Science.gov

Sample records for pin power reconstruction

  1. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  2. Pinning Loss Power Density in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2015-03-01

    The pinning loss power density is theoretically derived based on the resistive energy dissipation when the flux lines are driven by the Lorentz force in a superconductor. The obtained loss power density does not depend on the viscosity or flow resistivity, but is proportional to the pinning force density only, and it possesses the nature of hysteresis loss, as commonly measured in experiments. These features are predicted by the critical state model, which was recently proved theoretically. The obtained pinning force density is consistent with the prediction of the coherent potential approximation theory, a kind of statistical summation theory, for flux pinning. Thus, the irreversible properties associated with the flux pinning can be comprehensively described by these flux pinning theories. The irreversible flux pinning in the superconductor is compared with similar irreversible phenomena such as the motion of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic materials and the friction in mechanical systems. The possibility is also discussed for a general theoretical description of these irreversible phenomena in which the hysteresis loss occurs.

  3. A complication following ACL reconstruction using bioabsorbable cross-pins.

    PubMed

    Vecchini, Eugenio; Micheloni, Gian Mario; Corbo, Valentina Rita; Perusi, Francesco; Dib, Giovanni; Magnan, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a proximal pin migration after ACL reconstruction in medial soft tissue with pain, inflammatory reaction and functional reduction. 33-year-old male presented at our clinic with a complete ACL rupture. Reconstruction with autogenous gracilis and semitendinosus hamstring tendons was performed and graft fixed in the femoral canal with two PLLA bioabsorbable pins (RIGIDFIX® Cross Pin System). Two months postoperatively the patient presented swelling and pain on the medial side of the knee, full range of motion and negative results at the Lachman and Pivot shift tests. MRI examination showed the superior femoral tunnel crossing both the lateral and medial cortex lodging the pin in the knee's medial soft tissue corresponding to the swelling area reported by the patient. The tendon graft was properly positioned. After surgical removal of the pin through a small skin incision, the pain and swelling promptly subsided allowing the patient return to normal activities in few weeks without any pain. In our opinion the painful swelling of the knee was due to a displacement of the pin that had been accidentally lodged in the soft tissues instead of the bone causing a foreign-body reaction resulting in granuloma formation with local inflammation. This dislodgement could have been due to an inappropriately long femoral tunnel. PMID:27104331

  4. Pin guidance of reconstruction plate contour: an expanded role of external fixation.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Yves; Higgins, Kevin M; Enepekides, Danny J

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a modification of intraoperative external fixation for mandibular reconstruction with free tissue flaps. This technique is indicated when preregistration of the reconstruction plate is not possible due to transmandibular tumor extension. Once standard external fixation has been carried out and prior to segmental mandibulectomy, additional pins are fixed to the connecting rod that delineate the mandibular contour in three-dimensional (3D) space. Following mandibulectomy, these pins allow accurate contouring of the reconstruction plate and improved restoration of mandibular contour, projection, and dental occlusion. A step-by-step description of the technique using models and intraoperative photos is presented. This method of mandibular reconstruction is a simple and time-effective alternative to intraoperative computer navigation and 3D modeling in select cases of oral carcinoma where tumor infiltration of the outer mandibular cortex precludes prebending of the reconstruction plates. PMID:22024840

  5. Evaluation of rodded BWR assembly pin powers with simulate

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe.

    2012-07-01

    In the development of Studsvik's nodal code SIMULATE5, special attention has been given to the accurate description of pin powers. The code solves the multi-group diffusion or simplified P3 equations with high spatial resolution. A short description is given of the handling of material heterogeneities in the axial and radial directions - the axial re-homogenization and the radial sub-mesh model, respectively. Furthermore, two models which are of special importance in the presence of control rods, and hence on the pellet clad interaction (PCI) phenomenon, are described; the quarter-assembly thermal-hydraulic treatment and the depletion of absorber material. A numerical example for a real core shows that while the impact of the fine grained description is negligible on global parameters such as k{sub eff}, the effect on pin powers may be substantial. For a deeply inserted and highly depleted control rod, the difference in pin powers caused by neglecting the advanced models of SIMULATE5, may be as high as 15 %. (authors)

  6. Diffusion-limited aggregation with power-law pinning.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H G E; Popescu, M N; Family, F

    2004-01-01

    Using stochastic conformal mapping techniques we study the patterns emerging from Laplacian growth with a power-law decaying threshold for growth R(-gamma)(N) (where R(N) is the radius of the N-particle cluster). For gamma>1 the growth pattern is in the same universality class as diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), while for gamma<1 the resulting patterns have a lower fractal dimension D(gamma) than a DLA cluster due to the enhancement of growth at the hot tips of the developing pattern. Our results indicate that a pinning transition occurs at gamma=1/2, significantly smaller than might be expected from the lower bound alpha(min) approximately 0.67 of multifractal spectrum of DLA. This limiting case shows that the most singular tips in the pruned cluster now correspond to those expected for a purely one-dimensional line. Using multifractal analysis, analytic expressions are established for D(gamma) both close to the breakdown of DLA universality class, i.e., gamma less, similar 1, and close to the pinning transition, i.e., gamma greater, similar 1/2. PMID:14995617

  7. A wirelessly powered microspectrometer for neural probe-pin device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, whether done invasively or not, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. We have developed a micro-spectrometer for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The micro-spectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) to enable operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, enable real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  8. Holding power of three different pin designs in the femur and ulna of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo).

    PubMed

    López García, Mariano; López Beceiro, Ana M; Valcárcel Juárez, Víctor; Muñoz Guzón, Fernando; González Cantalapiedra, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    External skeletal fixation is generally considered the best stabilization technique for immobilizing avian long bone fractures, but one of its major complications is the failure of bone-fixation pin interface or the loss of holding power. Consequently, this study is aimed at elucidating which pin design offers more pull-out strength in certain bones of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo). To achieve this objective, three pin designs (a smooth design and two negative profile threaded designs, with different thread pitch) were placed in five positions along the femur and ulna of the common buzzard. The pin pull-out strength was measured with the purpose of comparing medullary and pneumatic bones, insertion sites, and pin designs. Threaded pins with negative profile showed greater holding power than smooth pins (P < 0.05). When comparing holding power between the ulna and femur, no differences were found for smooth pins, whereas threaded pins showed more pull-out strength in the ulna than in the femur (P < 0.05). There were no differences observed related to pin location along the same bone when considering the same pin type. These results suggest that negative profile threaded pins have more holding power than smooth pins and that pneumatic bones provide less pull-out strength to negative profile threaded pins than medullary bones. PMID:22204047

  9. Broken bioabsorbable femoral cross-pin as a cause of a chondral lesion after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Ziogas, Evangelos; Dimitriadis, Theofilos; Voulgaropoulos, Harilaos

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a chondral lesion after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction caused by femoral cross-pin breakage and intra-articular migration of the fragment. A 20-year-old man initially underwent ACL reconstruction using a hamstring autograft. The RigidFix bioabsorbable cross-pin (DePuy Mitek) was used for the femoral fixation. The patient returned to a pre-injury level of activity (professional soccer player) 6 months postoperatively. However, 20 months postoperatively, the patient presented with effusion and lateral joint-line pain after practice, without signs of instability in clinical examination. Conservative treatment failed and at re-arthroscopy a chondral lesion of the lateral femoral and tibial condyle was found, which had been caused by the broken femoral cross-pin. The fragment was removed and the symptoms resolved. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this complication when using a bioabsorbable cross-pin for femoral fixation in ACL reconstruction. PMID:21686583

  10. Broken bioabsorbable femoral cross-pin as a cause of a chondral lesion after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Ziogas, Evangelos; Dimitriadis, Theofilos; Voulgaropoulos, Harilaos

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a chondral lesion after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction caused by femoral cross-pin breakage and intra-articular migration of the fragment. A 20-year-old man initially underwent ACL reconstruction using a hamstring autograft. The RigidFix bioabsorbable cross-pin (DePuy Mitek) was used for the femoral fixation. The patient returned to a pre-injury level of activity (professional soccer player) 6 months postoperatively. However, 20 months postoperatively, the patient presented with effusion and lateral joint-line pain after practice, without signs of instability in clinical examination. Conservative treatment failed and at re-arthroscopy a chondral lesion of the lateral femoral and tibial condyle was found, which had been caused by the broken femoral cross-pin. The fragment was removed and the symptoms resolved. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this complication when using a bioabsorbable cross-pin for femoral fixation in ACL reconstruction. PMID:21686583

  11. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  12. Applying Cross-Pin System in Both Femoral and Tibial Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Yujie; Xue, Jing; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Junliang; Qu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Use of the RigidFix Cross Pin System (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is a popular technique for femoral fixation of grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, tibial fixation is still limited to the use of interference screws and post fixation, and few surgeons apply the femoral RigidFix system in tibial fixation. Meanwhile, tunnel enlargement is still a problem that affects the outcome of ACLR with hamstring grafts. We have used the femoral RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. The rod top of the guide frame should be placed under the level of the subchondral bone at the proximal end of the tibial tunnel to ensure that the pins will not be inserted into the joint. The pins are inserted through the center of the lateral tibia. Using our technique, the fixation points of the femur and tibia are close to the anterior cruciate ligament insertions, and full contact of the graft with the tunnel wall can be accomplished. On the basis of our preliminary observations and investigation, we are optimistic about the prospect of performing ACLR using the RigidFix system in femoral and tibial fixation. PMID:26697293

  13. Sensitivity and System Response of Pin Power Peaking in VVER-1000 Fuel Assembly Using TSUNAMI-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frybort, J.

    2014-04-01

    Pin power peaking in a VVER-1000 fuel assembly and its sensitivity and uncertainty was analyzed by TSUNAMI-2D code. Several types of fuel assemblies were considered. They differ in number and position of gadolinium fuel pins. The calculations were repeated for several fuel compositions obtained by fuel depletion calculation. The results are quantified sensitivity data, which can be used for enrichment profiling.

  14. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; et al

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  15. Improved designs for p-i-n OLEDs towards the minimal power loss of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dashan

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the low yield, high power loss, and poor stability of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) panels are remaining as the obstacles to the fast growth of the OLED industry, especially for the lighting application. The p-i-n OLEDs have been widely recognized as the promising method to circumvent these bottleneck factors, due to the unique merit of the electrical doping to enable low power loss. In p-i-n OLEDs, the frequently used n-doped electron transport layers (n-ETL1) such as n-BCP, n-Alq3 possess markedly lower conductivities but better capabilities of injecting electrons into ETL such as BCP, Alq3, as compared to another class of n-doped ETLs (n-ETL2), e.g., n-NTCDA, n-PTCDA, n-C60. Thus, in order to minimize the electron loss, we provide the structure of uniting two n-doped layers, cathode/ n-ETL2/ n-ETL1/ ETL. In p-i-n OLEDs, the hole current injected from the single p-doped hole transport layer (p-HTL) into the neat HTL must be limited, because the higher conductivity p-HTL has the higher lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, leading to a larger hole transport energy barrier (φB) at the interface with the neat HTL. Therefore, in order to minimize the hole loss, we suggest the structure of uniting two p-HTLs, anode/ p-HTL2/ p-HTL1/ HTL. The p-HTL2 possesses high-lying HOMO level and thereby high conductivity, decreasing the ohmic loss in the hole conduction; the p-HTL1 features a low-lying HOMO level, reducing the φB.

  16. Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Semitendinosus Tendon Using the PINN-ACL CrossPin System: Minimum 4-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Gil; Lee, Byoung-Joo; Lee, Chang-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated mid-term results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the PINN-ACL CrossPin system that allowed for short graft fixation. Materials and Methods Forty-three patients underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction with a 4-strand semitendinosus tendon graft using the PINN-ACL CrossPin system. Femoral fixation was done using the PINN-ACL CrossPin system, and the tibial side was fixed with post-tie and a bioabsorbable interference screw. The mean follow-up period was 50 months. Evaluation was done using the Lachman test, pivot-shift test, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and grade. Anterior displacement was assessed. Results There was improvement in the Lachman test and pivot-shift test at final follow-up, form grade II (n=40) or III (n=3) to grade I (n=3) or 0 (n=40) and from grade I (n=20) or II (n=10) to grade I (n=8) or 0 (n=22), respectively. The mean IKDC score was 88.7, and grade A and B were 93.0% at final follow-up. Side-to-side difference was improved from 6.7 mm to 2.1 mm at final follow-up. Complications occurred in 3 patients, a re-ruptured due to trauma at 2 years after surgery and a deep infection and a superficial infection. Conclusions The mid-term follow-up results of ACL reconstruction with the PINN-ACL CrossPin system were satisfactory. The PINN-ACL CrossPin can be considered as a useful instrument for short graft fixation. PMID:25750893

  17. BIOMECHANICAL STUDY OF TRANSCORTICAL OR TRANSTRABECULAR BONE FIXATION OF PATELLAR TENDON GRAFT WITH BIOABSORBABLE PINS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION IN SHEEP

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Mauro Batista; Borges, Paulo César; Namba, Mario Massatomo; da Silva, João Luiz Vieira; de Assis Pereira Filho, Francisco; Filho, Edmar Stieven; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the initial resistance of fixation using the Rigid Fix® system, and compare it with traditional fixation methods using metal interference screws; and to evaluate the resistance of the fixation with the rigid fix system when the rotational position of the bone block is altered in the interior of the femoral tunnel. Methods: forty ovine knee specimens (stifle joints) were submitted to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL) using a bone-tendon-bone graft. In twenty specimens, the Rigid Fix method was used; this group was subdivided into two groups: ten knees the pins transfixed only the spongious area of the bone block, and ten for fixation passing through the layer of cortical bone. In the twenty remaining specimens, the graft was fixed with 9mm metal interference screws. Results: comparison of the RIGIDFIX® method with the metal interference screw fixation method did not show any statistically significant differences in terms of maximum load and rigidity; also, there were no statistically significant differences when the rotational position of the bone block was altered inside the femoral tunnel. For these evaluations, a level of significance of p < 0.017 was considered. Conclusion: fixation of the bone-tendon-bone graft with 2 bioabsorbable pines, regardless of the rotational position inside the femoral tunnel, gave a comparable fixation in terms of initial resistance to the metal interference screw, in this experimental model. PMID:27027081

  18. Use of TRIPOLI-4.3 lattice tally to investigate assembly power and pin power maps of PWR critical lattices experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y. K.

    2006-07-01

    Power distribution calculation is a very important task for fuel assembly design and whole core safety analysis. In Monte Carlo power map calculation, both lattice geometry and lattice tally functions are essential. The lattice geometry features of TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code have been reported in previous studies. Lattice tally functions of TRIPOLI-4.3 can be used to tally on some or all cells in a fuel pin lattice and to tally on a fuel assembly lattice with pin-by-pin modeling. In order to study the power maps in pin-by-pin level and in assembly-by-assembly level, this paper using lattice tally of TRIPOLI-4.3 code interprets three PWR critical lattice experiments from LEU-COMP-THERM-008 benchmark. The calculated K{sub eff} and relative assembly power maps in a 3 x 3 symmetry configuration have been investigated. The measured relative pin power distributions of 1/8 central assembly with different effects of lattice heterogeneity have been benchmarked against calculated ones. (authors)

  19. Influence of DBT reconstruction algorithm on power law spectrum coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancamberg, Laurence; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Abderrahmane, Ilyes H.; Palma, Giovanni; Milioni de Carvalho, Pablo; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Muller, Serge

    2015-03-01

    In breast X-ray images, texture has been characterized by a noise power spectrum (NPS) that has an inverse power-law shape described by its slope β in the log-log domain. It has been suggested that the magnitude of the power-law spectrum coefficient β is related to mass lesion detection performance. We assessed β in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images to evaluate its sensitivity to different typical reconstruction algorithms including simple back projection (SBP), filtered back projection (FBP) and a simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm (SIRT 30 iterations). Results were further compared to the β coefficient estimated from 2D central DBT projections. The calculations were performed on 31 unilateral clinical DBT data sets and simulated DBT images from 31 anthropomorphic software breast phantoms. Our results show that β highly depends on the reconstruction algorithm; the highest β values were found for SBP, followed by reconstruction with FBP, while the lowest β values were found for SIRT. In contrast to previous studies, we found that β is not always lower in reconstructed DBT slices, compared to 2D projections and this depends on the reconstruction algorithm. All β values estimated in DBT slices reconstructed with SBP were larger than β values from 2D central projections. Our study also shows that the reconstruction algorithm affects the symmetry of the breast texture NPS; the NPS of clinical cases reconstructed with SBP exhibit the highest symmetry, while the NPS of cases reconstructed with SIRT exhibit the highest asymmetry.

  20. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test. [for SP-100 space power reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, William F., III

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow.

  1. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  2. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs)

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Ronald M.; Carraro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived. PMID

  3. Low power Electro-optical filter: Constructed using silicon nanobeam resonator and PIN junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Mehdi N.; Orafaei, Hamed; Andalib, Alireza; Alipuor-Banaei, Hamed

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a high tunable Electro-optical filter is designed and simulated with low electric power consumption. A silicon nanobeam resonator based on one-dimensional photonic crystal in the form of Fabry-Perot structure, silicon-on-insulator waveguide, is proposed with a PIN junction. In designing nanobeam resonator, "deterministic design method" is used to achieve the high quality factor and high-transmission rate. Tuning of the resonant wavelength in the output channel of the filter is achieved by manipulating the refractive index of the active area by using the free-carrier dispersion effect. The output wavelengths of designed device can be tuned for the telecom-friendly 1.55 μm range. The device shows a wavelength shift higher than 3 nm for a power consumption of only 0.9 mW. Finally, the simulation results show that the provided device can be considered as a narrowband and tunable Electro-optical filter that is suitable for DWDM communication system.

  4. A security evaluation of the Rigid-fix crosses pin system used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in tibial fixation site

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huaqiang; Wang, Jian; Fu, Yangpan; Dong, Huixiang; Wang, Jianxiong; Tang, Cong; Huang, Changming; Shi, Zhanjun

    2014-01-01

    Our study aims to evaluate the safeness and feasibility that Rigid-fix cross pin system was used for hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the tibial fixation site. In this study, eleven adult conservative cadaver knees were performed using the Rigid-fix Cross Pin device in the tibial fixation site for modeling the ACL reconstruction. The guide rod top was put through the tibial tunnel at the three horizontal positions: equal pace to articular facet (group A), the plane 5 mm below articular facet (group B), and the plane 10 mm below articular facet (group C). We gave four rotation positions to the cross-pin guide: 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° slope, referring to the parallel line of the posterior border of tibial plateau. We recorded the iatrogenic damages incidence, in the four different slope angle in the three groups, and then compare the incidence using Chi-Square test. Our results suggested that the incidence of chondral injury of tibial plateau in group B and group C was significantly lower compared to group A (χ 2 A-B = 27.077, χ 2 A-C 45.517, P = 0.000); However, there was no significant difference for the incidence penetrating the medial condyle of tibial plateau among the three groups (χ 2 = 5.733, P = 0.057); The highest incidence of injuring ligamentum transversum is in group A with 72.7%, especially at the 60° slope angle. In summary, our study suggested that in order to achieve the satisfactory clinical effect for the Rigid-fix system used in the tibia end fixation of ACL reconstruction surgery, the guide rod top should be put at the 5 mm below articular facet with a slope that parallel to the tibial medial plane at 30°-60° slope angle. PMID:25550991

  5. A Wirelessly Powered Micro-Spectrometer for Neural Probe-Pin Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min Hyuck; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. A micro-spectrometer has been developed for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The microspectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) enabling operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, allow real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  6. Requalification of SPERT (Special Power Excursion Reactor Test) pins for use in university reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Dates, L.R.

    1986-12-01

    A series of nondestructive and destructive examinations have been performed on a representative sample of stainless steel-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel pins procured in the early-to-mid 1960s for the SPERT program. These examinations were undertaken in order to requalify the SPERT pins for use in converting university research reactors from the use of highly enriched uranium to the use of low-enriched uranium. The requalification program included visual and dimensional inspections of fuel pins and fuel pellets, radiographic inspections of welds, fill gas analyses, and chemical and spectrographic analyses of fuel and cladding materials. In general all attributes tested were within or very close to specified values, although some weld defects not covered by the original specifications were found. 1 ref., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Comparison of power spectra for tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed images

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Emma; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Burgess et al. [Med. Phys. 28, 419–437 (2001)] showed that the power spectrum of mammographic breast background follows a power law and that lesion detectability is affected by the power-law exponent β which measures the amount of structure in the background. Following the study of Burgess et al., the authors measured and compared the power-law exponent of mammographic backgrounds in tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed slices to investigate the effect of tomosynthesis imaging on background structure. Our data set consisted of 55 patient cases. For each case, regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from both projection images and reconstructed slices. The periodogram of each ROI was computed by taking the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of the ROI. The power-law exponent was determined for each periodogram and averaged across all ROIs extracted from all projections or reconstructed slices for each patient data set. For the projections, the mean β averaged across the 55 cases was 3.06 (standard deviation of 0.21), while it was 2.87 (0.24) for the corresponding reconstructions. The difference in β for a given patient between the projection ROIs and the reconstructed ROIs averaged across the 55 cases was 0.194, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The 95% CI for the difference between the mean value of β for the projections and reconstructions was [0.170, 0.218]. The results are consistent with the observation that the amount of breast structure in the tomosynthesis slice is reduced compared to projection mammography and that this may lead to improved lesion detectability. PMID:19544793

  8. Comparison of power spectra for tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed images

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, Emma; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert

    2009-05-15

    Burgess et al. [Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] showed that the power spectrum of mammographic breast background follows a power law and that lesion detectability is affected by the power-law exponent {beta} which measures the amount of structure in the background. Following the study of Burgess et al., the authors measured and compared the power-law exponent of mammographic backgrounds in tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed slices to investigate the effect of tomosynthesis imaging on background structure. Our data set consisted of 55 patient cases. For each case, regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from both projection images and reconstructed slices. The periodogram of each ROI was computed by taking the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of the ROI. The power-law exponent was determined for each periodogram and averaged across all ROIs extracted from all projections or reconstructed slices for each patient data set. For the projections, the mean {beta} averaged across the 55 cases was 3.06 (standard deviation of 0.21), while it was 2.87 (0.24) for the corresponding reconstructions. The difference in {beta} for a given patient between the projection ROIs and the reconstructed ROIs averaged across the 55 cases was 0.194, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The 95% CI for the difference between the mean value of {beta} for the projections and reconstructions was [0.170, 0.218]. The results are consistent with the observation that the amount of breast structure in the tomosynthesis slice is reduced compared to projection mammography and that this may lead to improved lesion detectability.

  9. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum from CMB data

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zong-Kuan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2011-08-01

    Measuring the deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum is a critical test of inflation. In this paper we reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations from the cosmic microwave background data, including the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 148 GHz data, by using a binning method of a cubic spline interpolation in log-log space. We find that the power-law spectrum is preferred by the data and that the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum is disfavored at 95% confidence level. These conclusions hold with and without allowing for tensor modes, however the simpler model without tensors is preferred by the data. We do not find evidence for a feature in the primordial power spectrum — in full agreement with generic predictions from cosmological inflation.

  10. Pin care

    MedlinePlus

    There are different types of pin-cleaning solutions. The two most common solutions are: Sterile water A mixture of half normal saline and half hydrogen peroxide Use the solution that your surgeon recommends. Supplies you will need to ...

  11. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  12. Automatic 3D power line reconstruction of multi-angular imaging power line inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wuming; Yan, Guangjian; Wang, Ning; Li, Qiaozhi; Zhao, Wei

    2007-06-01

    We develop a multi-angular imaging power line inspection system. Its main objective is to monitor the relative distance between high voltage power line and around objects, and alert if the warning threshold is exceeded. Our multi-angular imaging power line inspection system generates DSM of the power line passage, which comprises ground surface and ground objects, for example trees and houses, etc. For the purpose of revealing the dangerous regions, where ground objects are too close to the power line, 3D power line information should be extracted at the same time. In order to improve the automation level of extraction, reduce labour costs and human errors, an automatic 3D power line reconstruction method is proposed and implemented. It can be achieved by using epipolar constraint and prior knowledge of pole tower's height. After that, the proper 3D power line information can be obtained by space intersection using found homologous projections. The flight experiment result shows that the proposed method can successfully reconstruct 3D power line, and the measurement accuracy of the relative distance satisfies the user requirement of 0.5m.

  13. Dowel pin

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Thaddeus A.

    1978-01-01

    Two abutting members are locked together by reaming a hole entirely through one member and at least partly through the other, machining a circular groove in each through hole just below the surface of the member, press fitting a dowel pin having a thin wall extension on at least one end thereof into the hole in both members, a thin wall extension extending into each through hole, crimping or snapping the thin wall extension into the grooves to positively lock the dowel pin in place and, if necessary, tack welding the end of the thin-wall extension in place.

  14. Locking Pull Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed self-locking pull pin not accidentally released by shock or vibration but intentionally released by pull on lanyard. Any rotational movement of main pin traps secondary pin: prevents further rotation and disengagement of main pin.

  15. Measurements of fuel pin/water hole worths and power peaking, void coefficients, and temperature coefficients for 4. 81 wt% enriched UO[sub 2] fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.; Rohr, R.R.; Angelo, P.L.; Patrou, N.T.; Buckwheat, K.W.; Hayes, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute reactor critical facility is currently the only facility in North America providing critical measurement data in support of the light water reactor electric power industry. The reactor is fueled by 4.81 wt% [sup 235]U enriched UO[sub 2] high-density pellets in stainless steel clad fuel rods at the present time, although experiments with other fuels are being analyzed. The fuel pins are supported by inexpensive stainless steel lattice plates in a large open water tank. Three sets of lattice plates have been fabricated for fuel pins in square array with pitches 0.585, 0.613, and 0.640 in. (1.486, 0.613, and 1.656 cm, respectively) to provide a relevant range of water-to-fuel volume ratios. The measurements reported here are for the first of these, a relatively tight lattice of considerable interest for reactor physics methods for advanced fuels and reactors.

  16. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOEpatents

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  17. Comparison of short-term results of bone tunnel enlargement between EndoButton CL and cross-pin fixation systems after chronic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous quadrupled hamstring tendons.

    PubMed

    Kuskucu, S M

    2008-01-01

    We performed arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions of chronic ACL rupture with autologous hamstring tendon grafts in males (mean age 23.9 years). Thirty-two cross-pin fixations and 24 EndoButton CL fixations were performed on the femoral side. Distal fixations on the tibial side were maintained with interference screws plus a staple. Tunnel enlargement was evaluated using X-rays. Femoral and tibial tunnels were measured at three levels 5 mm apart, and average enlargement was calculated after correction for magnification. Tunnel enlargement 12 months after surgery was greater for the EndoButton CL system (femoral side 43.71%, tibial side 51.11%) than for the cross-pin system (femoral side 32.61%, tibial side 25.62%); the difference was significant only on the tibial side. Both proximal fixation techniques were judged clinically successful (follow-up 16 - 36 months). The far fixation point in the EndoButton CL group may be related to mechanical loosening. PMID:18230264

  18. Linear Equivalent Circuit and Current Sources Model Including Separation Resistances in the Ground Connection for Multiple Power-Supply Pin LSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshiyuki; Yasuhara, Masakatsu; Mabuchi, Yuichi; Matsushima, Tohlu; Hisakado, Takashi; Wada, Osami

    An EMC macro-model for LSIs, named the LECCS-core model, is under development for simulating high frequency noise in power supply currents. In this paper, the conventional LECCS-core model is extended by adding resistances in the ground connection of an LSI, in order to separate the core block and the analog block. The model parameters are identified using symbolic analysis and least-square optimization. Using this new model, the transfer impedances between different power supply pins can be simulated accurately. Additionally we derived the equivalent internal current sources by using that model. As a result, we confirmed that the internal current sources were improved. In conclusion, we confirmed that the configuration of the linear equivalent circuit and our modeling method can be applied widely to microcontrollers of the same block configuration.

  19. Wavefront aberration reconstruction from tangential refractive powers measured with spatial dynamic skiascopy.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Sergio

    2012-12-20

    The aim of this work was to study, using numerical simulations, the attainable level of accuracy to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations from tangential refractive power data measured with dynamic skiascopy. Two mathematical methods have been implemented. The first one is based on curve integration of the curvature data, previously interpolated with cubic splines. The second one reconstructs the three-dimensional wavefront surface, represented by a Zernike polynomial expansion, using a two-step least-squares method. The different factors affecting the reconstruction--noise, sampling, and wavefront patterns--were quantified. The results provide useful information to design more efficient experimental setups based on spatial dynamic skiascopy. PMID:23262600

  20. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  1. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using temperature and polarisation data from multiple experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-07-01

    We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo and Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a 'dip' in the power on scales k ≈ 0.002 Mpc{sup −1}. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 ≤ l ≤ 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.

  2. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum using temperature and polarisation data from multiple experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gavin; Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2009-07-01

    We develop a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum, P(k), using both temperature and polarisation data from the joint analysis of a number of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations. The method is an extension of the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, first applied in this context by Shafieloo & Souradeep [1]. We show how the inclusion of polarisation measurements can decrease the uncertainty in the reconstructed power spectrum. In particular, the polarisation data can constrain oscillations in the spectrum more effectively than total intensity only measurements. We apply the estimator to a compilation of current CMB results. The reconstructed spectrum is consistent with the best-fit power spectrum although we find evidence for a `dip' in the power on scales k approx 0.002 Mpc-1. This feature appears to be associated with the WMAP power in the region 18 <= ell <= 26 which is consistently below best-fit models. We also forecast the reconstruction for a simulated, Planck-like [2] survey including sample variance limited polarisation data.

