g of solid material: 5 ml of 95% (v/v) ethanol, 45 degrees C, where 85% of the capsaicinoids were removed from the raw material in 3h. In an experimental pilot study in 20-l extraction tank at the fixed ultrasonic frequency of 26 kHz and 70 kHz, the recovery of capsaicinoids was 76% and 70%, respectively. It was shown that the ultrasonic extraction produced a significant reduction in extraction time at a lower operational temperature than under a conventional industrial hot maceration process. PMID:18524665

  2. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. PMID:24238720

  3. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. PMID:25446579

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  5. Direct connection of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography as a rapid quantitative method for capsaicinoids in placentas of Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Sasaki, S S; Goda, Y; Yamada, T; Nunomura, O; Ishikawa, K; Maitani, T

    1999-11-01

    The fruits of Capsicum annuum L. are used worldwide as chili peppers and in folk medicines. The pungent components of C. annuum, which are irritants, are called capsaicinoids (CAPS), and the most abundant components are capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. To analyze CAPS in the placentas of Capsicum fruits rapidly and safely, we used a directly connected system of supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFE/SFC). As a column for SFE/SFC, only a silica-type column was found to be suitable. The CAPS contents in placentas of C. annuum cv. Jalapeno (hot type) and C. annuum cv. Shishitoh (less-hot type) determined by the SFE/SFC method agreed well with those in the range of 0-13.81 mg g(-1) fr. wt determined by the usual extraction-HPLC method. The SFE/SFC method has the advantages of no need for pretreatment and no (or minimal) need for organic solvents. We conclude that this method is useful as a rapid (20 min) and safe screening test for the pungency of various Capsicum fruits. PMID:10552868

  6. Rhizobium capsici sp. nov., isolated from root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Wen, Cheng-Zhe; Arun, A B; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and motile bacterium, designated strain CC-SKC2(T), was isolated from the root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant in Taiwan. Cells were positive for oxidase and catalase activities and exhibited growth at 25-37 °C, pH 4.0-9.0 and tolerated NaCl concentrations up to 4.0 % (w/v). Strain CC-SKC2(T) is able to trigger nodulation in soybean (Glycine max Merr.), but not in Capsicum annuum var. grossum, red bean (Vigna angularis), sesbania (Sesbania roxburghii Merr.) or alfalfa (Medicago varia Martin.). The novel strain shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T) and Rhizobium straminoryzae CC-LY845(T) (both 97.5 %) followed by Rhizobium lemnae L6-16(T) (97.3 %), Rhizobium pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) (97.1 %), and Rhizobium paknamense NBRC 109338(T) (97.0 %), whereas other Rhizobium species shared <96.7 % similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain CC-SKC2(T) with R. rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T), R. pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) and R. paknamense NBRC 109338(T) were 11.4, 17.2 and 17.0 %, respectively (reciprocal values were 11.1, 28.3 and 24.0 %, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, atpD and recA genes revealed a distinct taxonomic position attained by strain CC-SKC2(T) with respect to other Rhizobium species. The major fatty acids in strain CC-SKC2(T) were C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C14:0 3-OH and/or C16:1 iso I and C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c. The polyamine pattern showed predominance of spermidine and moderate amounts of sym-homospermidine. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-10) and the DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented here, strain CC-SKC2(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium capsici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-SKC2(T) (=BCRC 80699(T) = JCM 19535(T)). PMID:25555455

  7. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  8. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  9. Autophagy, a Conserved Mechanism for Protein Degradation, Responds to Heat, and Other Abiotic Stresses in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yufei; Guo, Meng; Wang, Hu; Lu, Jinping; Liu, Jinhong; Zhang, Chong; Gong, Zhenhui; Lu, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses negatively affect plants growth and development by inducing protein denaturation, and autophagy degrades the damaged proteins to alleviate their toxicity, however, little is known about the involvement of autophagy in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) tolerances to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified autophagy-related gene (ATG) members in the whole genome of pepper by HMM method and analyzed their expression profiles in response to heat and other abiotic stresses by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the CaATG contained 15 core ATG members including 29 ATG proteins with their respective conserved functional domains, involving the whole process of autophagy. Under normal environmental condition, the expression of CaATG genes showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific patterns, while under abiotic stresses of salt, drought, heat, cold and carbohydrate starvation, the accumulation of autophagosome punctate increased and the expression level of CaATG genes changed with stress type-dependent pattern, which indicates the linkage of autophagy in pepper response to abiotic stresses. After treated with heat stress, both the number of up-regulated CaATG genes and the increment of autophagosome punctate were higher in pepper thermotolerant line R9 than those in thermosensitive line B6, implying an association of autophagy with heat tolerance. In addition, CaATG6 was predicted to interact with CaHSP90 family members. Our study suggests that autophagy is connected to pepper tolerances to heat and other abiotic stresses. PMID:26904087

  10. Regulation of Carbon Partitioning in Source and Sink Leaf Parts in Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tom H.; Veierskov, Bjarke

    1990-01-01

    Area expansion rate, partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru-2,6-P2) were determined in individual parts of developing leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The base was rapidly expanding and allocated less carbon to sucrose synthesis in comparison to the leaf tip, where expansion had almost stopped. The change in leaf expansion rate and carbon partitioning happened gradually. During day time levels of fru-2,6-P2 were consistently higher in the leaf base than in the leaf tip. Leaf expansion rate and carbon partitioning were closely related to day time levels of fru-2,6-P2, suggesting that fru-2,6-P2 is an important factor in adjustment of metabolism during sink-to-source transition of leaf tissue. The levels of fru-2,6-P2 changed markedly after a dark-to-light transition in the leaf base, but not in the leaf tip, suggesting that regulatory systems based on fru-2,6-P2 are different in sink and source leaf tissue. During the period upon dark-to-light transition the variations in level of fru-2,6-P2 did not show a close correlation to changes in the carbon partitioning, until the metabolism had reached a steady state. PMID:16667515

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of a new recombinant begomovirus and associated betasatellite DNA infecting Capsicum annuum in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Bhavin S; Chahwala, Fenisha D; Rathod, Sangeeta; Singh, Achuit K

    2016-05-01

    Capsicum annuum (Chilli) is a perennial herbaceous plant that is cultivated as an annual crop throughout the world, including India. Chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) is a major biotic constraint, causing major losses in chilli production. During 2014, leaf samples of chilli plants displaying leaf curl disease were collected from the Ahmedabad district of Gujarat, India. These samples were used to isolate, clone and sequence viral genomic DNA and an associated betasatellite DNA molecule. Sequence analysis showed 90.4 % nucleotide sequence identity to the previously reported chilli leaf curl virus-[India:Guntur:2009] (ChiLCV-[IN:Gun:09]. As per ICTV nomenclature rules, ChiLCV-Ahm represents a new species of begomovirus, and we therefore propose the name chilli leaf curl Ahmedabad virus-[India:Ahmedabad:2014] (ChiLCAV-[IN:Ahm:14]). The associated betasatellite DNA showed a maximum of 93.5 % nucleotide sequence identity to a previously reported tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite and may be named tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite-[India:Ahmedabad:Chilli:2014]. PMID:26831933

  12. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  13. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  14. Anthocyanins, colour and antioxidant properties of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Sadilova, Eva; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Acetone extracts from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and violet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) peels both belonging to the Solanaceae plant family were characterized with respect to their anthocyanin profiles, colour qualities and antioxidant capacities. According to HPLC-DAD-MS3 analyses the major anthocyanin in eggplant was delphinidin-3-rutinoside, while the predominant pigment in violet pepper was assigned to delphinidin-3-trans-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. Since virtually all anthocyanins were delphinidin-based, the effect of acylation and glycosylation patterns on colour stability and antioxidant capacity could be assessed. Application of two in vitro-assays for antioxidant capacity assessment revealed that eggplant generally exhibited higher values compared to violet pepper which was ascribed to 3,5-diglycosylated structures predominating in the latter. The higher extent of acylation in violet pepper was reflected by a more purplish colour shade of the extracts, but did not translate into a higher stability against fading which again was attributed to additional glycosyl substitution at C5. These findings support the relevance of structure-related activities of anthocyanins both for understanding food colour and their particular nutritional value. PMID:16989312

  15. Germination and ROS detoxification in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under NaCl stress and treatment with microalgae extracts.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Murillo, María A; Ascencio, Felipe; Larrinaga-Mayoral, Juan A

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the salt tolerance of hybrids of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during germination. Treatments were applied at 0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl with preparations of supplemental extracts of the microalgae Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum to determine the percentage germination rate as well as measured indicators of oxidative stress caused by the salt treatments during seed germination. We found that root growth was favorably influenced by the microalgae leading to increased germination rate. Tissues were analyzed in terms of superoxide radical production, lipid peroxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Our results suggest that application of microalgae extracts significantly reduced (p < 0.05) superoxide radical production, as well as lower lipid peroxidation in comparison to plants without extracts of microalgae. The antioxidant enzymes increased in the presence of microalgae showing a significant difference (p < 0.05). The results suggest differences in oxidative metabolism in response to the magnitude of salt stress and concentrations of microalgae help mitigate salt stress in plants during the germination process. PMID:22234834

  16. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Rosa M.; Jiménez, Ana; Román, Paloma; Romojaro, Félix; Bacarizo, Sierra; Leterrier, Marina; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes. PMID:23644886

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly in chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies. PMID:23349661

  18. Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, a new bipartite begomovirus infecting Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum chinense in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Karla; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Chirinos, Doris; Romay, Gustavo; Marys, Edgloris

    2011-12-01

    Virus isolate T217L was obtained from a diseased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant showing leaf deformation and chlorotic mottle symptoms near Maracaibo in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. Full-length DNA-A and DNA-B molecules of T217L were cloned and sequenced. The genome organization of T217L was identical to the bipartite genomes of other begomoviruses described from the Americas. Characteristic disease symptoms were reproduced in S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annum plants inoculated using the cloned viral DNA-A and DNA-B components, confirming disease aetiology. A sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that the T217L isolate has the highest sequence identity (84%) with sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (SiYMYuV), sida golden mosaic Honduras virus (SiGMHV) and bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) isolates. This is less than the 89% identity in the DNA-A component that has been defined as the threshold value for the demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. The molecular data show that isolate T217L belongs to a novel tentative begomovirus species, for which the name tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus is proposed. TCLDV was also detected in symptomatic C. chinense plants growing near the T217L-infected plant. PMID:21853328

  19. Metabolism of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Mateos, Rosa M; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Barroso, Juan B; Del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2012-02-01

    Low temperature is an environmental stress that affects crop production and quality and regulates the expression of many genes, and the level of a number of proteins and metabolites. Using leaves from pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants exposed to low temperature (8 °C) for different time periods (1 to 3 d), several key components of the metabolism of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS, respectively) were analysed. After 24 h of exposure at 8 °C, pepper plants exhibited visible symptoms characterized by flaccidity of stems and leaves. This was accompanied by significant changes in the metabolism of RNS and ROS with an increase of both protein tyrosine nitration (NO(2) -Tyr) and lipid peroxidation, indicating that low temperature induces nitrosative and oxidative stress. During the second and third days at low temperature, pepper plants underwent cold acclimation by adjusting their antioxidant metabolism and reverting the observed nitrosative and oxidative stress. In this process, the levels of the soluble non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione, and the activity of the main NADPH-generating dehydrogenases were significantly induced. This suggests that ascorbate, glutathione and the NADPH-generating dehydrogenases have a role in the process of cold acclimation through their effect on the redox state of the cell. PMID:21414013

  20. Monitoring and assessment of treated river, rain, gully pot and grey waters for irrigation of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Al-Isawi, Rawaa H K; Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the benefits and risks associated with various types of wastewater recycled for vegetable garden irrigation and proposes the best water source in terms of its water quality impact on crop yields. The aim was to evaluate the usability of river, rain, gully pot, real grey and artificial grey waters to water crops. The objectives were to evaluate variables and boundary conditions influencing the growth of chillies (De Cayenne; Capsicum annuum (Linnaeus) Longum Group 'De Cayenne') both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. A few irrigated chilli plants suffered from excess of some nutrients, which led to a relatively poor harvest. High levels of trace minerals and heavy metals were detected in river water, gully pot effluent and greywater. However, no significant differences in plant yields were observed, if compared with standards and other yields worldwide. The highest yields were associated with river water both in the laboratory and in the greenhouse. Plant productivity was unaffected by water quality due to the high manganese, potassium, cadmium and copper levels of the greywater. These results indicate the potential of river water and gully pot effluent as viable alternatives to potable water for irrigation in agriculture. PMID:27075312

  1. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %). PMID:25355002

  2. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; de Dalia Durán-Flores, Flor; Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velázquez, Rosalía V.; Guevara-González, Ramón G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. PMID:23676352

  3. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    PubMed

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:27338325

  4. Resilience of Penicillium resedanum LK6 and exogenous gibberellin in improving Capsicum annuum growth under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses. PMID:25537300

  5. In vitro plantlet regeneration from nodal segments and shoot tips of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-03-01

    An in vitro regeneration protocol was developed for Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili, a very pungent chili cultivar and an important horticultural crop of Nagaland (Northeast India). Maximum number of shoot (13 ± 0.70) was induced with bud-forming capacity (BFC) index of 10.8, by culturing nodal segments in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 μM Thidiazuron (TDZ) followed by 35.52 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Using shoot tips as explants, multiple shoot (10 ± 0.37) (BFC 8.3) was also induced in MS medium fortified with either 18.16 μM TDZ or 35.52 μM BAP. Elongated shoots were best rooted in MS medium containing 5.70 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Rooted plantlets thus developed were hardened in 2-3 weeks time in plastic cups containing potting mixture of a 1:1 mix of soil and cow dung manure and then subsequently transferred to earthen pots. The regenerated plants did not show any variation in the morphology and growth as compared to the parent plant. PMID:22582155

  6. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco. PMID:23949756

  7. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper. PMID:24168044

  8. [Kohonen network study of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses of genomic polymorphism in the genus Capsicum L].

    PubMed

    Ruanet, V V; Kochieva, E Z; Ryzhova, N N

    2005-02-01

    The results of studies based on multilocus molecular analyses, including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, are usually presented in the form of images (electrophoregrams, photographs, etc.). The interpretation of this information is complicated, labor-consuming, and subjective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are ideal "image processors," may be useful when solving such tasks. The possibility of using ANNs for the treatment of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses has been studied. The RAPD and ISSR spectra have been studied in fragments of DNA of plants from the genus Capsicum L. (peppers). The results of clustering the accessions studied by means of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), which is often used for phylogenetic constructions based on RAPD and ISSR data, serve as expert estimates. Fundamentally new methods of genetic polymorphism estimation using ANN technologies, namely, self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) have been developed. The results show that the clusters obtained with the use of UPGMA and SOFM coincide by more than 90%; taking into account that ANNs can deal with high noise levels and incomplete or contradictory data, the approach proposed may prove to be efficient. PMID:15810617

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to Identify Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Capsaicinoids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one of the best strategies for de novo assembly of transcriptome data. We obtained a total 54,045 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) using Trinity software. About 92.65% of unigenes showed similarity to the public protein sequences, genome of potato and tomato and pepper (C. annuum) ESTs databases. Our results predicted 3 new structural genes (DHAD, TD, PAT), which filled gaps of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway predicted by Mazourek, and revealed new candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis based on KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. A significant number of SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) and SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers were predicted in C. frutescens and C. annuum sequences, which will be helpful in the identification of polymorphisms within chili pepper populations. These data will provide new insights to the pathway of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and subsequent research of chili peppers. In addition, our strategy of de novo transcriptome assembly is applicable to a wide range of similar studies. PMID:23349661

  10. Development of a SNP array and its application to genetic mapping and diversity assessment in pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Tang, Xin; Zhou, Huangkai; Hu, Yafei; Zhao, Zicheng; Cui, Junjie; Li, Bo; Wu, Zhiming; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is in its infancy for pepper. Here, a set of 15,000 SNPs were chosen from the resequencing data to develop an array for pepper with 12,720 loci being ultimately synthesized. Of these, 8,199 (~64.46%) SNPs were found to be scorable and covered ~81.18% of the whole genome. With this array, a high-density interspecific genetic map with 5,569 SNPs was constructed using 297 F2 individuals, and genetic diversity of a panel of 399 pepper elite/landrace lines was successfully characterized. Based on the genetic map, one major QTL, named Up12.1, was detected for the fruit orientation trait. A total of 65 protein-coding genes were predicted within this QTL region based on the current annotation of the Zunla-1 genome. In summary, the thousands of well-validated SNP markers, high-density genetic map and genetic diversity information will be useful for molecular genetics and innovative breeding in pepper. Furthermore, the mapping results lay foundation for isolating the genes underlying variation in fruit orientation of Capsicum. PMID:27623541

  11. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  12. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    PubMed

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices. PMID:22888725

  13. New cysteine-S-conjugate precursors of volatile sulfur compounds in bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cultivar).

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Niclass, Yvan

    2011-04-13

    The objective of this study was to verify whether the volatile organic sulfur compounds recently discovered in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. cultivars), such as the mercapto-ketones: 4-sulfanyl-2-heptanone and 2-sulfanyl-4-heptanone, the mercapto-alcohols: 4-sulfanyl-2-heptanol and 2-sulfanyl-4-heptanol, and heptane-2,4-dithiol, originate from their corresponding cysteine-S-conjugates. Analysis of aqueous extracts of red and green bell pepper by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive mode (UPLC-MS ESI(+)) displayed masses corresponding to the expected cysteine-S-conjugates. To confirm this observation, four cysteine-S-conjugates were prepared as authentic samples: S-(3-hydroxy-1-methylhexyl)-L-cysteine, S-(3-hydroxy-1-propylbutyl)-L-cysteine, S-(3-oxo-1-propylbutyl)-L-cysteine, and (2R,2'R)-3,3'-(4-hydroxyheptane-2,6-diyl)bis(sulfanediyl) bis(2-aminopropanoic acid). By comparison with the fragmentation patterns and retention times of synthetic mixtures of cysteine-S-conjugate diastereoisomers, the natural occurrence of cysteine conjugates was confirmed in bell peppers. In addition, the cysteine-S-conjugates from red and green bell pepper extracts were concentrated by ion exchange chromatography and the fractions incubated with a β-lyase (apotryptophanase). The liberated thiols were concentrated by affinity chromatography, and their occurrence, detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, confirmed our predictions. Moreover, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol was also detected and the occurrence of S-(1(2-hydroxyethyl)butyl)-L-cysteine confirmed. A quantitative estimation based on external calibration curves, established by UPLC-MS ESI(+) in selected reaction monitoring mode, showed that cysteine-S-conjugates were present at concentrations in the range of 1 to 100 μg/kg (±20%). PMID:21375341

  14. Morphological and genetic relationships between wild and domesticated forms of peppers (Capsicum frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacquin).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Reifschneider, F J B; Buso, G S C; Faleiro, F G

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum chinense and C. frutescens peppers are part of the Brazilian biodiversity, and the Amazon basin is the area of greatest diversity for them, especially for that former species. Nevertheless, little is known about their evolutionary history. Aiming to identify genotypes with wild and domesticated characteristics, 30 accessions of the germplasm bank of Embrapa were characterized using morphological descriptors and ISSR molecular markers. Of the 72 primers tested, 42% showed amplification and produced 136 amplicons with some of the primers, namely i7Pv and i57Zm, allowing the identification of each species. ISSR also revealed polymorphisms within a species, especially between domesticated and wild forms. Four wild accessions collected in the Amazon region (CNPH 4315, CNPH 4372, CNPH 4337 and CNPH 4325B) popularly known as "olho-de-peixe" or "olho-de periquito" were molecularly classified as C. chinense and showed fruit with similar characteristics as the wild species: upright position, rounded to campanulate shape, small size (1.0 cm long and 0.8 cm wide), average weight of 0.2 g, dark-red color when ripe, easy detachment of calyx and presence of calyx annular constriction (discriminative of C. chinense). The wild form CNPH 4353 known as "malaguetinha" was morphologically and molecularly classified as C. frutescens, demonstrating a more preserved morphology in C. frutescens than in C. chinense. A significant correlation was found between morphological and molecular characterization, and the combination of the two analyses was effective in identifying and classifying the wild forms and contributing to evolutionary studies in the genus. PMID:25222244

  15. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  16. Linkage disequilibrium and population-structure analysis among Capsicum annuum L. cultivars for use in association mapping.

    PubMed

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L; Abburi, Lavanya; Alaparthi, Suresh Babu; Cantrell, Robert; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Hankins, Gerald; Malkaram, Sridhar; Reddy, Umesh K

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of population structure and linkage disequilibrium among the worldwide collections of peppers currently classified as hot, mild, sweet and ornamental types is indispensable for applying association mapping and genomic selection to improve pepper. The current study aimed to resolve the genetic diversity and relatedness of Capsicum annuum germplasm by use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci across all chromosomes in samples collected in 2011 and 2012. The physical distance covered by the entire set of SSRs used was 2,265.9 Mb from the 3.48-Gb hot-pepper genome size. The model-based program STRUCTURE was used to infer five clusters, which was further confirmed by classical molecular-genetic diversity analysis. Mean heterozygosity of various loci was estimated to be 0.15. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was used to identify 17 LD blocks across various chromosomes with sizes from 0.154 Kb to 126.28 Mb. CAMS-142 of chromosome 1 was significantly associated with both capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DCA) levels. Further, CAMS-142 was located in an LD block of 98.18 Mb. CAMS-142 amplified bands of 244, 268, 283 and 326 bp. Alleles 268 and 283 bp had positive effects on both CA and DCA levels, with an average R(2) of 12.15 % (CA) and 12.3 % (DCA). Eight markers from seven different chromosomes were significantly associated with fruit weight, contributing an average effect of 15 %. CAMS-199, HpmsE082 and CAMS-190 are the three major quantitative trait loci located on chromosomes 8, 9, and 10, respectively, and were associated with fruit weight in samples from both years of the study. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of using genome-wide SSR-based markers to assess features of LD and genetic diversity within C. annuum. PMID:24585251

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile of Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Cui, Junjie; Xu, Xiaowan; Liang, Guansheng; Luo, Xirong; Chen, Xiaocui; Tang, Xiangqun; Hu, Kailin; Qin, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factor family is unique to plants and has diverse roles associated with plant-specific phenomena, such as light, phytohormone and defense responses as well as seed development and germination. Although, genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in many species, information regarding Dof genes in the pepper, Capsicum annuum L., is extremely limited. In this study, exhaustive searches of pepper genome revealed 33 potential CaDofs that were phylogenetically clustered into four subgroups. Twenty-nine of the 33 Dof genes could be mapped on 11 chromosomes, except for chromosome 7. The intron/exon organizations and conserved motif compositions of these genes were also analyzed. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Dof transcription factor family in eight plant species revealed that S. lycopersicum and C. annuum as well as O. sativa and S. bicolor Dof proteins may have evolved conservatively. Moreover, comprehensive expression analysis of CaDofs using a RNA-seq atlas and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Most of the CaDofs were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, whereas several genes were identified as being highly responsive to heat and salt stresses. Overall, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the pepper Dof family, whose genes exhibited different expression patterns in all primary fruit developmental stages and tissue types, as in response to abiotic stress. In particular, some Dof genes might be used as biomarkers for heat and salt stress. The results could expand our understanding of the roles of Dof genes in pepper. PMID:27200047

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile of Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Cui, Junjie; Xu, Xiaowan; Liang, Guansheng; Luo, Xirong; Chen, Xiaocui; Tang, Xiangqun; Hu, Kailin; Qin, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Dof (DNA-binding One Zinc Finger) transcription factor family is unique to plants and has diverse roles associated with plant-specific phenomena, such as light, phytohormone and defense responses as well as seed development and germination. Although, genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in many species, information regarding Dof genes in the pepper, Capsicum annuum L., is extremely limited. In this study, exhaustive searches of pepper genome revealed 33 potential CaDofs that were phylogenetically clustered into four subgroups. Twenty-nine of the 33 Dof genes could be mapped on 11 chromosomes, except for chromosome 7. The intron/exon organizations and conserved motif compositions of these genes were also analyzed. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis and classification of the Dof transcription factor family in eight plant species revealed that S. lycopersicum and C. annuum as well as O. sativa and S. bicolor Dof proteins may have evolved conservatively. Moreover, comprehensive expression analysis of CaDofs using a RNA-seq atlas and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Most of the CaDofs were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, whereas several genes were identified as being highly responsive to heat and salt stresses. Overall, this study describes the first genome-wide analysis of the pepper Dof family, whose genes exhibited different expression patterns in all primary fruit developmental stages and tissue types, as in response to abiotic stress. In particular, some Dof genes might be used as biomarkers for heat and salt stress. The results could expand our understanding of the roles of Dof genes in pepper. PMID:27200047

  19. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  20. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  1. Response of pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) on soil amendment by inorganic and organic compounds of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Goessler, Walter; Pavlíková, Daniela; Schmeisser, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil contamination by inorganic and organic arsenic compounds on uptake, accumulation, and transformation of arsenic in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments under controlled conditions. Pepper plants were cultivated in substrate amended by aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid (MA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) applied individually into cultivation substrate at concentrations of 15 mg As per kg of substrate. The plant availability of the arsenicals increased in the order arsenite = arsenate < MA < DMA. The highest arsenic concentrations were found in roots followed by stems, leaves, and fruits regardless of arsenic compound applied. In the control samples of pepper fruits, As(III), As(V), and DMA were present (25%, 37%, and 39% of the water-extractable arsenic). In control stems + leaves and roots, As(V) was the major compound (63% and 53% in a phosphate buffer extract) followed by As(III) representing 33% and 42%. Additionally, low concentrations (not exceeding 5%) of DMA and MA were detected as well. In all the soils analyzed after the first harvest of pepper fruits, arsenate was the dominating compound followed by arsenite. Methylarsonic acid, methylarsonous acid, and DMA were present at varying concentrations depending on the individual soil treatments. In the treated plants, the arsenic compounds in plant tissues reflected predominantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds present in soil after amendment, and this pattern was more significant in the first part of vegetation period. The results confirmed the ability of generative parts of plants to accumulate preferably organic arsenic compounds, whereas in the roots and aboveground biomass, mainly inorganic arsenic species are present. Evidently, the source of soil arsenic contamination affects significantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds in soil and subsequently the distribution of arsenic compounds within

  2. Antioxidant activities of two sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. varieties phenolic extracts and the effects of thermal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yazdizadeh Shotorbani, Narmin; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sweet peppers Capsicum annuum L. (C. annuum) are an excellent source of vitamins A and C as well as phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidant components that may reduce the risk of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate their antioxidant activity under various temperatures. Materials and Methods: To compare the antioxidant activity in various temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65 °C), two different types of colored (red and green) sweet bell peppers C annuum were selected. The red peppers were selected from those cultivated in Shahreza, Esfahan and the green peppers with the local name of Gijlar were selected from those cultivated in Urmia, West Azarbayjan. The experiments were carried out to measure the total phenolic and flavonoid content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), chain-breaking activity, scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Results: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of pepper extracts were enhanced with increasing temperature to 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of DPPH radical of red pepper extract was enhanced because of putting at 50 °C for 30 min and for Gijlar pepper extract scavenging capacity was increased at 65 °C. Scavenging capacity of hydrogen peroxide radical of extracts was the highest at 35 °C. Chain-breaking activity of red pepper extract was increased for 60 min at 35 °C. FRAP (C) of red pepper extract was significantly different (p<0.05) in compare with Gijlar pepper. Conclusion: An appropriate temperature maintained a high antioxidant activity of phenolic compound, which could be due to the combined effect of non enzymatic reaction and phenolic compound stability. PMID:25050256

  3. An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Yutaka; Inoue, Takahiro; Minamiyama, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar ‘California Wonder’ and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar ‘LS2341 (JP187992)’, which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding. PMID:23136519

  4. An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yutaka; Inoue, Takahiro; Minamiyama, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Nakao

    2012-03-01

    Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar 'California Wonder' and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar 'LS2341 (JP187992)', which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding. PMID:23136519

  5. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    PubMed

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA. PMID:26853884

  6. Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel α-amylase inhibitory properties.

    PubMed

    Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2011-07-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of α-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian α-amylase activity in vitro. PMID:21382036

  7. The N-glycan processing enzymes α-mannosidase and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase are involved in ripening-associated softening in the non-climacteric fruits of capsicum

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Kumar, Anil; Thakur, Archana; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Excessive softening of fruits during the ripening process leads to deterioration. This is of significant global importance as softening-mediated deterioration leads to huge postharvest losses. N-glycan processing enzymes are reported to play an important role during climacteric fruit softening: however, to date these enzymes have not been characterized in non-climacteric fruit. Two ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), have been identified and targeted to enhance the shelf life in non-climacteric fruits such as capsicum (Capsicum annuum). The purification, cloning, and functional characterization of α-Man and β-Hex from capsicum, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families 38 and 20, respectively, are described here. α-Man and β-Hex are cell wall glycoproteins that are able to cleave terminal α-mannose and β-D-N-acetylglucosamine residues of N-glycans, respectively. α-Man and β-Hex transcripts as well as enzyme activity increase with the ripening and/or softening of capsicum. The function of α-Man and β-Hex in capsicum softening is investigated through RNA interference (RNAi) in fruits. α-Man and β-Hex RNAi fruits were approximately two times firmer compared with the control and fruit deterioration was delayed by approximately 7 d. It is shown that silencing of α-Man and β-Hex enhances fruit shelf life due to the reduced degradation of N-glycoproteins which resulted in delayed softening. Altogether, the results provide evidence for the involvement of N-glycan processing in non-climacteric fruit softening. In conclusion, genetic engineering of N-glycan processing can be a common strategy in both climacteric and non-climacteric species to reduce the post-harvest crop losses. PMID:21030387

  8. Defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense has immunomodulatory effects on bovine mammary epithelial cells during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Murillo, Violeta; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; López-Meza, Joel E; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    β-Defensins are members of the antimicrobial peptide superfamily that are produced in various species from different kingdoms, including plants. Plant defensins exhibit primarily antifungal activities, unlike those from animals that exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Recently, immunomodulatory roles of mammal β-defensins have been observed to regulate inflammation and activate the immune system. Similar roles for plant β-defensins remain unknown. In addition, the regulation of the immune system by mammalian β-defensins has been studied in humans and mice models, particularly in immune cells, but few studies have investigated these peptides in epithelial cells, which are in intimate contact with pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the chemically synthesized β-defensin γ-thionin from Capsicum chinense on the innate immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) infected with Staphylococcus aureus, the primary pathogen responsible for bovine mastitis, which is capable of living within bMECs. Our results indicate that γ-thionin at 0.1 μg/ml was able to reduce the internalization of S. aureus into bMECs (∼50%), and it also modulates the innate immune response of these cells by inducing the mRNA expression (∼5-fold) and membrane abundance (∼3-fold) of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), as well as by inducing genes coding for the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (∼14 and 8-fold, respectively) before and after the bacterial infection. γ-Thionin also induces the expression of the mRNA of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (∼12-fold). Interestingly, the reduction in bacterial internalization coincides with the production of other antimicrobial products by bMECs, such as NO before infection, and the secretion into the medium of the endogenous antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 after infection. The results from this work support the potential use of β-defensins from plants as immunomodulators of the mammalian

  9. Effects of dietary addition of capsicum extract on intake, water consumption, and rumen fermentation of fattening heifers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Zwieten, J; Gonzalez, L; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2012-06-01

    Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R(2) = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that

  10. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  11. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight). PMID:23411232

  12. Long-Term Oral Administration of Capsicum baccatum Extracts Does Not Alter Behavioral, Hematological, and Metabolic Parameters in CF1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Leonardi, Bianca; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Gosmann, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Our group showed that crude ethanol (CE) and butanol (BUT) extracts of Capsicum baccatum presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the flavonoid and total phenolic contents were positively correlated with both of these properties observed for C. baccatum extracts. The present study demonstrated that 60 days of oral administration of CE and BUT (200 mg/kg) in mice did not cause significant differences in the following parameters evaluated: hematological profile, body weight and relative weight of visceral organs, systemic lipid profile, glucose homeostasis (GTT), kidney and hepatic biochemical markers, and spontaneous locomotion and anxiety-like behavior. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the long-term oral administration of C. baccatum extracts does not affect specific aspects of CF1 mice physiology, suggesting their safety, building up the venue to test their efficacy in animal models underlying persistent activation of oxidative and inflammatory pathways. PMID:23320023

  13. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  14. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents.

    PubMed

    Manzur, Juan Pablo; Fita, Ana; Prohens, Jaime; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  15. Specific synthesis of 5,5'-dicapsaicin by cell suspension cultures of capsicum annuum var. annuum (chili Jalapeño chigol) and their soluble and NaCl-extracted cell wall protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftali; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Villarreal-Ortega, María L; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Esparza-García, Fernando J; Calva-Calva, Graciano

    2004-02-25

    HPLC-UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and (1)H-(1)H COSY analyses revealed that exogenous capsaicin was specifically converted into 5,5'-dicapsaicin by both cell suspension cultures of Capsicum annuum var. annuum (chili Jalapeño chigol) and their soluble and NaCl-extracted cell wall protein fractions under oxidative conditions. In cell suspension cultures 5,5'-dicapsaicin was found only in biomass of capsaicin-fed cultures. This compound has not been detected before either in fresh fruits or in in vitro cultures of Capsicum. The transformation of capsaicin by different protein fractions revealed that most of the enzymatic activity was located in the NaCl-extracted, or ionic cell wall bound, protein, and that it was strictly dependent on H(2)O(2). These results might in part explain some previously described features of capsaicin production by in vitro cultures of Capsicum. The implications of the results regarding the catabolism of capsaicinoids are discussed. PMID:14969559

  16. Pepper, chili (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Min, Jung; Shin, Sun Hee; Jeon, En Mi; Park, Jung Mi; Hyun, Ji Young; Harn, Chee Hark

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is a recalcitrant plant for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Several obstacles to genetic transformation remain such as extremely low transformation rates; the choice of correct genotype is critical; and there is a high frequency of false positives due to direct shoot formation. Here, we report a useful protocol with a suitable selection method. The most important aspect of the pepper transformation protocol is selecting shoots growing from the callus, which is referred to as callus-mediated shoot formation. This protocol is a reproducible and reliable system for pepper transformation. PMID:25300851

  17. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value in ají (Capsicum baccatum L.) and rocoto (C. pubescens R. & P.), 2 pepper species from the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; González-Mas, Maria del Carmen; Nuez, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    The carotenoid patterns of fully ripe fruits from 12 Bolivian accessions of the Andean peppers Capsicum baccatum (ají) and C. pubescens (rocoto) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA)-mass spectrometry (MS). We include 2 California Wonder cultivars as C. annuum controls. A total of 16 carotenoids were identified and differences among species were mostly found at the quantitative level. Among red-fruited genotypes, capsanthin was the main carotenoid in the 3 species (25% to 50% contribution to carotenoid fraction), although ajíes contained the lowest contribution of this carotenoid. In addition, the contribution of capsanthin 5,6-epoxide to total carotenoids in this species was high (11% to 27%) in comparison to rocotos and red C. annuum. Antheraxanthin and violaxanthin were, in general, the next most relevant carotenoids in the red Andean peppers (6.1% to 10.6%). Violaxanthin was the major carotenoid in yellow-/orange-fruited genotypes of the 3 species (37% to 68% total carotenoids), although yellow rocotos were characterized by lower levels (<45%). Cis-violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and lutein were the next most relevant carotenoids in the yellow/orange Andean peppers (5% to 14%). As a whole, rocotos showed the highest contributions of provitamin A carotenoids to the carotenoid fraction. In terms of nutritional contribution, both ajíes and rocotos provide a remarkable provitamin A activity, with several accessions showing a content in retinol equivalents higher than California Wonder controls. Furthermore, levels of lutein in yellow/orange ajíes and rocotos were clearly higher than California Wonder pepper (≥1000 μg·100/g). Finally, the Andean peppers, particularly red ajíes, can be also considered as a noticeable source of capsanthin, the most powerful antioxidant compound among pepper carotenoids. Practical Application: Capsicum peppers are known for their content in carotenoids, although there is

  18. Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional–structural plant modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. T.; Wubs, A. M.; Mathieu, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Zhu, J. Y.; Hu, B. G.; Cournède, P. H.; de Reffye, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional–structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source–sink relationships. Methods A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle. Key Results and Conclusions Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source–sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source–sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and

  19. The Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum) MicroRNA Transcriptome Reveals Novel and Conserved Targets: A Foundation for Understanding MicroRNA Functional Roles in Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Yourim; Kim, Soyoung; Reeves, Gregory; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Doil; Shin, Chanseok

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper. PMID:23737975

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase genes in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hanyang; Cheng, Junbin; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Zhuoli; Li, Jiazhi; Mou, Shaoliang; Qiu, Ailian; Lai, Yan; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a genome wide comprehensive analysis of genes encoding CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs) was performed in pepper, a total of 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CDPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the C. annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and 8 CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families. PMID:26442050

  1. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-01

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed. PMID:26888016

  2. Characterization of different Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their capsaicinoids content by high performance liquid chromatography, determination of pungency and effect of high temperature.

    PubMed

    González-Zamora, Alberto; Sierra-Campos, Erick; Luna-Ortega, J Guadalupe; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Rodríguez Ortiz, Juan Carlos; García-Hernández, José L

    2013-01-01

    The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g(-1) dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU) for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies. PMID:24184818

  3. Response of Resistant and Susceptible Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) to a Southern California Meloidogyne incognita Population from a Commercial Bell Pepper Field.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Jose Luis; Bachie, Oli; Ploeg, Antoon

    2014-12-01

    To determine the presence and level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) infestation in Southern California bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields, soil and root samples were collected in April and May 2012 and analyzed for the presence of root-knot nematodes. The earlier samples were virtually free of root-knot nematodes, but the later samples all contained, sometimes very high numbers, of root-knot nematodes. Nematodes were all identified as M. incognita. A nematode population from one of these fields was multiplied in a greenhouse and used as inoculum for two repeated pot experiments with three susceptible and two resistant bell pepper varieties. Fruit yields of the resistant peppers were not affected by the nematodes, whereas yields of two of the three susceptible pepper cultivars decreased as a result of nematode inoculation. Nematode-induced root galling and nematode multiplication was low but different between the two resistant cultivars. Root galling and nematode reproduction was much higher on the three susceptible cultivars. One of these susceptible cultivars exhibited tolerance, as yields were not affected by the nematodes, but nematode multiplication was high. It is concluded that M. incognita is common in Southern California bell pepper production, and that resistant cultivars may provide a useful tool in a nonchemical management strategy. PMID:25580027

  4. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; de Oliveira Salvi, Aguisson; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. PMID:26970882

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Diversication of Dehydrin Gene Family and Characterization of CaDHN3 in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jing, Hua; Li, Chao; Ma, Fang; Ma, Ji-Hui; Khan, Abid; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Yang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chen, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) play a crucial role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although DHNs have been identified and characterized in many plants, there is little known about Capsicum annuum L., one of the economically important vegetable crops. In this study, seven CaDHNs in the pepper genome were identified, which could be divided into two classes: YnSKn- and SKn-type, based on their highly conserved domains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the seven DHN genes were expressed in all tissues and might be involved in the growth and development of pepper. The gene expression profiles analysis suggested that most of the CaDHN genes were induced by various stresses (low temperature, salt and mannitol) and signaling molecules (ABA, SA and MeJA). Furthermore, the CaDHN3 (YSK2)-silenced pepper plants showed obvious lower resistance to abiotic stresses (cold, salt and mannitol) than the control plants (TRV2:00). So the CaDHN3 might act as a positive role in resisting abiotic stresses. This study lays the foundation for further studies into the regulation of their expression under various conditions. PMID:27551973

  6. Red Pepper (Capsicum baccatum) Extracts Present Anti-Inflammatory Effects In Vivo and Inhibit the Production of TNF-α and NO In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Alexandra; Leonardi, Bianca Franco; Zimmer, Aline Rigon; Moreno, Susana; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt Torres; Gosmann, Grace

    2016-08-01

    Capsicum baccatum is the most consumed red pepper species in Brazil. Our previous studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of its crude extract, whose activity is yet to be fully characterized. Herein, we examined the anti-inflammatory in vivo effects of enriched extracts obtained through bioguided fractionation as dichloromethane (DCM), butanol (BUT), and residual aqueous (RAq) extracts and its influence on inflammatory mediators produced by macrophages in vitro. We demonstrated that all C. baccatum extracts presented anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. In addition, we showed that BUT and RAq were more effective in inhibiting the neutrophil migration induced by carrageenan (Cg) to peritoneal cavity and both extracts inhibited paw edema induced by Cg, prostaglandin E2, and histamine in mice. Furthermore, the pretreatment with C. baccatum extracts significantly reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the paw tissues of mice compared with the carrageenan group. Once again, RAq and BUT caused the greatest reduction in MPO levels. Moreover, it was demonstrated for the first time that C. baccatum inhibited the nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-stimulated macrophages. These anti-inflammatory effects seem to be at least, in part, independent of capsaicin. Hence, red pepper has bioactive compounds and might be used to develop food-derived extracts to treat related inflammatory diseases. PMID:27533650