  3. On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya E-mail: lverde@astro.princeton.edu

    2008-07-15

    The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters.

  4. Pins for direct restorations.

    PubMed

    Papa, J; Wilson, P R; Tyas, M J

    1993-10-01

    Self-threading dentine pins permit the retention of large complex direct restorations but there are problems associated with their placement. Strain and crazing of dentine following pin insertion and pulpal and lateral perforations are common. Perforations can be avoided by operator awareness of tooth morphology. Strain and crazing has been found to be minimized by unscrewing the pin slightly after insertion, by using pins with a tap thread, and by using the smallest pin possible. Twist drill form and dulling affects the pin channel shape which in turn influences pin seating. A lack of standardization of pin and twist drill diameter and length has been implicated as the cause of poor pin retention. Manufacturers, in an attempt to standardize the depth of penetration of pins, have incorporated shoulders at the midpoint of the pin, which has met with varying success. More research in the area of limiting pin penetration is necessary, as well as attempts to improve the quality control of pin and twist drill manufacture. PMID:8227686

  5. Power Relationships in Rumpelstiltskin: A Textual Comparison of a Traditional and a Reconstructed Fairy Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Reconstructed fairy tales provide a different point of view and challenge the assumptions of a common set of values; for that reason, these stories provide a medium in which to examine power relationships in texts by applying a critical multicultural analysis (Botelho & Rudman, forthcoming, 2008, "A critical multicultural analysis of children's…

  6. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  7. Reusable Mechanical Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Son; Farley, Rodger; Devine, ED

    1991-01-01

    Reusable mechanical pin puller relatively simple spring-loaded trigger mechanism. Designed to save money and increase safety as substitute for costly and potentially dangerous pyrotechnic pin pullers used in development and testing of deployment mechanisms.

  8. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  9. Piezoelectric Pins for Use as Dust Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L. K.; Campbell, I. H.; Nelson, K. A.; Yager, J. R.

    2002-09-01

    Piezoelectric pins are devices currently used in a number of applications including detecting elementary particle beams, monitoring volcanoes, and detecting high-speed micro-sized particles. These pins provide a means of studying ejecta from cratering processes in the laboratory and offer a potential lightweight, low power, flight dust detector. Using the hypervelocity dust particle accelerator at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, we have investigated the transient charge generated by piezoelectric pins impacted by dust particles. Carbonyl iron dust particles of 0.5-5 micrometer diameter having speeds ranging from 1-5 km/sec impacted the pins. The DC-100 MHz pin response was recorded and analyzed. The transient pin response to a single particle consists of many charge pulses of alternating sign (less than 10 ns in duration) separated by the pressure wave propagation time across the crystal (typically 100 ns). The charge produced by the pin changes sign when the pressure waves in the piezoelectric crystal reflect off of the metal electrodes. The magnitude of the pin response as a function of the impacting particle properties is presented and discussed. Pins using both polycrystalline PZT and single crystal LiNbO3 as the piezoelectric material were studied. This work is supported at Concordia College by the Minnesota Space Grant Consortium.

  10. The effect of frequency on atmospheric pressure glow discharge in a pin-to-plate gap sustained by a resonant power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong Sheng; Ding, Wei Dong; Wang, Ya Nan; Wang, Jia Chen; Li, Fang; Fan, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    More and more researchers have been attracted to the research of atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) because of its great prospect in numerous industrial applications. Nevertheless, almost all of the industrial applications are based on achievement of stable, large-volume, and uniform APGD. In a previous study, stable filamentary APGD was obtained by applying a resonant power supply between pin-to-plate electrodes which could limit the peak value of discharge current to supress the glow-to-arc transition through a series-wound resonance principle. The filamentary APGD is centimeter-level in the length but only several millimeters in diameter. Therefore, in order to obtain large-volume and uniform APGD, it is significant to study how to diffuse filamentary APGD in radial direction. With the increasing resonant frequency of alternating current discharge, excited particles (mainly including energetic electrons and trapped ions left from the previous half-cycle discharge) in the electrodes gap increase, which benefits obtaining stable self-sustaining APGD. In this paper, mechanism and law of the influence of resonant frequency on the diffusion of filamentary APGD in ambient air were studied. By comparing the photos of discharge plasma and waveforms of the discharge voltage and current, it is found that the volume of the glow discharge plasma enlarges as the resonant frequency of the power supply increases. It is very significant and anticipating to study how to obtain stable, large-volume, and uniform APGD in ambient air by the resonant power supply.

  11. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. Reconstruction of crystal band structure from the power spectrum of strong-field generated high harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang-Ming; Ho, Tak-San; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    The study of high harmonic generation in solid driven by intense laser fields is a subject of much current interest. Recently we introduce a new optimization method to directly reconstruct the band structure of the crystal from the power spectrum of strong-field generated high harmonics. Without loss of generality, the reconstruction is formulated for a one-dimensional single band model as a minimization problem and solved by a derivative-free unconstrained optimization algorithm-NEWUOA. The method can be readily generalized to treat multi-band problems. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method, and the reconstructed band structure is found to be in excellent agreement with the exact one. It is also shown that our optimization method remains robust and efficient even starting from the poorly guessed band structure.

  13. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  14. Experimental verification of reconstructed absorbers embedded in scattering media by optical power ratio distribution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoki, Toshihiko; Hamada, Hiroaki; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Experimental investigation to show the effectiveness of the extraction method of absorber information in a scattering medium by taking the output power ratio distribution is presented. In the experiment, two metallic wires sandwiched by three homogeneous scattering media are used as absorbers in transmission geometry. The output power ratio distributions can extract the influence of the absorbers to enhance the optical signal. The peak position of the output power ratio distributions agree with the results suggested by numerical simulation. From the reconstructed results of tomography in the scattering media, we have confirmed that the tomographic image of two wires can distinguish them successfully from 41×21 output power ratio distributions by using continuous-wave light. PMID:27607261

  15. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  16. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  17. Reconstruction of a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Taotao

    2012-06-01

    A nonminimal coupling single scalar field theory, when transformed from Jordan frame to Einstein frame, can act like a minimal coupling one. Making use of this property, we investigate how a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum could be reconstructed from its minimal coupling counterpart, which can be applied in the early universe. Thanks to the coupling to gravity, the equation of state of our universe for a scale-invariant power spectrum can be relaxed, and the relation between the parameters in the action can be obtained. This approach also provides a means to address the Big-Bang puzzles and anisotropy problem in the nonminimal coupling model within Jordan frame. Due to the equivalence between the two frames, one may be able to find models that are free of the horizon, flatness, singularity as well as anisotropy problems.

  18. Scalar field reconstruction of power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    A so-called 'power-law entropy-corrected holographic dark energy' (PLECHDE) was recently proposed to explain the dark energy (DE)-dominated universe. This model is based on the power-law corrections to black hole entropy that appear when dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields between the inside and the outside of the horizon. In this paper, we suggest a correspondence between the interacting PLECHDE and the tachyon, quintessence, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models of DE in a non-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Then, we reconstruct the potential terms accordingly, and present the dynamical equations that describe the evolution of the scalar field DE models.

  19. Powered Flight Design and Reconstructed Performance Summary for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sell, Steven; Chen, Allen; Davis, Jody; San Martin, Miguel; Serricchio, Frederick; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Flight segment of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system extends from backshell separation through landing. This segment is responsible for removing the final 0.1% of the kinetic energy dissipated during EDL and culminating with the successful touchdown of the rover on the surface of Mars. Many challenges exist in the Powered Flight segment: extraction of Powered Descent Vehicle from the backshell, performing a 300m divert maneuver to avoid the backshell and parachute, slowing the descent from 85 m/s to 0.75 m/s and successfully lowering the rover on a 7.5m bridle beneath the rocket-powered Descent Stage and gently placing it on the surface using the Sky Crane Maneuver. Finally, the nearly-spent Descent Stage must execute a Flyaway maneuver to ensure surface impact a safe distance from the Rover. This paper provides an overview of the powered flight design, key features, and event timeline. It also summarizes Curiosity's as flown performance on the night of August 5th as reconstructed by the flight team.

  20. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  1. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  2. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  3. Dynamic-Feature Extraction, Attribution and Reconstruction (DEAR) Method for Power System Model Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Lu, Shuai; Zhou, Ning; Lin, Guang; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Pai, M. A.

    2014-09-04

    In interconnected power systems, dynamic model reduction can be applied on generators outside the area of interest to mitigate the computational cost with transient stability studies. This paper presents an approach of deriving the reduced dynamic model of the external area based on dynamic response measurements, which comprises of three steps, dynamic-feature extraction, attribution and reconstruction (DEAR). In the DEAR approach, a feature extraction technique, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), is applied to the measured generator dynamics after a disturbance. Characteristic generators are then identified in the feature attribution step for matching the extracted dynamic features with the highest similarity, forming a suboptimal ‘basis’ of system dynamics. In the reconstruction step, generator state variables such as rotor angles and voltage magnitudes are approximated with a linear combination of the characteristic generators, resulting in a quasi-nonlinear reduced model of the original external system. Network model is un-changed in the DEAR method. Tests on several IEEE standard systems show that the proposed method gets better reduction ratio and response errors than the traditional coherency aggregation methods.

  4. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  5. Three-dimensional pin-to-pin analyses of VVER-440 cores by the MOBY-DICK code

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, M.; Mikolas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear design for the Dukovany (EDU) VVER-440s nuclear power plant is routinely performed by the MOBY-DICK system. After its implementation on Hewlett Packard series 700 workstations, it is able to perform routinely three-dimensional pin-to-pin core analyses. For purposes of code validation, the benchmark prepared from EDU operational data was solved.

  6. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  7. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism ('inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that 'Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's C{sub p} method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at k∼<5 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ∼ 2σ significance at k/Mpc{sup −1} ∼ 0.0013–0.0025, 0.0362–0.0402 and 0.051–0.056, reflecting the 'WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  8. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at klesssim5 × 10-4 Mpc-1 (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ~ 2σ significance at k/Mpc-1 ~ 0.0013-0.0025, 0.0362-0.0402 and 0.051-0.056, reflecting the `WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  9. Generic inference of inflation models by non-Gaussianity and primordial power spectrum reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enßlin, Torsten A.; Ramirez, Erandy; Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2014-06-01

    We present a generic inference method for inflation models from observational data by the usage of higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces. This method is based on the calculation of the posterior for the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL}, which in general depend on specific parameters of inflation and reheating models, and enables to discriminate among the still viable inflation models. To keep analyticity as far as possible to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques a saddle-point approximation is introduced, whose precision is validated for a numerical toy example. The mathematical formulation is done in a generic way so that the approach remains applicable to cosmic microwave background data as well as to large scale structure data. Additionally, we review a few currently interesting inflation models and present numerical toy examples thereof in two and three dimensions to demonstrate the efficiency of the higher-order statistics method. A second quantity of interest is the primordial power spectrum. Here, we present two Bayesian methods to infer it from observational data, the so called critical filter and an extension thereof with smoothness prior, both allowing for a non-parametric spectrum reconstruction. These methods are able to reconstruct the spectra of the observed perturbations and the primordial ones of curvature perturbation even in case of non-Gaussianity and partial sky coverage. We argue that observables like T- and B-modes permit to measure both spectra. This also allows to infer the level of non-Gaussianity generated since inflation.

  10. De-pinning of disordered bosonic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Cole, J. H.; Shnirman, A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider onset of transport (de-pinning) in one-dimensional bosonic chains with a repulsive boson–boson interaction that decays exponentially on large length-scales. Our study is relevant for (i) de-pinning of Cooper-pairs in Josephson junction arrays; (ii) de-pinning of magnetic flux quanta in quantum-phase-slip ladders, i.e. arrays of superconducting wires in a ladder-configuration that allow for the coherent tunneling of flux quanta. In the low-frequency, long wave-length regime these chains can be mapped onto an effective model of a one-dimensional elastic field in a disordered potential. The standard de-pinning theories address infinitely long systems in two limiting cases: (a) of uncorrelated disorder (zero correlation length); (b) of long range power-law correlated disorder (infinite correlation length). In this paper we study numerically chains of finite length in the intermediate case of long but finite disorder correlation length. This regime is of relevance for, e.g., the experimental systems mentioned above. We study the interplay of three length scales: the system length, the interaction range, the correlation length of disorder. In particular, we observe the crossover between the solitonic onset of transport in arrays shorter than the disorder correlation length to onset of transport by de-pinning for longer arrays.

  11. Lever-Arm Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism holds retaining pins in place except when actuated to release pins quickly. Mechanism is integral part of cover designed to be removed with simple downward motion of hand. Before removal, mechanism secures cover in place. After removal, mechanism holds retaining pins for reuse.

  12. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  13. 13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYEBAR PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYE-BAR PIN CONNECTORS, LOWER CHORD EYEBARS AND LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Spatial Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Mattia; Buscarino, Arturo; Rizzo, Alessandro; Fortuna, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of spatial pinning control for a network of mobile chaotic agents. In a planar space, N agents move as random walkers and interact according to a time-varying r-disk proximity graph. A control input is applied only to those agents which enter a given area, called control region. The control is effective in driving all the agents to a reference evolution and has better performance than pinning control on a fixed set of agents. We derive analytical conditions on the relative size of the control region and the agent density for the global convergence of the system to the reference evolution and study the system under different regimes inherited by the velocity.

  16. Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key pointsFunctional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive

  17. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  18. Reconstruction and Application of Protein–Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Tong; Peng, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Bin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The protein-protein interaction network (PIN) is a useful tool for systematic investigation of the complex biological activities in the cell. With the increasing interests on the proteome-wide interaction networks, PINs have been reconstructed for many species, including virus, bacteria, plants, animals, and humans. With the development of biological techniques, the reconstruction methods of PIN are further improved. PIN has gradually penetrated many fields in biological research. In this work we systematically reviewed the development of PIN in the past fifteen years, with respect to its reconstruction and application of function annotation, subsystem investigation, evolution analysis, hub protein analysis, and regulation mechanism analysis. Due to the significant role of PIN in the in-depth exploration of biological process mechanisms, PIN will be preferred by more and more researchers for the systematic study of the protein systems in various kinds of organisms. PMID:27338356

  19. Pip pin reliability and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyles, Lane P.

    1994-01-01

    Pip pins are used in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the aerospace industry is their use in various mechanism designs. Many payloads that fly aboard our nation's Space Shuttle have at least one actuated mechanism. Often these mechanisms incorporate pip pins in their design in order to fasten interfacing parts or joints. Pip pins are most often used when an astronaut will have a direct interface with the mechanism. This interfacing can be done during Space Shuttle mission EVA's (ExtraVehicular Activity). The main reason for incorporating pip pins is convenience and their ability to provide a quick release for interfacing parts. However, there are some issues that must be taken into account when using them in a design. These issues include documented failures and quality control problems when using substandard pip pins. A history of pip pins as they relate to the aerospace industry as well as general design features is discussed.

  20. Vortex pinning properties in Fe-chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Guarino, A.; Avitabile, F.; Nigro, A.; Galluzzi, A.; Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Kawale, S.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among the families of iron-based superconductors, the 11-family is one of the most attractive for high field applications at low temperatures. Optimization of the fabrication processes for bulk, crystalline and/or thin film samples is the first step in producing wires and/or tapes for practical high power conductors. Here we present the results of a comparative study of pinning properties in iron-chalcogenides, investigating the flux pinning mechanisms in optimized Fe(Se{}1-xTe x ) and FeSe samples by current-voltage characterization, magneto-resistance and magnetization measurements. In particular, from Arrhenius plots in magnetic fields up to 9 T, the activation energy is derived as a function of the magnetic field, {U}0(H), whereas the activation energy as a function of temperature, U(T), is derived from relaxation magnetization curves. The high pinning energies, high upper critical field versus temperature slopes near critical temperatures, and highly isotropic pinning properties make iron-chalcogenide superconductors a technological material which could be a real competitor to cuprate high temperature superconductors for high field applications.

  1. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  2. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  3. Electrically controlled pinning of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koji; Tretiakov, Oleg A.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method to all-electrically control a domain-wall position in a ferromagnetic nanowire with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The strength of this interaction can be controlled by an external electric field, which in turn allows a fine tuning of the pinning potential of a spin-spiral domain wall. It allows to create more mobile pinning sites and can also be advantageous for ultra-low power electronics.

  4. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, Emily J.; Stovold, Grahame T.; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Grattapaglia, Dario G.; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  5. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  6. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  8. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  9. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  10. Anvil for Flaring PCB Guide Pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, E.; Turner, R.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded anvil results in fewer fractured pins. New anvil for flaring guide pins in printed-circuit boards absorbs approximately 80 percent of press force. As result fewer pins damaged, and work output of flaring press greatly increased.

  11. Reconstruction of the primordial fluctuation spectrum from the five-year WMAP data by the cosmic inversion method with band-power decorrelation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Ryo; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-12-15

    The primordial curvature fluctuation spectrum is reconstructed by the cosmic inversion method using the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy. We apply the covariance matrix analysis and decompose the reconstructed spectrum into statistically independent band-powers. The statistically significant deviation from a simple power-law spectrum suggested by the analysis of the first-year data is not found in the five-year data except possibly at one point near the border of the wave number domain where accurate reconstruction is possible.

  12. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  13. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  14. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  15. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  16. Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and ecosystems, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to ecosystem functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with California Current productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  17. Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and ecosystems, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to ecosystem functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with California Current productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  18. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  19. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  20. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  1. Pin1 in Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Esther B.E.; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    While the role of the prolyl isomerase Pin1 in dividing cells has long been recognized, Pin1’s function in postmitotic neurons is poorly understood. We have identified a novel mechanism by which Pin1 mediates activation of the mitochondrial cell death machinery specifically in neurons. This perspective presents a sophisticated signaling pathway that triggers neuronal apoptosis upon JNK-mediated phosphorylation of the BH3-only protein BIMEL at serine 65. Pin1 is enriched at the mitochondria in neurons together with BIMEL and components of a neuron-specific JNK signaling complex and functions as a molecular switch that couples the phosphorylation of BIMEL by JNK to apoptosis specifically in neurons. We discuss how these findings relate to our understanding of the development of the nervous system and the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders. PMID:17568190

  2. Simulation of the Vortex Dynamics in a Real Pinning Landscape of YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Glatz, A.; Ortalan, V.; Rupich, M. W.; Leroux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to carry very large currents with almost no dissipation makes them irreplaceable for high-power applications. The development and further improvement of HTS-based cables require an in-depth understanding of the superconducting vortex dynamics in the presence of complex pinning landscapes. We present a critical current analysis of a real HTS sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ . This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape responsible for the high-current-carrying-capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wire designs.

  3. Pin-Type Gas Cooled Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a point design for a pin-type Gas-Cooled Reactor concept that uses a fuel pin design similar to the SP100 fuel pin. The Gas-Cooled Reactor is designed to operate at 100 kWe for 7 years plus have a reduced power mode of 20% power for a duration of 5 years. The power system uses a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor to heat He/Xe gas that flows directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity. Heat is rejected to space via a thermal radiator that unfolds in space. The reactor contains approximately 154 kg of 93.15 % enriched UN in 313 fuel pins. The fuel is clad with rhenium-lined Nb-1Zr. The pressures vessel and ducting are cooled by the 900 K He/Xe gas inlet flow or by thermal radiation. This permits all pressure boundaries to be made of superalloy metals rather than refractory metals, which greatly reduces the cost and development schedule required by the project. The reactor contains sufficient rhenium (a neutron poison) to make the reactor subcritical under water immersion accidents without the use of internal shutdown rods. The mass of the reactor and reflectors is about 750 kg.

  4. Small pinning points increase grounding-line sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Initialising prognostic simulations of outlet glaciers relies on geometry and surface velocity, from which data assimilation methods rectify poorly known parameters such as ice stiffness or basal slipperiness. Stemming from the contact between ice shelves and submarine topographic highs, pinning points impact both ice velocity and stiffness but, wherever they are small enough, they can easily be overlooked by satellite observations. Here, we use the ice-sheet model BISICLES to investigate the future ice dynamical behaviour of two neighbouring outlet glaciers in Dronning Maud Land, i.e., Hansenbreen and West Raghnild glacier. The latter is buttressed by a previously uncharted pinning point at the ice shelf front while both are separated by an ice promontory. We also reconstruct ice velocity and geometry fields including the pinning point, which is absent from Antarctic-wide datasets, from data collected on site. The model is initialised with three combinations of ice geometry and stiffness, (i) with or (ii) without the pinning point influence in the assimilation procedure, and (iii) being a variant of (i) but starting with unpinning. We explore two sub-ice shelf melting scenarios of three amplitudes, and two weertmann-type sliding law exponents for each initialisation. The results show the future unstable retreat of Hansenbreen, moderately affected by unpinning. However, ignoring the pinning point in data assimilation overstiffens the ice shelf and highly decreases the timing of the retreat. This study stresses the need of accurate bathymetry and ice velocity, as the current datasets that disregard pinning points tend to stabilise marine sectors of the East Antarctic ice sheet, hence affecting sea-level rise predictions.

  5. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulated signaling pathway revealed by Pin1 +/+ and Pin1 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Liang; Qiu, Jin-Hua; Li, Bin-Bin; Wu, Jing-Jing; Lu, Yan; Liu, Xing-Yan; He, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1) plays a key role in a number of diseases including cancer and Alzheimer disease. Previous studies have identified a wide range of phosphoproteins as Pin1 substrates. Related pathways were analyzed separately. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture involving Pin1 regulation. A genome-wide mRNA expression microarray was carried out using the RNA isolation from Pin1 (+/+) and Pin1 (-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Signaling pathways regulated by Pin1 were analyzed with the utility of KEGG pathway and GO annotation. An expression pattern regulated by Pin1 was revealed. A total of 606 genes, 375 being up-regulated and 231 down-regulated, were differentially expressed when comparing Pin1 +/+ to Pin1 -/- MEF cells. Totally 48 pathways were shown to be regulated by Pin1 expression in KEGG pathway analysis. In the GO annotation system, 19 processes on biological processes, 15 processes on cellular components, and 18 processes on molecular functions were found to be in the regulation of Pin1 expression. Pathways related to immune system and cancer showed most significant association with Pin1 regulation. Pin1 is an important regulator in a wide range of signaling pathways that were related to immune system and cancer. PMID:23563987

  6. 3D reconstruction and particle acceleration properties of Coronal Shock Waves During Powerful Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Vourlidas, Angelos; Tylka, Allan J.; Pinto, Rui; Rouillard, Alexis; Tirole, Margot

    2016-07-01

    Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong pressure waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar and astrophysical contexts via various mechanisms such as diffusive-shock/shock-drift acceleration and betatron effects. In diffusive-shock acceleration, the efficacy of the process relies on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high Alfven Mach number) and on the orientation of the magnetic field upstream of the shock front. High-cadence, multipoint imaging using the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecrafts now permits the 3-D reconstruction of pressure waves formed during the eruption of coronal mass ejections. Using these unprecedented capabilities, some recent studies have provided new insights on the timing and longitudinal extent of solar energetic particles, including the first derivations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and Mach numbers of coronal shock waves. We will review these recent developments by focusing on particle events that occurred between 2011 and 2015. These new techniques also provide the opportunity to investigate the enigmatic long-duration gamma ray events.

  7. Thermoacoustic pin stacks. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keolian, R.M.

    1994-07-06

    The construction and testing of a new stack geometry for thermoacoustic engines, called a pin stack, has been started. The stack is at the heart of a class of heat engines that use sound to deliver refrigeration, or use a temperature difference to generate sound. Calculations show that the pin stack should make useful improvements in engine efficiency. About 2000 wires will be hand sewn in a hexagonal lattice between the hot and cold heat exchangers in a sound source using low pressure neon gas between 300 K and 77 K. Thermoacoustics, Refrigeration, Acoustic source, Heat pump.

  8. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate. PMID:27073853

  9. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  10. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  11. Improved shock-detecting pin arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1996-05-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single pin. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Pinning control of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  13. Pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, You-xian

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the problem of controlling a group of mobile agents in a plane in order to move them towards a desired orbit via pinning control, in which each agent is associated with a chaotic oscillator coupled with those of neighboring agents, and the pinning strategy is to have the common linear feedback acting on a small fraction of agents by random selection. We explore the effects of the pinning probability, feedback gains and agent density in the pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network under a fast-switching constraint, and perform numerical simulations for validation. In particular, we show that there exists a critical pinning density for network synchronization with an unbounded region: above the threshold, the dynamical network can be controlled by pinning; below it, anarchy prevails. And for the network with a single bounded synchronization region, pinning control has little effect as regards enhancing network synchronizability.

  14. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  15. SU-F-18C-02: Evaluations of the Noise Power Spectrum of a CT Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dolly, S; Chen, H; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the noise power spectrum (NPS) of the new, commercially released CT iterative reconstruction technique, iDose{sup 4} from Philips, to compare it with filtered back-projection techniques (FBP), and to provide clinical practice suggestions for radiation therapy. Methods: A uniform phantom was CT imaged with 120kVp tube potential over a range of mAs (250-3333). The image sets were reconstructed using two reconstruction algorithms (FBP and iDose{sup 4} with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6) and three reconstruction filters (standard B, smooth A, and sharp C), after which NPS variations were analyzed and compared on region of interest (ROI) sizes (16×16 to 128×128 pixels), ROI radii (0–65 mm), reconstruction algorithms, reconstruction filters, and mAs. Results: The NPS magnitude and shape depended considerably on ROI size and location for both reconstruction algorithms. Regional noise variance became more stationary as ROI size decreased, minimizing NPS artifacts. The optimal 32×32-pixel ROI size balanced the trade-off between stationary noise and adequate sampling. NPS artifacts were greatest at the center of reconstruction space and decreased with increasing ROI distance from the center. The optimal ROI position was located near the phantom's radial midpoint (∼40mm). For sharper filters, the NPS magnitude and the maximum magnitude frequency increased. Higher dose scans yielded lower NPS magnitudes for both reconstruction algorithms and all filters. Compared to FBP, the iDose{sup 4} algorithm reduced the NPS magnitude while preferentially reducing noise at mid-range spatial frequencies, altering noise texture. This reduction was more significant with increasing iDose{sup 4} noise reduction level. Conclusion: Compared to pixel standard deviation, NPS has greater clinical potential for task-based image quality assessment, describing both the magnitude and spatial frequency characteristics of image noise. While iDose{sup 4

  16. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G P

    2004-03-18

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

  17. Evaluation of Wear between Pin and Bush in Roller Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Shoji; Yoshiba, Hideaki; Nakayama, Satoshi; Kanada, Tohru

    A roller chain is a typical machine element used in bicycles, motorcycles and many other devices for power transmission. The life of a roller chain is determined by elongation. As a rule of thumb, a chain begins to skip cogs on the sprocket wheel when the percentage of elongation reaches approximately 3%. Mechanical wear between pins and bushes causes elongation of the roller chain. However, research on the evaluation of wear of the roller chain is rare and the achievement is unstated. We describe the following initiatives in the study of wear between pins and bushes of a roller chain: (1) development of a wear tester using only two chain links, (2) establishment of a specific evaluation method using a roundness tester, and (3) causal explanation of non-uniform wear using the finite-element method (FEM). The experimental results show that pins and bushes are not in contact at the centerline, and that wear occurs exclusively at the tips of the pins owing to the bending deformation under the condition of tensile load.

  18. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  19. Improved shock-detection pin arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single.

  20. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  1. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOEpatents

    Gerstmann, Joseph; Hannon, Charles L.

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  3. Update on PIN or Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Vashek

    We promised a year back some data on the experiment that we ran with chip and PIN. If you recall, it was the first phase that we reported on here last year, where we used the University bookstore, and two PIN pads, one with very solid privacy shielding, the other one without any. We ran 17 people through the first one, 15 people through the second one, and we also had the students do, about half of them forging the signature, half of them signing their own signature, on the back of the card that is used for purchasing books, or whatever.We had a second phase of the experiment, after long negotiations, and very complicated logistics, with a supermarket in Brno where we were able to do anything that we wanted through the experiment for five hours on the floor, with only the supermarket manager, the head of security, and the camera operators knowing about the experiment. So the shop assistants, the ground floor security, everybody basically on the floor, did not know about the experiment. That was one of the reasons why the supermarket, or management, agreed to take part, they wanted to control their own internal security procedures.

  4. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  5. Replacement of split-pin assemblies in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, J.D.; Green, R.A.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a pin-insertion/torque tool for the replacement of old split-pin assemblies. Each of the new split-pin assemblies including a new split-pin having times and a new nut for securing the new split pin in the guide tube, a new nut being inserted in the guide tube in position to receive a split pin. The the pin-insertion/torque tool including a blade means for engaging a new split pin with the blade with the tines of the new split pins straddling the blade, means, connected to the blade, for advancing the split-pin into the guide tube into threading engagement with the new nut positioned to receive a new split pin and means, to be connected to the nut for securing the new nut onto the new split pin while the split pin is engaged by the blade.