  7. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  8. Variation of antioxidant activity and the levels of bioactive compounds in lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-15

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. This study investigated the extraction efficiency of five solvents on antioxidant activities from cayenne (CA408 and Mesilla), jalapeño (Ixtapa) and serrano (Tuxtlas) pepper cultivars. Freeze-dried peppers were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with five solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol:water (80:20). The levels of specific bioactive compounds (phenolics, capsaicinoids, carotenoids and flavonoids) were determined by HPLC and antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods. For all pepper cultivars tested, hexane extracts had the highest levels of capsaicinoids and carotenoids, but methanol extracts had the maximum levels of flavonoids. Hexane extracts showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and higher reducing power, and acetone extracts (from Mesilla pepper) had a high reducing power. All pepper extracts, except hexane, were effective in preventing deoxyribose degradation, and the inhibition was increased by high concentrations of extracts. The results of the present study indicated that, among the different measures of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was strongly correlated with total bioactive compounds (capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolics) in pepper cultivars. PMID:23442638

  9. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. PMID:24817604

  10. Localization of 5S and 25S rRNA genes on somatic and meiotic chromosomes in Capsicum species of chili pepper.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2009-02-28

    The loci of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes were localized on chromosomes in five species of Capsicum, namely, annuum, chacoense, frutescens, baccatum, and chinense by FISH. The 5S rDNA was localized to the distal region of one chromosome in all species observed. The number of 45S rDNA loci varied among species; one in annuum, two in chacoense, frutescens, and chinense, and four in baccatum, with the exceptions that 'CM334' of annuum had three loci and 'tabasco' of frutescens had one locus. 'CM334'-derived BAC clones, 384B09 and 365P05, were screened with 5S rDNA as a probe, and BACs 278M03 and 262A23 were screened with 25S rDNA as a probe. Both ends of these BAC clones were sequenced. FISH with these BAC probes on pachytenes from 'CM334' plant showed one 5S rDNA locus and three 45S rDNA loci, consistent with the patterns on the somatic chromosomes. The 5S rDNA probe was also applied on extended DNA fibers to reveal that its coverage measured as long as 0.439 Mb in the pepper genome. FISH techniques applied on somatic and meiotic chromosomes and fibers have been established for chili to provide valuable information about the copy number variation of 45S rDNA and the actual physical size of the 5S rDNA in chili. PMID:19277503

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Diversication of Dehydrin Gene Family and Characterization of CaDHN3 in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji-Hui; Khan, Abid; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Yang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chen, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) play a crucial role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although DHNs have been identified and characterized in many plants, there is little known about Capsicum annuum L., one of the economically important vegetable crops. In this study, seven CaDHNs in the pepper genome were identified, which could be divided into two classes: YnSKn- and SKn-type, based on their highly conserved domains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the seven DHN genes were expressed in all tissues and might be involved in the growth and development of pepper. The gene expression profiles analysis suggested that most of the CaDHN genes were induced by various stresses (low temperature, salt and mannitol) and signaling molecules (ABA, SA and MeJA). Furthermore, the CaDHN3 (YSK2)-silenced pepper plants showed obvious lower resistance to abiotic stresses (cold, salt and mannitol) than the control plants (TRV2:00). So the CaDHN3 might act as a positive role in resisting abiotic stresses. This study lays the foundation for further studies into the regulation of their expression under various conditions. PMID:27551973

  12. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    PubMed

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface. PMID:26964951

  13. Isolation of Mexican Bacillus Species and Their Effects in Promoting Growth of Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jalapeño).

    PubMed

    Peña-Yam, Laura P; Ruíz-Sánchez, Esaú; Barboza-Corona, José E; Reyes-Ramírez, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to isolate and identify native bacteria from plants collected in the State of Yucatán, México with the ability to promote growth of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jalapeño). We identified nine bacterial isolates that belong to five species of Bacillus (i.e. Bacillus subtilis, B. flexus, B. cereus, B. megaterium and B. endophyticus) that produced indoleacetic acid (4.0-24.3 µg/mL) with solubilization index of 1.3-1.6. All the bacterial isolates were evaluated based on their ability to promote growth of chili pepper. Plants inoculated with B. subtilis ITC-N67 showed an increase in stem diameter and root volume, whereas inoculation with B. cereus ITC-BL18 increased the number of flower buds, fresh biomass of roots and total fresh biomass. Conversely, B. flexus ITC-P4 and B. flexus ITC-P22 showed deleterious effect on root volume and total biomass. In summary, our data showed that native B. cereus TC-BL18 and B. subtilis ITC-N67 have potential to be used as growth promoting microorganism for chili pepper, particularly in the state of Yucatán, México. PMID:27407303

  14. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia".

    PubMed

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia." Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 10(6)) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 10(6)) and C. arborea (45 × 10(6)), respectively. The increase in height (60-70 cm), number of leaves (600-650), and yield of chili (120-150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  15. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Ángela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na+ is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na+ compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na+ in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na+ extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K+ in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na+, and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K+. Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na+ extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants. PMID:25429292

  16. Ethyl methane sulfonate induced mutations in M2 generation and physiological variations in M1 generation of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Arisha, Mohamed H; Shah, Syed N M; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Jing, Hua; Li, Chao; Zhang, Huai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to enhance genetic variability in peppers (Capsicum annuum, cv B12) using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). Exposure to an EMS concentration of 0.6%, v/v for 12 h was used to mutagenize 2000 seeds for the first generation (M1). It was observed that the growth behaviors including plant height, flowering date, and number of seeds per first fruit were different in the M1 generation than in wild type (WT) plants. In addition one phenotypic mutation (leaf shape and plant architecture) was observed during the M1 generation. During the seedling stage in the M2 generation, the observed changes were in the form of slow growth or chlorophyll defect (e.g., albino, pale green, and yellow seedlings). At maturity, there were three kinds of phenotypic mutations observed in three different families of the mutant population. The first observed change was a plant with yellow leaf color, and the leaves of this mutant plant contained 62.19% less chlorophyll a and 64.06% less chlorophyll b as compared to the wild-type. The second mutation resulted in one dwarf plant with a very short stature (6 cm), compact internodes and the leaves and stem were rough and thick. The third type of mutation occurred in four plants and resulted in the leaves of these plants being very thick and longer than those of WT plants. Furthermore, anatomical observations of the leaf blade section of this mutant plant type contained more xylem and collenchyma tissue in the leaf midrib of the mutant plant than WT. In addition, its leaf blade contained thicker palisade and spongy tissue than the WT. PMID:26089827

  17. Genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase genes in Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqin; Shi, Lanping; Liu, Yanyan; Tang, Qian; Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Cai, Jinsen; Yu, Huanxin; Wang, Rongzhang; Wen, Jiayu; Lin, Youquan; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have been implicated in plant growth, development, and environment adaptation, but a comprehensive understanding of MAPK signaling at genome-wide level is limited in Capsicum annuum. Herein, genome-wide identification and transcriptional expression analysis of MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAPKK) were performed in pepper. A total of 19 pepper MAPK (CaMAPKs) genes and five MAPKK (CaMAPKKs) genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CaMAPKs and CaMAPKKs could be classified into four groups and each group contains similar exon-intron structures. However, significant divergences were also found. Notably, five members of the pepper MAPKK family were much less conserved than those found in Arabidopsis, and 9 Arabidopsis MAPKs did not have orthologs in pepper. Additionally, 7 MAPKs in Arabidopsis had either two or three orthologs in the pepper genome, and six pepper MAPKs and one MAPKK differing in sequence were found in three pepper varieties. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPK and MAPKK genes were ubiquitously expressed and transcriptionally modified in pepper leaves after treatments with heat, salt, and Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation as well as exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and abscisic acid. The MAPKK-MAPK interactome was tested by yeast two-hybrid assay, the results showed that one MAPKK might interact with multiple MAPKs, one MAPK might also interact with more than one MAPKKs, constituting MAPK signaling networks which may collaborate in transmitting upstream signals into appropriate downstream cellular responses and processes. These results will facilitate future functional characterization of MAPK cascades in pepper. PMID:26442088

  18. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene. PMID:26992080

  19. MSI.R scripts reveal volatile and semi-volatile features in low-temperature plasma mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) of chilli (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Winkler, Robert

    2015-07-01

    In cartography, the combination of colour and contour lines is used to express a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional map. We transferred this concept to the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data and developed a collection of R scripts for the efficient evaluation of .imzML archives in a four-step strategy: (1) calculation of the density distribution of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) signals in the .imzML file and assembling of a pseudo-master spectrum with peak list, (2) automated generation of mass images for a defined scan range and subsequent visual inspection, (3) visualisation of individual ion distributions and export of relevant .mzML spectra and (4) creation of overlay graphics of ion images and photographies. The use of a Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) colour model in MSI graphics takes into account the human perception for colours and supports the correct evaluation of signal intensities. Further, readers with colour blindness are supported. Contour maps promote the visual recognition of patterns in MSI data, which is particularly useful for noisy data sets. We demonstrate the scalability of MSI.R scripts by running them on different systems: on a personal computer, on Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances and on an institutional cluster. By implementing a parallel computing strategy, the execution speed for .imzML data scanning with image generation could be improved by more than an order of magnitude. Applying our MSI.R scripts ( http://www.bioprocess.org/MSI.R ) to low-temperature plasma (LTP)-MSI data shows the localisation of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the cross-cut of a chilli (Capsicum annuum) fruit. The subsequent identification of compounds by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) proves that LTP-MSI enables the direct measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) distributions from biological tissues. PMID:26007697

  20. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  1. A comparative study of the capsaicinoid and phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant activities of the peppers of the genus Capsicum: an application of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Sora, Gisele Teixeira Souza; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; da Silva, Marcos Vieira; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the contents of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and total phenolics as well as of the antioxidant activities of six types of peppers of the genus Capsicum. The varieties were analyzed in terms of their in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate (ABTS(●+)) assays. The contents of phenolics and capsainoids as well as the antioxidant activities were higher in seeds than in pulps. The correlations (ρ < 0.01) between the phenolic composition and the capsaicinoids levels were high (r = 0.98). Similarly high were also the correlations between the antioxidant activities and the contents of total phenolics and capsaicinoids. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). PCA explained 97.77 % of the total variance of the data, and their separation into three groups in a scatter plot was divised. Using HCA, three clusters were suggested. Cluster one, formed by pulps (bell pepper, orange habanero, cayenne, dedo de moça and red habanero), showed the lowest levels of the compounds quantified. Most seed samples were grouped in cluster two (bell pepper, cayenne, dedo de moça and malagueta) together with malagueta pulp. Cluster three was formed by orange and red habanero seeds, which showed the highest levels of all compounds analyzed. The MRL revealed that the values of capsaicinoids and total phenols are more adequate to predict the antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP assay. PMID:26604381

  2. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  3. Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water-deficiency adversely affects crop growth by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) at cellular level. To mitigate such stressful events, it was aimed to investigate the co-synergism of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and symbiosis of endophytic fungus with Capsicum annuum L. (pepper). Results The findings of the study showed that exogenous SA (10-6 M) application to endophyte (Penicillium resedanum LK6) infected plants not only increased the shoot length and chlorophyll content but also improved the biomass recovery of pepper plants under polyethylene glycol (15%) induced osmotic stress (2, 4 and 8 days). Endophyte-infected plants had low cellular injury and high photosynthesis rate. SA also enhanced the colonization rate of endophyte in the host-plant roots. Endophyte and SA, in combination, reduced the production of ROS by increasing the total polyphenol, reduce glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase as compared to control plants. Osmotic stress pronounced the lipid peroxidation and superoxide anions formation in control plants as compared to endophyte and SA-treated plants. The endogenous SA contents were significantly higher in pepper plants treated with endophyte and SA under osmotic stress as compared to control. Conclusion Endophytic fungal symbiosis and exogenous SA application can help the plants to relieve the adverse effects of osmotic stress by decreasing losses in biomass as compared to non-inoculated plants. These findings suggest that SA application positively impact microbial colonization while in combination, it reprograms the plant growth under various intervals of drought stress. Such symbiotic strategy can be useful for expanding agriculture production in drought prone lands. PMID:23452409

  4. Stomatal and Nonstomatal Components to Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Leaves of Capsicum annuum during Progressive Exposure to NaCl Salinity 1

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Paul C.; Drew, Malcolm C.

    1992-01-01

    Young bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown in nutrient solution were gradually acclimated to 50, 100, or 150 moles per cubic meter NaCl, and photosynthetic rates of individual attached leaves were measured on several occasions during the salinization period at external CO2 concentrations ranging from approximately 70 to 1900 micromoles per mole air. Net CO2 assimilation (A) was plotted against computed leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci), and the initial slope of this A-Ci curve was used as a measure of photosynthetic ability. During the 10 to 14 days after salinization began, leaves from plants exposed to 50 moles per cubic meter NaCl showed little change in photosynthetic ability, whereas those treated to 100 or 150 moles per cubic meter NaCl had up to 85% inhibition, with increase in CO2 compensation point. Leaves appeared healthy, and leaf chlorophyll content showed only a 14% reduction at the highest salinity levels. Partial stomatal closure occurred with salinization, but reductions in photosynthesis were primarily nonstomatal in origin. Photosynthetic ability was inversely related to the concentration of either Na+ or Cl− in the leaf laminas sampled at the end of the experimental period. However, the concentration of Cl− expressed on a tissue water basis was greater, exceeding 300 moles per cubic meter, and Cl− was more closely associated (R2 = 0.926) with the inhibition of photosynthetic ability. Leaf turgor was not reduced by salinization and leaf osmotic potential decreased to a slightly greater extent than the osmotic potential decreases of the nutrient solutions. Concentration of accumulated Na+ and Cl− (on a tissue water basis) accounted quantitatively for maintenance of leaf osmotic balance, assuming that these ions were sequestered in the vacuoles. PMID:16668853

  5. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Sambo, Paolo; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Nardi, Serenella

    2014-01-01

    Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH) and the other obtained from red grape (RG), were chemically characterized using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L(-1) for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L(-1) for AH) of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG) at three doses (zero, low, and high) and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation) and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The (1)H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP(+), whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  6. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress. PMID:23825555

  7. Cancer prevention trial of a synergistic mixture of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (CAPSOL-T) in a random population of subjects ages 40-84

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) as a strategy of Curative Prevention® involving early detection coupled with early intervention in early stage cancer when in its most susceptible and manageable stages. Experimental design One hundred ten (110) subjects were tested for cancer presence using the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin 2-D gel/western blot protocol for detection of serum presence of transcript variants of the ENOX2 protein. Subjects testing positive for ENOX2 received 350 mg of Capsol-T® in capsule form every 4 h including during the night for periods of at least 3 to 6 months or longer after which they were again tested for ENOX2 presence using the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin Cancer Test protocol. Results Of the 110 subjects, both male and female, ages 40 to 84, with no evidence of clinical symptoms of cancer, 40% were positive for ENOX2 presence in the ONCOblot® Tissue of Origin Cancer Test. After completion of 3 to 17 months of Capsol-T® use, 94% of subjects subsequently tested negative for ENOX2 presence. Conclusions Oral Capsol-T® is well tolerated and, for ENOX2 presence in serum in the absence of clinical cancer symptoms, is consistently effective in reducing the serum ENOX2 levels to below detectable limits. PMID:24393573

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the SBP-Box Family Genes under Phytophthora capsici Stress in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huai-Xia; Jin, Jing-Hao; He, Yu-Mei; Lu, Bo-Ya; Li, Da-Wei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Khan, Abid; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that are extensively involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, including growth, development, and signal transduction. However, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) SBP-box family genes have not been well characterized. We investigated SBP-box family genes in the pepper genome and characterized these genes across both compatible and incompatible strain of Phytophthora capsici, and also under different hormone treatments. The results indicated that total 15 members were identified and distributed on seven chromosomes of pepper. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SBP-box genes of pepper can be classified into six groups. In addition, duplication analysis within pepper genome, as well as between pepper and Arabidopsis genomes demonstrated that there are four pairs of homology of SBP-box genes in the pepper genome and 10 pairs between pepper and Arabidopsis genomes. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the CaSBP genes demonstrated their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. The expression profiles were similarly analyzed following exposure to P. capsici inoculation and hormone treatments. It was shown that nine of the CaSBP genes (CaSBP01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 11, 12, and 13) exhibited a dramatic up-regulation after compatible HX-9 strain (P. capsici) inoculation, while CaSBP09 and CaSBP15 were down-regulated. In case of PC strain (P. capsici) infection six of the CaSBP genes (CaSBP02, 05, 06, 11, 12, and 13) were arose while CaSBP14 was down regulated. Furthermore, Salicylic acid, Methyl jasmonate and their biosynthesis inhibitors treatment indicated that some of the CaSBP genes are potentially involved in these hormone regulation pathways. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles of the pepper CaSBP genes, will help to improve pepper stress tolerance in the future. PMID:27148327

  9. Ethyl methane sulfonate induced mutations in M2 generation and physiological variations in M1 generation of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Arisha, Mohamed H.; Shah, Syed N. M.; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Jing, Hua; Li, Chao; Zhang, Huai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to enhance genetic variability in peppers (Capsicum annuum, cv B12) using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). Exposure to an EMS concentration of 0.6%, v/v for 12 h was used to mutagenize 2000 seeds for the first generation (M1). It was observed that the growth behaviors including plant height, flowering date, and number of seeds per first fruit were different in the M1 generation than in wild type (WT) plants. In addition one phenotypic mutation (leaf shape and plant architecture) was observed during the M1 generation. During the seedling stage in the M2 generation, the observed changes were in the form of slow growth or chlorophyll defect (e.g., albino, pale green, and yellow seedlings). At maturity, there were three kinds of phenotypic mutations observed in three different families of the mutant population. The first observed change was a plant with yellow leaf color, and the leaves of this mutant plant contained 62.19% less chlorophyll a and 64.06% less chlorophyll b as compared to the wild-type. The second mutation resulted in one dwarf plant with a very short stature (6 cm), compact internodes and the leaves and stem were rough and thick. The third type of mutation occurred in four plants and resulted in the leaves of these plants being very thick and longer than those of WT plants. Furthermore, anatomical observations of the leaf blade section of this mutant plant type contained more xylem and collenchyma tissue in the leaf midrib of the mutant plant than WT. In addition, its leaf blade contained thicker palisade and spongy tissue than the WT. PMID:26089827

  10. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Sambo, Paolo; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Nardi, Serenella

    2014-01-01

    Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH) and the other obtained from red grape (RG), were chemically characterized using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L−1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L−1 for AH) of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG) at three doses (zero, low, and high) and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation) and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  11. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C.; Barroso, Juan B.; del Río, Luis A.; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. Methods The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide (·NO), superoxide radical (O2·–) and peroxynitrite (ONOO–) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Key Results The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. Conclusions There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling

  12. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-12-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26703712

  13. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-12-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  14. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  15. De novo assembly of the pepper transcriptome (Capsicum annuum): a benchmark for in silico discovery of SNPs, SSRs and candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular breeding of pepper (Capsicum spp.) can be accelerated by developing DNA markers associated with transcriptomes in breeding germplasm. Before the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the majority of sequencing data were generated by the Sanger sequencing method. By leveraging Sanger EST data, we have generated a wealth of genetic information for pepper including thousands of SNPs and Single Position Polymorphic (SPP) markers. To complement and enhance these resources, we applied NGS to three pepper genotypes: Maor, Early Jalapeño and Criollo de Morelos-334 (CM334) to identify SNPs and SSRs in the assembly of these three genotypes. Results Two pepper transcriptome assemblies were developed with different purposes. The first reference sequence, assembled by CAP3 software, comprises 31,196 contigs from >125,000 Sanger-EST sequences that were mainly derived from a Korean F1-hybrid line, Bukang. Overlapping probes were designed for 30,815 unigenes to construct a pepper Affymetrix GeneChip® microarray for whole genome analyses. In addition, custom Python scripts were used to identify 4,236 SNPs in contigs of the assembly. A total of 2,489 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the assembly, and primers were designed for the SSRs. Annotation of contigs using Blast2GO software resulted in information for 60% of the unigenes in the assembly. The second transcriptome assembly was constructed from more than 200 million Illumina Genome Analyzer II reads (80–120 nt) using a combination of Velvet, CLC workbench and CAP3 software packages. BWA, SAMtools and in-house Perl scripts were used to identify SNPs among three pepper genotypes. The SNPs were filtered to be at least 50 bp from any intron-exon junctions as well as flanking SNPs. More than 22,000 high-quality putative SNPs were identified. Using the MISA software, 10,398 SSR markers were also identified within the Illumina transcriptome assembly and primers were

  16. Use of spray-cooling technology for development of microencapsulated capsicum oleoresin for the growing pig as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics: a study of release using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J-P; Cardot, J-M; Manzanilla, E G; Wysshaar, M; Alric, M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained release microspheres of capsicum oleoresin as an alternative to in-feed additives. Two spray-cooling technologies, a fluidized air bed using a spray nozzle system and a vibrating nozzle system placed on top of a cooling tower, were used to microencapsulate 20% of capsicum oleoresin in a hydrogenated, rapeseed oil matrix. Microencapsulation was intended to reduce the irritating effect of capsicum oleoresin and to control its release kinetics during consumption by the animal. Particles produced by the fluidized air bed process (batch F1) ranged from 180 to 1,000 microm in size. The impact of particle size on release of capsaicin, the main active compound of capsicum oleoresin, was studied after sieving batch F1 to obtain 4 formulations: F1a (180 to 250 microm), F1b (250 to 500 microm), F1c (500 to 710 microm), and F1d (710 to 1,000 microm). The vibrating nozzle system can produce a monodispersive particle size distribution. In this study, particles of 500 to 710 microm were made (batch F2). The release kinetics of the formulations was estimated in a flow-through cell dissolution apparatus (CFC). The time to achieve a 90% dissolution value (T90%) of capsaicin for subbatches of F1 increased with the increase in particle size (P < 0.05), with the greatest value of 165.5 +/- 13.2 min for F1d. The kinetics of dissolution of F2 was slower than all F1 subbatches, with a T90% of 422.7 +/- 30.0 min. Nevertheless, because CFC systems are ill suited for experiments with solid feed and thus limit their predictive values, follow-up studies were performed on F1c and F2 using an in vitro dynamic model that simulated more closely the digestive environment. For both formulations a lower quantity of capsaicin dialyzed was recorded under fed condition vs. fasting condition with 46.9% +/- 1.0 vs. 74.7% +/- 2.7 for F1c and 32.4% +/- 1.4 vs. 44.2% +/- 2.6 for F2, respectively. This suggests a possible interaction between capsaicin and the

  17. A Further Analysis of the Relationship between Yellow Ripe-Fruit Color and the Capsanthin-Capsorubin Synthase Gene in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Indicated a New Mutant Variant in C. annuum and a Tandem Repeat Structure in Promoter Region

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Xiao-Ling; Chang, Xiao-Bei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mature pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow, brown, and white. To better understand the genetic and regulatory relationships between the yellow fruit phenotype and the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene (Ccs), we examined 156 Capsicum varieties, most of which were collected from Northwest Chinese landraces. A new ccs variant was identified in the yellow fruit cultivar CK7. Cluster analysis revealed that CK7, which belongs to the C. annuum species, has low genetic similarity to other yellow C. annuum varieties. In the coding sequence of this ccs allele, we detected a premature stop codon derived from a C to G change, as well as a downstream frame-shift caused by a 1-bp nucleotide deletion. In addition, the expression of the gene was detected in mature CK7 fruit. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of Ccs from some pepper varieties were examined, and we detected a 176-bp tandem repeat sequence in the promoter region. In all C. annuum varieties examined in this study, the repeat number was three, compared with four in two C. chinense accessions. The sequence similarity ranged from 84.8% to 97.7% among the four types of repeats, and some putative cis-elements were also found in every repeat. This suggests that the transcriptional regulation of Ccs expression is complex. Based on the analysis of the novel C. annuum mutation reported here, along with the studies of three mutation types in yellow C. annuum and C. chinense accessions, we suggest that the mechanism leading to the production of yellow color fruit may be not as complex as that leading to orange fruit production. PMID:23637942

  18. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p<0.05) for birds fed 1.2, 2.4 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper

  19. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  20. Genotoxic effects of heavy metal cadmium on growth, biochemical, cyto-physiological parameters and detection of DNA polymorphism by RAPD in Capsicum annuum L. – An important spice crop of India

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Rumana; Ansari, M.Y.K.; Choudhary, Sana; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Jahan, Nusrat

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on biochemical, physiological and cytological parameters of Capsicum annuum L. treated with five different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm) of the metal. Shoot–root length, pigment and protein content showed a continuous decrease with increasing Cd concentrations and the maximal decline was observed at the higher concentration. Proline content was found to be increased upto 60 ppm while at higher concentrations it gradually decreased. MDA content and chromosomal aberrations increased as the concentration increased. Additionally Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used for the detection of genotoxicity induced by Cd. A total of 184 bands (62 polymorphic and 122 monomorphic) were generated in 5 different concentrations with 10 primers where primer OPA-02 generated the highest percentage of polymorphism (52.63%). Dendrogram showed that control, R1 and R2 showed similar cluster and R4 and R5 grouped with R3 into one cluster, which showed that plants from higher doses showed much difference than the plants selected at mild doses which resemble control at the DNA level. This investigation showed that RAPD marker is a useful tool for evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship among different metal concentrations. PMID:25313282

  1. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  2. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis. PMID:18303841

  3. Utility of internally transcribed spacer region of rDNA (ITS) and β-tubulin gene sequences to infer genetic diversity and migration patterns of Colletotrichum truncatum infecting Capsicum spp.

    PubMed

    Rampersad, Kandyce; Ramdial, Hema; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is among the most economically important diseases affecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) production in the tropics and subtropics. Of the three species of Colletotrichum implicated as causal agents of pepper anthracnose, C. truncatum is considered to be the most destructive in agro-ecosystems worldwide. However, the genetic variation and the migration potential of C. truncatum infecting pepper are not known. Five populations were selected for study and a two-locus (internally transcribed spacer region, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and β-tubulin, β-TUB) sequence data set was generated and used in the analyses. Sequences of the ITS region were less informative than β -tubulin gene sequences based on comparisons of DNA polymorphism indices. Trinidad had the highest genetic diversity and also had the largest effective population size in pairwise comparisons with the other populations. The Trinidad population also demonstrated significant genetic differentiation from the other populations. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses both suggested significant genetic variation within populations more so than among populations. A consensus Maximum Likelihood tree based on β-TUB gene sequences revealed very little intraspecific diversity for all isolates except for Trinidad. Two clades consisting solely of Trinidad isolates may have diverged earlier than the other isolates. There was also evidence of directional migration among the five populations. These findings may have a direct impact on the development of integrated disease management strategies to control C. truncatum infection in pepper. PMID:26843942

  4. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  5. Characterization of CaHsp70-1, a Pepper Heat-Shock Protein Gene in Response to Heat Stress and Some Regulation Exogenous Substances in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Lu, Jin-Ping; Chai, Lin; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put. PMID:25356507

  6. The Capsicum annuum class IV chitinase ChitIV interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase PIK1 to accelerate PIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    The pepper receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase, CaPIK1, which mediates signalling of plant cell death and defence responses was previously identified. Here, the identification of a class IV chitinase, CaChitIV, from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which interacts with CaPIK1 and promotes CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses, is reported. CaChitIV contains a signal peptide, chitin-binding domain, and glycol hydrolase domain. CaChitIV expression was up-regulated by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Notably, avirulent Xcv infection rapidly induced CaChitIV expression in pepper leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that CaPIK1 interacts with CaChitIV in planta, and that the CaPIK1–CaChitIV complex is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. CaChitIV is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient co-expression of CaChitIV with CaPIK1 enhanced CaPIK1-triggered cell death response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) bursts. Co-silencing of both CaChitIV and CaPIK1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by a reduced induction of cell death response, ROS and NO bursts, and defence response genes. Ectopic expression of CaPIK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced basal resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Together, the results suggest that CaChitIV positively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses through its interaction with CaPIK1. PMID:25694549

  7. Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is the most popular of the techniques used to induce microspore embryogenesis. This technique is well set up in a wide range of crops, including pepper. In this chapter, a protocol for anther culture in pepper is described. The protocol presented hereby includes the steps from the selection of buds from donor plants to the regeneration and acclimatization of doubled haploid plants derived from the embryos, as well as a description of how to analyze the ploidy level of the regenerated plants. PMID:26619881

  8. Antimutagenic activity of carotenoids in green peppers against some nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Gonzáez de Mejía, E; Quintanar-Hernández, A; Loarca-Piña, G

    1998-08-01

    In Mexico, as well as in Central and South American countries, the consumption of peppers (Capsicum annuum) has been tradition for thousands of years; the per capita dietary intake of peppers is about 40 g/day. Peppers are an important source of beta-carotene and vitamin A, which have antimutagenic and/or anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study, Salmonella typhimurium tester strain YG1024 in the plate-incorporation test was used to examine the antimutagenicity of carotenois extracted from five different types of Capsicum spp. ('Chilaca', 'Poblano', 'Serrano', 'Jalapeño' and 'Pimiento') which were chosen, based on their consumption and availability on the local market. Extracts from these peppers were tested against 1-6-dinitropyrene (1,6-DNP) and 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,8-DNP) mutagenicity. Dose-response mutagenicity curves of 1-NP; 1,6-DNP and 1,8-DNP were obtained. For the antimutagenicity studies, doses of 0.05 microgram/plate, 0.20 ng/plate and 0.06 ng/plate for 1-NP, 1,6-DPN and 1,8-DNP respectively were chosen, and the number of net revertants/plate were 1008 for 1-NP, 512 for 1,6-DNP, and 712 for 1,8-DPN. Trans-beta-carotene and the extracts were not toxic to the bacteria at the concentrations tested. The extracts obtained from the peppers showed more inhibition than pure trans-beta-carotene on 1-NP; 1,6-DNP and 1,8-DNP mutagenicity. Chilaca pepper extract required 0.36 g (34 nmol expressed as trans-beta-carotene equivalents) of fresh pepper to inhibit 94% on 1-NP mutagenicity, 78% on 1,6-DNP mutagenicity and 84% on 1,8-DNP mutagenicity. Bell pepper ('Pimiento') extract required 1.53 g (50 nmol expressed as trans-beta-carotene) to obtain 87%, 79% and 73% inhibition on 1-NP; 1,6-DNP and 1,8-DNP mutagenicity respectively. Since pure beta-carotene inhibited only approximately 50% the mutagenicity of nitroarenes, these results suggest that each one of the pepper extracts have more than one antimutagenic compound (e.g., beta-carotene and xanthophylls) and

  9. Capsicum Annuum L. Midnight Creeper and Solar Eclipse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 06C84 (trademarked as Midnight Creeper) and 07C114-1 (trademarked as Solar Eclipse). Midnight Creeper and Solar Eclipse are intended for ornamental applications. Midnight Creeper’s prostrate spreading indeterminate growth habit, black f...

  10. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  11. Capsicum Annuum L. Lil' Pumpkin and Pepper Jack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 05C37-3 (trademarked as Lil’ Pumpkin) and 05C69-12 (trademarked as Pepper Jack). Lil’ Pumpkin and Pepper Jack are intended for ornamental applications. Lil’ Pumpkin’s unique black foliage and orange pumpkin-like fruit and Pepper Jack’s ...

  12. Mycorrhizal symbiosis produces changes in specific flavonoids in leaves of pepper plant (Capsicum annum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, experiments were performed to investigate if mycorrhizal plants grown under optimal growth conditions would improve crop quality compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The results clearly showed that while mycorrhizal plants grown under an optimal nutrient supply did not increase t...

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  14. Genetic basis for genotype-environment interactions influencing flavonoid gene expression in Capsicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains contribute to color in economically important vegetables, fruits and floral crops. The flavonoids can be subdivided into anthocyanins and co-pigments. Anthocyanin production is markedly influenced by numerous environmental factors including tempe...

  15. Impact of human management on the genetic variation of wild pepper, Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum.

    PubMed

    González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Management of wild peppers in Mexico has occurred for a long time without clear phenotypic signs of domestication. However, pre-domestication management could have implications for the population's genetic richness. To test this hypothesis we analysed 27 wild (W), let standing (LS) and cultivated (C) populations, plus 7 samples from local markets (LM), with nine polymorphic microsatellite markers. Two hundred and fifty two alleles were identified, averaging 28 per locus. Allele number was higher in W, and 15 and 40% less in LS and C populations, respectively. Genetic variation had a significant population structure. In W populations, structure was associated with ecological and geographic areas according to isolation by distance. When LM and C populations where included in the analysis, differentiation was no longer apparent. Most LM were related to distant populations from Sierra Madre Oriental, which represents their probable origin. Historical demography shows a recent decline in all W populations. Thus, pre-domestication human management is associated with a significant reduction of genetic diversity and with a loss of differentiation suggesting movement among regions by man. Measures to conserve wild and managed populations should be implemented to maintain the source and the architecture of genetic variation in this important crop relative. PMID:22163053

  16. Phytyl Fatty Acid Esters in the Pulp of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Krauß, Stephanie; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-08-17

    Phytyl fatty acid esters (PFAE) are esters of fatty acids with the isoprenoid alcohol phytol (3,7R,11R,15-tetramethylhexadec-2E-enol). In this study, PFAE were identified and quantified in bell pepper using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All red (n = 14) and yellow (n = 6) samples contained six or seven PFAE at 0.9-11.2 mg/100 g fresh weight. By contrast, PFAE were not detected in green bell pepper samples (n = 3). PFAE might eventually be a source for bioavailable phytol, which can be transformed into phytanic acid by humans. Phytanic acid cannot be properly degraded by patients who suffer from Refsum's disease (tolerable daily intake (TDI) ≤ 10 mg of phytanic acid). The phytol moiety of the PFAE (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight) would contribute up to ∼50% to the TDI with the consumption of only one portion of bell pepper fruit pulp. PMID:27458658

  17. Vitamin Variation in Capsicum Spp. Provides Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Value of Human Diets.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Anderson, Justin E; Lucht, Sarah A; Mercer, Kristin; Bernau, Vivian; Case, Kyle A; Le, Nina C; Frederiksen, Matthew K; DeKeyser, Haley C; Wong, Zen-Zi; Hastings, Jennifer C; Baumler, David J

    2016-01-01

    Chile peppers, native to the Americas, have spread around the world and have been integrated into the diets of many cultures. Much like their heat content, nutritional content can vary dramatically between different pepper types. In this study, a diverse set of chile pepper types were examined for nutrient content. Some pepper types were found to have high levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, or folate. Correlations between nutrient content, species, cultivation status, or geographic region were limited. Varietal selection or plant breeding offer tools to augment nutrient content in peppers. Integration of nutrient rich pepper types into diets that already include peppers could help combat nutrient deficiencies by providing a significant portion of recommended daily nutrients. PMID:27532495

  18. Vitamin Variation in Capsicum Spp. Provides Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Value of Human Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lucht, Sarah A.; Mercer, Kristin; Bernau, Vivian; Case, Kyle A.; Le, Nina C.; Frederiksen, Matthew K.; DeKeyser, Haley C.; Wong, Zen-Zi; Hastings, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    Chile peppers, native to the Americas, have spread around the world and have been integrated into the diets of many cultures. Much like their heat content, nutritional content can vary dramatically between different pepper types. In this study, a diverse set of chile pepper types were examined for nutrient content. Some pepper types were found to have high levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, or folate. Correlations between nutrient content, species, cultivation status, or geographic region were limited. Varietal selection or plant breeding offer tools to augment nutrient content in peppers. Integration of nutrient rich pepper types into diets that already include peppers could help combat nutrient deficiencies by providing a significant portion of recommended daily nutrients. PMID:27532495

  19. Regulation of Anthocyanin gene expression in capsicum: A member of the Solanaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color in seed, flowers, fruit or foliage is attributed to compounds of the flavonoid pathway and chlorophyll, caretonoids and betalains. The flavonoid pathway can be divided into two major branches, copigments (colorless) and anthocynanins (colored). The first structural gene of the enzyme branching...

  20. Two bacterial entophytes eliciting both plant growth promotion and plant defense on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung Hoon; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Cheong, Hoon; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Jihyun F; Park, Seung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to be used as microbial inoculants to reduce disease incidence and severity and to increase crop yield. Some of the PGPR have been reported to be able to enter plant tissues and establish endophytic populations. Here, we demonstrated an approach to screen bacterial endophytes that have the capacity to promote the growth of pepper seedlings and protect pepper plants against a bacterial pathogen. Initially, out of 150 bacterial isolates collected from healthy stems of peppers cultivated in the Chungcheong and Gyeongsang provinces of Korea, 23 putative endophytic isolates that were considered to be predominating and representative of each pepper sample were selected. By phenotypic characterization and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as species of Ochrobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Janthinobacterium, Ralstonia, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Sporosarcina, Acidovorax, and Brevundimonas. Among them, two isolates, PS4 and PS27, were selected because they showed consistent colonizing capacity in pepper stems at the levels of 10(6)-10(7) CFU/g tissue, and were found to be most closely related to Pseudomonas rhodesiae and Pantoea ananatis, respectively, by additional analyses of their entire 16S rDNA sequences. Drenching application of the two strains on the pepper seedlings promoted significant growth of peppers, enhancing their root fresh weight by 73.9% and 41.5%, respectively. The two strains also elicited induced systemic resistance of plants against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. PMID:18051359

  1. Aflatoxins contamination and prevention in red chillies (Capsicum annuum L.) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali

    2014-01-01

    During 2006-2011, 331 red chilli samples (226 whole, 69 powdered and 36 crushed) were collected from all over Pakistan for the estimation of total aflatoxins (AFs = AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) contamination by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Mean AFs levels in whole, powdered and crushed chillies were 11.7, 27.8 and 31.2 µg kg(-1), respectively. AFs levels in 62.4% of whole, 26.1% of powdered and 19.4% of crushed chillies were found lower than the maximum limit (ML = 10 µg kg(-1)) as assigned by the European Union. Furthermore, whole (27.9%), powdered (28%) and crushed (27.8%) chillies showed AFs contamination which ranged between 10 and 20 µg kg(-1). However, 9.7% of whole, 46% of powdered and 52.8% of crushed chillies showed AFs levels beyond the ML of 20 µg kg(-1) as assigned by the USDA. It was concluded that AFs contamination in chillies requires further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis. Furthermore, proper harvesting, drying, handling, storage and transport conditions need to be employed. PMID:24779970

  2. Effects of surfactants on the photolysis of chlorothalonil on pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum Sendt).