  6. Pin1 as an anticancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoyan G; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2009-09-01

    Pin1 specifically catalyzes the cis/trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro bonds and plays an important role in many cellular events through the effects of conformational change on the function of its biological substrates, including cell division cycle 25 C (Cdc25C), c-Jun and p53. Pin1 is overexpressed in many human cancer tissues, including breast, prostate and lung cancer. Its expression correlates with cyclin D1 levels, which contribute to cell transformation. Overexpression of Pin1 promotes tumor growth, while inhibition of Pin1 causes tumor cell apoptosis. Pin1 plays an important role in oncogenesis and therefore may serve as an effective anticancer target. Many inhibitors of Pin1 have been discovered, including several classes of designed inhibitors (alkene isosteres, reduced amides, indanyl ketones) and natural products (juglone, pepticinnamin E analogues, PiB and its derivatives obtained from a library screen). Pin1 inhibitors could be used as a novel type of anticancer drug by blocking cell cycle progression. Therefore, Pin1 represents a new diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drug target. PMID:19890497

  7. Failure Analysis of Electrical Pin Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Smith, Stephen W.; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the root cause of failure for circuit board electrical connection pins that failed during vibRatory testing. The circuit board is part of an unmanned space probe, and the vibratory testing was performed to ensure component survival of launch loading conditions. The results of this study show that the pins failed as a result of fatigue loading.

  8. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  9. Stifness Of A Flux-Pinned Virtual Structure For Modular Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoer, J.; Peck, M.

    We propose that modular spacecraft be constructed with interfaces consisting of combinations of magnets and Type II superconductors, establishing a non-contacting interaction between modules via magnetic flux pinning. This stable field interaction allows fractionated or modular spacecraft to fix their relative positions and orientations in a passive, virtual structure without mechanical connection, active control, or power expenditure. We report an experiment that investigates the mechanical properties of this magnetostatic interaction by finding the linear restoring forces and torques on a flux-pinned magnet and superconductor simultaneously in 6DOF for small displacements from a static equilibrium. Our results indicate that flux pinning is promising for modular spacecraft assembly and station-keeping applications, providing mechanical stiffnesses over 200 N/m at small (5 mm) magnet-superconductor separations and potentially useful nonzero stiffnesses at larger (over 3 cm) separations, with significant structural damping. We find that increasing the magnetic flux density at the superconductor surface strengthens the flux-pinning forces, suggesting that higher stiffness can be obtained over larger distances by increasing or focusing the pinned magnetic field. Still larger separations will be possible with other superconduc- tors, particularly single-domain superconductors, which show evidence of flux pinning up to a separation of 7 cm or more. Related experiments may be used in the future for performance verification of flux-pinning spacecraft systems.

  10. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  11. The Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejic, George

    We develop the Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory, designed to model the flux line lattice (FLL) as it interacts with itself, the flux pinning centers and the geometry of the superconductor. Like other mean-field theories, the mean-field flux pinning theory does not attempt to model the FLL completely. Instead, it utilizes a simplified model for the FLL, termed the mean-field FLL, in which the FLL is modelled as a continuous vector field rather than as discrete fluxons as in other theories. By so doing, the interactions of the FLL are greatly simplified and more easily modelled. One application of the mean-field flux pinning theory is to predict J_{c} from microstructural data, which we use to determine the optimal Nb-Ti microstructures with (1) alpha -Ti pinning centers and (2) Nb pinning centers. The microstructure is modelled on a grid in which the local values of T_{c} and kappa reflect the spatial distribution of the pinning centers and the superconductor. Using this model, we solve the G-L equations and calculate the pinning potential defined as the vortex free energy as a function of position. We conclude that the ideal Nb-Ti microstructure with alpha-Ti pinning centers would require 40 volume percent of alpha -Ti and have 6nm thick pinning centers. In the Nb pinning center case, the ideal microstructure requires 50 volume percent of Nb and would have 6nm pinning centers. Another application for the mean-field flux pinning theory is to model the FLL as it interacts with the penetrating magnetic fields within lambda of the superconducting surface. Using this theory, we study the effects of sample geometry on the FLL and J _{c} for the thin film geometry. We find that the FLL becomes increasingly distorted as the film thickness is reduced and that J_{c } increases sharply for dimensions less that lambda. These predictions are experimentally evaluated in Nb-Ti thin films. Our results show that J_{c} values as high as 1/3 of J_{d} and a strong orientational

  12. COBRA-PI: an extension of the COBRA-3M code dynamically dimensioned to accept pin bundles of any size. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Froehle, P.H.; Bauer, T.H.

    1983-03-28

    COBRA, in general, performs a thermal-hydraulic analysis of an actual pin bundle by subdividing the bundle cross-section into coolant subchannels, pin sectors, duct wall sectors. Its calculation includes heat convected axially upward through coolant mass flow, heat flow between pin sectors and adjoining subchannels, and heat and mass flow between coolant subchannels. COBRA-3M is a version of COBRA built for LMFBR applications, that includes a sophisticated thermal model of fuel pins and duct wall. COBRA-3M that can explicitly model a wider variety of pin bundle configurations than 3M would allow and includes significant improvements to its thermal modeling. COBRA-PI is currently being used for thermal-hydraulic analysis of hypothetical LMFBR accident transients in both power and flow. Pin bundles currently being analyzed explicitly range from 7 to 37 pins of axial lengths ranging from approx. 0.3-2.0 meters.

  13. Electroanalytical devices with pins and thread.

    PubMed

    Glavan, Ana C; Ainla, Alar; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the adaptive use of conventional stainless steel pins-used in unmodified form or coated with carbon paste-as working, counter, and quasi-reference electrodes in electrochemical devices fabricated using cotton thread or embossed omniphobic R(F) paper to contain the electrolyte and sample. For some applications, these pin electrodes may be easier to modify and use than printed electrodes, and their position and orientation can be changed as needed. Electroanalytical devices capable of multiplex analysis (thread-based arrays or 96-well plates) were easily fabricated using pins as electrodes in either thread or omniphobic R(F) paper. PMID:26549661

  14. SU-E-J-147: Monte Carlo Study of the Precision and Accuracy of Proton CT Reconstructed Relative Stopping Power Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Dedes, G; Asano, Y; Parodi, K; Arbor, N; Dauvergne, D; Testa, E; Letang, J; Rit, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of the intrinsic performances of proton computed tomography (pCT) as a modality for treatment planning in proton therapy. The performance of an ideal pCT scanner is studied as a function of various parameters. Methods: Using GATE/Geant4, we simulated an ideal pCT scanner and scans of several cylindrical phantoms with various tissue equivalent inserts of different sizes. Insert materials were selected in order to be of clinical relevance. Tomographic images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm taking into account the scattering of protons into the phantom. To quantify the performance of the ideal pCT scanner, we study the precision and the accuracy with respect to the theoretical relative stopping power ratios (RSP) values for different beam energies, imaging doses, insert sizes and detector positions. The planning range uncertainty resulting from the reconstructed RSP is also assessed by comparison with the range of the protons in the analytically simulated phantoms. Results: The results indicate that pCT can intrinsically achieve RSP resolution below 1%, for most examined tissues at beam energies below 300 MeV and for imaging doses around 1 mGy. RSP maps accuracy of less than 0.5 % is observed for most tissue types within the studied dose range (0.2–1.5 mGy). Finally, the uncertainty in the proton range due to the accuracy of the reconstructed RSP map is well below 1%. Conclusion: This work explores the intrinsic performance of pCT as an imaging modality for proton treatment planning. The obtained results show that under ideal conditions, 3D RSP maps can be reconstructed with an accuracy better than 1%. Hence, pCT is a promising candidate for reducing the range uncertainties introduced by the use of X-ray CT alongside with a semiempirical calibration to RSP.Supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  15. Molecular pedigree reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary parameters in a wild Atlantic salmon river system with incomplete sampling: a power analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pedigree reconstruction using genetic analysis provides a useful means to estimate fundamental population biology parameters relating to population demography, trait heritability and individual fitness when combined with other sources of data. However, there remain limitations to pedigree reconstruction in wild populations, particularly in systems where parent-offspring relationships cannot be directly observed, there is incomplete sampling of individuals, or molecular parentage inference relies on low quality DNA from archived material. While much can still be inferred from incomplete or sparse pedigrees, it is crucial to evaluate the quality and power of available genetic information a priori to testing specific biological hypotheses. Here, we used microsatellite markers to reconstruct a multi-generation pedigree of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) using archived scale samples collected with a total trapping system within a river over a 10 year period. Using a simulation-based approach, we determined the optimal microsatellite marker number for accurate parentage assignment, and evaluated the power of the resulting partial pedigree to investigate important evolutionary and quantitative genetic characteristics of salmon in the system. Results We show that at least 20 microsatellites (ave. 12 alleles/locus) are required to maximise parentage assignment and to improve the power to estimate reproductive success and heritability in this study system. We also show that 1.5 fold differences can be detected between groups simulated to have differing reproductive success, and that it is possible to detect moderate heritability values for continuous traits (h2 ~ 0.40) with more than 80% power when using 28 moderately to highly polymorphic markers. Conclusion The methodologies and work flow described provide a robust approach for evaluating archived samples for pedigree-based research, even where only a proportion of the total population is sampled. The

  16. The Unbearable Lightness of PIN Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, Omer; Ostrovsky, Odelia Moshe

    We describe new attacks on the financial PIN processing API. The attacks apply to switches as well as to verification facilities. The attacks are extremely severe allowing an attacker to expose customer PINs by executing only one or two API calls per exposed PIN. One of the attacks uses only the translate function which is a required function in every switch. The other attacks abuse functions that are used to allow customers to select their PINs online. Some of the attacks can be applied in switches even though the attacked functions require issuer's keys which do not exist in a switch. This is particularly disturbing as it was widely believed that functions requiring issuer's keys cannot do any harm if the respective keys are unavailable.

  17. The actuated latch pin and its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawlor, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    An actuated latch pin developed to meet the need for a reusable locking device is described. The unit can function as a pin puller or as a pin pusher latch. Initial prototype testing demonstrated the feasibility of the device with the unit being driven from a 28 V dc supply and using 15 W to drive a 12 mm diameter pin through a stroke of 10 mm with a side load of 100 N in 120 ms. High wear rates with a MOS2 lubrication on the ballscrew and angular contact bearings have necessitated the reduction in the duty cycle from 1000 cycles in air and vacuum to 100 in air and 1000 in vacuum.

  18. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  19. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Worley, S. ); Wilburn, C.D. ); Skubic, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We report the successful development of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a series of room-temperature measurements in a high-energy pion beam at FNAL. A PMOS VLSI 256 {times} 256 readout array having 30 {mu}m square pixels was indium-bump bonded to a mating PIN diode detector array. Preliminary measurements on the resulting hybrid show excellent signal-to-noise at room temperature. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  20. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  1. Investigating Dynamic Interdomain Allostery in Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling proteins often sequester complementary functional sites in separate domains. How do the different domains communicate with one another? An attractive system to address this question is the mitotic regulator, human Pin1 (Lu et al. 1996). Pin-1 consists of two tethered domains: a WW domain for substrate binding, and a catalytic domain for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Pin1 accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs within proteins regulating the cell cycle and neuronal development. The early x-ray (Ranganathan et al. 1997; Verdecia et al. 2000) and solution NMR studies (Bayer et al. 2003; Jacobs et al. 2003) of Pin1 indicated inter- and intradomain motion. We became interested in exploring how such motions might affect interdomain communication, using NMR. Our accumulated results indicate substrate binding to Pin1 WW domain changes the intra/inter domain mobility, thereby altering substrate activity in the distal PPIase domain catalytic site. Thus, Pin1 shows evidence of dynamic allostery, in the sense of Cooper and Dryden (Cooper and Dryden 1984). We highlight our results supporting this conclusion, and summarize them via a simple speculative model of conformational selection. PMID:26495045

  2. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis

    PubMed Central

    OJINO, Mayo; ISHII, Masami

    2014-01-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the “Fukushima Accident.” In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care

  3. Self-locking double retention redundant pull pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, Thomas O. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A double-retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral-threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidental release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  4. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry

    2005-02-01

    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 μm) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  5. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry

    2005-02-06

    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 {mu}m) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  6. Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T

    2008-01-01

    Passive time coincidence measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These experiments evaluate HEU detection capability using passive coincidence counting when utilizing moderated 3He tubes. Data acquisition was performed with the Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. The amounts of HEU measured were 1 kg, 4 kg, and 8 kg in sealed 55-gallon drums. Data collected with the 3He tubes also include passive measurement of 31 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in order to determine the ability to distinguish HEU from DU. This paper presents results from the measurements.

  7. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  8. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  9. Whole-Pin Furnace system: An experimental facility for studying irradiated fuel pin behavior under potential reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.C.; Donahue, D.A.; Pushis, D.O.; Savoie, F.E.; Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; August, C.; Bailey, J.L.; Patterson, D.R.

    1990-05-01

    The whole-pin furnace system is a new in-cell experimental facility constructed to investigate how irradiated fuel pins may fail under potential reactor accident conditions. Extensive checkouts have demonstrated excellent performance in remote operation, temperature control, pin breach detection, and fission gas handling. The system is currently being used in testing of EBIR-II-irradiated Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel pins; future testing will include EBR-II-irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  11. Ratchet effect in a conformal pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Boldizsar; Ray, Dipanjan; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Pinning arrays where the pinning sites are located at the vertices of a conformally transformed hexagonal lattice, also known as conformal pinning arrays (CPA), have recently been shown to greatly enhance the critical current of type-II superconductors both in simulation and in experiment. Here we show using molecular dynamics simulations that the differing flux-flow resistance of the CPA in the forward and reverse directions causes it to function as a highly effective vortex ratchet. We drive the vortices using an applied external ac current, and we find that the resulting dc output voltage for the CPA ratchet is larger than that for a random pinning array with a pinning gradient by up to an order of magnitude. The enhancement is robust over a wide range of vortex densities, temperatures, and ac drive amplitudes and frequencies. D. Ray et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267001 (2013); Y. L. Wang et al, Phys. Rev. B 87, 220501(R) (2013); S. Guenon et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 252602 (2013).

  12. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M. Barat, P.

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  13. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M.; Barat, P.

    2014-10-01

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  14. The Experimental Study of Atmospheric Stirling Engines Using Pin-Fin Arrays' Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, Seita; Sato, Hidekazu; Konno, Shoji; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Fujii, Iwane; Mizui, Hiroyuki

    This paper reports experimental results on two kinds of atmospheric Stirling engines that were designed and manufactured using a pin-fin array heat exchanger for the heater and cooler (abbreviated to “pin-fin Stirling engine” hereafter). The first one is a large β type pin-fin Stirling engine with a 1.7-liter displacement volume and power piston volume. The heater consists of an aluminum circular disk with a diameter of 270mm and with large-scale pin-fin arrays carved into the surface. The maximum output reached 91W at a temperature difference of 330K, which is 36% of the scheduled value and 68% of the Kolin's cubic power law. The maximum thermal efficiency was estimated 4.2%. The second engine is an α type pin-fin Stirling engine. Glass syringes were used for the piston-cylinder system and the Ross-yoke mechanism was used for the crank mechanism. By changing temperature difference, the characteristic of output torque in the large range was measured with a precision torque detector.

  15. A division in PIN-medicated patterning during lateral organ initiation in grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using phlyogenic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed SISter-of-PIN1 (soPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In...

  16. Transportation of pinned charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Je Huan; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Cho, Guangsup

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the transport of pinned charge density waves (CDWs) that is observed in low dimensional materials. We treated pinned CDWs as moving CDWs that were confined within a typical quantum well amongst the many different types where pinning occurs at the barrier. We calculated the current flowing out of the quantum well by confined CDWs. The calculated conductivity is in good correspondence with experimental data in TTF-TCNQ, where the measured Fröhlich-Peierls temperature is 60 K much higher than the theoretical value of 20 K. The voltage dependence of the conductivity was calculated, where this is easily transformed into the dependence of electric field. The magnetic susceptibility was also calculated with a similar trend of experimental data. The susceptibility is a diamagnetic contribution by CDWs in addition to the constant background Pauli paramagnetic part.

  17. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  18. Flows in Pinned Arrays Simulating Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.; Braun, M. J.; Athavale, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Flows through idealized pin arrays were investigated using an unstructured grid finite difference model and the simplified Ergun model to predict leakage flows and pressure drops in brush seals. The models are in good agreement in the laminar region with departures in the laminar-turbulent transition region defined by the simplified Ergun model. No local disturbances in the velocity or pressure fields, symptomatic of turbulence were found in the numerical results. The simplified model failed to predict the pressure drop of a 32-pin anisotropic array. Transitional and anisotropic behavior requires

  19. RigidFix femoral fixation: a test for detecting inaccurate cross pin positioning.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Stergios G; Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Dimitriadis, Theofilos; Pappis, Georgios; Parisis, Constantinos A

    2007-11-01

    The RigidFix Cross Pin System (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) is a popular technique for femoral fixation of graft in ACL reconstruction. In some cases, though, cross pins miss the femoral tunnel resulting in inadequate proximal graft fixation. We present a simple test to detect the incorrect placement of cross pins. The pinholes are drilled through the guide frame, leaving 2 sleeves for cross pins insertion. The manufacturer's recommendations, at this stage, are to reinsert the femoral tunnel guidewire, remove the guide frame, and insert the graft without verifying accurate pinhole positioning. We reinsert the femoral tunnel guidewire without removing the guide frame, and a second guidewire is introduced through each of the sleeves in turn. In case of appropriate pinhole placement, the 2 guidewires will meet in the cannulated rod of the guide frame and the surgeon will have the metal-to-metal feeling. If the pinhole misses the femoral tunnel, the 2 guidewires will not meet and the surgeon will not have the metal-to-metal feeling. In our practice, 9 cases of inaccurate pinhole placement were detected with this test and verified by direct vision of the femoral tunnel with the arthroscope. We find this test simple, reliable, and not time consuming. PMID:17986419

  20. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  1. Fabrication of 3-μm diameter pin hole array (PHA) on thick W substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, T.; Pathak, N. C.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Ciricosta, O.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Delogu, P.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2010-02-01

    Pin-hole arrays are used for a variety of applications including, for example, X-ray imaging of laser-plasmas for fusion relevant studies [1]. More recently, a novel X-ray imaging technique has been proposed (this conference L. A. Gizzi et al.) within the High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) to obtain spectrally resolved X-ray imaging [2] using single photon detection [3]. This technique requires a large number of images or, alternatively, large arrays of pin-holes, possibly with very small diameter («10 μm) [4]. In view of this, a technique was implemented for the fabrication of large arrays of pin-holes in thick metal substrates. Here we report on the optimizations of the laser-matter interaction process to obtain high aspect ratio cylinder-like pin-hole on heavy metal substrate by using a frequency-doubled Ti:Sa femtosecond laser pulses operating at 10 Hz. The influence of an air breakdown and a (ns)prepulse, on the drilled pin-hole, is showed by means of SEM images both for surface effects and internal quality of the channels, with evidence of micro and nano-sized structures. The holes drilled at an intensity just below the laser breakdown threshold for plasma creation in air, have an internal diameter of about 3 μm on a W substrate of 70 μm thickness, a micro-cylinder-like shape and no detectable deviations of the axis from a straight line. Arrays of up to 800 pin-holes were produced with the pin-hole properties being highly stable across the array. The final X-ray transmission is showed by using a μ-focus X-ray source.

  2. Fabrication of 3-{mu}m diameter pin hole array (PHA) on thick W substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Levato, T.; Pathak, N. C.; Ciricosta, O.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Giulietti, A.; Gizzi, L. A.; Giulietti, D.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Delogu, P.

    2010-02-02

    Pin-hole arrays are used for a variety of applications including, for example, X-ray imaging of laser-plasmas for fusion relevant studies. More recently, a novel X-ray imaging technique has been proposed (this conference L. A. Gizzi et al.) within the High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) to obtain spectrally resolved X-ray imaging using single photon detection. This technique requires a large number of images or, alternatively, large arrays of pin-holes, possibly with very small diameter (<<10 {mu}m). In view of this, a technique was implemented for the fabrication of large arrays of pin-holes in thick metal substrates. Here we report on the optimizations of the laser-matter interaction process to obtain high aspect ratio cylinder-like pin-hole on heavy metal substrate by using a frequency-doubled Ti:Sa femtosecond laser pulses operating at 10 Hz. The influence of an air breakdown and a (ns)prepulse, on the drilled pin-hole, is showed by means of SEM images both for surface effects and internal quality of the channels, with evidence of micro and nano-sized structures. The holes drilled at an intensity just below the laser breakdown threshold for plasma creation in air, have an internal diameter of about 3 {mu}m on a W substrate of 70 {mu}m thickness, a micro-cylinder-like shape and no detectable deviations of the axis from a straight line. Arrays of up to 800 pin-holes were produced with the pin-hole properties being highly stable across the array. The final X-ray transmission is showed by using a mu-focus X-ray source.

  3. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seveso, S.; Pizzochero, P. M.; Grill, F.; Haskell, B.

    2016-02-01

    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid, their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper, we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force per unit length acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientations of the crystal with respect to the vortex. We find that, as expected, the mesoscopic pinning force becomes weaker for longer vortices and is generally much smaller than previous estimates, based on vortices aligned with the crystal. Nevertheless, the forces we obtain still have maximum values of the order of fpin ≈ 1015 dyn cm-1, which would still allow for enough angular momentum to be stored in the crust to explain large Vela glitches, if part of the star is decoupled during the event.

  4. Flux pinning and stabilizer studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, E.W.

    1994-11-29

    A synopsis of the results of the flux-pinning and stabilizer studies that form the central theme of the subject contract is followed by a list of papers that were published during the period August 28, 1986 to November 31, 1992.

  5. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  6. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  7. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  8. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  9. Vortex creep and thermal depinning within strong pinning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, Roland; Buchacek, Martin; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning in type-II superconductors can occur through the collective action of many pins (weak collective pinning scenario) or through plastic deformations induced by a low density of defects (strong pinning scenario). For the latter case, a new formalism has recently be developed to provide a quantitative link between the microscopic pinning landscape and experimentally accessible quantities describing pinning on a macroscopic level. Examples are the critical current density jc, the I- V characteristics, or the ac Campbell length λC. Inspired by the original work of Larkin and Brazovskii on density wave pinning, we have extended the strong pinning formalism to account for thermal depinning of flux lines and vortex creep.

  10. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEAM, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS, AND PIN, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  11. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model. PMID:27376994

  12. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  13. Image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-04-05

    We give an overview of the role of Physics in Medicine andBiology in development of tomographic reconstruction algorithms. We focuson imaging modalities involving ionizing radiation, CT, PET and SPECT,and cover a wide spectrum of reconstruction problems, starting withclassical 2D tomogra tomography in the 1970s up to 4D and 5D problemsinvolving dynamic imaging of moving organs.

  14. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  15. Anisotropic flux pinning energy in FeSexTe1-x single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaofeng; Tao, Jian; Xu, Xibin; Qiu, Li; Yang, Shaoguang; Wang, Zhihe

    2016-09-01

    FeSexTe1 - x (x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7) single crystals have been prepared by the chemical reaction of the elements. The field dependence of flux pinning energy shows a power law behavior, U∝H-α, where α displays a crossover at H ∼ 2 T from small value at low field to large value at high field for both magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to c-axis. At same field, the flux pinning energy for H//ab-plane is higher than that for H//c-axis, showing an anisotropic behavior. The crossover maybe correspond to the flux pinning from single vortex pinning to collective pinning with magnetic field increasing. Based on the anisotropic G-L theory, the angular dependence of in-plane resistivity ρ in different magnetic fields at fixed temperature can be scaled by the equation, Hc2 GL (θ) =Hc2c /√{(cos2(θ) +γ-2sin2(θ)) } . The weak temperature dependence of anisotropic parameter γ near Tc was given for FeSe0.5Te0.5 and FeSe0.4Te0.6 crystals, respectively.

  16. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  17. Effect of magnetic element ions on collective pinning behaviour in Bi-2223 quadrilateral bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, M. I.

    2007-10-01

    Frequency and ac field dependence of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2(Ca1-xMx)2Cu3Oδ quadrilateral bars with x ⩽ 0.02 and M = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Ni, prepared by the conventional reaction method have been measured in the range of low field/frequency ac susceptibility and BSCCO superconducting temperature. The ac loss peak shifts to higher temperature and its summit shows nonlinear change with increasing frequency. Introduction of magnetic ions as defects is found to increase the intergranular critical current Jcm and the flux pinning of Bi(Pb)-2223 system. Application of the power law critical state model suggested that pinning behaviour of specimen could be viewed as hysteretic bulk pinning and/or flux creep. On the other hand, Jcm dependence activation energy is found to obey Ea ∝ J-μ relation, characteristic of the vortex glass/collective creep. Hence, collective pinning behaviour of specimens is discussed in view of the intergranular pinning mechanism.

  18. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Sodium in 7-Pin LMFBR Bundle Under Hypothetical Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottoni, Maurizio; Bottoni, Claudio; Scanu, John

    2006-07-01

    In the frame of safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under hypothetical Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) conditions two-phase flow of sodium is simulated in a 7-pin bundle, with hexagonal lattice. Molecular dynamics, with the application of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and a macroscopic model describing rewetting sequences due to the flow of a sodium liquid film along the pin surfaces, are applied to simulate the coolant in the bundle. The pin surfaces and the inner surface of the hexagonal canning are treated in the Monte Carlo simulation as diffusively reflecting surfaces. Collisions of sodium molecules are computed with the 'hard-sphere' model. With respect to previous work the following improvements of the computational code were made: i) The full bundle is simulated, thus allowing for asymmetries, like a skewed power distribution, to be accounted for; ii) A pin model calculates detailed temperature distributions in the pins, so that temperature boundary conditions are computed and not imposed; iii) Post processing visualisation of computed results was developed. An out of pile sodium boiling experiment run at the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe, Germany, is simulated and conclusions are drawn about the applicability of the methodology in computer codes dedicated to breeder reactors safety analysis. (authors)

  19. Low-dark current 1024×1280 InGaAs PIN arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ping; Chang, James; Boisvert, Joseph C.; Karam, Nasser

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting imaging applications requires low noise from both detector and readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays. In order to retain the photon-counting-level sensitivity, a long integration time has to be employed and the dark current has to be minimized. It is well known that the PIN dark current is sensitive to temperature and a dark current density of 0.5 nA/cm2 was demonstrated at 7 °C previously. In order to restrain the size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP) of cameras for persistent large-area surveillance on small platforms, it is critical to develop large format PIN arrays with small pitch and low dark current density at higher operation temperatures. Recently Spectrolab has grown, fabricated and tested 1024x1280 InGaAs PIN arrays with 12.5 μm pitch and achieved 0.7 nA/cm2 dark current density at 15 °C. Based on our previous low-dark-current PIN designs, the improvements were focused on 1) the epitaxial material design and growth control; and 2) PIN device structure to minimize the perimeter leakage current and junction diffusion current. We will present characterization data and analyses that illustrate the contribution of various dark current mechanisms.

  20. Super-Junction PIN Photodiode to Integrate Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits in Standard Technologies: A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Jaume; Stefanov, Evgueniy; Morancho, Frédéric

    2007-07-01

    The use of super-junction (SJ) techniques in PIN photodiodes is proposed in this letter for the first time with the objective to assist the optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) implementation in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) and bipolar-CMOS-double diffused MOS (BCD) technologies. Its technological viability is also discussed to make it credible as an alternative to other OEICs approaches. Numerical simulation of realistic SJ-PIN devices, widely used in high power electronics, demonstrates the possibility to integrate high-performance CMOS-based OEICs in epitaxial layers with doping concentrations above 1× 1015 cm-3. The induced lateral depletion at low reverse biased voltage, assisted by the alternated N and P-doped pillars, allows high-speed transient response in SJ-PIN detecting wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm. Moreover, other important parameters as the responsivity and the dark current are not degraded in respect to the conventional PIN (C-PIN) structures.

  1. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer and Pin-Fin Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin C.; Chyu, Minking K.; Shih, Tom I-P.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-08-01

    Heat transfer and pressure characteristics in a rectangular channel with pin-fin arrays of partial detachment from one of the endwalls have been experimentally studied. The overall channel geometry (W = 76.2 mm, E = 25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D = 6.35 mm = ¼E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D = 4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/D = 0, 1, 2, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross-section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all the pin elements. Experimental results reveal that the presence of a detached space between the pin tip and the endwall has a significant effect on the convective heat transfer and pressure loss in the channel. The presence of pin-to-endwall spacing promotes wall-flow interaction, generates additional separated shear layers, and augments turbulent transport. In general, an increase in detached spacing, or C/D, leads to lower heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop. However, C/D = 1, i.e., H/D = 3, of a staggered array configuration exhibits the highest heat transfer enhancement, followed by the cases of C/D = 0 and C/D = 2, i.e., H/D = 4 or 2, respectively.