    PubMed

    Xiong, H-X; Tan, Y-Q; Shi, T-Z; Hua, R-M; Wu, X-W; Cao, H-Q; Li, X-D; Tang, J

    2014-02-01

    Chlorothalonil is a widely used fungicide on pepper and other vegetables in China. The present study was aimed to evaluate effects of three different surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), Span-20, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on the photolysis of chlorothalonil on peppers under irradiation of either high-pressure mercury lamp (HPML) or sunlight inside and outside greenhouse. Results showed that both SDS and Span-20 at a low concentration exhibited a photosensitization effect on the photolysis of chlorothalonil under HPML. Such effect gradually decreased with increasing concentrations of either surfactant prior to photoquenching effects observed. In contrast, CTAB showed a photoquenching effect on chlorothalonil photolysis, which was gradually enhanced with an increasing CTAB concentration. SDS, Span-20, and CTAB had consistent effects on the photolysis of chlorothalonil under sunlight as those observed under HPML irradiation. The use of appropriate surfactants as pesticide additives at optimal concentrations could decrease the residue of pesticide in agricultural food and improve food safety. PMID:24280909

  3. Cytogenetic studies of the F1 hybrids of Capsicum annuum with C. chinense and C. baccatum.

    PubMed

    Aniel Kumar, O; Panda, R C; Raja Rao, K G

    1987-06-01

    Partially sterile interspecific hybrids were obtained between C. annuum var. 'cerasiformis' and C. chinense var. 'mishme' (H1), and C. annuum var. 'cerasiformis' and C. baccatum var. 'pendulum' (H2). Morphologically the F1 hybrids were intermediate between the corresponding parents. Meiosis was irregular in the two F1 hybrids. Cytological analysis of the two F1 hybrids revealed that the genome of C. annuum differs from C. chinense by two translocations and some minor structural alterations and from C. baccatum by two translocations, a single inversion and some minor structural alterations. Isolation barriers such as hybrid inviability, weakness and hybrid breakdown in the H1 hybrid and, inaddition, desynapsis in the H2, were operative in these taxa. The differences between the present findings and those reported earlier on the two F1hybrids were attributed to differences in the genetic architecture of the taxa employed in hybridization. PMID:24241571

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the transcriptional activities, signaling transduction, and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27621739

  5. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  6. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants. PMID:27184000

  7. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Stamler, Rio A; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  8. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

    PubMed

    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch. PMID:25812098

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Revealed a Role of 24-Epibrassinolide in Response to Chilling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Kang, Jungen; Gan, Yantai; Yu, Jihua; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Lyu, Jian; Zhang, Guobin; Feng, Zhi; Xie, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) have positive effects on many processes during plant growth, development, and various abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available regarding the global gene expression of BRs in response to chilling stress in pepper. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to determine the molecular roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) during a chilling stress response. There were 39,829 transcripts, and, among them, 656 were differently-expressed genes (DEGs) following EBR treatment (Chill+EBR) compared with the control (Chill only), including 335 up-regulated and 321 down-regulated DEGs. We selected 20 genes out of the 656 DEGs for RT-qPCR analysis to confirm the RNA-Seq. Based on GO enrich and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that photosynthesis was significantly up-enriched in biological processes, accompanied by significant increases in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Fv/Fm, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the results indicate that EBR enhanced endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) while suppressing the ethylene (ETH) biosynthesis pathway, suggesting that BRs function via a synergistic cross-talk with SA, JA, and ETH signaling pathways in response to chilling stress. In addition, EBR induced cellulose synthase-like protein and UDP-glycosyltransferase, suggesting a contribution to the formation of cell wall and hormone metabolism. EBR also triggered the calcium signaling transduction in cytoplasm, and activated the expression of cellular redox homeostasis related genes, such as GSTX1, PER72, and CAT2. This work, therefor, identified the specific genes showed different expression patterns in EBR-treated pepper and associated with the processes of hormone metabolism, redox, signaling, transcription, and defense. Our study provides the first evidence of the potent roles of BRs, at the transcription level, to induce the tolerance to chilling stress in pepper as a function of the combination of the transcriptional activities, signaling transduction, and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27621739

  10. Persistence and risk assessment of cypermethrin residues on chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Yadwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to observe the persistence pattern and risk assessment of cypermethrin in chilli fruits following three applications of cypermethrin (Super fighter 25 EC) at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) at 10-day interval. Residues of cypermethrin in chilli were estimated by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average initial deposits of cypermethrin in chilli fruits were found to be 1.46 and 3.11 mg kg(-1), at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively, following third application of the insecticide. Half-life periods for cypermethrin were found to be 4.43 and 4.70 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Residues of cypermethrin declined below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) after 25 days at both the application dosages. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were calculated from the residue data generated and were found to be below maximum permissible intake (MPI) even on 0 day. Therefore, according to our risk assessment studies, a waiting period of 1 day is suggested for consumption of chilli sprayed with cypermethrin at the recommended dosages. PMID:25690610

  11. Estimation of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin residues in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Dissipation of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin in chilli was studied following three applications of a combination formulation of Nurelle-D 505 (chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5%) at 1 and 2 L ha(-1) at an interval of 15 days. Residues of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin in chilli were estimated by gas-liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Half-life periods for chlorpyriphos were found to be 4.43 and 2.01 days, whereas for cypermethrin these values were observed to be 2.51 and 2.64 days at single and double the application rates, respectively. Residues of chlorpyriphos dissipated to more than 80% after 10 days at both the dosages. However, residues of cypermethrin dissipated to the extent of more than 70% in 7 days. Soil samples collected after 15 days of the last application did not show the presence of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin at their respective determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1). The use of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin mixture at the recommended dosage does not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers, and a waiting period of 1 day is suggested to reduce the risk before consumption of green chilli. PMID:23114920

  12. Difference in Folate Content of Green and Red Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annuum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is used in enriched foods; however, very little folic acid occurs naturally in foods other than liver. For the USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program, a number of fruits and vegetables have been assayed for endogenous folates, using a liquid chromato...

  13. Synergistic Effect of Dietary Curcuma, Capsicum, and Lentinus on enhancing local immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the application of prophylactic antibiotics has been successful in reducing infection-related morbidity and mortality in animal production. However, with increasing concerns over the widespread use of feed-added chemicals in animal production and the emergence of antibiotic resistant ...

  14. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Rio A.; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  15. An integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Naik, M K; Ajithkumar, K

    2013-02-01

    An integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against Aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. Maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). Carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. A complete inhibition (100%) of A. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), nimbicidin and pongamia oil at 5%. An indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens bioagent isolate inhibited (74.9%) the growth of A. flavus over Trichoderma harzianum (70.4%). The superior performing fungicides, plant extracts and bioagents identified under in vitro were used for challenge inoculation on chilli fruits and so also for field evaluation. The captan treated fruits recorded the least infection of A. flavus (1.6%) followed by P. fluorescens (2.0%), NSKE (2.2%) and nimbicidin treated fruits (7.8%) as against control (38.3%). As regards to field evaluation, the least incidence was recorded in NSKE sprayed chilli plot (1.6%) and was on par with captan (2.2%), P. fluorescens (2.4%) and T. harzianum (2.6%) compared to control (7.4%). Hence, a pre-harvest spray of NSKE (5%) or mancozeb (0.3%) or P. fluorescens (1 × 10(8) cfu/ml) 10 days before harvest of chilli is recommended for field level management of aflatoxin. PMID:24425902

  16. Influence of vacuum packaging on seed quality and mineral contents in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Deepa, G T; Chetti, Mahadev B; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Adavirao, Gopal M

    2013-02-01

    Studies were carried out to find out the influence of vacuum packaging on physical parameters of whole chilli and biochemical constituents in chilli seeds. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags stored at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C), cold storage (4 ± 1 °C) under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. At the end of the storage period, seeds were separated from fruits and various parameters viz., moisture content, capsaicin content, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, protein and mineral elements like Fe, P, Na and K were analyzed. It was observed that the samples stored in vacuum packed bags maintained the quality with least deterioration in all the quality parameters compared to samples stored in jute bags. PMID:24425901

  17. Influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality of whole chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetti, Mahadev B; Deepa, G T; Antony, Roshny T; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Uppar, Dodappa S; Navalgatti, Channappa M

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out to study the influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality in red chilli. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags at two moisture levels (10 % and 12 %) in room and cold environments under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. During storage period, average room and cool chamber temperatures were 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C, respectively. Changes of moisture (Halogen moisture analyzer), capsaicin (HPLC-UV), oleoresin and total extractable colour (spectrophotometer) were analyzed at 3 months interval up to 12 months and 6 months interval from 12 to 24 months. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) and Duncan's test were applied to the analytical data to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It was observed that the vacuum packed chillies under cold storage were found to have the least per cent decline in various quality parameters. Chillies with 12 % moisture and stored in vacuum packaged bags recorded better quality parameters over 10 % moisture. PMID:25328233

  18. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Improved understanding of the combined effects of geology, ecology and human intervention is essential for efficient conservation and use of plant germplasm. In the pr...

  19. Acyclic diterpene glycosides, capsianosides VIII, IX, X, XIII, XV and XVI from the fruits of Paprika Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum BAILEY and Jalapeño Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kiyota, Naoko; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Paprika and Jalapeño are used as vegetables and spices. We have obtained six new acyclic diterpene glycosides, called capsianosides XIII (2), XV (3), IX (4), XVI (5), X (6) and VIII (7) together with known capsianoside II (1) from the fruits of the Paprika and Jalapeño. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and two-dimensional NMR methods. PMID:17015971

  20. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  1. Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on quality attributes of sweet bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) powder.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Joshi, V K; Kaushal, M

    2015-06-01

    Pre-treatments and methods of drying for producing good quality dried bell pepper powder for use in the ready-to-eat (RTE) food products were optimized. Out of various pre-treatments used (blanching in boiling water, KMS, CA and combination of KMS + CA at different concentrations), soaking of bell pepper shreds in KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % after blanching fasten the drying process (19.75 h) compared to control (22.60 h), when dried in mechanical dehydrator at 58 ± 2 °C. Blanching prior to drying improved the rate of drying and produced product with lower acidity (1.25 %). The samples (T7) treated with KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % significantly (p < 0.05) retained the ascorbic acid content (47.75 mg/100 g) and also attained highest score for colour (8.0), texture (7.5) and overall acceptability (7.5) compared to rest of the treatments. Among different methods of drying, pre-treated bell peppers dried in solar poly tunnel drier produced bright red coloured powder with relatively higher amounts of sugars and ascorbic acid content, hence was optimized. Visual lump formation was observed at 19.75 % and 18.50 % critical moisture contents, which equilibrated at 42 % and 45 % RH for bell pepper powders dried in a mechanical dehydrator and solar poly tunnel drier, respectively. PMID:26028724

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Chryseobacterium kwangjuense Strain KJ1R5, Isolated from Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Mannaa, Mohamed; Sang, Mee Kyung; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Ki Deok

    2016-01-01

    Strain KJ1R5 of the rhizobacterium ITALIC! Chryseobacterium kwangjuenseis an effective biocontrol agent against Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by a destructive soilborne oomycete, ITALIC! Phytophthora capsici Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain KJ1R5, which contains genes related to biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and environmental stress adaptation. PMID:27103726

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Ju-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  4. An ultra-high-density bin map facilitates high-throughput QTL mapping of horticultural traits in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Han, Koeun; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Yang, Hee-Bum; Kang, Sung-Min; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-04-01

    Most agricultural traits are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs); however, there are few studies on QTL mapping of horticultural traits in pepper (Capsicumspp.) due to the lack of high-density molecular maps and the sequence information. In this study, an ultra-high-density map and 120 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross betweenC. annuum'Perennial' andC. annuum'Dempsey' were used for QTL mapping of horticultural traits. Parental lines and RILs were resequenced at 18× and 1× coverage, respectively. Using a sliding window approach, an ultra-high-density bin map containing 2,578 bins was constructed. The total map length of the map was 1,372 cM, and the average interval between bins was 0.53 cM. A total of 86 significant QTLs controlling 17 horticultural traits were detected. Among these, 32 QTLs controlling 13 traits were major QTLs. Our research shows that the construction of bin maps using low-coverage sequence is a powerful method for QTL mapping, and that the short intervals between bins are helpful for fine-mapping of QTLs. Furthermore, bin maps can be used to improve the quality of reference genomes by elucidating the genetic order of unordered regions and anchoring unassigned scaffolds to linkage groups. PMID:26744365

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Chryseobacterium kwangjuense Strain KJ1R5, Isolated from Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Mannaa, Mohamed; Sang, Mee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Strain KJ1R5 of the rhizobacterium Chryseobacterium kwangjuense is an effective biocontrol agent against Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by a destructive soilborne oomycete, Phytophthora capsici. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain KJ1R5, which contains genes related to biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and environmental stress adaptation. PMID:27103726

  6. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  7. Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of fipronil and its metabolites in chilli pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Xavier, George; Chandran, M; George, Thomas; Beevi, S Naseema; Mathew, Thomas Biju; Paul, Ambily; Arimboor, Ranjith; Vijayasree, V; Pradeepkumar, G T; Rajith, R

    2014-09-01

    A single laboratory UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the estimation of fipronil and its metabolites in fresh and dry chilli pepper fruits. Dissipation of fipronil on chilli fruits was studied following the application of fipronil (Jump 80 WG) at 40 and 80 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) in the fruiting stage of the crop. The initial deposits of total fipronil on fresh chilli fruits at single and double dose application were 0.69 and 1.43 μg g(-1), respectively, and were dissipated to below quantitation level at 27 days after application. The half-life of fipronil at single and double dose in fresh chilli pepper was 4.22 and 4.32 days and the waiting period was 25.9 and 30.6 days, respectively. Processing factor due to sun drying was calculated by measuring fipronil residues in dry chilli fruits, and it ranged from 2.96 to 3.50 during 0 to 21st day after application. Among the metabolites of fipronil, fipronil desulfenyl and fipronil sulfone had maximum residues in fresh and dried chilli, respectively, followed by fipronil sulfide. Dipping in solutions of tamarind, turmeric, vinegar and slaked lime and wet scrubbing could remove more than 90% of fipronil residues in fruits. PMID:24816538

  8. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2). PMID:27582627

  9. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Alessandro; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora

    2013-12-01

    The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (-20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers. PMID:23871001

  10. Acclimations to light quality on plant and leaf level affect the vulnerability of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Anna M; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the influence of light quality on the vulnerability of pepper plants to water deficit. For this purpose plants were cultivated either under compact fluorescence lamps (CFL) or light-emitting diodes (LED) providing similar photon fluence rates (95 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) but distinct light quality. CFL emit a wide-band spectrum with dominant peaks in the green and red spectral region, whereas LEDs offer narrow band spectra with dominant peaks at blue (445 nm) and red (665 nm) regions. After one-week acclimation to light conditions plants were exposed to water deficit by withholding irrigation; this period was followed by a one-week regeneration period and a second water deficit cycle. In general, plants grown under CFL suffered more from water deficit than plants grown under LED modules, as indicated by the impairment of the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII, resulting in less biomass accumulation compared to respective control plants. As affected by water shortage, plants grown under CFL had a stronger decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR) and more pronounced increase in heat dissipation (NPQ). The higher amount of blue light suppressed plant growth and biomass formation, and consequently reduced the water demand of plants grown under LEDs. Moreover, pepper plants exposed to high blue light underwent adjustments at chloroplast level (e.g., higher Chl a/Chl b ratio), increasing the photosynthetic performance under the LED spectrum. Differently than expected, stomatal conductance was comparable for water-deficit and control plants in both light conditions during the stress and recovery phases, indicating only minor adjustments at the stomatal level. Our results highlight the potential of the target-use of light quality to induce structural and functional acclimations improving plant performance under stress situations. PMID:25626402

  11. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used. PMID:26868549

  12. Halotolerance and survival kinetics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from jalapeño pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fermentation.

    PubMed

    González-Quijano, Génesis Karendash; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia; de Jesús Perea-Flores, María; Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2014-08-01

    The microbiota associated with spontaneous fermentation of vegetables in a saline substrate may represent an important group of bacteria in the food industry. In this work, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, and Leuconostoc citreum were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In addition, entophytic bacteria such as Pantoea eucalypti, Pantoea anthophila, Enterobacter cowanii, and Enterobacter asburiae were detected, but they were irrelevant for the fermentation process and were inhibited after 12 h of fermentation when the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.9. Moreover, 2 species of yeast were isolated and identified as Hanseniaspora pseudoguilliermondii and Kodamaea ohmeri by their partial 26S rRNA gene sequence. The growth of LAB was evaluated at different sodium chloride contents. L. citreum was the most halotolerant species followed by L. plantarum and W. cibaria with a concentration index to obtain a 50% population reduction (IC(50)) of 7.2%, 6.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the growth of LAB and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in the presence of the main phenylpropanoids from chilli peppers such as p-coumaric and ferulic acid. It was determined that LAB can grow in both acids at 4 mM, unlike E. coli O157:H7, whose growth is inhibited in the presence of these acids. PMID:25039289

  13. Greenhouse Evaluation of a commercial Bell Pepper scion grafted onto various Capsicum rootstocks for management of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in conventional and climate controlled greenhouses. Eight rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘PA-136’, ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo W...

  14. 19 CFR 159.22 - Net weights and tares.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the apples. China clay in so-called half-ton casks: 26.856 kilograms per cask. Figs in skeleton cases... per half box for paper wrappings, and actual tare for outer containers. Ocher, dry, in casks: Eight percent of the gross weight. Ocher, in oil, in casks: Twelve percent of the gross weight. Pimientos...

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on local and systemic immune responses following immunization of chickens with an Eimeria recombinant protein. Chickens were fed ...

  16. Construction of an Interspecific Genetic Map Based on InDel and SSR for Mapping the QTLs Affecting the Initiation of Flower Primordia in Pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Cheng; Nong, Ding-Guo; Li, Wei-Peng; Tang, Xin; Wu, Zhi-Ming; Hu, Kai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Re-sequencing permits the mining of genome-wide variations on a large scale and provides excellent resources for the research community. To accelerate the development and application of molecular markers and identify the QTLs affecting the flowering time-related trait in pepper, a total of 1,038 pairs of InDel and 674 SSR primers from different sources were used for genetic mapping using the F2 population (n = 154) derived from a cross between BA3 (C. annuum) and YNXML (C. frutescens). Of these, a total of 224 simple PCR-based markers, including 129 InDels and 95 SSRs, were validated and integrated into a map, which was designated as the BY map. The BY map consisted of 13 linkage groups (LGs) and spanned a total genetic distance of 1,249.77 cM with an average marker distance of 5.60 cM. Comparative analysis of the genetic and physical map based on the anchored markers showed that the BY map covered nearly the whole pepper genome. Based on the BY map, one major and five minor QTLs affecting the number of leaves on the primary axis (Nle) were detected on chromosomes P2, P7, P10 and P11 in 2012. The major QTL on P2 was confirmed based on another subset of the same F2 population (n = 147) in 2014 with selective genotyping of markers from the BY map. With the accomplishment of pepper whole genome sequencing and annotations (release 2.0), 153 candidate genes were predicted to embed in the Nle2.2 region, of which 12 important flowering related genes were obtained. The InDel/SSR-based interspecific genetic map, QTLs and candidate genes obtained by the present study will be useful for the downstream isolation of flowering time-related gene and other genetic applications for pepper. PMID:25781878

  17. A New Ethylene-Responsive Factor CaPTI1 Gene of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Involved in the Regulation of Defense Response to Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing-Hao; Zhang, Huai-Xia; Tan, Jun-Yi; Yan, Ming-Jia; Li, Da-Wei; Khan, Abid; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive factors (ERF) are usually considered to play diverse roles in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, an ERF gene CaPTI1 was isolated from pepper transcriptome database. CaPTI1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 543 bp, which encodes a putative polypeptide of 180 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 20.30 kDa. Results of expression profile showed that CaPTI1 had a highest expression level in roots and this gene could not only response to the infection of Phytophthora capsici and the stresses of cold and drought, but also be induced by the signaling molecule (salicylic acid, Methyl Jasmonate, Ethephon, and hydogen peroxide). Furthermore, virus-induce gene silencing (VIGS) of CaPTI1 in pepper weakened the defense response significantly by reducing the expression of defense related genes CaPR1, CaDEF1 and CaSAR82 and also the root activity. These results suggested that CaPTI1 is involved in the regulation of defense response to P. capsici in pepper. PMID:26779241

  18. Red paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) and its main carotenoids, capsanthin and β-carotene, prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Woo-Moon; Rhee, Han Cheol; Kim, Suna

    2016-07-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of red paprika extract (RPE) and its main carotenoids, namely, capsanthin (CST) and β-carotene (BCT), on the H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells (WB cells). We found that pre-treatment with RPE, CST and BCT protected WB cells from H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC. RPE, CST and BCT not only recovered connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression but also prevented phosphorylation of Cx43 protein by H2O2 treatment. RPE attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK, whereas pre-treatment with CST and BCT only attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and did not affect JNK in H2O2-treated WB cells. RPE, CST and BCT significantly suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H2O2-treated cells compared to untreated WB cells. These results suggest that dietary intake of red paprika might be helpful for lowering the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. PMID:27154496

  19. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense.

  20. Cloning and characterization of the CarbcL gene related to chlorophyll in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under fruit shade stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Bin; Tian, Shi-Lin; Shah, Syed N M; Pan, Bao-Gui; Diao, Wei-Ping; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Light is an important environmental factor for fruit development and ripening in pepper plant. Fruit bagging is a significant agrotechnology practiced for the illumination regulation of fruits; some previous researches have shown that fruit bagging could improve the appearance and external quality of fruits and cause them to mature early. However, it would decrease the intrinsic qualities of fruits; especially, fruit bagging could decrease the content of capsanthin in peppers. On the basis of these details, fruit bagging was used as the method of fruit shade stress in this study to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of pepper fruit's color change under shade stress. By using cDNA-AFLP under fruit shading, a fragment related to fruit color was obtained. Next, the full-length coding sequence of the gene was cloned from the pepper fruits. Homologous gene alignment confirmed that the gene has high homology with the rbcL gene, named CarbcL. The function of the CarbcL gene was identified through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS); it was found that the fruit color changed completely from green to red except for some residue of green fleck when CarbcL gene was silenced, and the green color of fruits had not fully faded in the control group and the empty vector group. The combine determination of chlorophyll content showed that CarbcL was involved in the metabolic control of chlorophyll in pepper fruits; subsequently, HPLC was used to determine the content of capsanthin in pepper fruit which the CarbcL gene was silencing, and it was also found that the content of capsanthin decreased appreciably. These results further confirmed that CarbcL gene was involved in the adjustment of chlorophyll and capsanthin. PMID:26528313

  1. Induced change of formative processes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ). I. Effect of mutagenic treatment on the crossingover frequency of the linked and recombination of unlinked marker genes

    SciTech Connect

    Samovol, A.P.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of mutagenic treatment of the F/sub 1/ seeds of pepper on the crossingover frequency in the al/sub 2/-b segment, monohybrid and dihybrid segregation for the unlinked marker genes al/sub 2/ and pi was studied. It has been demonstrated that treatment leads to a significant reduction in the crossover frequency in the al/sub 2/-b zone. Highly significant differences between the control and individual treatment of the hybrid seeds indicated reduction in recombinations due to the mutagens used. A case of induced deviation in independent segregation of al/sub 2/ and pi, i.e., quasilinkage has been recorded.