  2. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  3. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and Its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olegoetz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase IIA RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  4. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  5. A Biomechanical Comparison Of Pin Configurations Used For Percutaneous Pinning Of Distal Tibia Fractures In Children

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Justin; Majumdar, Aditi; Jobe, J. Taylor; Kallur, Antony; Salas, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous pin fixation is often used in conjunction with closed-reduction and cast immobilization to treat pediatric distal tibia fractures. The goal of this procedure is to maintain reduction and provide improved stabilization, in effort to facilitate a more anatomic union. We conducted a biomechanical study of the torsional and bending stability of three commonly used pin configurations in distal tibia fracture fixation. Methods A transverse fracture was simulated at the metaphyseal/diaphyseal junction in 15 synthetic tibias. Each fracture was reduced and fixed with two Kirschner wires, arranged in one of three pin configurations: parallel, retrograde, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial malleolus distal to the fracture (group A); parallel, antegrade, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group B); or a cross-pin configuration with one retrograde, medial to lateral pin entering the medial malleolus distal to the fracture and the second an antegrade, medial to lateral pin entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group C). Stability of each construct was assessed by resistance to torsion and bending. Results Resistance to external rotation stress was significantly higher in group A than group B (P = 0.044). Resistance to internal rotation stress was significantly higher in group C than group B (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in torsional stiffness when comparing group A with group C. Under a medial-directed load, group B and C specimens were significantly stiffer than those in group A (28 N/mm and 24 N/mm vs. 14 N/mm for A; P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) Conclusions None of the three pin configurations produced superior results with respect to all variables studied. Group A configuration provided the highest resistance to external rotation forces, which is the most clinically relevant variable under short-cast immobilization. Parallel, retrograde, medial

  6. Effects of three intramedullary pinning techniques on proximal pin location and articular damage in the canine tibia.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B C; Tomlinson, J L; Wagner-Mann, C C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of three different techniques of intramedullary (IM) pin placement on pin location and incidence of stifle joint injury were evaluated using 70 cadaver canine tibiae after mid-disphyseal osteotomy. In 50 tibiae, pins were placed retrograde in either a nondirected (group A) or a craniomedially directed fashion (group B) with 25 tibiae in each group. Pins were driven normograde (group N) in 20 tibiae. All the stifles were dissected to qualitatively evaluate pin interference with different joint structures. End-on radiographs of the tibial plateaus were used to quantitatively evaluate pin location. Interference with the caudal cruciate ligament, medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, or meniscal ligaments was not observed in any group. There was a significant association between pinning technique and incidence of involvement of the cranial cruciate ligament (P < .005), patella (P < .001), patellar ligament (P < .005), and femoral condyle (P < .01). Pin location for group A was significantly different from either other group in a cranial-caudal direction (P = .003), and was significantly different from group N in a medial-lateral direction (P = .005). No significant difference was observed between pin location for groups B and N in either plane. It was concluded that although nondirected retrograde pinning cannot be recommended, retrograde pins directed craniomedially may be an acceptable technique for the repair of proximal to mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures if care is taken to properly seat the pins. PMID:7871708

  7. Breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    DellaCroce, Frank J; Wolfe, Emily T

    2013-04-01

    As diagnostic technology has progressed and the understanding of the disease process has evolved, the number of mastectomies performed in the United States has increased. Breast reconstructive techniques have commensurately become more sophisticated along the same timeline. The result is that those facing mastectomy have the potential to simultaneously retain physical beauty and wholeness. Only 33% of women who are otherwise candidates for immediate reconstruction at the time of mastectomy choose reconstruction. Patients generally have a high level of satisfaction with the option they choose, contributing to a feeling of overall recovery and physical and emotional wholeness. PMID:23464695

  8. Bending stiffness of conical and standard external fixator pins.

    PubMed

    Oni, O O; Capper, M; Soutis, C

    1993-10-01

    The bending stiffnesses of a conical and a standard external fixator pin have been compared. The pins were inserted into pilot holes in a piece of teak hardwood and loads of different magnitudes were applied at a fixed moment arm. Force-deflection curves were obtained for each pin, and stiffness (newtons per metre) and percentage stiffness reduction were calculated for each pilot hole size. The results show that deflection increased (i.e. stiffness decreased) with increasing force or diameter of pilot hole. This loss of stiffness was linear for the standard pin but was bimodal for the conical pin. PMID:8286671

  9. A comparative study of two types of sternal pins used for sternal closure: poly-L-lactide sternal pins versus uncalcined hydroxyapatite poly-L-lactide sternal pins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian-ming; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Narita, Yuji; Mutsuga, Masato; Okada, Noritaka; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Usui, Akihiko

    2013-12-01

    Bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide (PLLA) sternal pins are applied to reinforce sternal closure during cardiac surgery. However, these pins lack osteoconductivity. A new bioabsorbable sternal pin with osteoconductivity, made of uncalcined hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide (u-HA-PLLA) has been developed. This study was conducted to compare the two types of sternal pins in terms of sternal stability and healing after median sternotomy. Between October 2006 and January 2012, 105 patients underwent aortic surgery for aortic aneurysms or dissection via median sternotomy and sternal closure with sternal pins. Among these patients, 75 were followed for 12 months using serial computed tomography (CT). PLLA sternal pins were used in 30 patients (group A) and u-HA-PLLA sternal pins were used in 45 patients (group B). The incidence rates of transverse sternal dehiscence, anteroposterior displacement and complete sternal fusion were evaluated using CT. The cross-sectional cortical bone density area (CBDA) of the sternum around the sternal pins was examined to evaluate the osteoconductivity of the sternal pins. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in the sternal dehiscence rate (6.7 vs 4.4 %), sternal displacement rate (6.7 vs 2.2 %) or 12-month sternal fusion rate (63.3 vs 73.3 %). The CBDA around the sternal pins significantly increased between discharge and 12 months after surgery in group B (P < 0.001) but not in group A. These results show that u-HA-PLLA sternal pins exhibit certain osteoconductivity; however, both PLLA and u-HA-PLLA sternal pins provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding sternal stability and healing. PMID:23996506

  10. Scroll waves pinned to moving heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can self-organize vortex patterns that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities called filaments. In experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations, we pin these scroll waves to translating inert cylinders and demonstrate the controlled repositioning of their rotation centers. If the pinning site extends only along a portion of the filament, the phase singularity is stretched out along the trajectory of the heterogeneity, which effectively writes the singularity into the system. Its trailing end point follows the heterogeneity with a lower velocity. This velocity, its dependence on the placement of the anchor, and the shape of the filament are explained by a curvature flow model.

  11. Influential Factors of Z-pin Bridging Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenghu; Wu, Zhe; Meng, Zhijun; Li, Muchen

    2014-08-01

    The nine-pin bridging force experiments are conducted at room temperature (20 °C) and at 75 °C. A three-dimensional z-pin unit cell for finite element analysis is established to study the influential factors of the z-pin bridging force. The experimental results show that the z-pin bridging force at 75 °C is smaller than at 20 °C. The z-pin bridging force is highly dependent on the surface area of z-pin. Therefore, it is feasible that the bridging force can be enhanced by changing the surface area of z-pin. The study also shows that the lay-up sequences of laminates have an impact on the z-pin bridging force, and the maximum bridging force of z-pin rises with the increase elastic modules of the resin. The z-pin bridging force reduces with rise of temperature for two reasons: The elastic modulus and shear strength of the resin decrease with rise of temperature, forcing the bridging force to reduce and the resin makes some clamping effect on z-pin, pushing the bridging force to increase.

  12. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tissue taken from a donor is called an allograft. The procedure is usually performed with the help ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ...

  13. Statistical-summation theory of weak flux-line pins

    SciTech Connect

    Kerchner, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    A random array of flux-line-pinning defects is shown to produce a large, bulk pinning-force density even if the pins individually fail to satisfy the threshold criterion. By using a simplified model defect-FLL interaction, approximate expressions are obtained for the critical pinning-force density F/sub c/. The theory predicts that in materials with a weak pinning structure F/sub c/ depends only weakly on magnetic field except within narrow peaks near the upper and lower critical fields. The width of the peaks increases as the pinning is made stronger. A broad, dome-shaped peak in F/sub c/ and scaling-law behavior, both of which are usually associated with large F/sub c/ materials, is the strong-pinning limit of this theory.

  14. Thermal performance of a pin-fin assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babus'hag, R. F.; Akintunde, K.; Probert, S. D.

    1995-02-01

    The steady-state forced-convective cooling of a horizontally based pin-fin assembly has been investigated experimentally. The circular pin-fins protruded vertically upward from a horizontal base plate. For each in-line or staggered combination of specified pin-fins and air-flow rate, the optimal spacing-to-diameter ratios corresponding to the maximum rate of heat dissipation from the array have been deduced. The effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the pin-fin material has been studied. Designers should aim to have a spacing-to-diameter ratio of 1.04, in the span-wise direction, for all pin-fin systems; whereas, the ratio for the pin-fins in the stream-wise direction will depend upon what fin material is used and whether or not the pin-fins are staggered or aligned.

  15. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  16. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  17. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1997-05-06

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal are disclosed. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position. 4 figs.

  18. [Eyebrow reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Baraër, F; Darsonval, V; Lejeune, F; Bochot-Hermouet, B; Rousseau, P

    2013-10-01

    The eyebrow is an essential anatomical area, from a social point of view, so its reconstruction, in case of skin defect, must be as meticulous as possible, with the less residual sequela. Capillary density extremely varies from one person to another and the different methods of restoration of this area should absolutely take this into consideration. We are going to review the various techniques of reconstruction, according to the sex and the surface to cover. PMID:23896574

  19. Effects of mesh density and flow conditioning in simulating 7-pin wire wrapped fuel pins.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. G.; Babin, B. R.; Pointer, W. D.; Fischer, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the goals outlined by the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, Argonne National Laboratory has initiated an effort to create an integrated multi-physics multi-resolution thermal hydraulic simulation tool package for the evaluation of nuclear power plant design and safety. As part of this effort, the applicability of a variety of thermal hydraulic analysis methods for the prediction of heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the wire-wrapped fuel-rod bundles found in a fast reactor core is being evaluated. The work described herein provides an initial assessment of the capabilities of the general purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code Star-CD for the prediction of fluid dynamic characteristics in a wire wrapped fast reactor fuel assembly. A 7-pin wire wrapped fuel rod assembly based on the dimensions of fuel elements in the concept Advanced Burner Test Reactor [1] was simulated for different mesh densities and domain configurations. A model considering a single axial span of the wire wrapped fuel assembly was initially used to assess mesh resolution effects. The influence of the inflow/outflow boundary conditions on the predicted flow fields in the single-span model were then investigated through comparisons with the central span region of models which included 3 and 5 spans. The change in grid refinement had minimal impact on the inter-channel exchange within the assembly resulting in roughly a 5 percent maximum difference. The central span of the 3-span and 5-span cases exhibits much higher velocities than the single span case,, with the largest deviation (15 to 20 percent) occurring furthest away from the wire spacer grids in the higher velocity regions. However, the differences between predicted flow fields in the 3-span and 5-span models are minimal.

  20. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Herring, J. ); Shapiro, S.L. ); Wilburn, C.D. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square, and the other format having 256 {times} 256 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Fast PIN-diode beam loss monitors at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    1997-07-01

    The article is devoted to results of fine time structure of particle losses in Tevatron with use of fast beam loss monitors (BLM) based on PIN-diodes. An ultimate goal of the new BLMs is to distinguish losses of protons and antiprotons from neighbor bunches with 132 ns bunch spacing in the Tevatron collider upgrade. The devices studied fit well to the goal as they can recognize even seven times closer - 18.9 ns - spaced bunches` losses in the Tevatron fixed target operation regime. We have measured main characteristics of the BLM as well as studied the proton losses over 10 decades of time scale - from dozen of minutes to dozen of nanoseconds. Power spectral density of the losses is compared with spectra of the proton beam motion.

  2. Design and evaluation of a 2D array PIN photodiode bump bonded to readout IC for the low energy x-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Park, Shin-Woong; Yi, Yun

    2006-01-01

    A 2D array radiation sensor, consisting of an array of PIN photodiodes bump bonded to readout integrated circuit (IC), has been developed for operation with low energy X-rays. The PIN photodiode array and readout IC for this system have been fabricated. The main performance measurements are the following: a few pA-scale leakage current, 350 pF junction capacitance, 30 microm-depth depletion layer and a 250 microm intrinsic layer at zero bias. This PIN photodiode array and readout IC were fabricated using a PIN photodiode process and standard 0.35 microm CMOS technology, respectively. The readout circuit is operated from a 3.3 V single power supply. Finally, a 2D array radiation sensor has been developed using bump bonding between the PIN photodiode and the readout electronics. PMID:17946079

  3. Sorting signals for PIN1 trafficking and localization.

    PubMed

    Marcote, María Jesús; Sancho-Andrés, Gloria; Soriano-Ortega, Esther; Aniento, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) family proteins direct polar auxin transport based on their asymmetric (polar) localization at the plasma membrane. In the case of PIN1, it mainly localizes to the basal (rootward) plasma membrane domain of stele cells in root meristems. Vesicular trafficking events, such as clathrin-dependent PIN1 endocytosis and polar recycling, are probably the main determinants for PIN1 polar localization. However, very little is known about the signals which may be involved in binding the μ-adaptin subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes (APs) for sorting of PIN1 within clathrin-coated vesicles, which can determine its trafficking and localization. We have performed a systematic mutagenesis analysis to investigate putative sorting motifs in the hydrophilic loop of PIN1. We have found that a non-canonical motif, based in a phenylalanine residue, through the binding of μA(μ2)- and μD(μ3)-adaptin, is important for PIN1 endocytosis and for PIN1 traffcking along the secretory pathway, respectively. In addition, tyrosine-based motifs, which also bind different μ-adaptins, could also contribute to PIN1 trafficking and localization. PMID:27603315

  4. The effect of indole-3-carbinol on PIN1 and PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ella; Nisani, Sophia; Sela, Mor; Behar, Hila; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is produced in Cruciferous plants upon tissue rapture and deters herbivores. We recently showed that indole-3-carbinol modulates auxin signaling in root tips. Here we present transcript profiling experiments which further reveal the influence of indole-3-carbinol on auxin signaling in root tips, and also show that I3C affects auxin transporters. Brief treatment with indole-3-carbinol led to a reduction in the amount of PIN1 and to mislocalization of PIN2. PMID:26252364

  5. The effect of indole-3-carbinol on PIN1 and PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ella; Nisani, Sophia; Sela, Mor; Behar, Hila; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is produced in Cruciferous plants upon tissue rapture and deters herbivores. We recently showed that indole-3-carbinol modulates auxin signaling in root tips. Here we present transcript profiling experiments which further reveal the influence of indole-3-carbinol on auxin signaling in root tips, and also show that I3C affects auxin transporters. Brief treatment with indole-3-carbinol led to a reduction in the amount of PIN1 and to mislocalization of PIN2. PMID:26252364

  6. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength. PMID:23339842

  7. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-01

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 107-108 A m-2, has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  8. Contact stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Klang, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of pin elasticity, friction, and clearance on the stresses near the hole in a pin-loaded orthotropic plate are described. The problem is modeled as a contact elasticity problem using complex variable theory, the pin and the plate being two elastic bodies interacting through contact. This modeling is in contrast to previous works which assumed that the pin is rigid or that it exerts a known cosinusoidal radial traction on the hole boundary. Neither of these approaches explicitly involves a pin. A collocation procedure and iteration were used to obtain numerical results for a variety of plate and pin elastic properties and various levels of friction and clearance. Collocation was used to enforce the boundary and iteration was used to find the contact and no-slip regions on the boundary. Details of the numerical scheme are discussed.

  9. Current-voltage characteristics in collective pinning

    SciTech Connect

    de la Cruz, F.; Luzuriaga, J.; Martinez, E.N.; Osquiguil, E.J.

    1987-11-01

    The critical-current curves of amorphous samples which exhibit collective flux pinning have been analyzed, and it was found that the nonlinear part can be fitted by an expression of the form V(I)approx.((I-I/sub K/)/I/sub K/)/sup zeta/. This form, which could be due to critical behavior, is consistent with an interpretation of the unpinning of vortices in the collective regime as a phase transition between the static flux-line lattice (FLL) and the FLL in steady-state movement as has been proposed by Fisher.

  10. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  11. Nanobubble stability induced by contact line pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Xianren

    2013-01-01

    The origin of surface nanobubbles stability is a controversial topic since nanobubbles were first observed. Here, we propose a mechanism that the three-phase contact line pinning, which results from the intrinsic nanoscale physical roughness or chemical heterogeneities of substrates, leads to stable surface nanobubbles. Using the constrained lattice density functional theory (LDFT) and kinetic LDFT, we prove thermodynamically and dynamically that the state with nanobubbles is in fact a thermodynamical metastable state. The mechanism consistent with the classical nucleation theory can interpret most of experimental characteristics for nanobubbles qualitatively, and predict relationships among the gas-side nanobubble contact angle, nanobubble size, and chemical potential.

  12. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  13. Recent Developments on High Curie Temperature PIN-PMN-PT Ferroelectric Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Sherlock, Nevin P.; Luo, Jun; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Xia, Ru; Meyer, Richard J.; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric crystals attracted extensive attentions in last couple years, due to their higher usage temperatures range (> 30°C) and coercive fields (~5kV/cm), meanwhile maintaining similar electromechanical couplings (k33> 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d33~1500pC/N), when compared to their binary counterpart Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3. In this article, we reviewed recent developments on the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, including the Bridgman crystal growth, dielectric, electromechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric behaviors as function of temperature and dc bias. Mechanical quality factor Q was studied as function of orientation and phase. Of particular interest is the dynamic strain, which related to the Q and d33, was found to be improved when compared to binary system, exhibiting the potential usage of PIN-PMN-PT in high power application. Furthermore, PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit improved thickness dependent properties, due to their small domain size, being on the order of 1μm. Finally, the manganese acceptor dopant in the ternary crystals was investigated and discussed briefly in this paper. PMID:21516190

  14. Performance Analysis of OCDMA Based on AND Detection in FTTH Access Network Using PIN & APD Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldouri, Muthana; Aljunid, S. A.; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Fadhil, Hilal A.

    2011-06-01

    In order to comprise between PIN photo detector and avalanche photodiodes in a system used double weight (DW) code to be a performance of the optical spectrum CDMA in FTTH network with point-to-multi-point (P2MP) application. The performance of PIN against APD is compared through simulation by using opt system software version 7. In this paper we used two networks designed as follows one used PIN photo detector and the second using APD photo diode, both two system using with and without erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). It is found that APD photo diode in this system is better than PIN photo detector for all simulation results. The conversion used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) wavelength converter. Also we are study, the proposing a detection scheme known as AND subtraction detection technique implemented with fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) act as encoder and decoder. This FBG is used to encode and decode the spectral amplitude coding namely double weight (DW) code in Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA). The performances are characterized through bit error rate (BER) and bit rate (BR) also the received power at various bit rate.

  15. Analysis of pin removal experiments conducted in an SCWR-like test lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.; Raetz, D.; Jordan, K. A.; Perret, G.

    2012-07-01

    A comprehensive program of integral experiments, largely based on the measurement of reaction rate distributions, was carried out recently on an SCWR-like fuel lattice in the central test zone of the PROTEUS zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. in Switzerland. The present paper reports on the analysis of a complementary set of measurements, in which the reactivity effects of removing individual pins from the unperturbed, heterogeneously moderated reference lattice were investigated. It has been found that the detailed Monte Carlo modeling of the whole reactor using MCNPX is able - as in the case of the reaction rate distributions - to reproduce the experimental results for the pin removal worths within the achievable statistical accuracy. A comparison of reduced-geometry calculations between MCNPX and the deterministic LWR assembly code CASMO-4E has revealed certain discrepancies. On the basis of a reactivity decomposition analysis of the differences between the codes, it has been suggested that these could be due to CASMO-4E deficiencies in calculating the effect, upon pin removal, of the extra moderation in the neighboring fuel pins. (authors)

  16. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  17. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  18. Pinning synchronization of discrete dynamical networks with delay coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Zuo, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pinning synchronization analysis for nonlinear coupled delayed discrete dynamical networks with the identical or nonidentical topological structure. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, pinning control method and linear matrix inequalities, several adaptive synchronization criteria via two kinds of pinning control method are obtained. Two examples based on Rulkov chaotic system are included to illustrate the effectiveness and verification of theoretical analysis.

  19. NEBA-3 pin and cermet hybrid bimodal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzberg, A.; Josloff, A.T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Early in 1994 a bimodal (power and propulsion) reactor concept that made use of two different fuel types was identified. UN pin fuel was selected for long lifetime to produce electricity, and UO{sub 2}-W cermet was selected for short-time high-temperature propulsion. During the last year the concept has been refined and analyzed as part of the DOE contribution to the joint Air Force Phillips Laboratory-Department of Energy Bimodal Program. With the exception of refractory metal vacuum gaps between the components containing hydrogen propellant and the refractory metal components containing lithium, and high temperature liquid metal-gas heat exchangers, the concept identified as Nuclear Engine for Bimodal Applications (NEBA)-3 uses previously developed and demonstrated technologies, including high efficiency closed Brayton cycle turboalternator-compressors for power production. Using near-term technology NEBA-3 can, as an upper stage to an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle, provide propulsion with specific impulse of about 850 seconds at thrusts of 90 to 925 Newtons, and 10 kilowatts of electricity for ten years. Based on previous cost estimates by DOE and NASA, a minimum program could deliver a flight system such as NEBA-3 within six years at a cost of from $500 to $700 million. The US space reactor power and propulsion community now has the technical capability to deliver such a system early in the next century.

  20. Percutaneous pinning of fifth carpal-metacarpal fracture-dislocations: an alternative pin trajectory.

    PubMed

    Saing, Minn H; Lee, Sue Y; Raphael, James S

    2008-09-01

    Traditional management of unstable fourth and fifth carpal-metacarpal (CMC) fracture-dislocations (fx-dislocs) of the hand includes closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) versus open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Traditional trajectory of pin placement is toward the base of the hook of the hamate. Our case series of CMC fx-dislocs treated with this trajectory led to the development of ulnar deep motor branch symptoms (sxs). We attempt to propose an alternative trajectory that could lower the chance of iatrogenic injury. Five fresh frozen cadaveric specimens underwent percutaneous pinning of the fifth CMC joint using fluoroscopic guidance. Each cadaver was dissected, and the proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve was measured in relation to a pin that penetrated the volar cortex. Our results confirm the close proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve to the volar cortex of the hamate and demonstrate the potential for iatrogenic injury during CRPP of the fifth CMC fx-dislocs, especially with penetration of the volar cortex. By demonstrating the close proximity of the deep motor branch to the volar cortex of the hamate in cadavers, we highlight the potential for iatrogenic injury with CRPP of CMC fx-dislocs as seen in our case series. We recommend a more midaxial starting point on the proximal metacarpal with a trajectory aimed at the midbody of the hamate to prevent penetration of the hamate volar cortex and limit the chances of iatrogenic injury. PMID:18780105

  1. Percutaneous Pinning of Fifth Carpal–Metacarpal Fracture–Dislocations: An Alternative Pin Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue Y.; Raphael, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional management of unstable fourth and fifth carpal–metacarpal (CMC) fracture–dislocations (fx–dislocs) of the hand includes closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) versus open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Traditional trajectory of pin placement is toward the base of the hook of the hamate. Our case series of CMC fx–dislocs treated with this trajectory led to the development of ulnar deep motor branch symptoms (sxs). We attempt to propose an alternative trajectory that could lower the chance of iatrogenic injury. Five fresh frozen cadaveric specimens underwent percutaneous pinning of the fifth CMC joint using fluoroscopic guidance. Each cadaver was dissected, and the proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve was measured in relation to a pin that penetrated the volar cortex. Our results confirm the close proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve to the volar cortex of the hamate and demonstrate the potential for iatrogenic injury during CRPP of the fifth CMC fx–dislocs, especially with penetration of the volar cortex. By demonstrating the close proximity of the deep motor branch to the volar cortex of the hamate in cadavers, we highlight the potential for iatrogenic injury with CRPP of CMC fx–dislocs as seen in our case series. We recommend a more midaxial starting point on the proximal metacarpal with a trajectory aimed at the midbody of the hamate to prevent penetration of the hamate volar cortex and limit the chances of iatrogenic injury. PMID:18780105

  2. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  3. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  4. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  5. The Scaling Rule and Fluxon Core Pinning in a High-Field Superconductor with Artificially Introduced Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Lance David

    Flux pinning affects virtually every aspect of high-field superconductivity. Its fundamental mechanism(s) are in principle derived from a complicated theory, but are in practice generally accessed through measuring the field dependence of the bulk flux pinning force (F _{p}(B)). The central piece of information is the shape of the F_{p }(B) curve: It is generally accepted that if, and only if, the curve's shape is constant while the temperature or pin dimension changes, one pinning mechanism is dominant (the 'scaling rule'). During the course of this thesis, we established that the shape of F_{p}(B) is affected by the statistical distribution of the elementary pinning forces (f_{p}). Contrary to prior beliefs, it was concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve for fluxon core pinning is constant, when the distribution is broad, only if the microstructure is fractal. The peak of the F_ {p}(B) curve occurs at a lower field prior models predict, regardless of whether the shape of the curve is constant. When the distribution is narrow, a constant shape occurs, and has the shape predicted for core pinning and direct summation. Thus, the bulk pinning force curve and the elementary pinning mechanism are directly related by the scaling rule only when the f_ {p} distribution is narrow. Within this context, core pinning has been investigated with a specially fabricated Nb-Ti composite having artificially introduced pins, for which the f_{p } distribution is as narrow as can be made. By design, core pinning should be dominant; the shape of the F_{p}(B) curve does not, however, have the predicted form. The results can be explained by a new pinning mechanism, which incorporates the proximity effect and an anisotropic fluxon core, as proposed by Gurevich. It is concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve is very sensitive to the proximity effect, and it can have a peak at a higher field than was previously thought possible for core pinning. The scaling

  6. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  7. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container. [IDENT 1578

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-11-11

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800/sup 0/F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures.

  8. Contact line pinning and the relationship between nanobubbles and substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan

    2014-02-01

    We report a theoretical study of nanobubble stabilization on a substrate by contact line pinning. In particular, we predict the magnitude of the pinning force required to stabilize a nanobubble and the threshold values of the pinning force that the substrate can provide. We show that the substrate chemistry and the local structures of substrate heterogeneity together determine whether or not surface nanobubbles are stable. We find that for stable nanobubbles, the contact angles are independent of substrate chemistry as its effects are cancelled out by the pinning effect. This prediction is in agreement with available experimental data. PMID:24511966

  9. Positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment

    DOEpatents

    Frick, Thomas M.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    A positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment provides an inexpensive means of positively positioning and locking the individual fuel pins which make up the driver fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. The device can be adapted for use with a currently used attachment grid assembly design and insures that the pins remain in their proper position throughout the in-reactor life of the assembly. This device also simplifies fuel bundle assembly in that a complete row of fuel pins can be added to the bundle during each step of assembly.

  10. Contact line pinning and the relationship between nanobubbles and substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan

    2014-02-01

    We report a theoretical study of nanobubble stabilization on a substrate by contact line pinning. In particular, we predict the magnitude of the pinning force required to stabilize a nanobubble and the threshold values of the pinning force that the substrate can provide. We show that the substrate chemistry and the local structures of substrate heterogeneity together determine whether or not surface nanobubbles are stable. We find that for stable nanobubbles, the contact angles are independent of substrate chemistry as its effects are cancelled out by the pinning effect. This prediction is in agreement with available experimental data.

  11. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2011-09-01

    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  12. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F. III.

    1990-07-25

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  13. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  14. Effects of pin shape and array orientation on heat transfer and pressure loss in pin fin arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Fan, C. S.; Haley, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to reduce the cooling airflow required by gas turbine blades, two families of pin fin array geometries which may potentially improve such air-cooled turbine blade airfoils' internal cooling performance are experimentally studied. One family uses circular cross section pins with various array orientations relative to the mean flow direction. The other family employs pins with an oblong cross section, again with various orientations. Heat transfer and pressure loss results indicate that the use of circular pins whose array orientation varies between the staggered and the inline can, in some cases, increase heat transfer while decreasing pressure loss. Elongated pins increased heat transfer, but with increased pressure loss. Pin surface heat transfer coefficients are double the endwall values.

  15. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    PubMed Central

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights. PMID:27067020

  16. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control.

    PubMed

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights. PMID:27067020

  17. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  18. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the cancer removed (lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery) might not need reconstruction, but sometimes they do. Breast reconstruction is done by a plastic surgeon. Should I have breast reconstruction? Breast reconstruction ...

  19. Enhanced flux-pinning properties in superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films with nanoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen-Fong

    Since the discovery of the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO), with transition temperature (Tc = 77 K), above liquid nitrogen point in 1987 many research projects have been dedicated to enhancing the high field performance of this material for practical applications. The 2 nd generation YBCO-based coated conductors are believed to be the most promising approach for commercial applications including power transmission, motors, generators, and high field magnets. With the advances of nanotechnologies, different nanoengineering methods have been demonstrated to enhance the performance of YBCO thin films, include doping with 0-dimensional (0-D) self-assembled nanoparticles, 1-dimensional (1-D) nanorods, and 2-dimensional (2-D) nanolayers. Furthermore, dopants with ferromagnetic properties are also reported to provide enhanced pinning effects by Lorentz force, especially under high-applied magnetic fields. The principle of these methods is to generate high-density defects at the heterogeneous interfaces as artificial pinning centers in an effort to improve the flux-pinning properties. The morphology and dimensions of the nanoinclusions play an important role in pining enhancement. Optimized pinning structures are likely to be located at energetically favorable vortex cores, which form a triangular lattice with dimensions close to the YBCO coherence length xi (xiab ~ 4 nm; xic ~ 0.5 nm at 77 K.) However, it is challenging to achieve small dimensional nanodopants in the vapor deposited YBCO thin films. The purpose of this research is to utilize nanoengineering methods to produce optimized pinning structure in YBCO thin films. In this thesis, we systematically study the effects of different nanoinclusions on the flux-pinning properties of YBCO thin films. The 0-D ferromagnetic Fe 2O3 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, 2-D CeO2 multilayers, and tunable vertically aligned nanocomposites (VAN) of (Fe2O3)x:(CeO2) 1-x and (CoFe2O4)x:(CeO2) 1-x systems are introduced

  20. Percutaneous pinning of fractures of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Alm-Paulsen, Paal Sandoe; Rod, Oyvind; Rød, Kristian; Rajabi, Benjamin; Russwurm, Harald; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of fractures of the distal radius is often supplemented with percutaneous pinning, but there is little evidence that this affects the clinical outcome. A total of 43 patients with pinned, and 296 with conservatively-treated, fractures were reviewed a mean of 6 (range 3-13) years after injury. We found controls among the conservatively-treated patients who matched 30 of the patients with pinned fractures with respect to age, sex, trauma energy, and radiographic measurements at injury. Clinical and radiological results of the two groups were compared and contrasted. There was a trend for better radiological results in patients with pinned fractures, but not significantly so, and no difference in clinical variables. We identified seven published randomised studies in which pinning was compared with reduction and plaster of Paris alone. Most reported better radiological results at review. The three smallest studies with the shortest follow-up reported better clinical outcome for pinned fractures, while the remaining four studies found no significant clinical benefit from pinning. Although the radiological results were improved by percutaneous pinning in addition to reduction and plaster of Paris, the clinical outcome in extra-articular and simple intra-articular fractures seemed unaffected. PMID:22694081

  1. FSW of Tapered Thickness Welds using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the advantages of tapered thickness welds in FSW (friction stir welding), the structure of FSW welds, the adjustable pin tool used in FSW. Other topics described include compliance and temperature measurement in a FSW system, loads and torque upon the pin tool and its ability to penetrate different metals, and the results and metallurgy of FSW welds.