  2. Evaluation of a Diverse, Worldwide Collection of Wild, Cultivated, and Landrace Pepper (Capsicum annuum) for Resistance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot, Genetic Diversity, and Population Structure.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Tomlinson, A J; Hausbeck, M K

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is the third most important solanaceous crop in the United States and fourth most important worldwide. To identify sources of resistance for commercial breeding, 170 pepper genotypes from five continents and 45 countries were evaluated for Phytophthora fruit rot resistance using two isolates of Phytophthora capsici. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed on a subset of 157 genotypes using 23 polymorphic simple sequence repeats. Partial resistance and isolate-specific interactions were identified in the population at both 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi). Plant introductions (PIs) 640833 and 566811 were the most resistant lines evaluated at 5 dpi to isolates 12889 and OP97, with mean lesion areas less than Criollo de Morelos. Genetic diversity was moderate (0.44) in the population. The program STRUCTURE inferred four genetic clusters with moderate to very great differentiation among clusters. Most lines evaluated were susceptible or moderately susceptible at 5 dpi, and no lines evaluated were completely resistant to Phytophthora fruit rot. Significant population structure was detected when pepper varieties were grouped by predefined categories of disease resistance, continent, and country of origin. Moderately resistant or resistant PIs to both isolates of P. capsici at 5 dpi were in genetic clusters one and two. PMID:25054617

  3. Cloning and characterization of the CarbcL gene related to chlorophyll in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under fruit shade stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Bin; Tian, Shi-Lin; Shah, Syed N. M.; Pan, Bao-Gui; Diao, Wei-Ping; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Light is an important environmental factor for fruit development and ripening in pepper plant. Fruit bagging is a significant agrotechnology practiced for the illumination regulation of fruits; some previous researches have shown that fruit bagging could improve the appearance and external quality of fruits and cause them to mature early. However, it would decrease the intrinsic qualities of fruits; especially, fruit bagging could decrease the content of capsanthin in peppers. On the basis of these details, fruit bagging was used as the method of fruit shade stress in this study to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of pepper fruit's color change under shade stress. By using cDNA-AFLP under fruit shading, a fragment related to fruit color was obtained. Next, the full-length coding sequence of the gene was cloned from the pepper fruits. Homologous gene alignment confirmed that the gene has high homology with the rbcL gene, named CarbcL. The function of the CarbcL gene was identified through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS); it was found that the fruit color changed completely from green to red except for some residue of green fleck when CarbcL gene was silenced, and the green color of fruits had not fully faded in the control group and the empty vector group. The combine determination of chlorophyll content showed that CarbcL was involved in the metabolic control of chlorophyll in pepper fruits; subsequently, HPLC was used to determine the content of capsanthin in pepper fruit which the CarbcL gene was silencing, and it was also found that the content of capsanthin decreased appreciably. These results further confirmed that CarbcL gene was involved in the adjustment of chlorophyll and capsanthin. PMID:26528313

  4. Manipulation of culture strategies to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-06-01

    Manipulation of culture strategies was adopted to study the influence of nutrient stress, pH stress and precursor feeding on the biosynthesis of capsaicin in suspension and immobilized cell cultures of C. chinense. Cells cultured in the absence of one of the four nutrients (ammonium and potassium nitrate for nitrate and potassium stress, potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate for phosphorus stress, and sucrose for sugar stress) influenced the accumulation of capsaicin. Among the stress factors studied, nitrate stress showed maximal capsaicin production on day 20 (505.9 ± 2.8 μg g(-1) f.wt) in immobilized cell, whereas in suspension cultures the maximum accumulation (345.5 ± 2.9 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained on day 10. Different pH affected capsaicin accumulation; enhanced accumulation of capsaicin (261.6 ± 3.4 μg g(-1) f.wt) was observed in suspension cultures at pH 6 on day 15, whereas in case of immobilized cultures the highest capsaicin content (433.3 ± 3.3 μg g(-1) f.wt) was obtained at pH 5 on day 10. Addition of capsaicin precursors and intermediates significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of capsaicin, incorporation of vanillin at 100 μM in both suspension and immobilized cell cultures resulted in maximum capsaicin content with 499.1 ± 5.5 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 20 and 1,315.3 ± 10 μg g(-1) f.wt on day 10, respectively. Among the different culture strategies adopted to enhance capsaicin biosynthesis in cell cultures of C. chinense, cells fed with vanillin resulted in the maximum capsaicin accumulation. The rate of capsaicin production was significantly higher in immobilized cells as compared to freely suspended cells. PMID:24141419

  5. Cell wall components and pectin esterification levels as markers of proliferation and differentiation events during pollen development and pollen embryogenesis in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Bárány, Ivett; Fadón, Begoña; Risueño, María C.; Testillano, Pilar S.

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls and their polymers are regulated during plant development, but the specific roles of their molecular components are still unclear, as well as the functional meaning of wall changes in different cell types and processes. In this work the in situ analysis of the distribution of different cell wall components was performed during two developmental programmes, gametophytic pollen development, which is a differentiation process, and stress-induced pollen embryogenesis, which involves proliferation followed by differentiation processes. The changes in cell wall polymers were compared with a system of plant cell proliferation and differentiation, the root apical meristem. The analysis was also carried out during the first stages of zygotic embryogenesis. Specific antibodies recognizing the major cell wall polymers, xyloglucan (XG) and the rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) pectin domain, and antibodies against high- and low-methyl-esterified pectins were used for both dot-blot and immunolocalization with light and electron microscopy. The results showed differences in the distribution pattern of these molecular complexes, as well as in the proportion of esterified and non-esterified pectins in the two pollen developmental pathways. Highly esterified pectins were characteristics of proliferation, whereas high levels of the non-esterified pectins, XG and RGII were abundant in walls of differentiating cells. Distribution patterns similar to those of pollen embryos were found in zygotic embryos. The wall changes reported are characteristic of proliferation and differentiation events as markers of these processes that take place during pollen development and embryogenesis. PMID:20097842

  6. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum, and their relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). Inhibiting by PGIPs directly reduces potential PG activity in specific plant pathogenic fungi, reducing their aggressiveness. Here, we isolated and functionally chara...

  7. Effect of storage temperature on survival and growth of foodborne pathogens on whole, damaged, and internally inoculated jalapeños (Capsicum annuum var. annuum).

    PubMed

    Huff, Karleigh; Boyer, Renee; Denbow, Cynthia; O'Keefe, Sean; Williams, Robert

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of general knowledge regarding the behavior of foodborne pathogenic bacteria associated with jalapeño peppers. The survival and growth behaviors of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica on the interior and exterior of jalapeño peppers were determined under different storage conditions. Jalapeños were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, or S. enterica on the intact external surface, injured external surface, or intact internal cavity of jalapeño peppers and held at 7 or 12°C for a period of 14 days. Populations of each pathogen were determined at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 10, and 14 days throughout storage. The uninjured, intact external surface of jalapeño peppers did not support growth of the pathogens tested under both storage conditions, with the exception of L. monocytogenes at 12°C. Populations of E. coli and S. enterica declined on the external injured surface of peppers at 7°C, but populations of L. monocytogenes remained consistent throughout the length of storage. At 12°C, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica populations increased throughout storage, and E. coli populations remained unchanged on injured surfaces. The uninjured internal cavity of the jalapeño supported growth of all pathogens at 12°C. Overall, L. monocytogenes was the microorganism most capable of growth and survival in association with jalapeño peppers for the scenarios tested. Results emphasize the importance of jalapeño pepper quality and proper storage conditions in preventing or reducing pathogen survival and growth. PMID:22289602

  8. 7 CFR 301.86-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following pale cyst nematode host crops: Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) (c)...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Capsicum chinense from areas free of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), terms of entry are as follows: (1.... (c) For peppers of the species Capsicum pubescens from areas in which Mexican fruit fly (Mexfly) is..., tomato fruit borer, lantana mealybug, passionvine mealybug, melon thrips, bacterial wilt, the rust...

  10. ‘TigerPaw-NR’, a New Root-knot Nematode Resistant Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most peppers grown in the United States belong to the species Capsicum annuum. However, the increasing popularity of hot peppers has created intense interest in the Habanero, a type of pepper that belongs to another domesticated Capsicum species, C. chinense. Habanero-type peppers are some of the ...

  11. 21 CFR 73.340 - Paprika.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paprika. 73.340 Section 73.340 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.340 Paprika. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paprika is the ground dried pod of mild capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.). The definition of paprika in this paragraph...

  12. 21 CFR 73.340 - Paprika.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paprika. 73.340 Section 73.340 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.340 Paprika. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paprika is the ground dried pod of mild capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.). The definition of paprika in this paragraph...

  13. 21 CFR 73.340 - Paprika.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paprika. 73.340 Section 73.340 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.340 Paprika. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paprika is the ground dried pod of mild capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.). The definition of paprika in this paragraph...

  14. 21 CFR 73.340 - Paprika.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paprika. 73.340 Section 73.340 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.340 Paprika. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paprika is the ground dried pod of mild capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.). The definition of paprika in this paragraph...

  15. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  16. Utilization of inoculum of AM fungi produced on-farm for the production of Capsicum annuum: a summary of 7 years of field trials on a conventional vegetable farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum has been encouraged as a way for vegetable farmers to better utilize the AM symbiosis. On-farm systems can economically produce inoculum that has been shown to increase the yield of specific crops. We conducted seven years of field studies...

  17. Simultaneous Near-Infrared Radiant Heating and UV Radiation for Inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Powdered Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jae-Won

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the simultaneous application of near-infrared (NIR) heating and UV irradiation for reducing populations of food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in red pepper powder and to clarify the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-UV combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on quality was determined by measuring changes in color and pungency constituents. Simultaneous NIR-UV combined treatment for 5 min achieved 3.34- and 2.78-log CFU reductions in S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7, respectively, which involved 1.86- and 1.31-log CFU reductions, respectively, which were attributed to the synergistic effect. Through qualitative and quantitative analyses, damage to the cell envelope was identified as the main factor contributing to the synergistic lethal effect of NIR-UV combined treatment. Color values and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content of NIR-UV simultaneously treated red pepper powder were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from those of untreated samples. These results suggest that simultaneous application of NIR and UV treatment can be effectively used to control food-borne pathogens in powdered red pepper without affecting quality. PMID:23956394

  18. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively. PMID:26528973

  19. Design and fabrication of a real-time measurement system for the capsaicinoid content of Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method through visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of...

  20. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45-159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively. PMID:26528973

  1. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  2. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  3. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 201.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... sativum L. subsp. sativum Pepper—Capsicum spp. Pe-tsai—(see Chinese cabbage). Pumpkin—Cucurbita pepo L.,...

  4. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 201.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... sativum L. subsp. sativum Pepper—Capsicum spp. Pe-tsai—(see Chinese cabbage). Pumpkin—Cucurbita pepo L.,...

  5. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... sativa L. Pea—Pisum sativum L. Pepper—Capsicum spp. Pe-tsai—(see Chinese cabbage). Pumpkin—Cucurbita...

  6. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... sativa L. Pea—Pisum sativum L. Pepper—Capsicum spp. Pe-tsai—(see Chinese cabbage). Pumpkin—Cucurbita...

  7. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 201.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... sativum L. subsp. sativum Pepper—Capsicum spp. Pe-tsai—(see Chinese cabbage). Pumpkin—Cucurbita pepo L.,...

  8. Capsaicinoids in the hottest pepper Bhut Jolokia and its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-01-01

    Hot peppers are known for medicinally important capsaicinoids. Bhut Jolokia, Capsicum chinense/Capsicum frutescens, is the hottest pepper in the world. However, its bioactivity and quantity of heat principles are not reported. We have now quantified capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in Bhut Jolokia and compared it with commonly consumed hot peppers, Jalapeno (Capsicum annuum) and Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense). The concentration of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia was 5.36%, which is about 338 and 18 times greater than in Scotch Bonnet and Jalapeno, respectively. We have also isolated capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in pure form and determined lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes inhibitory concentrations. This is the first report of the quantification of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia, comparison of capsaicinoids content in Bhut Jolokia with Jalapeno and Scotch Bonnet hot peppers and the COX and LPO inhibitory activities of C and DHC. PMID:20184029

  9. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers II: Commercial and home-grown specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Dávila, E.; Miranda, J.; Pineda, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    Elemental analyses of samples of Mexican varieties of dried chili peppers were carried out using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Several specimens of Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens were analyzed and the results compared to previous studies of elemental contents in other varieties of Capsicum annuum (ancho, morita, chilpotle, guajillo, pasilla, and árbol). The first set of samples was bought packaged in markets. In the present work, the study focuses on home-grown samples of the árbol and chilpotle varieties, commercial habanero (Capsicum chinense), as well as commercial and home-grown specimens of manzano (Capsicum pubescencs). Samples were freeze dried and pelletized. XRF analyses were carried out using a spectrometer based on an Rh X-ray tube, using a Si-PIN detector. The system detection calibration was performed through the analysis of the NIST certified reference materials 1547 (peach leaves) and 1574 (tomato leaves), while accuracy was checked with the reference material 1571 (orchard leaves). Elemental contents of all elements in the new set of samples were similar to those of the first group. Nevertheless, it was found that commercial samples contain high amounts of Br, while home-grown varieties do not.

  10. LTR-retrotransposons Tnt1 and T135 markers reveal genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of domesticated peppers.

    PubMed

    Tam, Sheh May; Lefebvre, Véronique; Palloix, Alain; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle

    2009-10-01

    Plant genetic resources often constitute the foundation of successful breeding programs. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most economically important and diversely utilized Solanaceous crop species worldwide, but less studied compared to tomato and potato. We developed and used molecular markers based on two copia-type retrotransposons, Tnt1 and T135, in a set of Capsicum species and wild relatives from diverse geographical origins. Results showed that Tnt1 and T135 insertion polymorphisms are very useful for studying genetic diversity and relationships within and among pepper species. Clusters of accessions correspond to cultivar types based on fruit shape, pungency, geographic origin and pedigree. Genetic diversity values, normally reflective of past transposition activity and population dynamics, showed positive correlation with the average number of insertions per accession. Similar evolutionary relationships are observed to that inferred by previous karyosystematics studies. These observations support the possibility that retrotransposons have contributed to genome inflation during Capsicum evolution. PMID:19618162

  11. Terpenoid Metabolism in Plastids 1

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Bilal

    1984-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phytoene from prephytoene pyrophosphate has been localized exclusively in the plastid compartment of ruptured protoplasts derived from Triticum leaves and Capsicum fruits. The phytoene synthetase activity in Triticum leaves deficient in plastid ribosomes was comparable to those obtained in normal leaves. In addition, the stimulation of phytoene synthetase activity observed in green Capsicum fruit after 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)triethylamine hydrochloride treatment was not abolished by chlororamphenicol and lincomycin, in contrast to the inhibition observed after cycloheximide treatment. These data conclusively show that phytoene synthetase is localized exclusively in the plastid compartment in higher plants and that its synthesis is not performed on 70S ribosomes. PMID:16663362

  12. Precolumbian use of chili peppers in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Linda; Flannery, Kent V.

    2007-01-01

    Excavations at Guilá Naquitz and Silvia's Cave, two dry rockshelters near Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico, yielded the remains of 122 chili peppers dating to the period A.D. 600–1521. The chilies can be assigned to at least 10 cultivars, all belonging to the species Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens. The specimens are well enough preserved to permit an evaluation of the criteria used to separate wild and domestic chilies and to distinguish among cultivated races. In addition, they provide the opportunity to assess the reliability of starch grains for documenting the presence of chilies in archaeological sites where no macrobotanical remains are preserved. PMID:17620613

  13. Inhalation injury after capsaicin exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, James Jason; Skolnick, Judah

    2006-03-01

    Pepper spray is defined as a non-lethal agent used in riot control and personal self-defense. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, commonly referred to as hot peppers or chilies, is the active agent used in many of these defense sprays. Although generally assumed to be safe and effective, the consequences of OC cannot be predicted with certainty. Nationwide there have been numerous reports of pepper spray-related injuries, including officers injured in pepper spray-related training exercises. This report details one officer's experience. PMID:16578994

  14. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red... be subject to additional restrictions under the provisions in 7 CFR 319.8 et seq. (6) Used jute or...), Cumumis sativius (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squashes, vegetable marrow), Lagenaria...

  15. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red... be subject to additional restrictions under the provisions in 7 CFR 319.8 et seq. (6) Used jute or...), Cumumis sativius (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squashes, vegetable marrow), Lagenaria...

  16. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red... be subject to additional restrictions under the provisions in 7 CFR 319.8 et seq. (6) Used jute or...), Cumumis sativius (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squashes, vegetable marrow), Lagenaria...

  17. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red... be subject to additional restrictions under the provisions in 7 CFR 319.8 et seq. (6) Used jute or...), Cumumis sativius (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squashes, vegetable marrow), Lagenaria...

  18. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other provisions of 7 CFR part 319. For example, fresh whole chilies (Capsicum spp.) and fresh whole red... be subject to additional restrictions under the provisions in 7 CFR 319.8 et seq. (6) Used jute or...), Cumumis sativius (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squashes, vegetable marrow), Lagenaria...

  19. Synergy studies of the fungicidal plant saponin, CAY-1, with EDTA and silver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: CAY-1 is a fungicidal saponin produced by Capsicum species. Silver (Ag) and EDTA inhibit Aspergillus and Fusarium growth. This study determined Ag and EDTA fungicidal properties for several Aspergillus and Fusarium species both alone and with CAY-1. Methods: CAY-1 was purified by col...

  20. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  1. PEPPER HARVESTER DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to mechan...

  2. PA-560, A Southern Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Yellow-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has developed a yellow-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes. The new breeding line, designated PA-560, is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a root-knot nematode resistance gene from the S...

  3. Irrigation frequency and timing influence pepper yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on how fertilizer and irrigation affect production of vegetables can help growers improve resource use efficiency and profitability. Fertilizer was applied at the recommended rate and twice the recommended rate to bell and non-pungent jalapeno peppers, both Capsicum annuum L., in 2009 a...

  4. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  5. Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Capsicum represents one of several well characterized Solanaceous genera. A wealth of classical and molecular genetics research is available for the genus. Information gleaned from its cultivated relatives, tomato and potato, provide further insight for basic and applied studies. Early ...

  6. PA-559: A New, Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Red-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to develop a root-knot nematode resistant, red-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were completed with the official release of PA-559 on September 18, 2008. The new breeding line is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a dominant root-kno...

  7. Antioxidants in Hot Pepper: Variation Among Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand accessions. Many of these have not been previously analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants and have a number of nutritional or hea...

  8. Weed control in sweet bell pepper using sequential postdirected applications of pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) producers would benefit from additional herbicide options that are safe to the crop and provide effective weed control. Research was conducted in southeastern Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) during 2010 and 2011 to determine the impact of pelargonic acid on weed control ef...

  9. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Pepper Plants in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of potato psyllid damage and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in La Cruz de Elota, Sinaloa, México in March 2009. The plants had chlorotic or pale green leaves and exhibited leaf cupping, sh...

  10. Pepper Harvest Mechanization: Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. Labor for hand harvest is as much as half of the cost of production. There have been attempts to mechanize pepper harvest since 1965, yet many segments of the industry still depend on hand la...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... October 1, and continuing through April 30, MAFF must set and maintain Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis... transit other fruit fly-supporting areas unless shipping containers are sealed by MAFF with an official... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... October 1, and continuing through April 30, MAFF must set and maintain Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis... transit other fruit fly-supporting areas unless shipping containers are sealed by MAFF with an official... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... October 1, and continuing through April 30, MAFF must set and maintain Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis... transit other fruit fly-supporting areas unless shipping containers are sealed by MAFF with an official... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  14. Yield in nonpungent jalapeno pepper established at different in-row spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doubling the plant density in transplanted non-pungent jalapeno peppers (Capsicum annuum Mill.) improves yield. However, it is not known how other spacings affect yield. In-row plant spacing was examined to determine how it affects development of these peppers. Transplants of a non-pungent jalapen...