  2. Alignment tool facilitates pin placement on irregular horizontal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Alignment tool facilitates spotting and cementing plastic pins on the true vertical to irregular concave and convex surfaces. The tool consists of a wood tripod with individually adjustable legs, a wood block with a hole for placing the pins and two spirit levels at a 90 degree angle for easy alignment.

  3. Origin of pinning enhancement in a ferromagnet-superconductor bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Cheng, X. M.; Chien, C. L.; Sang, Hai

    2005-01-01

    Vortex pinning has been studied for the superconducting Nb film covering ferromagnetic Co /Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, in which the magnetization reversal proceeds via domain-wall motion. Large enhancement of pinning in the Nb film has been observed in the final stages of the reversal process, and we demonstrate that it is caused by residual uninverted dendrite-shaped magnetic domains.

  4. The pin-amalgam restoration. Part 1. A review.

    PubMed

    Evans, J R; Wetz, J H

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that the use of pins to support amalgam or cast gold restorations in advanced caries in posterior teeth is a quick and relatively inexpensive method of restoring teeth otherwise doomed to extraction. However, the use of pins demands a careful and skillful dentist who understands the morphology of these teeth and the proper use of the materials if injury to the pulp, accidental perforations, crazing of the dentin, and splitting of teeth are to be prevented. Until more objective and controlled studies are completed, the use of cemented pins vs. self-threading pins remains a matter of empirical and personal preference. It is clear that success in the use of any pin or pins depends more on the dentist's skill and judgment than on the particular type of pin technique used. In order to more objectively evaluate the use of pin-amalgam restorations, Part 11 of this study will analyze the results obtained in the Clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine. PMID:318695

  5. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  6. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  7. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase the heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  8. Destabilizing interactions among [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] yeast prion variants.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Michael E; Liebman, Susan W

    2003-01-01

    The yeast Sup35 and Rnq1 proteins can exist in either the noninfectious soluble forms, [psi-] or [pin-], respectively, or the multiple infectious amyloid-like forms called [PSI+] or [PIN+] prion variants (or prion strains). It was previously shown that [PSI+] and [PIN+] prions enhance one another's de novo appearance. Here we show that specific prion variants of [PSI+] and [PIN+] disrupt each other's stable inheritance. Acquiring [PSI+] often impedes the inheritance of particular [PIN+] variants. Conversely, the presence of some [PIN+] variants impairs the inheritance of weak [PSI+] but not strong [PSI+] variants. These same [PIN+] variants generate a single-dot fluorescence pattern when a fusion of Rnq1 and green fluorescent protein is expressed. Another [PIN+] variant, which forms a distinctly different multiple-dot fluorescence pattern, does not impair [PSI+] inheritance. Thus, destabilization of prions by heterologous prions depends upon the variants involved. These findings may have implications for understanding interactions among other amyloid-forming proteins, including those associated with certain human diseases. PMID:14704158

  9. 41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED POSITION - PINS FIT INTO MATCHING BUSHINGS ON THE EAST LEAF AND SECURE THE EAST AND WEST SECTIONS WHEN THE BRIDGE IS DOWN. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. Prefoldin and Pins synergistically regulate asymmetric division and suppress dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Rai, Madhulika; Wang, Cheng; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone complex that regulates tubulin function in mitosis. Here, we show that Prefoldin depletion results in disruption of neuroblast polarity, leading to neuroblast overgrowth in Drosophila larval brains. Interestingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) leads to the formation of gigantic brains with severe neuroblast overgrowth, despite that Pins depletion alone results in smaller brains with partially disrupted neuroblast polarity. We show that Prefoldin acts synergistically with Pins to regulate asymmetric division of both neuroblasts and Intermediate Neural Progenitors (INPs). Surprisingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Pins also induces dedifferentiation of INPs back into neuroblasts, while depletion either Prefoldin or Pins alone is insufficient to do so. Furthermore, knocking down either α-tubulin or β-tubulin in pins- mutant background results in INP dedifferentiation back into neuroblasts, leading to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts. Overexpression of α-tubulin suppresses neuroblast overgrowth observed in prefoldin pins double mutant brains. Our data elucidate an unexpected function of Prefoldin and Pins in synergistically suppressing dedifferentiation of INPs back into neural stem cells. PMID:27025979

  11. Simulation of the Vortex Dynamics in a Real Pinning Landscape of YBa2Cu3O7-δ Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Glatz, A.; Ortalan, V.; Rupich, M. W.; Leroux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to carry very large currents with almost no dissipation makes them irreplaceable for high-power applications. The development and further improvement of HTS-based cables require an in-depth understanding of the superconducting vortex dynamics in the presence of complex pinning landscapes. We present a critical current analysis of a real HTS sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape responsible for the high-current-carrying-capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Finally, our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wire designs.

  12. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  13. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  14. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  15. Nb-Ti composite wires with artificial ferromagnetic pins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, L.D.; Jablonski, P.D.; Heussner, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Flux-pinning data for Nb47Ti/Fe and Nb55Ti/Ni composites indicate that ferromagnets pin by a barrier mechanism similar to the mechanism studied by Clem for superconductor/insulator multilayers. However, in contrast to Clem`s model, the optimum pin separation should be rather large, because at smaller pin separations the condition {vert_bar}{psi}{vert_bar}{sup 2} = 0 at the superconductor/ferromagnet interface leads to a reduction of T{sub c} and H{sub c2}. Nonetheless, the authors find no indication in the experimental data that pin separations much smaller than the predicted optimum value adversely affect J{sub c}, T{sub c}, or H{sub c2}.

  16. Retrievable fuel pin end member for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Jerry M.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom end member (17b) on a retrievable fuel pin (13b) secures the pin (13b) within a nuclear reactor (12) by engaging on a transverse attachment rail (18) with a spring clip type of action. Removal and reinstallation if facilitated as only axial movement of the fuel pin (13b) is required for either operation. A pair of resilient axially extending blades (31) are spaced apart to define a slot (24) having a seat region (34) which receives the rail (18) and having a land region (37), closer to the tips (39) of the blades (31) which is normally of less width than the rail (18). Thus an axially directed force sufficient to wedge the resilient blades (31) apart is required to emplace or release the fuel pin (13b) such force being greater than the axial forces on the fuel pins (13b) which occur during operation of the reactor (12).

  17. Spatial homogenization methods for pin-by-pin neutron transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Tomasz

    For practical reactor core applications low-order transport approximations such as SP3 have been shown to provide sufficient accuracy for both static and transient calculations with considerably less computational expense than the discrete ordinate or the full spherical harmonics methods. These methods have been applied in several core simulators where homogenization was performed at the level of the pin cell. One of the principal problems has been to recover the error introduced by pin-cell homogenization. Two basic approaches to treat pin-cell homogenization error have been proposed: Superhomogenization (SPH) factors and Pin-Cell Discontinuity Factors (PDF). These methods are based on well established Equivalence Theory and Generalized Equivalence Theory to generate appropriate group constants. These methods are able to treat all sources of error together, allowing even few-group diffusion with one mesh per cell to reproduce the reference solution. A detailed investigation and consistent comparison of both homogenization techniques showed potential of PDF approach to improve accuracy of core calculation, but also reveal its limitation. In principle, the method is applicable only for the boundary conditions at which it was created, i.e. for boundary conditions considered during the homogenization process---normally zero current. Therefore, there exists a need to improve this method, making it more general and environment independent. The goal of proposed general homogenization technique is to create a function that is able to correctly predict the appropriate correction factor with only homogeneous information available, i.e. a function based on heterogeneous solution that could approximate PDFs using homogeneous solution. It has been shown that the PDF can be well approximated by least-square polynomial fit of non-dimensional heterogeneous solution and later used for PDF prediction using homogeneous solution. This shows a promise for PDF prediction for off

  18. Monte Carlo characterization of PWR spent fuel assemblies to determine the detectability of pin diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdo, James S.

    This research is based on the concept that the diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies is feasible by a careful comparison of spontaneous fission neutron and gamma levels in the guide tube locations of the fuel assemblies. The goal is to be able to determine whether some of the assembly fuel pins are either missing or have been replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. It is known that for typical commercial power spent fuel assemblies, the dominant spontaneous neutron emissions come from Cm-242 and Cm-244. Because of the shorter half-life of Cm-242 (0.45 yr) relative to that of Cm-244 (18.1 yr), Cm-244 is practically the only neutron source contributing to the neutron source term after the spent fuel assemblies are more than two years old. Initially, this research focused upon developing MCNP5 models of PWR fuel assemblies, modeling their depletion using the MONTEBURNS code, and by carrying out a preliminary depletion of a ¼ model 17x17 assembly from the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR. Later, the depletion and more accurate isotopic distribution in the pins at discharge was modeled using the TRITON depletion module of the SCALE computer code. Benchmarking comparisons were performed with the MONTEBURNS and TRITON results. Subsequently, the neutron flux in each of the guide tubes of the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR assembly at two years after discharge as calculated by the MCNP5 computer code was determined for various scenarios. Cases were considered for all spent fuel pins present and for replacement of a single pin at a position near the center of the assembly (10,9) and at the corner (17,1). Some scenarios were duplicated with a gamma flux calculation for high energies associated with Cm-244. For each case, the difference between the flux (neutron or gamma) for all spent fuel pins and with a pin removed or replaced is calculated for each guide tube. Different detection criteria were established. The first was whether the relative error of the

  19. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  20. Fermi surface reconstruction in (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 (0.44 ≤ x ≤ 1) probed by thermoelectric power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hodovanets, Halyna; Liu, Yong; Jesche, Anton; Ran, Sheng; Mun, Eun Deok; Lograsso, Thomas A; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Canfield, Paul C

    2014-06-01

    We report in-plane thermoelectric power measurements on single crystals of (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2(0.44≤x≤1). We observe a minimum in the S|T=const versus x at x~0.55 that can be associated with the change in the topology of the Fermi surface, a Lifshitz transition, related to the electron pockets at the center of M point crossing the Fermi level. This feature is clearly observable below ~75 K. Thermoelectric power also shows a change in the x~0.8–0.9 range, where the maximum in the thermoelectric power collapses into a plateau. This Lifshitz transition is most likely related to the reconstruction of the Fermi surface associated with the transformation of the hole pockets at the M point into four blades as observed by ARPES measurements.

  1. Atomistic mechanisms of intermittent plasticity in metals: dislocation avalanches and defect cluster pinning.

    PubMed

    Niiyama, Tomoaki; Shimokawa, Tomotsugu

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent plastic deformation in crystals with power-law behaviors has been reported in previous experimental studies. The power-law behavior is reminiscent of self-organized criticality, and mesoscopic models have been proposed that describe this behavior in crystals. In this paper, we show that intermittent plasticity in metals under tensile deformation can be observed in molecular dynamics models, using embedded atom method potentials for Ni, Cu, and Al. Power-law behaviors of stress drop and waiting time of plastic deformation events are observed. It is shown that power-law behavior is due to dislocation avalanche motions in Cu and Ni. A different mechanism of dislocation pinning is found in Al. These different stress relaxation mechanisms give different power-law exponents. We propose a probabilistic model to describe the novel dislocation motion in Al and analytically deduce the power-law behavior. PMID:25768512

  2. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  3. Simulation of the vortex dynamics in a real pinning landscape of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, Ivan; Koshelev, Alexei; Glatz, Andreas; Ortalan, Volkan; Rupich, Martin; Leroux, Maxime

    We present a critical current analysis of a real high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape, responsible for the high current-carrying capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wires design. Work was supported by the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. Role of the Pinning Points in epitaxial Graphene Moiré Superstructures on the Pt(111) Surface

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, José I.; Merino, Pablo; Pinardi, Anna L.; Gonzalo, Otero-Irurueta; López, María F.; Méndez, Javier; Martín-Gago, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic atomic mechanisms responsible for electronic doping of epitaxial graphene Moirés on transition metal surfaces is still an open issue. To better understand this process we have carried out a first-principles full characterization of the most representative Moiré superstructures observed on the Gr/Pt(111) system and confronted the results with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We find that for all reported Moirés the system relaxes inducing a non-negligible atomic corrugation both, at the graphene and at the outermost platinum layer. Interestingly, a mirror “anti-Moiré” reconstruction appears at the substrate, giving rise to the appearance of pinning-points. We show that these points are responsible for the development of the superstructure, while charge from the Pt substrate is injected into the graphene, inducing a local n-doping, mostly localized at these specific pinning-point positions. PMID:26852920

  5. Role of the Pinning Points in epitaxial Graphene Moiré Superstructures on the Pt(111) Surface.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José I; Merino, Pablo; Pinardi, Anna L; Gonzalo, Otero-Irurueta; López, María F; Méndez, Javier; Martín-Gago, José A

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic atomic mechanisms responsible for electronic doping of epitaxial graphene Moirés on transition metal surfaces is still an open issue. To better understand this process we have carried out a first-principles full characterization of the most representative Moiré superstructures observed on the Gr/Pt(111) system and confronted the results with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We find that for all reported Moirés the system relaxes inducing a non-negligible atomic corrugation both, at the graphene and at the outermost platinum layer. Interestingly, a mirror "anti-Moiré" reconstruction appears at the substrate, giving rise to the appearance of pinning-points. We show that these points are responsible for the development of the superstructure, while charge from the Pt substrate is injected into the graphene, inducing a local n-doping, mostly localized at these specific pinning-point positions. PMID:26852920

  6. Tracheal reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Srikrishna, S V; Shekar, P S; Shetty, N

    1998-12-01

    Surgical reconstruction of the trachea is a relatively complex procedure. We had 20 cases of tracheal stenosis. We have a modest experience of 16 tracheal reconstructions for acquired tracheal stenosis. Two patients underwent laser treatment while another two died before any intervention. The majority of these cases were a result of prolonged ventilation (14 cases), following organophosphorous poisoning (11 cases), Guillain-Barré syndrome, bullet injury, fat embolism and surprisingly only one tumor, a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, who had a very unusual presentation. There were 12 males and 4 females in this series, age ranging from 12-35 years. The duration of ventilation ranged from 1-21 days and the interval from decannulation to development of stridor was between 5-34 days. Six of them were approached by the cervical route, 5 by thoracotomy and cervical approach, 2 via median sternotomy and 3 by thoracotomy alone. Five of them required an additional laryngeal drop and 1 required pericardiotomy and release of pulmonary veins to gain additional length. The excised segments of trachea measured 3 to 5 cms in length. All were end to end anastomosis with interrupted Vicryl sutures. We have had no experience with stents or prosthetic tubes. Three patients developed anastomotic leaks which were controlled conservatively. Almost all of them required postoperative tracheo-bronchial suctioning with fibreoptic bronchoscope. We had one death in this series due to sepsis. PMID:9914459

  7. Domain wall pinning for racetrack memory using exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenciuc, I.; Vick, A. J.; Allwood, D. A.; Hayward, T. J.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.; Hirohata, A.

    2014-10-01

    The pinning of domain walls in ferromagnetic (F) wires is one possible technique for the creation of a solid state magnetic memory. Such a system has been under consideration for some time but one of the main limitations is the control of, and non-uniformity of the domain wall pinning. Techniques such as the lithographic definition of notches and steps in the substrate have had some success in creating local pins but have the disadvantage of being expensive to fabricate and the reproducibility of the domain wall pinning strength is limited. In this letter, we report on an alternative strategy to create pins of reproducible strength using crossed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic (AF) wires such that exchange bias can be introduced at the crossing points. Such a system has the advantage of ease of fabrication and creating domain wall pins of controlled strength by varying the width of the AF wire. We have achieved domain wall pinning field strengths of up to 37 Oe in a system where the AF wire is deposited above the F wire which is comparable to the values achieved using notches.

  8. Dynamics of Glass Forming Liquids with Randomly Pinned Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that in the limit of vanishing cooling rate, the glass transition phenomenon becomes a thermodynamic transition at a temperature TK. However, with any finite cooling rate, the system falls out of equilibrium at temperatures near Tg(>TK), implying that the very existence of the putative thermodynamic phase transition at TK can be questioned. Recent studies of systems with randomly pinned particles have hinted that the thermodynamic glass transition may be observed for liquids with randomly pinned particles. This expectation is based on the results of approximate calculations that suggest that the thermodynamic glass transition temperature increases with increasing concentration of pinned particles and it may be possible to equilibrate the system at temperatures near the increased transition temperature. We test the validity of this prediction through extensive molecular dynamics simulations of two model glass-forming liquids in the presence of random pinning. We find that extrapolated thermodynamic transition temperature TK does not show any sign of increasing with increasing pinning concentration. The main effect of pinning is found to be a rapid decrease in the kinetic fragility of the system with increasing pin concentration. Implications of these observations for current theories of the glass transition are discussed. PMID:26206070

  9. Flux Pinning in the Superconducting Phases of UPt_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shung, Emmin; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    1997-03-01

    We examine the effectiveness of bulk and surface pinning in the superconducting phases of UPt_3. Using high resolution Hall probe arrays, we measure locally the magnetization hysteresis and relaxation in a single crystal torus. The toroidal topology allows us to distinguish surface and bulk pinning effects by measuring the local magnetization over the hole, the bulk, and the interface. By comparing field cooled and zero field cooled measurements, we attempt to correlate the changes in flux pinning with the transition between the two superconducting phases. (R. J. Zieve et. al., Phys. Rev. B51), 12041 (1995)

  10. An Accelerated Method for Testing Soldering Tendency of Core Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Ried, Paul; Olson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated method for testing die soldering has been developed. High intensity ultrasonic vibrations has been used to simulate the die casting conditions such as high pressure and high impingement speed of molten metal on the pin. Soldering tendency of steels and coated pins has been examined. The results indicate that in the low carbon steel/Al system, the onset of soldering is 60 times faster with ultrasonic vibration than that without ultrasonic vibration. In the H13/A380 system, the onset of soldering reaction is accelerated to 30-60 times. Coating significantly reduces the soldering tendency of the core pins.

  11. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R. ); Bottcher, J.H. ); Shikakura, S. ); Tsai, C.L. . Dept. of Welding Engineering); Hamilton, M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Flux pinning by grain boundaries in A15 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Hatcher, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The form of the scaling law for flux pinning by grain boundaries in A15-structure compounds, primarily in the case of Nb3Sn and its alloys, is discussed, and the effect of alloying and radiation damage on the pinning strength is compared with predictions of the electron-scattering theory of the elementary pinning force. In addition, some preliminary results of 2-dimensional computer simulations are discussed in relation to the observed effects of alloying on the form of the scaling law for Nb3Sn.

  13. Three-Dimensional Prints with Pinned Cylindrical Lens Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Shin; Shimizu, Keishi

    2013-09-01

    An application of pinned cylindrical lens arrays (CLAs) reported in Opt. Rev. 19 (2012) 287 to three-dimensional prints is presented for the first time. This lens fabrication method features the easy control of the pitch and radius of curvature of the lens arrays by taking advantage of the pinning effect that the partition walls created on a polymeric substrate by scratching with a cutter blade prevent the ultraviolet curable polymer dispensed between the walls from spreading. It is demonstrated in this paper that a three-dimensional print was realized successfully with the pinned CLA fabricated with our method.

  14. Pinning Control in a System of Mobile Chaotic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariani, Reza; Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, pinning control in a system of moving agents (each one associated to a chaotic dynamical system) has been investigated. In particular, we have studied and compared two different strategies for pinning control and discussed the not trivial relation between synchronization and control of the chaotic agents. Our results show how system parameters like agent density are critical in order to reach a synchronous behavior of the agents as well as to reach global control of the system by only pinning a reduced set of agents.

  15. Continuous Holdup Measurements with Silicon P-I-N Photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Oberer, R.B.; Williams, J.A.; Smith, D.E.; Paulus, M.J.

    2002-05-01

    We report on the behavior of silicon P-I-N photodiodes used to perform holdup measurements on plumbing. These detectors differ from traditional scintillation detectors in that no high-voltage is required, no scintillator is used (gamma and X rays are converted directly by the diode), and they are considerably more compact. Although the small size of the diodes means they are not nearly as efficient as scintillation detectors, the diodes' size does mean that a detector module, including one or more diodes, pulse shaping electronics, analog-to-digital converter, embedded microprocessor, and digital interface can be realized in a package (excluding shielding) the size of a pocket calculator. This small size, coupled with only low-voltage power requirement, completely solid-state realization, and internal control functions allows these detectors to be strategically deployed on a permanent basis, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for manual holdup measurements. In this paper, we report on the measurement of gamma and X rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U contained in steel pipe. We describe the features of the spectra, the electronics of the device and show how a network of them may be used to improve estimates of inventory in holdup.

  16. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Hocky, Glen M.; Reichman, David R.; Berthier, Ludovic

    2014-12-14

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here, we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  17. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  18. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  19. Pinning of Austenite Grain Boundaries by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ömer N.; Michal, G. M.; Kwon, H.-W.

    1992-08-01

    The growth behavior of austenite grains in the presence of A1N precipitates varies with the temperature and time of anneal. To study this behavior, two iron alloys, (in weight percent) a 0.1 carbon base chemistry with 0.03A1/0.01N and 0.09A1/0.04N, respectively, were annealed between 1000 °C and 1200 °C for times of up to 180 minutes. Using optical microscopy, as many as 1000 austenite grains per heat-treatment condition were measured. Conditions of sup- pressed, abnormal, and uniform grain growth were observed. Using an extraction replica tech- nique, the size, shape, and distribution of the A1N particles were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The largest grain boundary curvatures calculated, using the Hellman- Hillert pinning model, were in close agreement with independent calculations of curvatures using the grain size data. The largest grains in the lognormal size distribution of austenite grains were found to be the ones with the potential to grow to abnormally large sizes.

  20. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-23

    reduced by a factor of 10 in the Si PIN detector compared to the current plastic scintillator cells. There is potential for further reduction with the removal of plastics within the cell, which will need to be explored in future work. A third important parameter in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon is the resolution of the electron detection. While the resolution is important in determining the minimum detectable concentration, it plays a larger role in source identification when there is a visible signal. The Silicon PIN diodes generated improved resolution over a similar plastic scintillator cell. With the improved resolution, it becomes easier to distinguish the radioxenon isomers (133mXe and 131mXe) from the 133Xe beta continuum background. With the beta background from 133Xe ever present with the detection of the isomers, the improved resolution proves vital in calculating the ratios of the three isotopes. With an accurate measurement of the isotopic ratios, the anthropogenic sources of radioxenon (medical isotope production and nuclear reactors) can be more accurately distinguished. Based on the results shown within this report, a Si PIN beta cell shows the potential to aid in the operation and discriminating power of the IMS for the CTBTO. However, there are a number of issues that need attention before a detector of this design would be reliable enough for field operations in the IMS. Issues that need develop include, but are not limited to: studying the robustness of the design in field conditions, eliminating or minimizing the noise and variability of individual Si detector elements, understanding the long-term gain stability of the Si detectors, and reducing the non-Si materials within the cell (i.e. the plastic housing).

  1. Experimental Testing of the HI Mass Reconstruction Procedure at Lis Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondtatyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, V. G.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Mkaza, N.

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the heavy ion masses in the time-of-flight spectrometry is known to be a complicated task due to distortions both in timing and measuring of the ions energy using PIN diodes. Original procedure which takes into account simultaneously pulse height defect (PHD) and plasma delay for unbiased mass reconstruction was tested in series of experiments at the LIS setup using degrader foils.

  2. Paleoproductivity Reconstructions Using Radiolarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    This talk reviews the use of radiolarian assemblages in paleoproductivity reconstruction. Molina-Cruz and CLIMAP co-workers first identified a distinct radiolarian assemblage whose modern geographic distribution closely matched that of an upwelling region (eastern Pacific Peru-Chile). Nigrini and Caulet subsequently identified additional species largely endemic to various upwelling environments. They applied this in the form of an Upwelling Radiolarian Index (URI) in down-core studies of upwelling history. Recently, Jacot des Combes and Weinheimer have used published distributions of living radiolarians in the water-column to assign fossil taxa to surface vs subsurface groups. They used ratios of thermocline to surface taxa (e.g., the Thermocline to Surface Radiolarian Index, or TSRI), which measures relative enhancement of thermocline to surface radiolarian production in regions of upwelling, to reconstruct past ocean productivity. Both methods appear to perform well, although neither is always reliable. Both the URI and TSRI methods are based on a small number of taxa (ca. 10 each), although biogeographic and water depth information are now available for ca. 100 living species. The use of additional taxa should make reconstructions more robust by reducing the effects of single species ecology, and making index values less sensitive to evolutionary changes in taxa over Neogene time intervals. Taxonomic assemblage reconstructions of productivity have some inherent advantages over bulk flux proxies, being less sensitive to preservation problems or the age model employed. Radiolarian assemblages are particularly useful in upwelling regions where carbonate fossils are poorly preserved. All are however limited by our sparse knowledge of the ecology of the various species used. Among the major microfossil groups, radiolarian ecology and biology are in particular relatively poorly known; even the descriptive taxonomy of living species is not yet complete. Despite these

  3. X-ray spectroscopy with silicon pin and avalanche photo diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, U. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of silicon P-Intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiodes and Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for the direct detection of soft x rays from 1 to 20 keV and for the detection of scintillation light output from CsI(TI) for higher x ray energies (30 to 1000 keV) are presented. About one keV resolution was achieved at room temperature for both the PIN and APD detectors for soft x rays (1 to 20 keV). Commercially available, low power (18 mV), low noise, hybrid preamplifiers, were used. These photodiodes were also coupled to CsI(TI) scintillator and obtained about 6 resolution at 662 keV. The photodiode frequency response matches well with the emission spectrum of the CsI(TI) scintillator providing good spectral resolution and a higher signal than NaI(TI) when viewed by conventional photomultipliers. A PIN-CsI(TI) combination provides a low energy threshold of around 60 keV while for the APD-CsI(TI) it is 15 keV.

  4. Criticality experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays in plutonium-uranium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C. ); Smolen, G.R. )

    1988-08-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having a Pu/(Pu + U) ratio of approximately 0.22 in a boiler tube-type lattice assembly. These experiments were conducted as part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of the experiments and data are included in this report. The experiments were performed with an array of mixed oxide fuel pins in aqueous plutonium-uranium solutions. The fuel pins were contained in a boiler tube-type tank and arranged in a 1.4 cm square pitch array which resembled cylindrical geometry. One experiment was perfomed with the fuel pins removed from the vessel. The experiments were performed with a water reflector. The concentration of the solutions in the boiler tube-type tank was varied from 4 to 468 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was approximately 0.22 for all experiments.

  5. {sup 252}Cf-source-driven frequency analysis measurements with subcritical arrays of PWR fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Blakeman, E.D.; King, W.T.

    1996-08-01

    Experiments with fresh PWR fuel assemblies were performed to assess the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven frequency analysis method for measuring the subcriticality of spent fuel. The measurements at the Babcox and Wilcox Critical Experiments Facility mocked up between 17x17 fuel pins (single assembly) and a full array of 4961 fuel pins (about 17 fuel assemblies) in borated water with a fixed B concentration. For the full array, the B content of the water was varied from 1511 at delayed criticality to 4303 ppM. Measurements were done for various source-detector-fuel pin configurations; they showed high sensitivity of frequency analysis parameters to B content and fissile mass. Parameters such as auto and cross power spectral densities can be calculated directly by a more general model of the Monte Carlo code (MCNP-DSP). Calculation-measurement comparisons are presented. This model permits the validation of neutron and gamma ray transport calculational methods with subcritical measurements using the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven frequency analysis method.

  6. Pinning and movement of individual nanoscale magnetic skyrmions via defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneken, Christian; Kubetzka, André; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the pinning of magnetic skyrmions to defects is crucial for the development of future spintronic applications. While pinning is desirable for a precise positioning of magnetic skyrmions it is detrimental when they are to be moved through a material. We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study the interaction between atomic scale defects and magnetic skyrmions that are only a few nanometers in diameter. The studied pinning centers range from single atom inlayer defects and adatoms to clusters adsorbed on the surface of our model system. We find very different pinning strengths and identify preferred positions of the skyrmion. The interaction between a cluster and a skyrmion can be sufficiently strong for the skyrmion to follow when the cluster is moved across the surface by lateral manipulation with the STM tip.