  15. 7 CFR 305.34 - Irradiation treatment of certain regulated articles from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 150 Atemoya 150 Breadfruit 1 2 400 or 150 Capsicum spp. (peppers) 150 Carambola 150 Cowpea pods (and... Tomato 150 1 Breadfruit, cowpea pods, dragon fruit, jackfruit, litchi, mangosteen, melon, moringa pods... (b)(7) of this section. 2 Breadfruit, dragon fruit, jackfruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa...

  16. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COWPEA COVER CROP ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, WEEDS, AND PEPPER YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field experiments with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Wizard X3R’ were established (May 2003, 2004) in Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. The objective was to compare yields, nematode populations, and weeds as impacted by six soil management treatments: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) summer co...

  17. TigerPaw-NR, a New, High Yielding, Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Highly Pungent, Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS has released a new Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) cultivar named TigerPaw-NR. The new cultivar is the product of a backcross breeding program to transfer a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene from the Scotch Bonnet accession PA-426 into the Habanero-type accessi...

  18. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis segetum... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis segetum... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  3. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-32 Peppers from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the...

  7. Post-directed weed control in bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  8. Synergy of CAY-1, a Fungicidal Saponin, With Amphotericin B and Itreconazole Against Aspergillus spp and Candida albicans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: CAY-1 (mol.wt. 1243), a fungicidal saponin in cayenne (Capsicum fruitescens) is highly lethal for Aspergillus species, Candida albicans, and Pneumocystis carinii below 24.8 ug/ml. To further characterize CAY-1, synergy studies with amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole (IT) were perform...

  9. CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI) IN PEPPER PLANT WITH A COMPOST CONTAINING MULTITUDE OF CHITINASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost sustaining a multitude of chitinase-producing bacteria was evaluated in a greenhouse study as a soil amendment for the control of late blight (Phytophthora capsici L.) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Microbial population and exogenous enzyme activity were measured in the rhizosphere and corr...

  10. Post-directed application of a potential organic herbicide for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  11. Genetic diversity provides opportunities for improvement of fresh-cut pepper quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive genetic diversity present in the Capsicum genepool has been utilized extensively to improve pepper disease resistance, fruit quality and varied yield attributes. Little attention has been dedicated to genetic enhancement of pepper fresh-cut quality. We evaluated pepper accessions with dive...

  12. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  13. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five root-knot nematode resistant pepper genotypes and three susceptible pepper genotypes were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be pathogenic to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The pepp...

  14. Temporal and spatial distribution of an invasive thrips species Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersion of a new invasive thrips species, chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, was studied on three hosts, i.e., cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogeal L.) and pepper (Capsicum annum L.) in the greenhouse and under field conditions in Homestead, Florida. The study of horizo...

  15. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  16. Transplant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For field pepper (Capsicum spp.) production, plants can be established from direct seed or transplants depending on the location and cultural practices for the specific pepper type grown. Direct seeding can result in slow, variable, and reduced plant stands due to variations in soil temperature, wat...

  17. Chili peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvesting of New Mexico's signature crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Mexico-type chile (Capsicum annuum L.), often referred to as ‘Anaheim’, is the signature crop of New Mexico. Both the red and green (fully sized, but physiologically immature) crops are celebrated in local cuisine, culture and art, and production and processing of chile is an integral contributo...

  18. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  19. Pepper harvest technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) include a diverse collection of cultivars produced for a wide variety of end uses. This specialty crop and its processing industry are in the midst of a dual transition driven by labor cost and unavailability. Production and post-harvest processing is either converting to m...

  20. Does infection by southern root-knot nematode influence development of Phytophthora blight in pepper?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of Phytophthora blight, are both important pathogens of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the U.S. and worldwide. Although there is significant information in the literature about the responses of pepper...

  1. Frequency of manure application in organic versus annual application of synthetic fertilizer in conventional vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transporting manure is an input cost that can affect profit. Manure was applied either annually, or biannually, to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), cv. Jupiter, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), cv. Earli Pik, and sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), cv. Incredible (se endosperm genotype), grown...

  2. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  3. Efficacy of microbial amendments on vegetables in greenhouse and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendments, with and without microbes, may affect plant development. Eight-week-old, organically grown, seedlings of a bell, cv. Jupiter, and a non-pungent jalapeño, cv. Pace 105, pepper (both Capsicum annuum L.) were transplanted into pots in a greenhouse using an organic potting medium. One...

  4. Yield and nutrient content of Bell Pepper pods from plants developed from seedlings inoculated, or not, with microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of microorganisms applied in production of vegetable transplants has had mixed results. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) transplants were produced in a greenhouse using organic methods and the organic certified potting mix was either not inoculated or inoculated with beneficial ba...

  5. Alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Ching, L S; Mohamed, S

    2001-06-01

    Vitamin E was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. All the plants tested showed differences in their alpha-tocopherol content and the differences were significant (p < 0.05). The highest alpha-tocopherol content was in Sauropus androgynus leaves (426.8 mg/kg edible portion), followed by Citrus hystrix leaves (398.3 mg/kg), Calamus scipronum (193.8 mg/kg), starfruit leaves Averrhoa belimbi (168.3 mg/kg), red pepper Capsicum annum (155.4 mg/kg), local celery Apium graveolens (136.4 mg/kg), sweet potato shoots Ipomoea batatas (130.1 mg/kg), Pandanus odorus (131.5 mg/kg), Oenanthe javanica (146.8 mg/kg), black tea Camelia chinensis (183.3 mg/kg),papaya Carica papaya shoots (111.3 mg/kg), wolfberry leaves Lycium chinense (94.4 mg/kg), bird chili Capsicum frutescens leaves (95.4 mg/kg), drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves (90.0 mg/kg), green chili Capsicum annum (87 mg/kg), Allium fistulosum leaves (74.6 mg/kg), and bell pepper Capsicum annum (71.0 mg/kg). alpha-Tocopherol was not detected in Brassica oleracea, Phaeomeria speciosa, Pachyrrhizus speciosa, Pleurotus sajor-caju, and Solanum melongena. PMID:11410015

  6. Mechanizing chile peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvest of New Mexico's signature crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Mexican-type chile (Capsicum annuum L.), often referred to as 'Anaheim', is the signature crop of New Mexico. Both the red and green (fully sized, but physiologically immature) crops are integral to the state's culture and economy. Lack of a predictable labor supply and higher input costs have p...

  7. EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

  8. Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait as a Suppression Tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution that has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). It primarily infests solanaceous fruits, so has the potential to impact production of crops such as peppers (Capsicum annuu...

  9. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  10. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection, identification and quantification of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ in potato plants with zebra chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new Liberibacter species, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) recently associated with potato/tomato psyllid-transmitted diseases in tomato and capsicum in New Zealand, was found to be consistently associated with a newly emerging potato zebra chip (ZC) disease in Texas and other southw...

  11. Truhart-NR, A Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Pimento-type Pepper Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to develop a high-yielding, pimento-type pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes were completed with the official release of Truhart-NR on October 20, 2009. The new cultivar is homozygous for the dominant N gene that conditions a high level of re...

  12. PA-560, A Root-Knot Nematode Resistant, Yellow-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to develop a yellow-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes were completed with the official release of PA-560 on October 20, 2009. PA-560, an advanced breeding line, is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to...

  13. Genetic Diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic populations of Phytophthora capsici from pepper plants and soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six Phytophthora capsici strains and one Phytophthora parasitica strain were evaluated for pathogenicity and disease severity on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. The strains represent a range of geographic locations and were collected primarily from pepper stems or roots of plants with sympto...

  14. Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2008-06-11

    Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

  15. PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

  16. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  17. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo d...

  18. Mechanizing chile peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvest of New Mexico’s signature crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Mexican-type red and green chile (Capsicum annuum) is important to New Mexico’s identity and economy. Producers began experimenting with mechanical harvest in the mid-1960s, but efforts stalled in the 1970s. Adverse impact to production following the implementation of the North American Free Tra...

  19. Host resistance and soil treatments for managing Pythium root rot and southern root-knot nematode in pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five pepper (Capsicum annuum) genotypes differing in reactions to Phytophthora capsici and southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) were studied in combination with four soil treatments for managing Pythium root rot and southern root-knot nematode in field trials in Charleston, SC and Cit...

  20. Evaluation of CAY-1, an Experimental, Natural Fungicide for Control of Strawberry Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CAY-1 is an experimental, natural product being tested as a potential fungicide. It is a saponin isolated from Capsicum frutescens that interacts with membrane sterols to cause leakage of cell components and ultimately cell death in a variety of fungi. In an in vitro dose-response dilution-broth a...

  1. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  2. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. PMID:26555273

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of several plant extracts on porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-08-01

    Certain plant extracts are bioactive substances of some foods or traditional herbs, known to possess antioxidant, antibacterial, and perhaps immunoregulatory effects. This study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of 7 plant extracts (anethol, capsicum oleoresin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, garlicon, and turmeric oleoresin) on porcine alveolar macrophages collected from weaned pigs (n = 6 donor pigs) by bronchoalveolar lavage. The experimental design for this assay was a 2 [with or without 1 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/mL] × 5 (5 different amounts of each plant extract) factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design. The application of plant extracts were 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL, except for cinnamaldehyde and turmeric oleoresin, which were 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the number of live cells, Griess assay was applied to detect nitric oxide (NO) production, and ELISA was used to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants of macrophages. The LPS increased (P < 0.001) the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β. Without LPS, anethol and capsicum oleoresin increased (linear, P < 0.001) cell viability of macrophages, whereas other plant extracts reduced (linear, P < 0.001) it. Anethol, capsicum oleoresin, and carvacrol enhanced (linear, P < 0.001) the cell proliferation of LPS-treated macrophages. Without LPS, anethol, capsicum oleoresin, cinnamaldehyde, or turmeric oleoresin stimulated TNF-α secretion, whereas all plant extracts except eugenol enhanced IL-1β concentration in the supernatants of macrophages. However, all plant extracts suppressed (linear, P < 0.001) TNF-α, and all plant extracts except turmeric oleoresin decreased (linear, P < 0.05) IL-1β secretion from LPS-treated macrophages. Anethol and capsicum oleoresin

  4. Where did the chili get its spice? Biogeography of capsaicinoid production in ancestral wild chili species.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Manchego, Carlos; Haak, David C; Levey, Douglas J

    2006-03-01

    The biogeography of pungency in three species of wild chili in the chaco and surrounding highland habitats of southeastern Bolivia is described. We report that Capsicum chacoense, C. baccatum, and C. eximium are polymorphic for production of capsaicin and its analogs, such that completely pungent and completely nonpungent individuals co-occur in some populations. In C. chacoense, the density of plants and the proportion of pungent plants increased with elevation. Above 900 m, all individuals in all populations except two were pungent; nonpungent individuals in at least one of the two polymorphic populations were likely a result of spreading by humans. The occurrence of pungent and nonpungent individuals in three species of ancestral Capsicum and the geographic variation of pungency within species suggest that production of capsaicin and its analogs entails both costs and benefits, which shift from one locality to another. Determining the selection pressures behind such shifts is necessary to understand the evolution of pungency in chilies. PMID:16572297

  5. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  6. Synergistic interaction among begomoviruses leads to the suppression of host defense-related gene expression and breakdown of resistance in chilli.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2016-05-01

    Chilli (Capsicum sp.) is one of the economically important spice and vegetable crops grown in India and suffers great losses due to the infection of begomoviruses. Conventional breeding approaches have resulted in development of a few cultivars of chilli resistant to begomoviruses. A severe leaf curl disease was observed on one such resistant chilli cultivar (Capsicum annuum cv. Kalyanpur Chanchal) grown in the experimental field of the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Four different viral genomic components namely, Chilli leaf curl virus (DNA A), Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite (DNA β), Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (DNA A), and Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (DNA B) were associated with the severe leaf curl disease. Further, frequent association of these four genomic components was also observed in symptomatic plants of other chilli cultivars (Capsicum annuum cv. Kashi Anmol and Capsicum chinense cv. Bhut Jolokia) grown in the experimental field. Interaction studies among the isolated viral components revealed that Nicotiana benthamiana and chilli plants inoculated with four genomic components of begomoviruses exhibited severe leaf curl disease symptoms. In addition, this synergistic interaction resulted in increased viral DNA accumulation in infected plants. Resistant chilli plants co-inoculated with four genomic components of begomoviruses showed drastic reduction of host basal (ascorbate peroxidase, thionin, polyphenol oxidase) and specific defense-related gene (NBS-LRR) expression. Our results suggested that synergistic interaction among begomoviruses created permissive cellular environment in the resistant chilli plants which leads to breakdown of natural resistance, a phenomenon observed for the first time in chilli. PMID:26780359

  7. Antioxidants in hot pepper: variation among accessions.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Jarret, Robert L; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand members or accessions. Many of these species and cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants having a number of benefits for human health. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, free sugars, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Seventeen accessions of pepper from the core Capsicum germplasm collection (four accessions of Capsicum chinense; five accessions of C. baccatum; six accessions of C. annuum; and two of C. frutescens) were field grown and their mature fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant composition. Concentrations of these compounds tended to be higher in C. chinense and C. baccatum, than in C. annuum and C. frutescens. Across all accessions the concentration of total phenols was correlated with ascorbic acid (r = 0.97) and free sugars (r = 0.80). Concentrations of total phenols (1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) and ascorbic acid (1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) were significantly greater in PI-633757, PI-387833, and PI-633754, respectively, compared to other accessions analyzed. Total capsaicinoids concentrations were greatest (1.3 mg g-1 fruit) in PI-438622 and lowest (0.002 mg g-1 fruit) in Grif-9320. The great variability within and among Capsicum species for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with value-added traits. PMID:16923603

  8. Inheritance of unique fruit and foliage color mutation in NuMex piñata.

    PubMed

    Votava, E J; Balok, C; Coon, D; Bosland, P W

    2000-01-01

    The inheritance of mature fruit color in peppers (Capsicum spp.) is controlled by several genes. However, the inheritance of the transition of colors the fruit undergo during ripening has not been described extensively. The authors describe the inheritance of a unique gene which affects foliage color and fruit color transition occurring in the jalapeño cultivar NuMex Piñata. The gene responsible is designated the tra gene. PMID:10739128

  9. The evaluation of trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Khadijeh; Rezvani Fard, Mehdi; Khorsandi, Jamshid; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucamber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow Capsicum annuum (Yellow bell pepper) and red Capsicum annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 to March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of INAA showed that, the concentrations of Fe (Iron), Mn (Manganese) and Zn (Zinc) were varied from <10-50.0 mgkg-1, 6.8-15.0 mgkg-1 and 10.0-23.0 mgkg-1, respectively. The elemental concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable Upper Intake Level (UIL). The results of this study revealed that, considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:25340168

  10. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Devi, Khumuckcham Sangeeta; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-02-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili. PMID:26862481

  11. The evaluation of trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Khadijeh; Rezvani Fard, Mehdi; Khorsandi, Jamshid; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucamber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow Capsicum annuum (Yellow bell pepper) and red Capsicum annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 to March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of INAA showed that, the concentrations of Fe (Iron), Mn (Manganese) and Zn (Zinc) were varied from <10-50.0 mgkg(-1), 6.8-15.0 mgkg(-1) and 10.0-23.0 mgkg(-1), respectively. The elemental concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable Upper Intake Level (UIL). The results of this study revealed that, considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:25340168

  12. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. PMID:20839630

  13. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:16428643

  14. Some rootstocks improve pepper tolerance to mild salinity through ionic regulation.

    PubMed

    Penella, Consuelo; Nebauer, Sergio G; Quiñones, Ana; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Grafting has been proposed as an interesting strategy that improves the responses of crops under salinity. In pepper, we reported increased fruit yield of the commercial 'Adige' cultivar under salinity when grafted onto accessions Capsicum chinense Jacq. 'ECU-973' (12) and Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum 'BOL-58' (14), whereas no effect was observed when grafted onto accession Capsicum annuum L var. 'Serrano' (5). We also analysed the physiological and biochemical mechanisms related to the tolerance conferred by these rootstocks. Responses to salinity (40 mM NaCl) were studied in the different plant combinations for 30 days by determining water relations, mineral content, proline accumulation, photosynthetic parameters, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant capacity. Higher salt tolerance was achieved when the 'Adige' cultivar was grafted onto the 12 genotype, which allowed not only lower Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the scion, but also ion selectivity maintenance, particularly Na(+)/K(+) discrimination. These traits led to a minor negative impact on photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and lipid peroxidation in grafted scion leaves. This work suggests that using tolerant pepper rootstocks that maintain the scion's ion homeostasis is a promising strategy to provide salinity tolerance and can consequently improve crop yield. PMID:25480004

  15. Elevating concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in hot peppers using recycled waste.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Five Capsicum accessions (PI 435916 and PI 438614 from Capsicum chinense; PI 370004 and Grif 9354 from C. baccatum and PI 438649 from C. annuum) were selected from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service Capsicum germplasm collection to study the impact of four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM) and no-mulch (NM) bare soil on fruit concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, yield, plant size and mature fruit characteristics (fruit weight, length, width, and wall-thickness) of plants grown under these practices. Regardless of soil treatments, PI 438614 and PI 435916 contained the greatest concentrations of total capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin). Fruits of plants grown in soil mixed with SS contained the greatest concentrations of total capsaicinoids. Fruits of plants grown in SS or CM contained the greatest fruit weight. PI 438649 produced the greatest fruit weight, length and wall-thickness. The total marketable yield expressed as weight of fruit plants was significantly higher in soils mixed with SS and CM compared to those mixed with YW and NM soils. PMID:25996816

  16. Antibiotic-potentiation activities of four Cameroonian dietary plants against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria expressing efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuous spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, partially due to efflux pumps drastically reduced the efficacy of the antibiotic armory, increasing the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for new compounds to potentiate the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics is therefore important. The present study was designed to evaluate the ability of the methanol extracts of four Cameroonian dietary plants (Capsicum frutescens L. var. facilulatum, Brassica oleacera L. var. italica, Brassica oleacera L. var. butyris and Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench.) to improve the activity of commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The qualitative phytochemical screening of the plant extracts was performed using standard methods whilst the antibacterial activity was performed by broth micro-dilution method. Results All the studied plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the studied extracts ranged from 256-1024 μg/mL. Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum extract displayed the largest spectrum of activity (73%) against the tested bacterial strains whilst the lower MIC value (256 μg/mL) was recorded with Basilicum polystachyon against E. aerogenes ATCC 13048 and P. stuartii ATCC 29916. In the presence of PAβN, the spectrum of activity of Brassica oleacera var. italica extract against bacteria strains increased (75%). The extracts from Brassica oleacera var. butyris, Brassica oleacera var. italica, Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum and Basilicum polystachyon showed synergistic effects (FIC ≤ 0.5) against the studied bacteria, with an average of 75.3% of the tested antibiotics. Conclusion These results provide promising information for the potential use of the tested plants alone or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics in the fight against MDR Gram-negative bacteria

  17. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and Capsicum oleoresin, on the translational regulation of genes associated with immunology, physiology and metabolism using high-throughput microarray analysis and in vivo disease challenge model of avian coccidiosis. Methods In this study, we used nutrigenomics technology to investigate the molecular and genetic mechanisms of dietary modulation of host innate immunity and metabolism by three phytonutrients. To validate their immunomodulatory effects in a disease model, young broiler chickens fed a standard diet supplemented with three phytochemicals (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin) from one day post-hatch were orally challenged with E. acervulina. The body weight gain and fecal oocyst production were used to evaluate coccidiosis disease parameters. Results Analysis of global gene expression profiles of intestinal tissues from phytonutrient-fed birds indicated that Capsicum oleoresin induced the most gene changes compared to the control group where many of these genes were associated with those of metabolism and immunity. The most reliable network induced by dietary cinnamaldehyde treatment was related with the functions of antigen presentation, humoral immune response, and inflammatory disease. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with these phytonutrients significantly protected broiler chickens against live coccidiosis challenge infection based on body weight and parasite fecundity. Conclusions The results of this study provide clear evidence to support the idea that plant-derived phytochemicals possess immune-enhancing properties in chickens and these new findings create a new possibility to develop effective drug-free alternative strategies for disease control for poultry infectious diseases. PMID:21645315