  7. 22. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  8. SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Paxton, D.M.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Hoth, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  9. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Pinning Susceptibility: The Effect of Dilute, Quenched Disorder on Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Amy L.; Nashed, Samer; Padgett, Elliot; Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of dilute pinning on the jamming transition. Pinning reduces the average contact number needed to jam unpinned particles and shifts the jamming threshold to lower densities, leading to a pinning susceptibility, χp . Our main results are that this susceptibility obeys scaling form and diverges in the thermodynamic limit as χp∝|ϕ -ϕc∞|-γp where ϕc∞ is the jamming threshold in the absence of pins. Finite-size scaling arguments yield these values with associated statistical (systematic) errors γp=1.018 ±0.026 (0.291 ) in d =2 and γp=1.534 ±0.120 (0.822 ) in d =3 . Logarithmic corrections raise the exponent in d =2 to close to the d =3 value, although the systematic errors are very large.

  13. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  14. 4. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION ON SOUTH SIDE. North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION ON SOUTH SIDE. - North Branch Quantico Creek Bridge, Prince William Forest Park, on NPS Route 406 spanning north branch of Quantico Creek, Dumfries, Prince William County, VA

  15. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEANS, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS AND DECKING, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  16. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  17. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  18. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  19. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-05-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy.

  20. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  1. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  2. 23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  3. Criteria for stochastic pinning control of networks of chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio; DeLellis, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the controllability of discrete-time networks of coupled chaotic maps through stochastic pinning. In this control scheme, the network dynamics are steered towards a desired trajectory through a feedback control input that is applied stochastically to the network nodes. The network controllability is studied by analyzing the local mean square stability of the error dynamics with respect to the desired trajectory. Through the analysis of the spectral properties of salient matrices, a toolbox of conditions for controllability are obtained, in terms of the dynamics of the individual maps, algebraic properties of the network, and the probability distribution of the pinning control. We demonstrate the use of these conditions in the design of a stochastic pinning control strategy for networks of Chirikov standard maps. To elucidate the applicability of the approach, we consider different network topologies and compare five different stochastic pinning strategies through extensive numerical simulations.

  4. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  5. 9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT EAST INCLINED END POST. NOTE CONSTRUCTION DATE OF 1880. - Peevy Road Bridge, Peevy Road spanning Perkiomen Creek in Upper Hanover Township, East Greenville, Montgomery County, PA

  6. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  7. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, INCLINED END POST, EYEBARS, AND PORTAL BRACING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  8. 11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, LATTICE BRACING, HIP VERTICAL, EYEBARS, TOP LATERAL BRACING, AND STRUTS, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  9. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  10. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  11. Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers in superconducting niobium-titanium wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Nicholas David

    1997-09-01

    Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers were used in superconducting NbTi wires to achieve a large critical current density (Jsb{c}) in a magnetic field. The wire processing was developed to make four wires that contained nanometer-sized arrays of Ni or Fe pins inside micron-sized filaments of a Nbsb{0.36}Tiosb{0.64} alloy. The optimum pin size and spacing for maximum Jsb{c} was approximately 5 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A ferromagnetic pin volume of only 2% Ni produced Jsb{c}'s (e.g., 2500 A/mmsp2 at 5 T, 4.2 K) that were comparable to those of other NbTi wires that have pin volumes ranging from 12% to 20%. Therefore, ferromagnetic artificial pins are more effective than nonmagnetic pins for a given volume percent. Saturation Magnetization measurements on the wires showed a correlation between an increase in the amount of Ni remaining ferromagnetic in the wires and an increase in Jsb{c}. These results suggest wires with larger volumes of Ni may have even higher Jsb{c}'s. The critical temperature (Tsb{c}) of the best wire with Ni pins was only slightly depressed (Tsb{c}≈8.6 K) from the measured bulk value for Nbsb{0.36}Tiosb{0.64} (Tsb{c}≈9 K), suggesting that proximity effects from the Ni are not severe. Wires with small superconducting filament diameters (0.3 mum) displayed enhanced Jsb{c} at low fields (B ≤ 5 T) that was attributed to pinning at the filament surfaces. Finally, for wires with large filaments, the optimum bulk pinning force (Fsb{p}) dependence on B was well described by the form Fsb{p}~ bsp{1/2}(1-b) where b = B/Hsb{c2} and Hsb{c2} is the upper critical field of the superconductor. This form is interpreted as a general result of the large optimum pin spacings in our APC wires. This thesis research was the result of a collaboration between Yale University and IGC-Advanced Superconductors (Waterbury, CT).

  12. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints.

  13. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  14. Auto-adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An auto-adjusting pin tool for friction stir welding is presented wherein the pin tool automatically adjusts for welding materials of varying thicknesses, and the pin can be incrementally withdrawn from the workpieces thus eliminating any crater or keyhole in the weld. The inventive apparatus is comprised of a welding head housing a motor connected to a controller instrument package and an arbor supported by bearings. The arbor forms an interior cylinder and is encircled by a stationary slip ring though which are ported hydraulic passageways into the interior cylinder of the arbor such that a piston housed therein may be moved axially. Coupled to the piston is a pin tool which is treaded on its lower end and which is moveably seated in, and extending through, a shoulder housing having concave lower face. When welding, the rotating treaded end of the pin enters and stirs the workpieces while the lower face of the shoulder housing compacts the workpieces. As the welding head traverses the shoulder housing the controller senses any rising pressure on the lower face of the shoulder housing and withdraws the arbor to keep the pressure constant. At the same time, the piston moves towards the workpieces thus extending the pin further from the shoulder. This keeps the pin at a proper depth in the workpieces regardless of their thicknesses. As the weld terminates this same operation can be used to incrementally withdraw the pin during the final part of the traverse, thus eliminating any keyhole or crater that would otherwise be created.

  15. IMp: The customizable LEGO(®) Pinned Insect Manipulator.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  16. Mechanisms of Soldering Formation on Coated Core Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Denouden, Tony; Han, Qingyou

    2012-02-01

    Die soldering is one of the major casting defects during the high-pressure die casting (HPDC) process, causing dimensional inaccuracy of the castings and increased downtimes of the HPDC machine. In this study, we analyzed actually failed core pins to determine the mechanism of soldering and its procedures. The results show that the soldering process starts from a local coating failure, involves a series of intermetallic phase formation from reactions between molten aluminum alloys and the H13 steel pin, and accelerates when an aluminum-rich, face-centered cubic (fcc) phase is formed between the intermetallic phases. It is the formation of the aluminum-rich fcc phase in the reaction region that joins the core pin with the casting, resulting in the sticking of the casting to the core pin. When undercuts are formed on the core pin, the ejection of castings from the die will lead to either a core pin failure or damages to the casting being ejected.

  17. Behaviour of irradiated PHWR fuel pins during high temperature heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, U. K.; Unnikrishnan, K.; Mishra, Prerna; Banerjee, Suparna; Anantharaman, S.; Sah, D. N.

    2008-12-01

    Fuel pins removed from an irradiated pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle discharged after an extended burn up of 15,000 MWd/tU have been subjected to isothermal heating tests in temperature range 700-1300 °C inside hot-cells. The heating of the fuel pins was carried out using a specially designed remotely operable furnace, which allowed localized heating of about 100 mm length of the fuel pin at one end under flowing argon gas or in air atmosphere. Post-test examination performed in the hot-cells included visual examination, leak testing, dimension measurement and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Fuel pins having internal pressure of 2.1-2.7 MPa due to fission gas release underwent ballooning and micro cracking during heating for 10 min at 800 °C and 900 °C but not at 700 °C. Fuel pin heated at 1300 °C showed complete disruption of cladding in heating zone, due to the embrittlement of the cladding. The examination of fuel from the pin tested at 1300 °C showed presence of large number of bubbles; both intragranular as well as intergranular bubbles. Details of the experiments and the results are presented in this paper.

  18. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-09-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large-scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper, we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters, we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  19. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  20. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  1. Refixation of osteochondral fractures by ultrasound-activated, resorbable pins

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, H.; Schulz, A. P.; Gille, J.; Klinger, M.; Jürgens, C.; Reimers, N.; Kienast, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Osteochondral injuries, if not treated adequately, often lead to severe osteoarthritis. Possible treatment options include refixation of the fragment or replacement therapies such as Pridie drilling, microfracture or osteochondral grafts, all of which have certain disadvantages. Only refixation of the fragment can produce a smooth and resilient joint surface. The aim of this study was the evaluation of an ultrasound-activated bioresorbable pin for the refixation of osteochondral fragments under physiological conditions. Methods In 16 Merino sheep, specific osteochondral fragments of the medial femoral condyle were produced and refixed with one of conventional bioresorbable pins, titanium screws or ultrasound-activated pins. Macro- and microscopic scoring was undertaken after three months. Results The healing ratio with ultrasound-activated pins was higher than with conventional pins. No negative heat effect on cartilage has been shown. Conclusion As the material is bioresorbable, no further surgery is required to remove the implant. MRI imaging is not compromised, as it is with implanted screws. The use of bioresorbable pins using ultrasound is a promising technology for the refixation of osteochondral fractures. PMID:23610699

  2. Numerical modeling of pin-fin micro heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, E.; Jubran, B. A.; Behdinan, F. Xi. K.; Fawaz, Z.

    2008-04-01

    A micro heat exchanger (MHE) can effectively control the temperature of surfaces in high heat flux applications. In this study, several turbulence models are analyzed using a 3D finite element model of a MHE. The MHE consists of a narrow planar flow passage between flat parallel plates with small cylindrical pin fins spanning these walls. The pin fin array geometry investigated is staggered, with pin diameters of 0.5, 5.1 and 8.5 mm, height to diameter ratio of 1.0 and streamwise (longitudinal) and spanwise (transverse) to diameter ratios of 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Pressure loss and heat transfer simulated results for 4,000 ≤ Re ≤ 50,000 are reported and compared with previously published numerical and experimental results. It was found that the flat micro pin fin overall thermal performance always exceeds that of the parallel plate counterpart (smooth channel) by a factor of as much as 2.2 for the 8.5 mm diameter pins, and by 4 for the 0.5 mm diameter pins in the investigated Reynolds number range. Further, among the six turbulence models investigated, the RNG model tends to be the best model to predict both the Nusselt number and the friction factor and capture the main feature of the flow field in MHE.

  3. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-06-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  4. Comparative stress effects of vented and nonvented self-threading retentive pins.

    PubMed

    Savoca, D E; Schmidt, J R

    1984-08-01

    Longitudinally vented self-threading pins do not demonstrate a significant improvement in the complete seating of the pins or a decrease of dentinal crazing. The link series technique does demonstrate a significant improvement in the complete seating of pins and in the prevention of misalignment of the pins with the channels. PMID:6590837

  5. Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N {right arrow} {pi pi}N reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; Univ. of Barcelona; Shizuoka Univ.; Osaka Univ.

    2009-02-24

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N {yields} {pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{Delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi} + p {yields} {pi} + {pi} + n, {pi} + {pi}0p and {pi} - p {yields} {pi} + {pi} - n, {pi} - {pi}0p,{pi}0{pi}0n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W = 2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{Delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.

  6. Spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials: Asymmetric pinning and dipolar biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Novak, R. L.; Rohart, S.; Jamet, J.-P.; Weil, R.; Ferré, J.; Mougin, A.; Stamps, R. L.; Gaudin, G.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.

    2013-02-01

    Domain wall propagation has been measured in continuous, weakly disordered, quasi-two-dimensional, Ising-like magnetic layers that are subject to spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials. The potentials are generated non-destructively using the stray magnetic field of ordered arrays of magnetically hard [Co/Pt]m nanoplatelets, which are patterned above and are physically separated from the continuous magnetic layer. The effect of the periodic pinning potentials on thermally activated domain wall creep dynamics is shown to be equivalent, at first approximation, to that of a uniform, effective retardation field, Hret, which acts against the applied field, H. We show that Hret depends not only on the array geometry but also on the relative orientation of H and the magnetization of the nanoplatelets. A result of the latter dependence is that wall-mediated hysteresis loops obtained for a set nanoplatelet magnetization exhibit many properties that are normally associated with ferromagnet/antiferromagnet exchange bias systems. These include a switchable bias, coercivity enhancement, and domain wall roughness that is dependent on the applied field polarity.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  8. Discovery of novel selenium derivatives as Pin1 inhibitors by high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Amit; Shimizu, Takeshi; Ryo, Akihide; Sanada, Emiko; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerization by Pin1 regulates various oncogenic signals during cancer progression, and its inhibition through multiple approaches has established Pin1 as a therapeutic target. However, lack of simplified screening systems has limited the discovery of potent Pin1 inhibitors. We utilized phosphorylation-dependent binding of Pin1 to its specific substrate to develop a screening system for Pin1 inhibitors. Using this system, we screened a chemical library, and identified a novel selenium derivative as Pin1 inhibitor. Based on structure-activity guided chemical synthesis, we developed more potent Pin1 inhibitors that inhibited cancer cell proliferation. PMID:27120460

  9. 28. TYPICAL PORTION OF OGEE SPILLWAY OF THE RECONSTRUCTED DIVERSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TYPICAL PORTION OF OGEE SPILLWAY OF THE RECONSTRUCTED DIVERSION DAM Photographer: unknown, January 29, 1937 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  10. Flux Pinning and AC Loss in Second Generation High Temperature Superconductor Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Selvamanickam, V.

    2007-01-01

    Major advances have been made in the last 18 years in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) reserach and development, resulting in increased use of HTS materials in commerical and pre-commercial electric-power applications. This new and important book addresses the issues related to flux pinning, AC losses and thick YBCO film growth. Written by top most scientists in the world, it presents the current status and issues related to YBCO coated conductors and the need for further fundamental materials science work in YBCO coated conductor. It will be a useful handbook for years to come.

  11. Flux Pinning in Superconducting Niobium-Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, James Charles

    1990-01-01

    By studying Nb-Ti alloys from Nb44wt%Ti to Nb62wt%Ti the low field (2T) current density has been raised from 6500A/mm^2 (4.2^ circK) with standard Nb46.5wt%Ti to 7400A/mm ^2 with Nb58wt%Ti. When standard processing sequences were used, the alloys containing more than 46.5wt%Ti exhibited non-uniform microstructures following a precipitation heat treatment and the hardness rose from 200 DPN to over 300 DPN. By increasing the cold work prior to heat treatment the non-uniform precipitation was avoided. The amount of cold work needed prior to heat treatment to suppress non-uniform precipitation increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. The volume fraction of precipitate produced during a given heat treatment also increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. As the Ti content increased, the peak in the reduced pinning force curve shifted from b = 0.5 to b = 0.25. In order to determine whether the change in the flux pinning properties was due to the change in microstructure or due to enhanced Delta H_{c} pinning as the Ti content was increased, a set of wires with similar microstructures was developed. Their flux pinning behavior showed that the higher Ti alloys have pinning force curves which peak at progressively lower reduced fields. Thus Delta H_{c} pinning becomes the dominant pinning mechanism as the Ti content is increased.

  12. Thermal impact of an eccentric annular flow around a mixed-oxide pin - An in-pile observation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.; Strain, R.V.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Feldman, E.E. ); Nomura, S. )

    1989-11-01

    In a typical subassembly of a liquid-metal reactor, slightly unsymmetric coolant flow and temperature distribution around fuel pins is common and inevitable. The geometric location away from the subassembly center and the irradiation-induced rod bowing are among the primary reasons for such occurrences. Studies of the hydrodynamics of the skewed coolant distribution and the associated fuel pin heat transfer are extensive in both computer modeling and laboratory experimental work. In-pile verification of the phenomenon, however, has been rare. High temperature in fuel pins and the perturbation from temperature-monitoring devices discourage such an endeavor. Recent evidence of the sensitive response of the fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP) to its decomposition temperature, however, might make in-pile verification possible. The clearly demarcated interface of the FSRP would serve as an excellent thermal monitor that reveals the temperature contour within the fuel. This finding from the postirradiation examination (PIE) of mixed-oxide (MOX) pins, is one of the spin-offs of the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) program jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The FSRP fuel interface is thus a good benchmark for verifying fuel and coolant temperature distributions. The RBCB experiment and the associated analysis are discussed and conclusions are presented.

  13. Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.

  14. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  15. Pin-loaded holes in large orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalgiri, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Pin-loaded holes commonly occur in engineering structures. However, accurate analysis of such holes presents formidable difficulties because of the load-dependent contact of the pin with the plate. Significant progress has recently been achieved in the analysis of holes in isotropic plates. This paper develops a simple and accurate method for the partial contact analysis of pin-loaded holes in composites. The method is based on an inverse formulation that seeks to determine loads in a given contact-separation configuration. A unified approach for all types of fit was used. Continuum solutions were obtained for infinitely large plates of various typical orthotropic properties with holes loaded by smooth rigid pins. These solutions were then compared with those for isotropic plates. The effects of orthotropy and the type of fit were studied through load-contact relationships, distribution of stresses and displacements, and their variation with load. The results are of direct relevance to the analysis and design of pin joints in composite plates.

  16. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Ž L; Milošević, M V; Van de Vondel, J; Silhanek, A V

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  17. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  18. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  19. Flux Pinning and Connectivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Susner, M.; Bhatia, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2008-03-01

    The transport and pinning properties of in-situ MgB2 bulks and strands are discussed. The influence of SiC, excess Mg, B4C, TiC, and their combination on Birr and Bc2 as distinct from connectivity and flux pinning is the focus of the work. SiC dopants increase Bc2 and Birr predominantly, with little influence on connectivity or flux pinning. Excess Mg improves the transport current, changes the grain microstructure, and also leads local maxima in Bc2 and Birr at excess Mg levels of 15% mol fraction. Fp curves are consistent with grain boundary pinning for the binary materials over the whole temperature range. This is also true for SiC and TiC doped materials at lower fields and temperatures, while higher temperatures show a deviation from surface pinning. These higher temperature deviations are consistent with the size and distribution of these nanoparticulate additions. Normal state resistivity measurements and models are used to extract residual resistivity values, percent connectivity, and Debye temperatures. Debye temperatures are seen to be depressed by SiC doping, an effect which is confirmed by heat capacity measurements. Residual resistivity values are seen to correlate with Bc2 and Birr enhancements, consistent with B site substitution with C as evidenced by XRD extracted lattice parameter shifts.

  20. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities.

  1. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    PubMed Central

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  2. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of circular and oblong low aspect ratio pin fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, S. C.; Messeh, W. A.

    1985-09-01

    The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of circular and oblong pin fins of height-to-diameter ratio of unity used to augment internal cooling of gas turbine airfoils are presented. Data were obtained for an array of 10 rows of staggered pin fins in a 25:1 aspect ratio channel, with both pins and channel endwalls forming the heat transfer surface. Results show that the array average friction factor increases with increasing blockage caused by different arrangement of pin fin geometries in the channel. The local heat transfer coefficient increases up to the 3rd row of pin fins and decreases thereafter. Oblong pin fins with gamma=90 deg (major axis parallel to the direction of flow) result in higher heat transfer rates and lower friction factor than the circular pin fins. For other orientations, oblong pin fins do not offer any advantage over circular pin fins for Re or = 20,000 (typical of small gas turbine engines).

  3. Critical current density and flux pinning in an unconventional superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Kaul, S. N.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.

    2009-12-01

    The functional dependence of the critical current density on magnetic field, J(H), observed at fixed temperatures in the unconventional type-II superconductor, LaAgMn ( c=0.1,0.2,0.3) alloys, but not the relative magnitude of J in different alloy compositions at any given temperature and field, is adequately described by the exponential-decay critical state model. In accordance with the predictions of the Kramer's flux-pinning model, the peak value of the pinning force density FPmax∝( with the exponent 1.7⩽m⩽2.8 and F/FPmax scales with h=H/Hc_2, where Hc_2 is the upper critical field. Irrespective of sample composition and temperature in the superconducting state, the pinning of the flux line lattice (FLL) dominates over the plastic FLL shear.

  4. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  5. Analysis of a finite composite plate with smooth rigid pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, A. C. B.; Dattaguru, B.; Ramamurthy, T. S.; Mangalgiri, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    An elastic continuum method of analysis developed for a smooth rigid pin in a finite composite plate by using complex potentials that satisfy the governing orthotropic differential equation is presented. The plate is subjected to uniaxial loading and the nonlinear problems of partial contact in the pin-plate are studied. Three types of pin fits are examined: interference, push, and clearance. The problems of stresses due to pure interference, load contact behavior, and stresses variations are addressed. The effects of the rectangular geometry and the orthotropic property of the plate are demonstrated through numerical results. It is found that the use of large hole diameter/plate width ratios have deleterious effects and the use of interference has beneficial effects. The solutions obtained will help in the development of special finite elements for fastener joints. Finally, the boundary conditions on the finite outer boundaries are found to be satisfied by a successive integration technique.

  6. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  7. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  8. The enhancement of vortex pinning in ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Abal'Oshev, A.; Abal'Osheva, I.; Berkowski, M.; Cheng, X. M.; Sang, Hai; Chien, C. L.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic-domain induced vortex pinning is studied in the ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers (FSB's), in which the F layers are Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the S layers are either niobium or high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO). The magnetization measurements reveal the enhancement of the flux pinning in both types of FSB's during the reversal of the magnetization of the F layer, but the details of the behavior depend on the type of the S layer. In the case of niobium FSB the maximum of pinning appears when the F layer is in the final stage of the magnetic reversal process, while the FSB with YBCOshows the maximumwhen the F layer is saturated. The possible origins of these differences are discussed.

  9. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications. PMID:26274112

  10. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  11. Effect of the Starting Point of Half-Pin Insertion on the Insertional Torque of the Pin at the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The authors have observed a failure to achieve secure fixation in elderly patients when inserting a half-pin at the anteromedial surface of the tibia. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for inserting a half-pin at tibia diaphysis in elderly patients. Materials and Methods Twenty cadaveric tibias were divided into Group C or V. A half-pin was inserted into the tibias of Group C via the conventional method, from the anteromedial surface to the interosseous border of the tibia diaphysis, and into the tibias of Group V via the vertical method, from the anterior border to the posterior surface at the same level. The maximum insertion torque was measured during the bicortical insertion with a torque driver. The thickness of the cortex was measured by micro-computed tomography. The relationship between the thickness of the cortex engaged and the insertion torque was investigated. Results The maximum insertion torque and the thickness of the cortex were significantly higher in Group V than Group C. Both groups exhibited a statistically significant linear correlation between torque and thickness by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Conclusion Half-pins inserted by the vertical method achieved purchase of more cortex than those inserted by the conventional method. Considering that cortical thickness and insertion torque in Group V were significantly greater than those in Group C, we suggest that the vertical method of half-pin insertion may be an alternative to the conventional method in elderly patients. PMID:25510759

  12. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius R_{NP}≅3nm while droplets have initial R_{0}≅42nm. At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θ_{adv}, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θ_{adv}, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded. PMID:27575186

  13. Reconstructing Masculinity and Power in Africa through Open Distance Learning for Sustainable Development: A Critical Analysis of Wole Soyinka's "Climate of Fear"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Barihi; Adesida, Aderonke Adetunji

    2009-01-01

    The strabismus conception of masculinity and power with its manipulation as reflected in the consequences of actions endorsed and demonstrated by leaders, followers, citizens as individuals and groups at different times in the past, and present has been a major source of the seemingly quiescence and underdevelopment in Africa. Masculinity has…

  14. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  15. Fuel pin failure in the PFR/TREAT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, R.; Hunter, C.W.; Kramer, J.M.; Wood, M.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PFR/TREAT safety testing programme involves the transient testing of fresh and pre-irradiated UK and US fuel pins. This paper summarizes the experimental and calculational results obtained to date on fuel pin failure during transient overpower (resulting from an accidental addition of resolivity) and transient undercooling followed by overpower (arising from an accidental stoppage of the primary sodium circulating pumps) accidents. Companion papers at this conference address: (I) the progress and future plans of the programme, and (II) post-failure material movements.

  16. Performance of breached LMFBR fuel pins during continued operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Gross, K.C.; Hofman, G.L.; Colburn, R.P.; Adamson, M.G.; Ukai, S.

    1985-01-01

    Four EBR-II tests were used to scope the behavior of breached mixed-oxide pins. After release of stored fission gas, delayed-neutron signals were large and easily detected, although not readily correlated with exposed fuel area. No problems were met during reactor operation or fuel handling. Fuel-sodium reaction caused only narrow breaches which released minute amounts of fuel and fission products; the reaction product appeared dense and non-friable. These initial results indicated LMFBR oxide pins could have considerable potential for operating in the breached mode.

  17. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    DOEpatents

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  19. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  20. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. PMID:24930438

  1. System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A control is provided for a friction stir welding apparatus comprising a pin tool which includes a shoulder and a rotating pin extending outwardly from the shoulder of the pin tool and which, in use, is plunged into a workpiece formed contacting workpiece members to stir weld the members together. The control system controls the penetration of the pin tool into the workpiece members which are mounted on a support anvil. The control system includes a pin length controller for controlling pin length relative to the shoulder and for producing a corresponding pin length signal. A pin force sensor senses the force being exerted on the pin during welding and produces a corresponding actual pin force signal. A probe controller controls a probe extending outwardly from the pin, senses a parameter related to the distance between the probe and the supporting anvil and produces a corresponding probe signal. A workpiece standoff sensor senses the standoff distance between the workpiece and the standoff sensor and produces a corresponding standoff signal. A control unit receives the various signals, together with a weld schedule, and, based on these signals and the weld schedule, controls the pin length controller so as to control pin penetration into the workpiece.

  2. Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki

    2012-07-27

    Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

  3. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  4. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  5. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth defects and deformities from conditions such as cleft lip or palate , craniosynostosis , Apert syndrome Deformities caused by ... Orbital-craniofacial surgery; Facial reconstruction Images Skull Skull Cleft lip repair - series Craniofacial reconstruction - series References Baker SR. ...

  6. BetterThanPin: Empowering Users to Fight Phishing (Poster)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Teik Guan

    The BetterThanPin concept is an online security service that allows users to enable almost any Cloud or Web-based account (e.g. Gmail, MSN, Yahoo, etc) to be protected with "almost" 2-factor authentication (2FA). The result is that users can now protect their online accounts with better authentication, without waiting for the service or cloud provider.

  7. Pinned orbital moments - A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Audehm, P; Schmidt, M; Brück, S; Tietze, T; Gräfe, J; Macke, S; Schütz, G; Goering, E

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  8. 35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin connection showing the top strut, along with lateral and diagonal members. There are four of these per through truss for a total of eight. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  9. The stress distribution in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klang, E. C.; Hyer, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of mechanically fastened composite joints was studied. Specially, a single-bolt connector was modeled as a pin-loaded, infinite plate. The model that was developed used two dimensional, complex variable, elasticity techniques combined with a boundary collocation procedure to produce solutions for the problem. Through iteration, the boundary conditions were satisfied and the stresses in the plate were calculated. Several graphite epoxy laminates were studied. In addition, parameters such as the pin modulus, coefficient of friction, and pin-plate clearance were varied. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate: (1) the material properties (i.e., laminate configuration) of the plate alter the stress state and, for highly orthotropic materials, the contact stress deviates greatly from the cosinusoidal distribution often assumed; (2) friction plays a major role in the distribution of stresses in the plate; (3) reversing the load direction also greatly effects the stress distribution in the plate; (4) clearance (or interference) fits change the contact angle and thus the location of the peak hoop stress; and (5) a rigid pin appears to be a good assumption for typical material systems.

  10. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  11. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  12. 38. Upper level, retractor cables for lock pin around pulley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Upper level, retractor cables for lock pin around pulley at center, umbilical cables at lower right, plywood cover for top of missile at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  13. Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin connection that serves to anchor eye-bar suspension cable after descending below roadway level inside of the compressed lower girder. The bridge is not anchored in the traditional sense. - Three Sisters Bridges, Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C.; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h . For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w /h ˜1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w /h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w /h ≫1 , these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  15. CCD AND PIN-CMOS DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA, V.

    2006-04-03

    Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.

  16. Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.

    1988-09-01

    We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 13. Closeup of typical pin connection detailing eyebars as tension ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Close-up of typical pin connection detailing eye-bars as tension members of built-up plates, angles and cross latticing. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  18. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  19. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%. PMID:24405906

  20. On pins and needles: how vaccines are portrayed on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine P D; Carlyle, Kellie; Messner, Marcus; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-22

    Vaccination is an effective public health tool for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in the growing voice of the anti-vaccination movement as a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet plays in providing vaccination-related communication, coupled with limited research in this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest, analyzing 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were oft-repeated themes, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how publics communicate about the topic at hand. PMID:26319742

  1. 9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from Minnesota end of the bridge, looking at the bridge's southwest side - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  2. Pin-in-paste DFM constraints in vapor phase soldering technology for optoelectronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotog, I.; Varzaru, G.; Turcu, C.; Cucu, T. C.; Svasta, P.; Vasile, A.

    2009-01-01

    The topical trends in the field of electronic equipments developing are a large integration on pcb support for different types of components and devices, including optoelectronic type, from small to medium power, in condition of reducing physical dimensions, in order to create new electronic products in short time at lower manufacturing cost. The condition for economical success for a product is to assure the product, even from the conception stage, with a high level of quality by reducing the product cost; to conclude, designing according with production possibilities by using Design For Manufacturing (DFM) concept. This desideratum depends on the conception and design of the product. According to DFM concept, a successful project assures design requirements for the system and finally for printed circuit boards (PCB), accomplishes the assembling technology constraints defined by international standards in the field of electronic packaging, such as IPC or Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Active from July 1, 2006, the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC adopted in February 2003 by the European Union, and adopted in Romania by HG - 992/2005, completed by HG - 816/2006, call forth important consequences in assembling technologies. In order to minimize manufacturing cost, Pin-In-Paste offers solutions for complete assembling of high complexity PCBs in Vapor Phase Technology using only one reflow machine avoiding overheating of the assemblies relatively to infrared reflow oven. Starting from RoHS consequences analysis, especially thermal profile, the paper presents the applied research performed in the assembling lines on VPS machine in order to define the design requirements for Pin-In-Paste dedicated stencils and PCBs, experiments result and conclusions regarding DFM requirements for lead-free assembling technologies of optoelectronic components. Finally, scientific and practical conclusions shall be drawn to configure the optimum implementation way for Pin

  3. Capillary pinning and blunting of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Juanes, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    Gravity-driven flows in the subsurface have attracted recent interest in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. After injection, the CO2 will spread and migrate as a buoyant gravity current relative to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 spreading and migration is poorly understood. We previously studied the early time evolution of an immiscible gravity current, showing that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the macroscopic fluid-fluid interface and that this can eventually stop the flow. Here we study the full lifetime of such a gravity current. Using tabletop experiments in packings of glass beads, we show that the horizontal extent of the pinned region grows with time and that this is ultimately responsible for limiting the migration of the current to a finite distance. We also find that capillarity blunts the leading edge of the current, which contributes to further limiting the migration distance. Using experiments in etched micromodels, we show that the thickness of the blunted nose is controlled by the distribution of pore-throat sizes and the strength of capillarity relative to buoyancy. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. By applying this model to representative aquifers, we show that capillary pinning and blunting can exert an important control on gravity currents in the context of geological CO2 storage.

  4. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  5. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed. PMID:21126882

  6. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  7. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/IBAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/I-BAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED PLATE AT PIN CONNECTION IS 20TH CENTURY REVISION. - Bucks County Bridge No. 313, Spanning Delaware Canal at Letchworth Avenue, Yardley, Bucks County, PA

  8. Tooth crazing associated with threaded pins: a three-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Webb, E L; Straka, W F; Phillips, C L

    1989-05-01

    A model for observing the three-dimensional pattern of cracking associated with placement of self-threading retentive pins was developed. Four sizes of self-threading pins were placed in extracted posterior tooth samples. The pins were subsequently removed and the samples coated with butyl acetate lacquer except for the pin channel orifice. Samples were immersed in dye solution followed by a demineralization and dehydration process. Samples were placed in methyl salicylate until cleared. Cleared samples were examined for dye penetration into the pin channel and communication with the pulp chamber. Comparisons were made of the patterns created by the four sizes of retentive pins. Results showed that more extensive cracks occurred with the larger size pins and that crack communication with the pulp chamber occurred more frequently with the larger pins. PMID:2664149

  9. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  10. Pinning distributed synchronization of stochastic dynamical networks: a mixed optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen Kurthsrgen

    2014-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of pinning synchronization of nonlinear dynamical networks with multiple stochastic disturbances. Two kinds of pinning schemes are considered: 1) pinned nodes are fixed along the time evolution and 2) pinned nodes are switched from time to time according to a set of Bernoulli stochastic variables. Using Lyapunov function methods and stochastic analysis techniques, several easily verifiable criteria are derived for the problem of pinning distributed synchronization. For the case of fixed pinned nodes, a novel mixed optimization method is developed to select the pinned nodes and find feasible solutions, which is composed of a traditional convex optimization method and a constraint optimization evolutionary algorithm. For the case of switching pinning scheme, upper bounds of the convergence rate and the mean control gain are obtained theoretically. Simulation examples are provided to show the advantages of our proposed optimization method over previous ones and verify the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25291734

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction by zooming

    SciTech Connect

    Lavest, J.M.; Rives, G.; Dhome, M. . Electronics Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    Using a zoom lens in monocular vision seems to be an interesting idea. The principal aim of this paper is to prove that it is possible to infer 3-D information from a set of images taken with a zoom lens. In the first part of the paper, a precise study of the optical properties of such a lens gives two major results: The intersection between the optical axis and the image plane can be independently and accurately determined, and the pin-hole model cannot be used directly for the approximation of such a complex lens system. To explain the optical phenomena occurring during a zoom-lens focal-length change, it is shown that a thick optical model must be considered. Finally, experimental results of reconstruction, from a set of real images, are given.

  12. Wavefront reconstruction from tangential and sagittal curvature.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Barbero, Sergio; Portilla, Javier; López-Alonso, José Manuel

    2014-12-10

    In a previous contribution [Appl. Opt.51, 8599 (2012)], a coauthor of this work presented a method for reconstructing the wavefront aberration from tangential refractive power data measured using dynamic skiascopy. Here we propose a new regularized least squares method where the wavefront is reconstructed not only using tangential but also sagittal curvature data. We prove that our new method provides improved quality reconstruction for typical and also for highly aberrated wavefronts, under a wide range of experimental error levels. Our method may be applied to any type of wavefront sensor (not only dynamic skiascopy) able to measure either just tangential or tangential plus sagittal curvature data. PMID:25608069

  13. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kent, Ian A; Rane, Parag S; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  14. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  15. Optical dispersion compensation in 300-pin MSA transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlovic, David; Shabtay, Gal

    2005-02-01

    The 300-pin Multi Source Agreement (MSA) and other MSAs provide basic requirements from a transponder or transceiver used in 10Gb/s optical networks. These MSAs typically address a wide range of applications, including: SONET/SDH, 10GbE and 10GFC for Metro, long-haul (LH) and ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks. Nonetheless, being a basic standard, the 300-pin MSA addresses the minimal required specifications set and does not cover the whole set of requirements and applications that system vendors are interested in. For example, widely tunable and extended reach transponders are not included in the 300-pin MSA. Chromatic dispersion is one of the major reach limiting factors in optical networks. In reconfigurable optical networks, chunks of DWDM channels may travel through different routes and therefore require tunable dispersion compensation. In static ULH optical networks, the number of dispersion compensation fibers (DCFs) dictates the amount of residual chromatic dispersion. This residual chromatic dispersion differs from one DWDM channel to the other. Unless it is compensated at the receiver, it further restricts the link length and reduces the distance between one regenerator to the other. This results in shorter links and more O-E-O blocks, which dramatically increases the cost of the network. This paper discusses a specially designed optical dispersion compensation (ODC) device that is packaged in a standard butterfly package and can fit into a 300-pin MSA transponder. A transponder with the proposed ODC can still satisfy all the basic requirements that are described in the 300-pin MSA while providing improved chromatic dispersion tolerance.

  16. Radiation hardness characteristics of Si-PIN radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Manhee; Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho

    2015-06-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors with low leakage current, high resistivity (>11 kΩ cm) and low capacitance for high-energy physics and X-ray spectroscopy. Floating-zone (FZ) 6-in. diameter N-type silicon wafers, with <1 1 1> crystal orientation and 675 μm thick, were used in the detector fabrication. The active areas are 3 mm×3 mm, 5 mm×5 mm and 10 mm×10 mm. We used a double deep-diffused structure at the edge of the active area for protection from the surface leakage path. We also compared the electrical performance of the Si-PIN detector with anti-reflective coating (ARC). For a detector with an active area of 3 mm×3 mm, the leakage current is about 1.9 nA and 7.4 nA at a 100 V reverse bias voltage, and 4.6 pF and 4.4 pF capacitance for the detector with and without an ARC, respectively. In addition, to compare the energy resolution in terms of radiation hardness, we measured the energy spectra with 57Co and 133Ba before the irradiation. Using developed preamplifiers (KAERI-PA1) that have ultra-low noise and high sensitivity, and a 3 mm×3 mm Si-PIN radiation detector, we obtained energy resolutions with 122 keV of 57Co and 81 keV of 133Ba of 0.221 keV and 0.261 keV, respectively. After 10, 100, 103, 104 and 105 Gy irradiation, we tested the characteristics of the radiation hardness on the Si-PIN radiation detectors in terms of electrical and energy spectra performance changes. The fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors are working well under high dose irradiation conditions.

  17. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    PubMed

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%. PMID:2598876

  18. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA(-)). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1-MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  19. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA−). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1–MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  20. Autologous Microvascular Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Autologous microvascular breast reconstruction is widely accepted as a key component of breast cancer treatment. There are two basic donor sites; the anterior abdominal wall and the thigh/buttock region. Each of these regions provides for a number of flaps that are successfully utilised in breast reconstruction. Refinement of surgical technique and the drive towards minimising donor site morbidity whilst maximising flap vascularity in breast reconstruction has seen an evolution towards perforator based flap reconstructions, however myocutaneous flaps are still commonly practiced. We review herein the current methods of autologous microvascular breast reconstruction. PMID:23362474

  1. Temperature-variable high-frequency dynamic modeling of PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangbin, Ye; Jiajia, Zhang; Yicheng, Zhang; Yongtao, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The PIN diode model for high frequency dynamic transient characteristic simulation is important in conducted EMI analysis. The model should take junction temperature into consideration since equipment usually works at a wide range of temperature. In this paper, a temperature-variable high frequency dynamic model for the PIN diode is built, which is based on the Laplace-transform analytical model at constant temperature. The relationship between model parameters and temperature is expressed as temperature functions by analyzing the physical principle of these parameters. A fast recovery power diode MUR1560 is chosen as the test sample and its dynamic performance is tested under inductive load by a temperature chamber experiment, which is used for model parameter extraction and model verification. Results show that the model proposed in this paper is accurate for reverse recovery simulation with relatively small errors at the temperature range from 25 to 120 °C. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA11A265).

  2. Weak Fermi Level Pinning Effect in Schottky Junction of α-MoTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaharai, Shu; Yamamoto, Mahito; Ueno, Keiji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    Difficulty in hole injection from metal contacts to transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductors has been one of the most serious issues in the application of these 2D materials to future nanoelectronics, which is caused by the strong Fermi level pinning effect in the metal/TMDC Schottky junction. In this work, we found that the holes can be injected efficiently from a large work function metal of Pt to α-molybdenum ditelluride (α-MoTe2; 2H-type), a TMDC semiconductor. The Schottky barrier height for holes at the Pt/ α-MoTe2 interface was extracted to be 40 meV by the temperature dependence of back-gate modulated currents under the flat band condition at the junction, while the Schottky barrier for electrons in the junction with a small work function metal of Ti was found to be 50 meV. Considering the difference in the work functions of Pt and Ti, the Fermi level pinning effect in α-MoTe2 was found to be much weaker than that in other TMDC semiconductors such as MoS2. These results open a way to the realization of complementary type circuits in the 2D materials for future low-power consumption electronics. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 15K06006, 25107004.

  3. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs.

  4. Pin-hole array production and detailed data analysis for advanced single-shot X-ray imaging of laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, T.; Labate, L.; Pathak, N. C.; Cecchetti, C.; Koester, P.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Delogu, P.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2010-11-01

    Laser produced plasmas offer the unique opportunity to investigate physical mechanisms working at extremely high field in pulsed regime [1] (Gizzi et al., 2009). Future large scale infrastructure like HiPER and ELI may open new frontiers of knowledge in this way. Technologies needed for improving diagnostic in this field have a strong impact on a wide range of multi-disciplinary applications as for compact plasma-based accelerators [1,2] (Gizzi et al., 2009; Betti et al., 2009) laser fusion oriented experiments, three-dimensional microscopy and lithography. As an example the X-ray imaging, being a powerful diagnostic tool for deep investigation on different variety of laser produced plasma, has obtained a grooving effort in recent years. Large scale facilities working in single-pulse regime for laser fusion oriented experiments have evidenced the necessity to obtain spectrally resolved X-ray images of produced plasmas in a single shot. By combining the charge coupled devices (CCD) based single-photon detection technique with a pin-hole array (PHA) a new diagnostic technique was developed, as shown in recent experiments related to the European HiPER project [3] (Labate et al., 2009). Here we qualitatively describe the PHA production process on a heavy metal substrate by means of SEM images that show an internal diameter on the micrometer scale and an aspect ratio of about 20. The characterization of the X-ray contrast up to 90 keV is presented. The data analysis of the X-ray photons interaction on CCD, for spectrum reconstruction up to high energy, is described [4] (Levato et al., 2008).

  5. Photovoltaic response of a polymer p-i-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanguang; Hu, Yufeng; Gao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    We report the photovoltaic characterization of a polymer p-i-n junction, realized by in situ electrochemical doping and thermal cycling. The planar, "frozen" p-i-n junction exhibits record-high open-circuit voltage up to 2.25V, and in-plane short-circuit current density in excess of 10mA /cm2 under simulated sunlight (˜300mW/cm2). Our results suggest that built-in potential close to the polymer energy gap in magnitude can be obtained in a polymer device structure without the use of dissimilar electrodes, and large short-circuit current density is possible without the use of strong electron acceptors, which limits the open-circuit voltage.

  6. [Results following percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation in distal radius fractures].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, R; Hüttl, T; Krüger-Franke, M; Rosemeyer, B

    1994-01-01

    42 distal radius fractures have been submitted to further examination after percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation. The outcome were 95.3% of very good to good anatomic results and 90.5% of satisfying functional results. This showed the close link between the radiological-anatomical and functional results. The success of the treatment was very acceptable, although the Morbus Sudeck as the major complication--with 7.2%--was still relatively frequently observed. It could be seen that particularly fractures at the risk of dislocation with smash zone constituted an indication for the percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation, that is to say all fractures for which a retention is primarily difficult. It constitutes a supplement, as well as an extension to the therapy of the distal radius fractures. PMID:7516105

  7. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki Dizaji, H.; Kakavand, T.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter-degrader-pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an 241Am-Be neutron source.

  8. Asymmetric weak-pinning superconducting channels: Vortex ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K.; Heitmann, T. W.; Song, C.; Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Kes, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The controlled motion of objects through narrow channels is important in many fields. We have fabricated asymmetric weak-pinning channels in a superconducting thin-film strip for controlling the dynamics of vortices. The lack of pinning allows the vortices to move through the channels with the dominant interaction determined by the shape of the channel walls. We present measurements of vortex dynamics in the channels and compare these with similar measurements on a set of uniform-width channels. While the uniform-width channels exhibit a symmetric response for both directions through the channel, the vortex motion through the asymmetric channels is quite different, with substantial asymmetries in both the static depinning and dynamic flux flow. This vortex ratchet effect has a rich dependence on magnetic field and driving force amplitude.

  9. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  10. Direct visualization of magnetic vortex pinning in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, Mariela; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.; Sautner, J.; Metlushko, V.; de Keyser, K.; Fritzsche, J.; Verellen, N.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2009-04-01

    We study the vortex structure in a Pb film deposited on top of a periodic array of ferromagnetic square microrings by combining two high-resolution imaging techniques: Bitter decoration and scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The periodicity and strength of the magnetic pinning potential generated by the square microrings are controlled by the magnetic history of the template. When the square rings are in the magnetized dipolar state, known as the onion state, the strong stray field generated at the domain walls prevents the decoration of vortices. SHPM images show that the stray field generated by the dipoles is much stronger than the vortex field, in agreement with the results of simulations. Real-space vortex imaging has revealed that in the onion state, the corners of the square rings act as effective pinning centers for vortices.

  11. Adaptive synchronization and pinning control of colored networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Xu, Xin-Jian; Chen, Guanrong; Fu, Xinchu

    2012-12-01

    A colored network model, corresponding to a colored graph in mathematics, is used for describing the complexity of some inter-connected physical systems. A colored network is consisted of colored nodes and edges. Colored nodes may have identical or nonidentical local dynamics. Colored edges between any pair of nodes denote not only the outer coupling topology but also the inner interactions. In this paper, first, synchronization of edge-colored networks is studied from adaptive control and pinning control approaches. Then, synchronization of general colored networks is considered. To achieve synchronization of a colored network to an arbitrarily given orbit, open-loop control, pinning control and adaptive coupling strength methods are proposed and tested, with some synchronization criteria derived. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate theoretical results.

  12. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  13. Lightning Pin Injection Test: MOSFETS in "ON" State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The test objective was to evaluate MOSFETs for induced fault modes caused by pin-injecting a standard lightning waveform into them while operating. Lightning Pin-Injection testing was performed at NASA LaRC. Subsequent fault-mode and aging studies were performed by NASA ARC researchers using the Aging and Characterization Platform for semiconductor components. This report documents the test process and results, to provide a basis for subsequent lightning tests. The ultimate IVHM goal is to apply prognostic and health management algorithms using the features extracted during aging to allow calculation of expected remaining useful life. A survey of damage assessment techniques based upon inspection is provided, and includes data for optical microscope and X-ray inspection. Preliminary damage assessments based upon electrical parameters are also provided.

  14. Collective action of nanopatterned pins: barrier towards creating interstitial vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gorky; Mohan, Shyam; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Banerjee, Satyajit

    2009-03-01

    We show that by nano-patterning a superconductor (NbSe2 singlecrystal) with an array of blind holes produces significant magnetic field sweep rate dependent metastable magnetization response[1]. Our results are explained on the basis of a unique collective action of the blind holes pins which creates a barrier against vortex redistribution inside the sample. We propose that this barrier leads to a phase separation creating distinct population of vortices viz., those pinned on blind holes and those confined in the interstitials between the holes [1]. We find that due to the barrier, there is a significant enhancement in the stability of vortices against thermal fluctuations. [1] Gorky Shaw, Shyam Mohan, Jaivardhan Sinha and S. S. Banerjee* (submitted; xxx.lanl.gov/abs/0811.1256) *satyajit@iitk.ac.in

  15. A pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei Min; Chen, Xiao Ya; Xu, Zhi Hong; Xue, Hong Wei

    2002-09-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues from Brassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3 encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities with each other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2 and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 was expressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls. Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' technique using primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven by Bjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein, epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with different expression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family. PMID:12296384

  16. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  17. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.; Bodine, L. I.; Myers, A. W.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Howe, M. A.; Leber, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium β-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-μm-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  18. Two-dimensional computational modeling of sodium boiling in simulated LMFBR fuel-pin bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Extensive sodium boiling tests have been carried out in two simulated LMFBR fuel pin bundles in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Experimental results from a 19-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 6A) have been previously reported, and experimental results from a 61-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 9) will be reported soon. The results discussed here are from the 19-pin bundle. Preliminary analysis has shown that the computational methods used and conclusions reached are equally valid for the 61-pin bundle, as well as the 19-pin in-reactor Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-1 experiment. The main result of THORS sodium boiling experimentation is that boiling behavior is determined by two-dimensional effects, i.e., the rates of mass, momentum and energy transfer in the direction perpendicular to the axes of the fuel pins.

  19. Local endwall heat/mass-transfer distributions in pin fin channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. C.; Kim, Y. S.; Han, J. C.

    1987-10-01

    Naphthalene sublimination experiments were conducted to study the effects of the pin configuration, the pin length-to-diameter ratio, and the entrance length on local endwall heat/mass transfer in a channel with short pin fins (pin length-to-diameter ratios of 0.5 and 1.0). The detailed distributions of the local endwall heat/mass-transfer coefficient were obtained for staggered and aligned arrays of pin fins, for the spanwise pin spacing-to-diameter ratio of 2.5, and for streamwise pin spacing-to-diameter ratios of 1.25 and 2.5. The Reynolds numbers were kept at about 33,000. Overall- and row-averaged Nusselt numbers compared very well with those from previous heat-transfer studies.

  20. Special pinning phenomena in arrays of defects with gradient spatial distributions on niobium film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tian-Chiuan; Horng, Lance Wu, Jong-Ching

    2015-05-07

    Flux pinning effect is related to the strong influence by the presence of defects that act as pinning centers. We present transport experiments that investigate the pinning properties in a spacing-graded array of pinning sites. We have found the asymmetric pinning by arrays of defects with modulated gradient spatial distributions on niobium film. One can clearly see the asymmetric pinning effect for the vortex motion. The dc voltage depends on the amplitude of the ac current and that there is a sharp maximum at matching fields. This curve, however, has an interesting sign reversal phenomenon below the first matching field, which will be investigated more in the future. The dc voltage as a function of dc and ac applied current gives evidence that the artificial arrays of gradient pinning site density induce ratchet effect. This effect can be used to control the vortex motion, which will be important for the application of vortex based on electronic devices.

  1. In vitro evaluation of dynamic fluid displacement in dentinal tubules activated on pin placement.

    PubMed

    Hummert, T; Kaiser, D

    1992-08-01

    The use of cemented, friction-lock, and self-threading pins for improving retention has been essential for treatment in restorative dentistry, with the self-threading pin considered to be the most retentive. Cavity varnish has been suggested to prevent microleakage around pins. This study investigated the insertion of a self-threading pin when the pinhole was filled with a liquid dye. The results showed that pinholes filled with dye before pin placement had measurable dye displacement. Pinholes without pins displayed no measurable dye displacement through the dentin; this was also true when the dye fluid was removed before the pin placement. However, the dye in pinholes was displaced toward the path of least resistance, and fluid in a pinhole can contribute to crazing of the dentin during placement. PMID:1501168

  2. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  3. FFTF metal fuel pin sodium bond quality verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O.

    1988-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Series III driver fuel design consists of U-10Zr fuel slugs contained in a ferritic alloy cladding. A liquid metal, sodium bond between the fuel and cladding is required to prevent unacceptable temperatures during operation. Excessive voiding or porosity in the sodium thermal bond could result in localized fuel melting during irradiation. It is therefore imperative that bond quality be verified during fabrication of these metal fuel pins prior to irradiation. This document discusses this verification.

  4. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  5. Adler Synchronization of Spatial Laser Solitons Pinned by Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulau, P. V.; McIntyre, C.; Noblet, Y.; Radwell, N.; Firth, W. J.; Colet, P.; Ackemann, T.; Oppo, G.-L.

    2012-05-01

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators.

  6. Adler synchronization of spatial laser solitons pinned by defects.

    PubMed

    Paulau, P V; McIntyre, C; Noblet, Y; Radwell, N; Firth, W J; Colet, P; Ackemann, T; Oppo, G-L

    2012-05-25

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators. PMID:23003255

  7. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  8. [Damage assessment of a stainless steel lock pin].

    PubMed

    Kallfass, M; Kühnemann, S; Steeb, S

    1993-01-01

    Metallurgical investigation methods were used to determine the cause of failure in a broken and explanted lock pin. Material analysis revealed that the implant material consists of a stainless steel. The fractographic investigation indicated a fatigue fracture with its typical characteristics. Macroscopic damage of the outer surface of the implant caused the fatigue fracture in the bone fracture region. Once the lock pin had failed, further crack propagation of the fatigue fracture was largely dependent on stress intensity and/or overloading of the implant in the bone fracture region as well as on the number of stress cycles. The following items should be observed by the physician applying implant materials: 1. A material showing only very small surface scratches in the order of magnitude of thousands of millimeters should not be implanted at all, because even the smallest surface roughness may cause fractures of the material. 2. Implant materials from low-cost manufacturers should never be applied. Such materials often show construction faults (in the present case an unnecessary weld in the upper part of the lock pin) or the material itself is not well conditioned (in the present case an insufficient annealing treatment). PMID:8480441

  9. Thermochemical evaluation of PCI failures in LWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götzmann, Odo

    1982-06-01

    In searching for the reasons behind the PCI failures of LWR fuel pins two questions have obviously remained unanswered: (a) what is the iodine potential necessary to cause SCC of zircaloy, and (b) is this iodine potential available in a fuel pin. To answer these two questions, a consistent set of thermochemical data for the Zr-I system was created, the results of laboratory tests of iodine-induced SCC of zircaloy were evaluated, and, finally, equilibrium calculations for the fuel-fission-product system were performed to determine the temperature and oxygen potential required to produce an iodine potential high enough to cause SCC of zircaloy. The conclusion of this study is that SCC of zircaloy can be caused by an iodine potential equal to or greater than that needed to form ZrI with metallic zirconium. This iodine potential is available in an LWR fuel pin at oxygen potentials corresponding to stoichiometric fuel. The carrier of the potential, i.e. The attacking species, is CsI.

  10. Sequential vortex hopping in an array of artificial pinning centers

    SciTech Connect

    Keay, J. C.

    2010-02-24

    We use low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to study the hopping motion of vortices in an array of artificial pinning centers (APCs). The array consists of nanoscale holes etched in a niobium thin film by Ar-ion sputtering through an anodic aluminum-oxide template. Variable-temperature magnetometry shows a transition temperature of 7.1 K and an enhancement of the magnetization up to the third matching field at 5 K. Using MFM with attractive and repulsive tip-vortex interaction, we measure the vortex-pinning strength and investigate the motion of individual vortices in the APC array. The depinning force for individual vortices at low field ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 pN. The motion of individual vortices was found to be reproducible and consistent with movement between adjacent holes in the film. The movements are repeatable but the sequence of hops depends on the scan direction. This asymmetry in the motion indicates nonuniform local pinning, a consequence of array disorder and hole-size variation.

  11. a Numerical Method for Stability Analysis of Pinned Flexible Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, D. G.; Lee, S. W.

    1996-05-01

    A technique is presented to investigate the stability of mechanisms with pin-jointed flexible members. The method relies on a special floating frame from which elastic link co-ordinates are defined. Energies are easily developed for use in a Lagrange equation formulation, leading to a set of non-linear and mixed ordinary differential-algebraic equations of motion with constraints. Stability and bifurcation analysis is handled using a numerical procedure (generalized co-ordinate partitioning) that avoids the tedious and difficult task of analytically reducing the system of equations to a number equalling the system degrees of freedom. The proposed method was then applied to (1) a slider-crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod and crank of constant rotational speed, and (2) a four-bar linkage with a flexible coupler with a constant speed crank. In both cases, a single pinned-pinned beam bending mode is employed to develop resonance curves and stability boundaries in the crank length-crank speed parameter plane. Flip and fold bifurcations are common occurrences in both mechanisms. The accuracy of the proposed method was also verified by comparison with previous experimental results [1].

  12. New Pinning Strategies for Second-Generation Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q; Rupich, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP

    2013-06-01

    In the last several years, second-generation (2G) superconducting wires have been considered for applications in rotating machines operating in the 20-40 K temperature range in 1-3 T magnetic fields. Here, we outline several novel strategies for improving the low-temperature performance of second-generation wires by utilizing the in-plane strain of thick YBCO layers manufactured by the reel-to-reel metal-organic deposition (MOD) method. First, we show that he strain-induced pinning mechanism analysis, based on the Eshelby model of the elastically-strained composites, predicts that small YBCO grain size is a critical component of a strong pinning architecture. Second, we describe how the in-plane strain can be controlled by processing parameters. Systematic changes of the in-plane structure and YBCO grain size are mapped with respect to the YBCO stability line and the Cu2O-CuO line on the Bormann-Hammond diagram. It is demonstrated that the optimum critical current density is the result of a trade-off between YBCO grain coupling and the strain-induced pinning.

  13. Lower Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Holds, John B

    2016-05-01

    Lower eyelid defects are common, and a systematic approach to reconstruction of the lower eyelid is required. Attention to the bilaminar eyelid anatomy and canthal support structures, with efforts to maintain functionally important structures, such as the lacrimal canalicular system, is vital to appropriate lower eyelid reconstruction. Techniques of advancement and rotation flaps and grafting of skin and mucosa are mainstays of lower eyelid reconstruction. An appropriate armamentarium of techniques allows for optimal surgical results. PMID:27105804

  14. Flexor pulley reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dy, Christopher J; Daluiski, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Flexor pulley reconstruction is a challenging surgery. Injuries often occur after traumatic lacerations or forceful extension applied to an acutely flexed finger. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with multiple closed pulley ruptures, persistent pain, or dysfunction after attempted nonoperative management of a single pulley rupture, or during concurrent or staged flexor tendon repair or reconstruction. If the pulley cannot be repaired primarily, pulley reconstruction can be performed using graft woven into remnant pulley rim or looping graft around the phalanx. Regardless of the reconstructive technique, the surgeon should emulate the length, tension, and glide of the native pulley. PMID:23660059

  15. Head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Whatever is excisable, is reconstructable! “You excise, we will reconstruct” are the confident words of reconstructive surgeons today. Reconstruction with multiple flaps has become routine. Radial artery (FRAF), Antero lateral thigh (ALT) and Fibula osteo cutaneous flap (FFOCF) are three most popular free flaps which can reconstruct any defect with excellent asthetics and performance. Radial Artery provides thin, pliable innervated skin; ALT large amount of skin & bulk; and FFOCF strong 22 to 25 centimetres of bone and reliable skin paddle. Free flap survival has gone to 98% in most of the renouned institutes and is an established escalator in management of defects. PMID:24501464

  16. Proximity Driven Commensurate Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7 through All-Oxide Magnetic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rocci, M; Azpeitia, J; Trastoy, J; Perez-Muñoz, A; Cabero, M; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Mompean, F J; Garcia-Hernandez, M; Bouzehouane, K; Sefrioui, Z; Leon, C; Rivera-Calzada, A; Villegas, J E; Santamaria, J

    2015-11-11

    The design of artificial vortex pinning landscapes is a major goal toward large scale applications of cuprate superconductors. Although disordered nanometric inclusions have shown to modify their vortex phase diagram and to produce enhancements of the critical current ( MacManus-Driscoll , J. L. ; Foltyn , S. R. ; Jia , Q. X. ; Wang , H. ; Serquis , A. ; Civale , L. ; Maiorov , B. ; Hawley , M. E. ; Maley , M. P. ; Peterson , D. E. Nat. Mater. 2004 , 3 , 439 - 443 and Yamada , Y. ; Takahashi , K. ; Kobayashi , H. ; Konishi , M. ; Watanabe , T. ; Ibi , A. ; Muroga , T. ; Miyata , S. ; Kato , T. ; Hirayama , T. ; Shiohara , Y. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005 , 87 , 1 - 3 ), the effect of ordered oxide nanostructures remains essentially unexplored. This is due to the very small nanostructure size imposed by the short coherence length, and to the technological difficulties in the nanofabrication process. Yet, the novel phenomena occurring at oxide interfaces open a wide spectrum of technological opportunities to interplay with the superconductivity in cuprates. Here, we show that the unusual long-range suppression of the superconductivity occurring at the interface between manganites and cuprates affects vortex nucleation and provides a novel vortex pinning mechanism. In particular, we show evidence of commensurate pinning in YBCO films with ordered arrays of LCMO ferromagnetic nanodots. Vortex pinning results from the proximity induced reduction of the condensation energy at the vicinity of the magnetic nanodots, and yields an enhanced friction between the nanodot array and the moving vortex lattice in the liquid phase. This result shows that all-oxide ordered nanostructures constitute a powerful, new route for the artificial manipulation of vortex matter in cuprates. PMID:26441137

  17. Radiation effects induced in pin photodiodes by 40- and 85-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.; Reft, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  18. Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow in pin-to-water discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.-Y.; Byeon, Y.-S.; Yoo, S.; Hong, E. J.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, S. J.; Ryu, S.