  18. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Paterek; Gemma Husmillo; Amrutha Daram; Vesna Trbovic; Teri Storino

    2003-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter includes the application of new methods of Capsicum sp. (pepper) extraction by soxhlet method and analysis of a new set of extracts by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples; and evaluation of antimicrobial activities of the old set of pepper extracts in comparison with major components of known biocides and corrosion inhibitors. Twelve new extracts from three varieties of Capsicum sp. (Serrano, Habanero, and Chile de Arbol) were obtained by soxhlet extraction using 4 different solvents. Results of TLC done on these extracts showed the presence of capsaicin and some phenolic compounds, while that of HPLC detected capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin peaks. More tests will be done to determine specific components. Additional isolates from the group of heterotrophic, acid-producing, denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria were obtained from the pipeline samples submitted by gas companies. Isolates of interest will be used in subsequent antimicrobial testing and test-loop simulation system experiments. Results of antimicrobial screening of Capsicum sp. extracts and components of known commercial biocides showed comparable activities when tested against two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  19. Complexity of begomovirus and betasatellite populations associated with chilli leaf curl disease in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Vinoth; Singh, Achuit Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Yadav, Tribhuwan; Basu, Saumik; Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Chattopadhyay, Brotati; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2015-10-01

    Chilli, which encompasses several species in the genus Capsicum, is widely consumed throughout the world. In the Indian subcontinent, production of chilli is constrained due to chilli leaf curl disease (ChiLCD) caused by begomoviruses. Despite the considerable economic consequences of ChiLCD on chilli cultivation in India, there have been scant studies of the genetic diversity and structure of the begomoviruses that cause this disease. Here we report on a comprehensive survey across major chilli-growing regions in India. Analysis of samples collected in the survey indicates that ChiLCD-infected plants are associated with a complex of begomoviruses (including one previously unreported species) with a diverse group of betasatellites found in crops and weeds. The associated betasatellites neither enhanced the accumulation of the begomovirus components nor reduced the incubation period in Nicotiana benthamiana. The ChiLCD-associated begomoviruses induced mild symptoms on Capsicum spp., but both the level of helper virus that accumulated and the severity of symptoms were increased in the presence of cognate betasatellites. Interestingly, most of the begomoviruses were found to be intra-species recombinants. The betasatellites possess high nucleotide variability, and recombination among them was also evident. The nucleotide substitution rates were determined for the AV1 gene of begomoviruses (2.60 × 10- 3 substitutions site- 1 year- 1) and the βC1 gene of betasatellites [chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChiLCB), 2.57 × 10- 4 substitution site- 1 year- 1; tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite (ToLCBDB), 5.22 × 10- 4 substitution site- 1 year- 1]. This study underscores the current understanding of Indian ChiLCD-associated begomoviruses and also demonstrates the crucial role of betasatellites in severe disease development in Capsicum spp. PMID:26251220

  20. Chemical crowd control agents.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  1. Studies on the nitrate reductase activities of the fruit and the source leaf in pepper

    SciTech Connect

    Achhireddy, N.R.; Beevers, L.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity (NO/sub 2//sup -/ produced in the dark and under anaerobic conditions) of 30-day-old fruit of Capsicum annuum L. was 2.2% that in tissues of a single leaf adjacent to each fruit (33 vs. 1500 nmoles/hr-g fresh weight). The optimal NR activity in one source leaf could only account for about 17% of the fruit's total nitrogen accumulation, while the fruit's own NR activity was almost negligible. Covered and uncovered fruits did not differ significantly in NR activities. 19 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  3. Development and optimization of sequence-tagged microsatellite site markers to detect genetic diversity within Colletotrichum capsici, a causal agent of chilli pepper anthracnose disease.

    PubMed

    Ranathunge, N P; Ford, R; Taylor, P W J

    2009-07-01

    Genomic libraries enriched for microsatellites from Colletotrichum capsici, one of the major causal agents of anthracnose disease in chilli pepper (Capsicum spp.), were developed using a modified hybridization procedure. Twenty-seven robust primer pairs were designed from microsatellite flanking sequences and were characterized using 52 isolates from three countries India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Highest gene diversity of 0.857 was observed at the CCSSR1 with up to 18 alleles among all the isolates whereas the differentiation ranged from 0.05 to 0.45. The sequence-tagged microsatellite site markers developed in this study will be useful for genetic analyses of C. capsici populations. PMID:21564867

  4. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  5. Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

    1984-08-01

    Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

  6. Evidence that the nonstructural protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus is the avirulence determinant in the interaction with resistant pepper carrying the TSW gene.

    PubMed

    Margaria, P; Ciuffo, M; Pacifico, D; Turina, M

    2007-05-01

    All known pepper cultivars resistant to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) possess a single dominant resistance gene, Tsw. Recently, naturally occurring resistance-breaking (RB) TSWV strains have been identified, causing major concerns. We used a collection of such strains to identify the specific genetic determinant that allows the virus to overcome the Tsw gene in Capsicum spp. A reverse genetic approach is still not feasible for TSWV; therefore, we analyzed reassortants between wild-type (WT) and RB strains. Our results confirmed that the S RNA, which encodes both the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs), carries the genetic determinant responsible for Tsw resistance breakdown. We then used full-length S RNA segments or the proteins they encode to compare the sequences of WT and related RB strains, and obtained indirect evidence that the NSs protein is the avirulence factor in question. Transient expression of NSs protein from WT and RB strains showed that they both can equally suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Moreover, biological characterization of two RB strains carrying deletions in the NSs protein showed that NSs is important in maintaining TSWV infection in newly emerging leaves over time, preventing recovery. Analysis of another RB strain phenotype allowed us to conclude that local necrotic response is not sufficient for resistance in Capsicum spp. carrying the Tsw gene. PMID:17506332

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  8. A determinant of disease symptom severity is located in RNA2 of broad bean wilt virus 2.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Ye-Ji; Kim, Jaedeok; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), which belongs to the genus Fabavirus, is a destructive pathogen of many economically important horticultural and ornamental crops. In this study, we constructed infectious full-length cDNA clones of two distinct isolates of BBWV2 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. BBWV2-PAP1 isolated from paprika (Capsicum annuum var. gulosum) induces severe disease symptoms in various pepper varieties, whereas BBWV2-RP1 isolated from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) causes mild symptoms. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of the infectious cDNA clones of BBWV2-PAP1 and RP1 resulted in the same symptoms as the original virus isolates. The infectious cDNA clones of BBWV2-PAP1 and RP1 were used to examine the symptoms induced by pseudorecombinants between the two isolates to localize in which of the two genomic RNAs are the symptom severity determinants in BBWV2. The pseudorecombinant of RP1-RNA1 and PAP1-RNA2 induced severe symptoms, similar to those caused by the parental isolate PAP1, whereas the pseudorecombinant of PAP1-RNA1 and RP1-RNA2 induced mild symptoms, similar to those caused by the parental isolate RP1. Our results suggest that BBWV2 RNA2 contains a symptom determinant(s) capable of enhancing symptom severity. PMID:26428303

  9. A simplified approach to construct infectious cDNA clones of a tobamovirus in a binary vector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Bruna Rayane Teodoro; Nicolini, Cícero; Lucinda, Natalia; Orílio, Anelise Franco; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2014-03-01

    Infectious cDNA clones of RNA viruses are important tools to study molecular processes such as replication and host-virus interactions. However, the cloning steps necessary for construction of cDNAs of viral RNA genomes in binary vectors are generally laborious. In this study, a simplified method of producing an agro-infectious Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) clone is described in detail. Initially, the complete genome of PMMoV was amplified by a single-step RT-PCR, cloned, and subcloned into a small plasmid vector under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter to confirm the infectivity of the cDNA clone through transcript inoculation. The complete genome was then transferred to a binary vector using a single-step, overlap-extension PCR. The selected clones were agro-infiltrated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants and showed to be infectious, causing typical PMMoV symptoms. No differences in host responses were observed when the wild-type PMMoV isolate, the T7 RNA polymerase-derived transcripts and the agroinfiltration-derived viruses were inoculated to N. benthamiana, Capsicum chinense PI 159236 and Capsicum annuum plants. PMID:24388933

  10. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  11. Unraveling the sequence dynamics of the formation of genus-specific satellite DNAs in the family solanaceae

    PubMed Central

    Jo, S-H; Park, H-M; Kim, S-M; Kim, H H; Hur, C-G; Choi, D

    2011-01-01

    Tandemly repeated DNAs, referred to as satellite DNAs, often occur in a genome in a genus-specific manner. However, the mechanisms for generation and evolution for these sequences are largely unknown because of the uncertain origins of the satellite DNAs. We found highly divergent genus-specific satellite DNAs that showed sequence similarity with genus-specific intergenic spacers (IGSs) in the family Solanaceae, which includes the genera Nicotiana, Solanum and Capsicum. The conserved position of the IGS between 25S and 18S rDNA facilitates comparison of IGS sequences across genera, even in the presence of very low sequence similarity. Sequence comparison of IGS may elucidate the procedure of the genesis of complex monomer units of the satellite DNAs. Within the IGS of Capsicum species, base substitutions and copy number variation of subrepeat monomers were causes of monomer divergence in IGS sequences. At the level of inter-generic IGS sequences of the family Solanaceae, however, genus-specific motif selection, motif shuffling between subrepeats and differential amplification among motifs were involved in formation of genus-specific IGS. Therefore, the genus-specific satellite DNAs in Solanaceae plants can be generated from differentially organized repeat monomers of the IGS rather than by accumulation of mutations from pre-existent satellite DNAs. PMID:21063436

  12. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-06-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  13. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  14. Structural Modifications and Programmed Cell Death of Chili Pepper Fruit Related to Resistance Responses to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Yoon, Jae-Bok; Park, Hyo-Guen; Park, Eun Woo; Kim, Young Ho

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT Postharvest (detached) and in planta (attached) fruits of pepper plants, Capsicum annuum cv. Jejujaerae (susceptible) and Capsicum baccatum cv. PBC80 (resistant), inoculated with the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were examined using light, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy to compare the cytological differences between the compatible and incompatible interactions. In nonwound inoculation of postharvest pepper fruit, resistant pepper tissues showed a significant increase in the thickness of the cuticle layer compared with that of the susceptible and noninoculated fruit. Cytological features of programmed cell death (PCD) were observed in the resistant pepper fruit with postharvest inoculation, and these were characterized by positive responses to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. The oligonucleosomal fragments of DNA were confirmed electrophoretically as DNA laddering. The PCD-positive responses occurred around the inoculation sites early in in planta wound inoculation in the resistant pepper. Nuclear modifications and structural changes of hypersensitivity were also observed in the resistant fruit, including separation of the plasma membrane from the cell wall, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum, accumulation of electron-dense inclusions in vacuoles, and cytoplasmic vacuolization accompanying fragmentation of the cytoplasm. These structural changes may also implicate PCD-like host responses. In addition, in planta wound inoculation resulted in cell enlargement and cell division during the later stages of infection to form a periderm-like boundary layer around the inoculation site. PMID:18943699

  15. Comparative genomics of ten solanaceous plastomes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna). AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura. PMID:25477958

  16. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna). AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura. PMID:25477958

  17. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Janzac, Bérenger; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Palloix, Alain; Moury, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing 2,951 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV). Phylogeny reconstruction showed that this isolate clustered with potato virus V (PVV), Peru tomato virus and wild potato mosaic virus into a monophyletic group, and was closest to PVV. The isolate was shown to be infectious in tobacco, tomato and, contrary to PVV, in pepper. The pvr2(1), pvr2(2), and Pvr4 genes present in many pepper cultivars conferred resistance toward this isolate and could help control ERV. PMID:18553171

  18. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.; Shabaka, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  19. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. PMID:20707875

  20. The Performance of Dammar-based Paint System Evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Potential Time Measurement (PTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, N. M.; Ahmad, A. Hanom

    2009-06-01

    The coating resistance of the Dammar-based paint system was determined by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), whereas, the corrosion potential analysis was determined by using potential time measurement (PTM) method. Carotenoid pigment obtained from Capsicum Annum (dried chili pepper) was added into the mixture of dammar and acrylic polyol resin and the paint systems were proofed on Aluminium steel Q-panels as a substrate. Result shows that the paint system with a composition of 35% dammar (CD35%) possessed the higher corrosion resistance after 30 days of exposure in 3% NaCl solution for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and also can withstand the longest time for delimitation protection in PTM analysis. The results prove that the developed organic paint system can improve the electrochemical and corrosion protection properties of a paint system.

  1. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression.

    PubMed

    Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-03-01

    Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes. PMID:26981411

  2. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste).

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu Min; Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste), metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice) and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens) affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity. PMID:27428946

  3. Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables.

    PubMed

    Danesi, F; Bordoni, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the modifications of antioxidant activity consequent to 3 typical home cooking practices (steaming, boiling, and microwave cooking) in fresh and home frozen vegetables. Six different vegetable species were examined: carrots (Daucus carota L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomatoes (Solanumn lycopersicum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), and yellow peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). All vegetables were conventional products and were analyzed in season to minimize differences due to agricultural practice and storage. Cooking and freezing are generally regarded as destructive to antioxidants, and this has fostered a belief among many consumers that raw vegetables are nutritionally superior to their frozen and/or cooked forms. In the current study, we provide evidence that this is not always the case. PMID:19241586

  4. Production of methanol from heat-stressed pepper and corn leaf disks

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.A. . Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture)

    1994-05-01

    Early Calwonder'' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Jubilee'' corn (Zea mays L.) leaf disks exposed to high temperature stress produced ethylene, ethane, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol based on comparison of retention times during gas chromatography to authentic standards. Methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were also identified by mass spectroscopy. Corn leaf disks produced lower levels of ethylene, ethane, and methanol, but more acetaldehyde and ethanol than pepper. Production of ethane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, coincided with an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) in pepper but not in corn. Compared with controls, pepper leaf disks infiltrated with linolenic acid evolved significantly greater amounts of ethane, acetaldehyde, and methanol and similar levels of ethanol. EL and volatile hydrocarbon production were not affected by fatty acid infiltration in corn. Infiltration of pepper leaves with buffers increasing in pH from 5.5 to 9.5 increased methanol production.

  5. Effects of tear gases on the eye.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonwook J; Payal, Abhishek R; Daly, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    Chemical agents that target the eyes have been a popular choice for law enforcement during riots and for military training for nearly a century. The most commonly used agents are chloroacetophenone (formerly sold as Mace), o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, and oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, current ingredient for Mace). Initially, most severe ocular injuries were caused by the explosive force rather than the chemical itself. The development of sprays reduced the mechanical severity of ocular injuries, but resulted in a variety of chemical injuries. The effects on eyes include conjunctival injection, complete corneal epithelial defects, pseudopterygium, corneal neovascularization, persistent conjunctivalization, corneal opacities, and reduced visual acuity. Current management, based on limited human studies, emphasizes decontamination and symptomatic treatment. We review the literature related to clinical and histopathologic effects of tear gas agents on the eye and their management. PMID:26808721

  6. Correlation between different markers for the assessment of red chilli pepper powders stability during shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Pungency and red colour of Capsicum powders deteriorate during processing and storage, resulting in a decrease in market value. Two varieties of pepper with different pungencies were monitored for capsaicinoids, colour and furosine. Aliquots were stored at room and at low temperature during one year. At low temperature all indicators were stable in both varieties, while at room temperature, redness and capsacinoids decreased significantly, while furosine increased. High correlation was found between those markers. The more pungent variety exhibited higher stability in terms of all parameters. Differences observed suggest a potential protective effect exerted by capsaicinoids on powder stability. The decrease in capsaicinoids and redness accompanied by furosine increase showed a linkage between those markers never reported before. Considering that capsaicinoids and furosine occurrence have strong impact on the nutritional profile, the findings of this work show relevant changes in the nutritional value of chilli pepper powder after storage. PMID:27045952

  7. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  8. Optimization of the extraction conditions of the volatile compounds from chili peppers by headspace solid phase micro-extraction.

    PubMed

    Junior, Stanislau Bogusz; de Marchi Tavares de Melo, Arlete; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2011-05-27

    A method involving headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and optimized to investigate the volatile composition of Capsicum chili peppers. Five SPME fibers were tested for extraction: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS-75μm), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-100μm), divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS-65μm), carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB-70μm), and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS-50/30μm), the last of which was shown to be the most efficient fiber to trap the volatile compounds. Optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out using multivariate strategies such as factorial design and response surface methodology. Eighty three compounds were identified by GC-MS when using the optimized extraction conditions, the majority of which were esters. PMID:21227437

  9. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  10. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil. PMID:25249043

  11. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo. PMID:24873710

  12. Melatonin content of pepper and tomato fruits: effects of cultivar and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Riga, Patrick; Medina, Sonia; García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of cultivar and solar radiation on the melatonin content of Capsicum annuum (pepper) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruits. The melatonin content of red pepper fruits ranged from 31 to 93ngg(-1) (dry weight). The melatonin content of tomato ranged from 7.5 to 250ngg(-1) (dry weight). We also studied the effect of ripeness on melatonin content and identified one group of pepper cultivars in which the melatonin content increased as the fruit ripened and another in which it decreased as the fruit ripened. Under shade conditions, the melatonin content in most of tomato cultivars tended to increase (up to 135%), whereas that of most pepper cultivars decreased (to 64%). Overall, the results also demonstrated that the melatonin content of the fruits was not related to carbon fluxes from leaves. PMID:24629979

  13. Disappearance of Porphobilinogen Deaminase Activity in Leaves Before the Onset of Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, Rosalia B.; Frydman, Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    The activity of porphobilinogen deaminase was measured in young and senescent or mature leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum), and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Whereas high activity was found in the crude extracts of the young leaves, almost no activity was found in the extracts of senescent or mature leaves. The decrease in deaminase activity was not due to the presence of an isolatable inhibitor. By purifying the crude enzyme extracts from leaves of different ages on DEAE-cellulose columns it was shown that the decrease in deaminase activity was due to a real decrease in the amount of enzyme. Fruiting also decreased porphobilinogen deaminase activity. Several kinetic constants of the C. annuum deaminase were determined. PMID:16660874

  14. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  15. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  16. Influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K U; Geervani, P; Eggum, B O

    1991-07-01

    Influence of eight common Indian spices on the protein quality of sorghum and chickpea was studied. Spices used include red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper (piper nigrum), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ajowan (Carum copticum). Addition of spices did not affect protein digestibility (TD) of sorghum. The BV of all sorghum diets with spices was higher than that of control diet. However, it was significant only in case of diets combined with red chilli + coriander (1:1) mix, black pepper + cumin (1:1) mix, coriander and cumin. Addition of spices did not have any effect on TD or BV of chickpea diets. PMID:1924191

  17. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  18. Disappearance of porphobilinogen deaminase activity in leaves before the onset of senescence.

    PubMed

    Frydman, R B; Frydman, B

    1979-06-01

    The activity of porphobilinogen deaminase was measured in young and senescent or mature leaves of pepper (Capsicum annuum), and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Whereas high activity was found in the crude extracts of the young leaves, almost no activity was found in the extracts of senescent or mature leaves. The decrease in deaminase activity was not due to the presence of an isolatable inhibitor. By purifying the crude enzyme extracts from leaves of different ages on DEAE-cellulose columns it was shown that the decrease in deaminase activity was due to a real decrease in the amount of enzyme. Fruiting also decreased porphobilinogen deaminase activity. Several kinetic constants of the C. annuum deaminase were determined. PMID:16660874

  19. Metals and metalloids in fruits of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and their cultivation soils in the Basque Country: concentrations and accumulation trends.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Trebolazabala, Josu; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2015-04-15

    The concentrations of several elements (Al, Fe, As, Cu, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn) were measured in soils and the edible part of different vegetables (tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum "Raf") peppers (Capsicum annuum), chards (Betavulgaris var. cicla), artichokes (Cynarascholymus)) and fruits (Raspberries (Rubusidaeus)) from 13 orchards in the Basque Country affected by different pollution sources. Multivariate analysis of data was used to look for possible correlations between metals in soil and metals in the edible part of the plant. Only manganese showed a correlation significantly different from zero. The metal concentrations found in the edible part were always below the upper limits recommended by the European legislation in force. The Bioaccumulation Index was used to investigate how efficient the plant is to uptake an element from the cultivation soil and to preserve its edible part from the element. PMID:25466128

  20. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO. PMID:26445755