    2016-08-01

    Time-delayed transition of normal-to-abnormal glow was investigated in discharge between spoke-like pins and ultrapure water by applying AC-driven power at a frequency of 14.3 kHz at atmospheric pressure. The normal-to-abnormal transition can be recognized from the slope changes of current density, gas temperature, electrode temperature, and OH density. The slope changes took place in tens of minutes rather than just after discharge, in other words, the transition was delayed. The time-delay of the transition was caused by the interaction between the plasma and water. The plasma affected water properties, and then the water affected plasma properties.

  19. High performance p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusainov, A. Kh; Dudin, A. L.; Ilves, A. G.; Morozov, V. F.; Pustovoit, A. K.; Arlt, R. D.

    1999-06-01

    A breakthrough in the performance of p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors is reported. The detector stability has been significantly improved, allowing their use in precise gamma and XRF applications. Detectors with energy resolution close to Si and Ge were produced operating with only -30--35°C cooling (by a Peltier cooler of 15×15×10 mm size and a consumed power less than 5 W). Presently detectors with volume of up to 300 mm 3 are available. In terms of photoelectric effect efficiency it corresponds to HPGe detectors with volumes of about 1.5 cm 3. The possibilities of further improvement of CdTe and CdZnTe detector characteristics are discussed in this paper.

  20. Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator Measurements of HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John; Blackburn, Brandon; Chichester, David

    2009-03-10

    Pulsed neutron interrogation measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium (DU) metal using a D-D neutron generator (2x10{sup 6} neutrons-s{sup -1}) and moderated {sup 3}He tubes at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These measurements demonstrate the ability to distinguish HEU from DU by coincidence counting using a pulsed source. The amount of HEU measured was 8 kg in a sealed 55-gallon drum compared to 31 kg of DU. Neutron events were counted during and after the pulse with the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) and used to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. Passive measurements were also performed for comparison with the pulsed measurements. This paper presents the neutron coincidence time distribution and Feynman variance results from the measurements.

  1. Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator Measurements of HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T; Blackburn, Brandon; Chichester, David

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed neutron interrogation measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium (DU) metal using a D-D neutron generator (2 x 10{sup 6} neutrons-s{sup -1}) and moderated {sup 3}He tubes at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These measurements demonstrate the ability to distinguish HEU from DU by coincidence counting using a pulsed source. The amount of HEU measured was 8 kg in a sealed 55-gallon drum compared to 31 kg of DU. Neutron events were counted during and after the pulse with the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) and used to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. Passive measurements were also performed for comparison with the pulsed measurements. This paper presents the neutron coincidence distribution and Feynman variance results from the measurements.

  2. Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator Measurements of HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConchie, Seth; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John; Blackburn, Brandon; Chichester, David

    2009-03-01

    Pulsed neutron interrogation measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium (DU) metal using a D-D neutron generator (2×106 neutrons-s-1) and moderated 3He tubes at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These measurements demonstrate the ability to distinguish HEU from DU by coincidence counting using a pulsed source. The amount of HEU measured was 8 kg in a sealed 55-gallon drum compared to 31 kg of DU. Neutron events were counted during and after the pulse with the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) and used to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. Passive measurements were also performed for comparison with the pulsed measurements. This paper presents the neutron coincidence time distribution and Feynman variance results from the measurements.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS™) Tungsten Clad Squeeze Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhuja, Amit; Brevick, Jerald R.

    2004-06-01

    In the aluminum high-pressure die-casting and indirect squeeze casting processes, local "squeeze" pins are often used to minimize internal solidification shrinkage in heavy casting sections. Squeeze pins frequently fail in service due to molten aluminum adhering to the H13 tool steel pins ("soldering"). A wide variety of coating materials and methods have been developed to minimize soldering on H13. However, these coatings are typically very thin, and experience has shown their performance on squeeze pins is highly variable. The LENS™ process was employed in this research to deposit a relatively thick tungsten cladding on squeeze pins. An advantage of this process was that the process parameters could be precisely controlled in order to produce a satisfactory cladding. Two fixtures were designed and constructed to enable the end and outer diameter (OD) of the squeeze pins to be clad. Analyses were performed on the clad pins to evaluate the microstructure and chemical composition of the tungsten cladding and the cladding-H13 substrate interface. A thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to assess the stress distribution as a function of cladding thickness on the pins during a typical casting thermal cycle. FEA results were validated via a physical test, where the clad squeeze pins were immersed into molten aluminum. Pins subjected to the test were evaluated for thermally induced cracking and resistance to soldering of the tungsten cladding.

  4. Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Toryn M.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Matthews, Laura; Loudon, Andrew S.; Ray, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can regulate GR transactivation. Unrestricted proline isomerisation can be inhibited by adjacent serine phosphorylation and requires a prolyl isomerise, Pin1. Pin1 therefore determines the functional outcome of proline-directed kinases acting on the GR, as cis/trans isomers are distinct pools with different interacting proteins. We show that Pin1 mediates GR transactivation, but not GR trans-repression. Two N-terminal GR serines, S203 and S211, are targets for Pin1 potentiation of GR transactivation, establishing a direct link between Pin1 and the GR. We also demonstrate GC-activated co-recruitment of GR and Pin1 to the GILZ gene promoter. The Pin1 effect required both its WW and catalytic domains, and GR recruitment to its GRE was Pin1-dependent. Therefore, Pin1 is a selective regulator of GR transactivation, acting through N-terminal phospho-serine residues to regulate GR recruitment to its target sites in the genome. As Pin1 is dysregulated in disease states, this interaction may contribute to altered GC action in inflammatory conditions. PMID:23887939

  5. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  6. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression

    PubMed Central

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  7. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  8. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  9. Education for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David; And Others

    This report describes the main questions that various international agencies must address in order to reconstruct education in countries that have experienced crisis. "Crisis" is defined as war, natural disaster, and extreme political and economic upheaval. Many of the problems of educational reconstruction with which the Allies contended in…

  10. Bitzer's Model Reconstructed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybarger, Scott; Smith, Craig R.

    1996-01-01

    Reconstructs Lloyd Bitzer's situational model to serve as a guide for the generation of multiperspectival critical assessments of rhetorical discourse. Uses two of President Bush's speeches on the drug crisis to illustrate how the reconstructed model can account for such modern problems as multiple audiences, perceptions, and exigencies. (PA)

  11. The CMS Reconstruction Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, David J.; CMS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    We report on the status and plans for the event reconstruction software of the CMS experiment. The CMS reconstruction algorithms are the basis for a wide range of data analysis approaches currently under study by the CMS collaboration using the first high-energy run of the LHC. These algorithms have been primarily developed and validated using simulated data samples, and are now being commissioned with LHC proton-proton collision data samples. The CMS reconstruction is now operated routinely on all events triggered by the CMS detector, both in a close to real-time prompt reconstruction processing and in frequent passes over the full recorded CMS data set. We discuss the overall software design, development cycle, computational requirements and performance, recent operational performance, and planned improvements of the CMS reconstruction software.

  12. 18. Photographic copy of photograph of reconstruction drawings (March 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph of reconstruction drawings (March 6, 1909, original print in possession of Montana Power Company, Butte, Montana). 'SECTION THRU BREAK AT SOUTH END OF DAM SHOWING DETAILS OF RECONSTRUCTION' - Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, 6 miles upstream from Missoula, Milltown, Missoula County, MT

  13. Functional Outcome Following Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction with Rigid Fix: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Shervegar, Satish; Nagaraj, Prashanth; Grover, Amit; DJ, Niranthara Ganesh; Ravoof, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background: No uniform consensus exists to decide type of fixation for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hypothsis: There is similar functional outcome after rigid fix compared to other methods of fixation which has been published. Study design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using femoral Rigid fix cross-pin and interference screw tibial fixation. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, IKDC scores, Lysholm and pre injury and post reconstruction Tegner score. Patients were followed up from minimum of 6 months to 4 year seven months. Results: C In our study of sample size 50 we found that mean age of patients was 30.8 Years with male preponderance. Mean post operative IKDC and Lysholm score has been 75.6 and 84.4 respectively. Mean Tegner pre-injury score and post reconstruction score has been 5.4 and 4.26. Box plot comparison of pre injury and post operativeTegner score reveals a statistically significant difference with respect to paired t test P<0.001. Conclusions: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with femoral rigid fix cross pins and tibial interference screws results in comparable short term to midterm functional results compared to other types of fixation PMID:26550591

  14. 18 CFR 153.13 - Emergency reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency... Section 3 § 153.13 Emergency reconstruction. The provisions of subpart F of part 157 of this chapter that... life or health or for maintenance of physical property in an emergency due to a sudden...

  15. Pediatric craniofacial osteosynthesis and distraction using an ultrasonic-assisted pinned resorbable system: a prospective report with a minimum 30 months' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Eric; Renier, Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Resorbable osteosynthesis is an important tool in pediatric craniofacial surgery. A prospective clinical study was carried out to evaluate the Sonic Welding resorbable osteosynthesis system. Twenty pediatric patients with craniosynostosis were operated on for craniofacial reconstruction. The techniques used were the same than usual (fronto-orbital remodeling or advancement). During the process of osteosynthesis, similar resorbable miniplates were used, but for fixation, only 2 steps were necessary (drilling and welding), tapping being unnecessary. Clinically, the hold of the pins in the bone seemed stronger, and less-than-usual osteosynthesis materials were necessary. Clearly, the pins were able to hold in a very thin bone in which no screws could hold. Subjectively, the satisfaction of the surgeon was greater owing to the avoidance of the tapping step. On follow-up, resorption took place with an initial swelling effect, like with another pure polylactic acid material. The good resistance of pins suggests that, in such a system, the resorbable plate becomes the weak point. PMID:19881368

  16. An Investigation on the Pin Bearings’ Optimization of a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, A. R.; Hacioglu, B.; Kasapoglu, E.

    2015-08-01

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor is the most energy consuming component of the refrigerators. Therefore performance improvement studies of the compressor play an important role to reduce overall energy consumption of the refrigerators. Design of bearings is one of the major study areas influencing reciprocating compressor performance. In this study crank pin and piston pin bearings in hermetic compressor applications are investigated and optimized. The effect of operating conditions, bearing offset between crank pin and piston pin, bearing clearance and bearing location along the shaft on the friction loss were investigated and optimal bearing designs were developed. Efficiency measurements of the compressor showed that the improved crank pin and piston pin bearing designs provide up to 3.8% increase in the COP as a result of reduction in mechanical loss that is significantly influenced by the length of the bearings, bearing location along the shaft and operating conditions.

  17. Alopecia due to an allergic reaction to metal head-pins used in a neurosurgical operation

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hajime; Takasuna, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic reactions to the metal head-pins of a head fixation holder are rare. Case Description: A 45-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. She underwent successful surgical treatment using four head-pins of the Sugita frame. At her first outpatient visit 3 weeks after discharge, redness, sores, and focal hair loss were noted at all four areas where the pinning had been performed. The pin fixation was considered to be responsible for the alopecia because the condition of the scalp lesions was even in all four parts. Six months later, the scalp regained hair. The head-pins were made of stainless steel, containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other components. A previous history of contact dermatitis to metal jewellery was later proven. Conclusion: The history of metal allergy should have been carefully elicited because head fixation with head-pins is essential for neurosurgical procedures. PMID:26862455

  18. Comparison of different methods of calculating pinwise power

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    One objective of a nuclear utility is the capability to predict the peak rod power in reload core design accurately and efficiently. This capability can be utilized in the verification of vendor results and the development of utility reload methodology. The MBS code solves the diffusion equation in x-y geometry by the finite different technique. The MBS code utilizes coarser meshes but reaches the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin model. The CASMO code utilizes pin profiles at specified core conditions, which are superimposed on the MBS diffusion theory results for pin power predictions. Placement of the burnable poison rods in the loading pattern are crucial to minimizing peak pin power. Westinghouse utilizes a code called TURTLE, licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and proprietary to Westinghouse. The MBS code, with macroscopic cross sections from CASMO, can be run with coarser meshes and macroscopic depletion and still reach the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin code such as PDQ-7 or TURTLE. The MBS input preparation is simpler than PDQ-7 or TURTLE-type input preparation.

  19. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  20. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  1. Stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates using photoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D.

    1984-01-01

    The stresses in transparent glass-epoxy plates loaded by a steel pin through a hole were determined by photoelasticity. The stresses around the hole edge, across the net section, along the shear out line, and on the centerline below the hole for quasiisotropic, unidirectional, and angle ply plates are outlined. Stresses in an isotropic comparison specimen are also presented. Stress concentration factors for several locations around the plates are tabulated. The experimental apparatus and the experimental technique are discussed. The isochromatic and isoclinic fringe patterns for the four plates are shown. A description of the necessary photoelastic theory is appended.

  2. Dynamic Phases, Pinning, and Pattern Formation for Driven Dislocation Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems. PMID:25613839

  3. Dynamic Phases, Pinning, and Pattern Formation for Driven Dislocation Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  4. Frequency Reconfigurable Hybrid Slot Antenna Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Sheng, Lili; Lin, Jiancheng; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a frequency reconfigurable hybrid slot antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) without complex bias network and DC blocking capacitor chips. In order to add reconfigurablility to the antenna, the PIN diodes are equipped in the slots. The antenna is capable of frequency switching at six different frequency bands between 1.7 GHz to 2.5 GHz, which can be used in multiradio wireless systems, such as DCS-1800, PCS1900, UMTS, Wibro and Bluetooth bands. The simulated and measured return loss, peak gain, together with the radiation patterns are presented and compared. Especially, the radiation patterns are stable at different frequency.

  5. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  6. Crystallization kinetics and self-induced pinning in cellular patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, Igor S.; Malomed, Boris A.; Pismen, Len M.; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2000-07-01

    Within the framework of the Swift-Hohenberg model it is shown numerically and analytically that the front propagation between cellular and uniform states is determined by periodic nucleation events triggered by the explosive growth of the localized zero-eigenvalue mode of the corresponding linear problem. We derive an evolution equation for this mode using asymptotic analysis, and evaluate the time interval between nucleation events, and hence the front speed. In the presence of noise, we find the velocity exponent of ''thermally activated'' front propagation (creep) beyond the pinning threshold. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Flux pinning and percolation in high-Tc oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Ni, Baorong; Yamafuji, Kaoru

    Critical current characteristics in quench and melt growth (QMG) processed Y-Ba-Cu-O are investigated by ac inductive measurements. The critical current in these samples is percolative as is observed in sintered materials. However, this percolative behavior is not caused by weak-link grain boundaries but seems to be mainly attributed to layers of nonsuperconducting solidified melt. The experimental result of magnetization critical current density is compared with the theoretical estimate from the effective medium theory. It is also found that the shielding current with very high density flows locally inside the sample. Candidates for the dominant pinning centers in QMG processed samples are also discussed.

  8. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Feld, Sam H.

    1986-01-01

    A welding fixture for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  9. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Feld, S.H.

    1984-02-22

    A welding fixture is described for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  10. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  11. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Camille G.; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J.; Cronin, Ernest D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction.

  12. Keyhole Flap Nipple Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph I; Cash, Camille G; Iman, Al-Haj; Spiegel, Aldona J; Cronin, Ernest D

    2016-05-01

    Nipple-areola reconstruction is often one of the final but most challenging aspects of breast reconstruction. However, it is an integral and important component of breast reconstruction because it transforms the mound into a breast. We performed 133 nipple-areola reconstructions during a period of 4 years. Of these reconstructions, 76 of 133 nipple-areola complexes were reconstructed using the keyhole flap technique. The tissue used for the keyhole dermoadipose flap technique include transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps (60/76), latissimus dorsi flaps (15/76), or mastectomy skin flaps after tissue expanders (1/76). The average patient follow-up was 17 months. The design of the flap is based on a keyhole configuration. The base of the flap determines the width of the future nipple, whereas the length of the flap determines the projection. We try to match the projection of the contralateral nipple if present. The keyhole flap is simple to construct yet reliable. It provides good symmetry and projection and avoids the creation of new scars. The areola is then tattooed approximately 3 months after the nipple reconstruction. PMID:27579228

  13. Differential Regulation of Cellular Senescence and Differentiation by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Cardiac Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Toko, Haruhiro; Hariharan, Nirmala; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie A.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Joyo, Eri; Joyo, Anya Y.; Collins, Brett; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Uchida, Takafumi; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are currently used in the clinic to treat heart disease. CPC-based regeneration may be further augmented by better understanding molecular mechanisms of endogenous cardiac repair and enhancement of pro-survival signaling pathways that antagonize senescence while also increasing differentiation. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates multiple signaling cascades by modulating protein folding and thereby activity and stability of phosphoproteins. In this study, we examine the heretofore unexplored role of Pin1 in CPCs. Pin1 is expressed in CPCs in vitro and in vivo and is associated with increased proliferation. Pin1 is required for cell cycle progression and loss of Pin1 causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in CPCs, concomitantly associated with decreased expression of Cyclins D and B and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb). Pin1 deletion increases cellular senescence but not differentiation or cell death of CPCs. Pin1 is required for endogenous CPC response as Pin1 knock-out mice have a reduced number of proliferating CPCs after ischemic challenge. Pin1 overexpression also impairs proliferation and causes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with concurrent down-regulation of Cyclin B, p53, and Rb. Additionally, Pin1 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence, increases differentiation, and inhibits cell death of CPCs, indicating that cell cycle arrest caused by Pin1 overexpression is a consequence of differentiation and not senescence or cell death. In conclusion, Pin1 has pleiotropic roles in CPCs and may be a molecular target to promote survival, enhance repair, improve differentiation, and antagonize senescence. PMID:24375406

  14. Tunable phase diagram and vortex pinning in a superconductor-ferromagnet bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Cieplak, Marta Z.; Chien, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    We have observed the evolution of phase diagram and vortex pinning using a single ferromagnet/superconductor bilayer of [Co/Pt]8/Nb through a special demagnetization procedure. It induces a continuous and reversible change in the domain width with equal positive/negative domains enabling the observation of the predicted tunable phase diagram. The tunable domain pattern also systematically affects vortex pinning. We have determined the dependence of the activation energy of vortex pinning on domain width, temperature, and magnetic field.

  15. A misplaced locking pin found near ET causes decision to scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A locking pin can be seen in the background, almost as a shadow, next to the orbiter aft ET attachment. Locking pins are used to secure handrails on the platforms while work is being performed. The misplaced pin was noticed during an inspection prior to launch, causing the decision to scrub about 90 minutes before liftoff. Launch was rescheduled for Oct. 11 at 7:17 p.m.

  16. Molecular analysis of PinX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Chae, Kwang Jo; Park, Chanil; Park, Young Nyun

    2004-10-01

    PinX1 is located at 8p23, a region with frequent loss of heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Overexpression of PinX1 is known to inhibit telomerase activity, shorten telomeres and induce crisis while its depletion increases tumorigenesis in nude mice. These results suggest that PinX1 might be critical for hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, we assessed transcript expression of PinX1, the correlation between PinX1 mRNA level and telomere length and telomerase activity, as well as sequence alteration, in 24 HCCs and their adjacent non-HCC tissues from patients with B viral chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of PinX1 mRNA in HCCs and those in non-HCCs. The PinX1 mRNA tended to increase as the telomere shortened in the HCCs (p=0.067, R(2)=0.166), but no correlation was found in non-HCCs. The PinX1 level revealed no significant relationship with telomerase activity in HCCs and non-HCCs. The missense mutations of PinX1, at the 254 and 265 residues, were found in 17% of the HCCs and their adjacent non-HCCs. The mutations were located in the non-conserved region and revealed no relation with PinX1 expression, telomere length and telomerase activity, suggesting that they are likely polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that PinX1 may not play a major role in hepatocarcinogenesis as a target tumor suppressor gene. PinX1, however, might be involved in the telomere length regulation of HCCs. PMID:15375513

  17. Evaluation of refractory-metal-clad uranium nitride and uranium dioxide fuel pins after irradiation for times up to 10 450 hours at 990 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Gluyas, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of some materials variables on the irradiation performance of fuel pins for a lithium-cooled space power reactor design concept were examined. The variables studied were UN fuel density, fuel composition, and cladding alloy. All pins were irradiated at about 990 C in a thermal neutron environment to the design fuel burnup. An 85-percent dense UN fuel gave the best overall results in meeting the operational goals. The T-111 cladding on all specimens was embrittled, possibly by hydrogen in the case of the UN fuel and by uranium and oxygen in the case of the UO2 fuel. Tests with Cb-1Zr cladding indicate potential use of this cladding material. The UO2 fueled specimens met the operational goals of less than 1 percent cladding strain, but other factors make UO2 less attractive than low-density UN for the contemplated space power reactor use.

  18. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  19. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  20. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction. PMID:11568830

  1. Evolutionary reconstruction of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipsen, Mads; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2002-10-01

    Can a graph specifying the pattern of connections of a dynamical network be reconstructed from statistical properties of a signal generated by such a system? In this model study, we present a Metropolis algorithm for reconstruction of graphs from their Laplacian spectra. Through a stochastic process of mutations and selection, evolving test networks converge to a reference graph. Applying the method to several examples of random graphs, clustered graphs, and small-world networks, we show that the proposed stochastic evolution allows exact reconstruction of relatively small networks and yields good approximations in the case of large sizes.

  2. Effects of Pin1 Loss in HdhQ111 Knock-in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the “synthesis/concentration of hormones”, as well as the alteration of “Wnt/β-catenin signaling”. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  3. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O’Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as ‘Sister of PIN1’ (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  4. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  5. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems.

  6. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  7. Tomographic investigation of fermi level pinning at focused ion beam milled semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D.; Lubk, A.; Lenk, A.; Sturm, S.; Lichte, H.

    2013-12-01

    Electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers the spatial and signal resolution for studying effects like Fermi level pinning or dopant concentration variations important for the design of modern electronic devices. To overcome the loss of information along the projection direction, surface effects, and surface damage due to TEM specimen preparation, we apply electron holographic tomography to analyze the 3D potential distribution of semiconductor samples prepared by focused-ion-beam. We observe mid-band gap pinning of the Fermi level at Si surfaces but valence band pinning at Ge surfaces. The pinning extends over tens of nanometers into the bulk.

  8. Guidelines for optimizing random and correlated pinning in rare-earth-based superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Maiorov, B.; Durrell, J.; Foltyn, S.; Jia, Q. X.; Civale, L.; Wang, H.; Kursumovic, A.; Peterson, D. E.

    2006-03-01

    Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films is compared with mixed rare-earth (RE) films. The field dependence of critical current density and pinning force plots at 75.5 K are analysed. The work provides a guideline as to how to optimize pinning by inclusion of both random and correlated defects. In summary, Y mixed with larger RE ions appears to be optimum for effective pinning across a wide field regime as well as permitting growth at temperatures low enough for technological use.

  9. Flavonoids Redirect PIN-mediated Polar Auxin Fluxes during Root Gravitropic Responses*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jir̆í; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  10. Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses.

    PubMed

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jirí; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-11-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  11. [Cementable and adhesive pulpal pins as alternatives to self-threading screws].

    PubMed

    Dau, B; Albers, H K

    1989-11-01

    Self-threading retentive pins are to be disputed in case of the possible dentinal damage in form of cracks and craze patterns. For a short time two new pin systems are offered on the german market. The essential retention shall be attained by cementing or otherwise by gluing in the pin channel. It is obvious that the promised elimination of cracking and crazing stands in opposition to a significantly reduced retention in the dentin, compared to self-threading systems. A general dispensation of self-threading pins is therefore not to be recommended. PMID:2639541

  12. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeong-jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  13. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyeong-Jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  14. Design and fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-12-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN- 0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160 degrees C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the PMN-PT transducers. PMID:20040413

  15. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  16. The effect of pinning on drag in coupled one-dimensional channels of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairnsfather, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-04-01

    We consider a simple model for examining the effects of quenched disorder on drag consisting of particles interacting via a Yukawa potential that are placed in two coupled one-dimensional channels. The particles in one channel are driven and experience a drag from the undriven particles in the second channel. In the absence of pinning, for a finite driving force there is no pinned phase; instead, there are two dynamical regimes of completely coupled or locked flow and partially coupled flow. When pinning is added to one or both channels, we find that a remarkably rich variety of dynamical phases and drag effects arise that can be clearly identified by features in the velocity force curves. The presence of quenched disorder in only the undriven channel can induce a pinned phase in both channels. Above the depinning transition, the drag on the driven particles decreases with increasing pinning strength, and for high enough pinning strength, the particles in the undriven channel reach a reentrant pinned phase which produces a complete decoupling of the channels. We map out the dynamic phase diagrams as a function of pinning strength and the density of pinning in each channel. Our results may be relevant for understanding drag coupling in 1D Wigner crystal phases, and the effects we observe could also be explored using colloids in coupled channels produced with optical arrays, vortices in nanostructured superconductors, or other layered systems where drag effects arise.

  17. Prevention of pin site infection in external fixation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2016-08-01

    Pin site infections are a common complication of external fixation that places a significant burden on the patient and healthcare system. Such infections increase the number of clinic visits required during a patient's course of treatment, can result in the need for additional treatment including antibiotics and surgery, and most importantly can compromise patient outcomes should osteomyelitis or instability result from pin loosening or need for pin or complete construct removal. Factors that may influence the development of pin site infections include patient-specific risk factors, surgical technique, pin design characteristics, use of prophylactic antibiotics, and the post-operative pin care protocol including cleansing, dressing changes, and showering. Despite numerous studies that work to derive evidence-based recommendations for prevention of pin site infections, substantial controversy exists in regard to the optimal protocol. This review comprehensively evaluates the current literature to provide an overview of factors that may influence the incidence of pin site infections in patients undergoing treatment with external fixators, and concludes with a description of the preferred surgical and post-operative pin site protocols employed by the senior authors (ATF and SRR). PMID:27174086

  18. Effects of Pin1 Loss in Hdh(Q111) Knock-in Mice.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with Hdh(Q111) knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of Hdh(Q111) phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional Hdh(Q111) phenotypes: the unbalance in the "synthesis/concentration of hormones", as well as the alteration of "Wnt/β-catenin signaling". In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  19. Conformational selection in the recognition of phosphorylated substrates by the catalytic domain of human Pin1.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Hector A; Hamelberg, Donald

    2011-11-01

    Post-translational phosphorylation and the related conformational changes in signaling proteins are responsible for regulating a wide range of subcellular processes. Human Pin1 is central to many of these cell signaling pathways in normal and aberrant subcellular processes, catalyzing cis-trans isomerization of the peptide ω-bond in phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motifs in many proteins. Pin1 has therefore been identified as a possible drug target in many diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's. The effects of phosphorylation on Pin1 substrates, and the atomistic basis for Pin1 recognition and catalysis, are not well understood. Here, we determine the conformational consequences of phosphorylation on Pin1 substrate analogues and the mechanism of recognition by the catalytic domain of Pin1 using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that phosphorylation induces backbone conformational changes on the peptide substrate analogues. We also show that Pin1 recognizes specific conformations of its substrate by conformational selection. Furthermore, dynamical correlated motions in the free Pin1 enzyme are present in the enzyme of the enzyme-substrate complex when the substrate is in the transition state configuration, suggesting that these motions play significant roles during catalytic turnover. These results provide a detailed atomistic picture of the mechanism of Pin1 recognition that can be exploited for drug design purposes and further our understanding of the synergistic complexities of post-translational phosphorylation and cis-trans isomerization. PMID:21967280

  20. Liquid-metal, pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L. )

    1995-02-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This article investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post crystal with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in the literature on pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information on the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even rarer. Because the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry is very similar to that of the pin post, the pressure drop correlation data for the cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank are studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. The emphasis of this article is on the influence of two variables on the pressure drop: viscosity and density of fluid. The difference and correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the predication of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.